Name______________________________
Class __________________
Chapter 3 The Biosphere
Date ______________
Chapter Test A
Multiple Choice
Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on
the line provided.
____ 1. Which of the following descriptions about the organization of
an ecosystem is correct?
a. Communities make up species, which make up
populations.
b. Populations make up species, which make up communities.
c. Species make up communities, which make up populations.
d. Species make up populations, which make up communities.
____ 2. The simplest grouping of more than one kind of organism in
the biosphere is a(an)
a. population.
c. ecosystem.
b. community.
d. species.
____ 3. Which ecological inquiry method is an ecologist using when
he or she enters an area periodically to count the population
numbers of a certain species?
a. questioning
c. experimenting
b. observing
d. modeling
Small fishes
Zooplankton
Squid
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Algae
Shark
Figure 3-1
____ 4. The algae at the beginning of the food chain in Figure 3-1 are
a. consumers.
c. producers.
b. decomposers.
d. heterotrophs.
____ 5. An organism that uses energy to produce its own food supply
from inorganic compounds is called a(an)
a. heterotroph.
c. detritivore.
b. consumer.
d. autotroph.
____ 6. Which of the following organisms does NOT require sunlight
to live?
a. chemosynthetic bacteria
b. algae
c. trees
d. photosynthetic bacteria
Chapter 3 Test A 21
Name______________________________
Class __________________
Date ______________
____ 7. The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
is called the
a. organic mass.
c. energy mass.
b. trophic mass.
d. biomass.
____ 8. What animals eat both producers and consumers?
a. herbivores
c. chemotrophs
Owl
b. omnivores
d. autotrophs
____ 9. A snake that eats a frog that has eaten
an insect that fed on a plant is a
a. first-level producer.
b. first-level consumer.
c. second-level producer.
d. third-level consumer.
Tree shrews
Insects
____10. The trophic levels in Figure 3-2 illustrate
Tree
a. the relative amount of energy.
b. the amount of living organic matter.
c. the relative number of individual organisms.
d. that producers outnumber first-level consumers.
Figure 3-2
____11. Only 10 percent of the energy stored in an organism can be
passed on to the next trophic level. Of the remaining energy,
some is used for the organism’s life processes, and the rest is
a. used in reproduction.
b. stored as body tissue.
c. stored as fat.
d. eliminated as heat.
____12. What is the process by which bacteria convert nitrogen gas in
the air to ammonia?
a. nitrogen fixation
c. decomposition
b. excretion
d. denitrification
____14. The movements of energy and nutrients through living
systems are different because
a. energy flows in one direction and nutrients recycle.
b. energy is limited in the biosphere and nutrients are always
available.
c. nutrients flow in one direction and energy recycles.
d. energy forms chemical compounds and nutrients are lost as
heat.
22
Chapter 3 Test A
© Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
____13. Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following
processes EXCEPT
a. photosynthesis.
c. respiration.
b. transpiration.
d. decomposition.
Name______________________________
Class __________________
Date ______________
____15. Which is most likely to be a limiting nutrient in a freshwater
pond?
a. phosphorus
c. carbon
b. nitrogen
d. potassium
Completion
Complete each statement on the line provided.
16. Autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or ___________________ to produce food.
17. Organisms that break down organic matter and return it to the environment are called
___________________ .
Small fishes
Zooplankton
Squid
Algae
Shark
Figure 3-3
18. Of the organisms represented in Figure 3-3, the organisms in the oceans with the
smallest total biomass are most likely the ___________________ .
19. Water can enter the atmosphere through the processes of evaporation and
___________________ .
20. Living organisms require nitrogen to make ___________________ , which are used to
build proteins.
Short Answer
© Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided.
21. Describe the role of algae in ocean food chains.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 3 Test A 23
Name______________________________
Class __________________
Date ______________
22. Describe the flow of energy among the following members of an
ecosystem: decomposers, autotrophs, heterotrophs, and the sun.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
23. Describe the flow of energy to the owl in Figure 3-4 if the tree
provides 1500 calories of energy to the insects.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
24. What is the most likely explanation for why Figure 3-4 shows only
one organism at its base? In what way would an energy diagram
be different?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
25. Explain how seepage and transpiration in Figure 3-5 are related.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Condensation
Precipitation
Transpiration
Insects
Evaporation
ff
no
Ocean
Tree
Figure 3-5
Figure 3-4
24
Chapter 3 Test A
Ru
Lake
Ru
no
ff
Tree shrews
Seepage
Uptake
Ground water
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Owl
Name______________________________
Class __________________
Date ______________
Using Science Skills
Use the diagrams below to answer the following questions on the lines
provided.
5 g/m2
s
Birds
10,000 Kcal
Bass
100 Kcal
27 g/m2
Fish and other carnivores
Ants and spiders
1000 Kcal
104 g/m2
Insects, small fish, and snails
Insects and worms
900 g/m2
10,000 Kcal
Eelgrass
Bluegrass
I
II
Figure 3-6
26. Predicting How might a large omnivore change the flow of energy
in Figure 3-6, Diagram II?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
27. Inferring If a limiting nutrient is supplied to the producers in
Figure 3-6, Diagram II, what effect could it have on the birds?
_________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
28. Interpreting Graphics How many Kilocalories (Kcal) can the top
carnivore in Figure 3-6, Diagram I, store? Explain.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
29. Applying Concepts What three scientific approaches do ecologists
use to explain complex relationships, such as in the energy
pyramid in Figure 3-6?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 3 Test A 25
Name______________________________
Class __________________
Date ______________
30. Applying Concepts Describe how chemosynthesis could
contribute to the energy represented by Figure 3-6, Diagram I.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Essay
Write the answer to each question in the space provided.
31. Describe the two sources of energy that fuel life on Earth.
32. How does a food web differ from a food chain?
33. Describe the three types of ecological pyramids.
35. How might a large input of phosphorus affect a freshwater lake
over time?
26
Chapter 3 Test A
© Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
34. Describe the roles of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle.
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Chapter 3 (The Biosphere) Test A