CHAPTER 16: IN BELGIAN BRUSSELS
I.
LIFE IN BRUSSELS
a. Two reasons impelled Rizal to leave Paris:
i. The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition
ii. The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works
b. Rizal was busy writing his second novel and writing articles for La Solidaridad
II. NEW ORTOGRAPHY OF TAGALOG LANGUAGE
a. The tagalong letters k and w should be used instead of the Spanish c and o.
i. Salacot = salakot/ arao = araw
III. RIZAL CRITICIZES MADRID FILIPINOS FOR GAMBLING
a. Rizal’s letter to del Pilar:
i. Luna in Paris complains of the gambling of the Filipinos in Madrid
ii. We are serving the friars’ scheme
iii. Filipinos do not come to Europe to gamble and to amuse himself but to work for his liberty and for the dignity of his race
iv. We in whom the poor people place their modest hopes.
b. The gambling Filipinos in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing
i. They derisively called him “Papa” (Pope) instead of “Pepe”
IV. BAD NEWS FROM HOME
a. The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worse.
b. The management of the Dominican Hacienda continually raised the land rents until such time that Rizal’s father refused to pay his
rent.
i. The Dominican Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba.
ii. Tenants were persecuted
c. Jose’s letter to Soledad
i. I have caused much harm to our family, but at least there remains to us the consolation of knowing that the motive is not
disgraceful nor does it humiliate any body
ii. It raises us up and gives us more dignity in the eyes of our enemies themselves; to fall with the head high and the brow
serene is not to fall, it is to triumph
iii. The sad thing is to fall with the stain of dishonor
V. PRESENTIMENT OF DEATH
a. He feared that we would not live long
b. He was not afraid to die, but he wanted to finish his second novel before he went to his grave
c. Letter to del Pilar:
i. In my childhood I had a strange belief that I would not reach 30 years of age.
ii. I am preparing myself for death and for any eventuality. Laong Laan (Ever Ready) is my true name.
VI. PREPARATION TO GO HOME
a. In the face of the sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home.
b. He could not stay in Brussels writing a book while his family are persecuted
c. Letter to Ponce:
i. Graciano Lopez Jaena shold not got to Cuba but to our country to allow himself to be killed in defense of his ideals
1. We have only once to die, and if we do not die well, we lose an opportunity which will not again be presented to
us.
ii. I want to go back to the Philippines
1. We are not making any progress by following prudence
VII. DECISION TO GO TO MADRID
a. Rizal ignored the dire warning of his friends to return to the Philippines. No threat of danger could change his plan
b. Something happened that suddenly made him change his plan.
i. It was a letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila, but they appealed it to
the Supreme Court in Spain
ii. A lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid
c. Rizal wrote to del Pilar retaining the latter’s services as lawyer.
i. Jose informed del Pilar that he was going to Madrid to supervise the handling of the case
VIII. TO MY MUSE
a. A poem that represents Jose’s worries on the disasters experienced by his family
IX. ROMANCE WITH PETITE JACOBY
a. Two things brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal, as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid
i. FIRST: summertime festival in Belgium, which was celebrated in carnival style
ii. SECOND: romance with Petite Jacoby, niece of his landladies
CHAPTER 17: MISFORTUNES IN MADRID
I.
FAILURE TO GET JUSTICE FOR FAMILY
a. Upon arrival in Madrid, Rizal sought the help of the Filipino colony, The Associacion Hispano-Filipina, and Liberal Spanish Newspapers
in securing justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants and his family
i. Together with del Pilar (his lawyer) and Dr. Dominador Gomez (secretary of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina):
1. Jose called on the Minister of Colonies (Señor Fabie) in order to protest the injustices committed by Gov.- Gen.
Valeriano Weyler and the Dominicans against the Calamba Folks.
2. Nothing came out of Rizal’s interview with Minister Fabie
ii. El Resumen (Spanish Newspaper)
1. Sympathized with the Filipino cause
2. Said: “To cover the ears, open the purse, and fold the arms – this is the Spanish colonial policy.”
1
b.
More terrible news:
i. Ejectment order by the Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other Calamba tenants
1. Their parents had been forcibly ejected from their home
ii. Deportation of some of his family members, including Paciano to Mindoro
c. Rizal sought the aid of the liberal Spanish statesmen
i. Jose was disappointed – the statesmen merely gave him honeyed words of sympathy and nothing else
d. Blumentritt urged Jose to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina
i. But Jose doesn’t have powerful friends to bring him to her nor gold to grease the palms of influential courtiers
II. ABORTED DUEL WITH ANTONIO LUNA
a. Luna was drunk in one of the social reunions of Filipinos in Madrid.
b. Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead
i. He was blaming Rizal for his failure to win her
ii. Although Rizal had previously explained to him that he had nothing to do about it
iii. Because of jealousy and the effects of alcohol, Luna uttered certain unsavory remarks about Nellie
c. Rizal, with high sense of chivalry, could not tolerate any slur against the honor of any woman
i. Angered by the slanderous remarks, he challenged Luna to a duel.
ii. Rizal was a better pistol shot than Luna and Luna was a superior swordsman
1. Luna, as the challenged party, had the choice of weapons
2. Logically, he would have to choose the sword; in which case, Rizal’s life would be in jeopardy
iii. Filipinos tried to pacify them pointing out that such a duel would damage their cause in Spain
d. When Luna became sober
i. He realized that he had made a fool of himself and apologized for his bad remarks
ii. Rizal accepted the apology
III. RIZAL CHALLENGES RETANA TO DUEL
a. Wenceslao Retana:
i. A talented Spanish scholar, was then a press agent of the friars in Spain
ii. Used to attack the Filipinos, including Rizal in various newspapers in Madrid
1. He wrote that the family and friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands
b. Rizal
i. Was insulted and challenged him to a duel
ii. Retana apologized in the newspapers for he believed that discretion is better part of valor, and, more so, to save his skin
1. He knew that he had no chance against Rizal on a field of honor
2. Because of the incident, Retana developed a deep admiration for Jose
a. Years afterward, Retana wrote Jose’s biography and martyrdom
IV. INFIDELITY OF LEONOR RIVERA
a. One night he and some friends attended a play at Teatro Apolo
i. Jose lost his gold watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera
ii. The loss of the locket proved to be a bad omen
b. Rizal received a letter from Leonor, announcing her coming marriage to an Englishman (the choice of her mother) and asking his
forgiveness
V. RIZAL-DEL PILAR RIVALRY
a. Rizal tried to imbue his compatriots with his own idealism for
i. He believed that to gain prestige for the Propaganda Movement and to win the respect of the Spanish people they must
possess high standards of morality, dignity, and spirit of sacrifice
ii. Unfortunately, his idealism was not shared by others who loved wine, women, and cards
iii. Rizal’s leadership declined
1. They resented Jose’s interference in their private lives
2. They became supporters of del Pilar
b. To prevent the break-up between Rizal and M.H. del Pilar
i. Filipinos decided that a leader called “Responsable” be voted
1.
to direct the affairs of the Filipino community and to determine the editorial policy of the La Solidaridad
2. To patch up their differences and to intensify the campaign for reform
ii. Del Pilar opposed the proposition
1. That the periodical be placed under the control of the Responsible on the ground that it was a private enterprise
2. However, he was willing to publish articles that would express the aspirations and demands of the Filipino
people.
VI. RIZAL ABDICATES HIS LEADERSHIP
a. The Filipinos were divided into two hostile camps: the Rizalistas and the Pilaristas
i. Jose obtained the necessary 2/3 vote and became the Responsible
b. But Jose graciously declined the coveted position
i. He was a man of dignity and did not relish being a leader of a divided people
ii. He preferred to abdicate his leadership rather than be the cause of disunity and bitterness among his countrymen
VII. ADIOS, MADRID
a. First stay in Madrid: happy
b. Second stay in Madrid: unhappy/ last time he saw Madrid
CHAPTER 18: BIARRITZ VACATION AND ROMANCE WITH NELLY BOUSTEAD
I.
ROMANCE WITH NELLIE BOUSTEAD
a. To seek solace for his disappointments in Madrid, Rizal took a vacation in the resort city of Biarritz on the fabulous French Riviera
i. Jose was a guest of the rich Boustead Family at its winter Residence – Villa Eliada
2
ii. It was in Biarritz where he had a serious romance with Nellie and finished the last chapter of his 2 nd novel, El Filibusterismo
Jose proposed marriage to Nellie (rebound love from Leonor)
i. Del Pilar:
1. Teased him about changing the “o” in Noli to an “e” (Noli to Neli)
ii. Tomas Arejola
1. By marrying her, I fear that instead of happiness, you would only find bitterness and trouble
iii. Antonio Luna:
1. Who had previously loved and lost Nelly , encouraged Rizal to woo and marry Nellie
c. Rizal’s marriage proposal failed for two reasons:
i. He refused to give up his catholic faith and be converted to Protestantism, as Nelly demanded
ii. Nelly’s mother did not like Rizal as son-in-law
1. Nelly’s mother , like the mother of Leonor Rivera, had no wish to entrust her daughter’s happiness to a man who
was poor in material things,
2. a physician without a paying clientele,
3. a writer who earned nothing from his pen,
4. and a reformer who was persecuted by the friars and government officials in his own country
EL FILIBUSTERISMO FINISHED IN BIARRITZ
a. Frustrated in romance, Rizal found consolation in writing
b. The eve of his departure from Biarritz to Paris, he finished the manuscript of El Filibusterismo
RETIREMENT FROM THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
a. Owing to the intrigues of his jealous compatriots, Rizal retired from the Propaganda Movement, or reform crusade
b. He notified the Propaganda authorities in Manila to cancel his monthly allowance and devote the money to some better cause, such
as the education of a young Filipino student in Europe
RIZAL STOPPED WRITING FOR LA SOLIDARIDAD
a. Simultaneous with his retirement from the Propaganda Movement, Rizal ceased writing articles for La Solidaridad
b. Del Pilar himself realized the need for Rizal’s collaboration in both the Propaganda Movement and in the La Solidaridad newspaper
i. because the enthusiasm for the reform crusade in Spain was declining
ii. he wrote to Rizal begging forgiveness for any resentment and requesting him to resume writing for the La Solidaridad
c. Jose’s reply to del Pilar:
i. Rizal denied any resentment
ii. Reasons of Rizal:
1. More time to work on his novel
2. He wanted other Filipinos to work also
3. He considered it very important to the party that there be unity in the work
4. It is better for del Pilar to leave him alone to direct the policy such as he understands it and Jose doesn’t want to
meddle with it (they have their own personal ideas)
b.
II.
III.
IV.
CHAPTER 19: EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT
I.
PRIVATIONS IN GHENT
a. Reasons for moving to Ghent
i. Cost of printing in Ghent was cheaper than in Brussels
ii. To escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne
II. PRINTING OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO
a. He pawned his jewels in order to pay the down payment and the early partial payments during the printing of the novel
III. VENTURA, SAVIOR OF FILI
a. Valentine Ventura in Paris learned of Rizal’s predicament and immediately sent him the necessary funds
b. With his financial aid, the printing of the Fili was resumed
IV. THE FILI COMES OFF THE PRESS
V. DEDICATED TO GOM-BUR-ZA
VI. SYNOPSIS OF EL FILIBUSTERISMO
a. This novel is a sequel to the Noli
i. It has little humor, less idealism, and less romance than the Noli Me Tangere
ii. It is more revolutionary, more tragic than the first novel
b. Simoun
i. The hero of the novel and is a rich jeweler
1. He was Ibarra of the Noli
ii. He fled to Cuba where he became rich and befriended many Spanish officials
1. He returns to the Philippines where he freely moved around
2. He is a powerful figure not only because he is a rich jeweler, but also because he is a good friend and adviser of
the governor-general.
iii. He is secretly cherishing a terrible revenge against the Spanish authorities
1. 2 magnificent obsessions are:
a. Rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery of Santa Clara
b. To foment a revolution against the hated Spanish Masters
iv. A man of wealth and mystery, is a very close friend and confidante of the Spanish-Governor General.
1. Because of his great influence in Malacanang, he was called the “Brown Cardinal” or the “Black Eminence”
2. By using his wealth and his political influence, he encourages corruption in the government
a. Promotes the oppression of the masses
b. Hastens the moral degradation of the country so that the people may become desperate and fight
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3.
He smuggles arms into the country with the help of a rich Chinese merchant, Quiroga, who wants very much to
be Chinese consul of Manila
4. His first attempt to begin the armed uprising did not materialize because at the last hour he hears the sad news
that Maria Clara died in the nunnery
v. Simoun perfects his plan to overthrow the government
1. Beautiful lamp was given as wedding gift to Paulita Gomez and Julio Pelaez
2. Only he and his confidential associate, Basilio, know that when the wick of his lamp burns lower the
nitroglycerine, will explode, destroying the house where the wedding feast is going to be held and killing all the
guests, including the governor general, the friars, and the government officials.
3. Simultaneously, all the government buildings in Manila will be blown by Simoun’s followers.
c. The story of El Fili begins on board the steamer, Tabo
d. Basilio
i. Medical student, whose medical education was financed by his patron, Capitan Tiago
e. Isagani
i. Rejected by Paulita because of his liberal ideas
ii. Was watching outside the house
iii. Basilio, his friend, warns him to go away because the lighted lamp will soon explode
iv. Realizes that Paulita was in grave danger
1. To save her life, he rushes into the house, seizes the lighted lamp, and hurls into the river, where it explodes
f.
Padre Florentino
i. Home refuge of Simoun when he escaped the soldiers who are in pursuit of him
ii. The Spanish authorities learns of his presence in the house
iii. Lt. Perez of the Guardia Civil informs the priest by letter that he would come to arrest Simoun
g. Arrest was eluded by Simoun
i. Took a poison
ii. As he is dying, he confessed to Padre Florentino, revealing his true identity, his dastardly plan to use his wealth to avenge
himself, and his sinister aim to destroy his friends and enemies
h. Cabesang Tales
i. Dispossessed of his land by the friars like that of Rizal’s father.
ii. In desperation, becomes a bandit chieftain named Matanglawin
VII. NOLI AND FILI COMPARED
a. Noli
i. A romantic novel
ii. Work of the heart, a book of feeling
b. Fili
i. A political novel
1. Work of the head, a book of the thought
2. Contains bitterness, hatred, pain, violence, and sorrow
ii. The original intention of Rizal was to make the Fili longer than the Noli
1. Rizal had to cut the Fili drastically owing to lack of funds
iii. Rizal himself considered the Noli as superior to the Fili
VIII. RIZAL’S UNFINISHED THIRD NOVEL
a. Letter to Blumentritt
i. A novel in which politics will not find much space in it
ii. Ethics will play the principal role which deals mainly with the habits and customs of the Filipinos
iii. Jose wishes to be there; he wishes to be humorous, satirical and witty, to laugh and cry
b. While he was bound for Hong Kong:
i. He continued writing it but did not finish it
ii. To be written in Tagalog, intended for Tagalog readers
c. Story:
i. Sultan Zaide
1.
with his royal family and retainers, was taken prisoner by the Spaniards during the wars in the Moluccas and
brought to Manila
2. The old sultan, his children, and followers were promised good treatment, but the Spaniards forgot their promise
and let them die one by one in misery
ii. Kamandangan
1. The hero of the novel
2. Descendant of Lakandula, last king of Tondo
3. Plotted to regain the lost freedom of his fathers
iii. It is said that Rizal was fortunate not to have finished this novel, because it would have caused greater scandal and more
Spanish vengeance on him.
IX. RIZAL’S OTHER UNFINISHED NOVEL
a. “Makamisa”
b. “Dapitan”
i. Wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict the town life and customs
c. A novel in Spanish about the life in Pili, a town in Laguna is also unfinished
d. Another unfinished novel of Rizal, also without a title, is about Cristobal, a youthful Filipino student who was returned from Europe
e. A novel that describes the deplorable conditions of the Philippines
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CHAPTER 20: OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG
I.
FAREWELL TO EUROPE
a. Reasons for leaving Europe
i. Life was unbearable in Europe because of his political differences with M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain
ii. To be near his country
II. RIZAL AND THE GERMAN LADIES
a. The fast running steamer encountered a heavy squall and the door of the dining room was blown open
i. Nobody among the passengers who were busy eating stood up to close the door
ii. A lady said to her companions in German: “If this man in front of us were a gentleman he would close the door
iii. Upon hearing her remark, Rizal, without saying a word, rose and closed the door
iv. He conversed with the German ladies in perfect German, and the ladies were very much embarrassed
III. FAMILY REUNION IN HONG KONG
a. The Christmas in Hong Kong was one of the happiest Yuletide Celebrations in Rizal’s life
i. He had a happy family reunion
IV. OPHTHALMIC SURGEON IN HONG KONG
a. To earn a living for himself and for himself, Rizal practiced medicine
b. A Portuguese physician, Dr. Lorenzo Marques, became his friend and helped him to build a wide clientele
V. BORNEO COLONIZATION PROJECT
a. In the face of the bleak outlook of the Calamba folks under Governor Valeriano Weyler’s terroristic regime, Rizal conceived the
establishment of a Filipino colony in North Borneo (Sabah)
i. He planned to move the landless Filipino families to that rich British-owned island and carve out its virgin wildness a “New
Calamba.”
ii. He went to Sandakan to negotiate with the British authorities for the establishment of a Filipino colony.
iii. Bengkoka River in Maradu Bay
1. Was offered by the British Borneo Company
2. His mission was successful
iv. The British authorities of Borneo were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100, 000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor, and a
good government for 999 years, free of all charges.
b. Hidalgo (Rizal’s brother in law)
i. Objected to the colonization project
ii. Why should we go to a foreign land without first exhausting all means for the welfare of the country which nurtured us
from our cradles?
c. New trends of events in the Philippines gave Rizal a new hope for realizing his Borneo project.
i. Weyler was relieved of his gubernatorial office
ii. Eulogio Despujol, the new governor, announced to the Filipino people a fine program of government
1. In the belief that Governor Despujol was sincere in his beautiful promises of a better government, Rizal sent him
a letter of felicitation and offering his cooperation.
2. The governor-general, violating the simple rule of Spanish courtesy, did not even acknowledge receipt of his
letter.
3. In his second letter, he requested the governor-general to permit the landless Filipinos to establish themselves in
Borneo
a. Despujol did not give Rizal the courtesy of a reply
b. Despujol notified the Spanish consul general in Hong Kong to tell Rizal that he could not approve the
Filipino immigration to Borneo, alleging that the Philippines lacked laborers and it was not very
patriotic to go off and cultivate foreign soil
VI. WRITINGS IN HONGKONG
a. Rizal wrote “A Visit to Victoria Gaol”
i. An account of his visit to the colonial prison in Hong Kong
ii. In this article he contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system with the moderm and more humane British prison system
b. Constitution of the La Liga Filipina
i. Most important writing made in Hong Kong
VII. DECISION TO RETURN TO MANILA
a. Reasons:
i. To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project
ii. To establish the Liga Filipina in Manila
iii. To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid
1. Lete’s attack, which was printed in La Solidaridad, portrayed Rizal as cowardly, egoistic, opportunistic – a patriot
in words only
2. Protest of Rizal to del Pilar:
a. Why did del Pilar permit Lete to write in the article?
b. It could harm more the interests of the whole country
VIII. LAST HONG KONG LETTERS
a. FIRST LETTER: ADDRESSED TO HIS PARENTS AND FRIENDS
i. I realized how much suffering I have caused you yet I do not regret what I have done in pursuit of my duty
ii. Lived the examples he preached
iii. A man ought to die for duty and his principles
iv. To advance the future of the country, and shall willingly die for it, and even more willingly sacrifice all to secure justice and
peace for you
v. I risk life to save so many innocent persons
vi. There are many persons, filled with hope and ambition, who perhaps might be happier if I were dead
5
vii.
IX.
Should fate go against me, you will all understand that I shall die happy in the thought that my death will end all your
troubles.
b. SECOND LETTER: ADDRESSED TO THE FILIPINOS
i. I cannot live on seeing so many suffer unjust persecution on my account
ii. I prefer death and cheerfully shall relinquish life to free so many innocent persons from such unjust persecution
iii. I appreciate the fact that at present the future of our country gravitates in some degree around me, that at my death many
will feel triumphant; many are wishing for my fall
iv. I hold duties of conscience above all else
v. I am all my parents have, but our country has many more sons who can take my place and even do my work better.
vi. Besides I wish to show those who deny us the boon of patriotism that we know how to die for duty and principles
vii. What matters death, if one dies for what one loves, for native land and beings held dear?
RIZAL FALLS INTO SPANISH TRAP
a. After Rizal’s departure from Hong Kong, the Spanish-consul general, who issued the government guarantee of safety, sent a
cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim “is in trap.”
i. A secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal and his followers “for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation.”
b. The deceitful Despujol ordered his secretary, Luis de la Torre, to find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen, as was rumored,
so that he might take proper action against one “who had the protection of a strong nation.”
CHAPTER 21: SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA
I.
ARRIVAL IN MANILA WITH SISTER
a. Rizal and his widowed sister Lucia arrived in Manila
b. Had an audience at Malacanang with Governor-General Despujol; Despujol agreed to pardon his father but not the rest of his family.
II. FOUNDING OF THE LIGA FILIPINA
a. Rizal attended a meeting of the patriots at the home of the Chinese- Filipino, Doroteo Ongjunco
b. Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga Filipina, a civic league of Filipinos
c. The patriots were favorably impressed and gladly approved the establishment of the Liga
III. CONSTITUTION OF THE LIGA FILIPINA
a. To unite the whole archipelago into one compact and homogenous body
b. Mutual protection in every want and necessity
c. Defense against all violence and injustice
d. Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce
e. Study and application of reforms
f.
Motto: One like All
IV. RIZAL ARRESTED AND JAILED IN FORT SANTIAGO
a. Rizal resumes his series of interviews with the governor-general
b. During this interview, governor-general Despujol suddenly showed him some printed leaflets which were allegedly found in Lucia’s
pillow cases.
i. These incriminatory leaflets were entitled Pobres Frailes
ii. They were a satire against the rich Dominican friars who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their monastic vow of
poverty.
c. Rizal denied having those leaflets in either his or Lucia’s baggage, which had been thoroughly searched upon their arrival from Hong
Kong by the custom authorities who found nothing.
i. Despite his denial and insistent demand for investigation in accordance with the due process of law, he was placed under
arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago
d. The following day, the Gaceta de Manila published the story of Rizal’s arrest which produced indignant commotion among the Filipino
people, particularly the members of the newly organized Liga Filipina
V. ARBITRARY DEPORTATION TO DAPITAN
a. The same issue of the Gaceta contained Governor General Despujol’s decree deporting Rizal to one of the islands in the South
b. The gubernatorial decree gave the reasons for Rizal’s deportation, as follows:
i. Rizal had published books and articles abroad which showed disloyalty to Spain and which were “frankly anti-catholic” and
“imprudently anti-friar”
ii. A few hours after his arrival in Manila “there was found in one of the packages… a bundle of handbills entitled Pobres
Frailes”
iii. His novel El Filibusterismo was dedicated to the memory of three traitors (Gom-Bur-Za), and on the title page he wrote that
in view of the vices and errors of the Spanish administration, “the only salvation for the Philippines was separation from the
mother country.”
iv. The end which he pursues in his efforts and writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of our holy
Catholic faith.
c. He was exiled in Dapitan for a period of 4 years.
CHAPTER 22: EXILE IN DAPITAN
I.
BEGINNING OF EXILE IN DAPITAN
a. Dapitan, is a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the Jesuits
b. Rizal could live at the parish convent on the following conditions:
i. That Rizal publicly retract his errors concerning religion, and make statements that were clearly pro-Spanish and against
revolution.
ii. That he perform the church rites and make a general confession of his past life.
iii. That he conduct himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject and a man of religion
c. Rizal did not agree with these conditions
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i.
Consequently, he lived in the house of the commandant; Captain Carnicero (the warden) and Rizal (the prisoner) were
warm and friendly.
II. WINS IN MANILA LOTTERY
a. The mail boat, Butuan, brought no Spanish official to Dapitan but the happy tidings that:
i. the Lottery Ticket No. 9736 jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Rizal and Francisco Eqiulor (Spanish resident of Dipolog)
won the second prize of P20,000
b. Rizal’s share of the winning lottery ticket was P6,200
i. He gave P2,000 to his father and P200 to his friend Basa in Hong Kong
ii. The rest he invested well by purchasing agricultural lands along the coast of Talisay
c. Rizal never drank liquor and never smoked but he was a lottery ticket addict.
III. RIZAL-PASTELLS DEBATE ON RELIGION
a. Father Pastells sent Rizal a book by Sarda, with advice that Rizal should desist from his foolishness in viewing religion from the prism
of individual judgment and self-esteem
b. Rizal revealed his anti-catholic ideas which he had acquired in Europe and embitterment at his persecution by the bad friars
i. It is understandable why he was bitter against the friars who committed certain abuses under the cloak of religion.
c. Rizal’s Catholicism requires enlightenment, like the Catholicism of Terilhard de Chardin
IV. RIZAL CHALLENGES A FRENCHMAN TO A DUEL
a. Mr. Juan Lardet, a businessman, purchased many logs from the lands of Rizal.
i. It so happened that some of the logs were of poor quality
ii. Lardet , in a letter written to Antonio Miranda, a Dapitan merchant and friend of Rizal,
1.
expressed his disgust with the business deal
2. and stated that “if Rizal was a truthful man, he would have told me that the lumber not included in the account
were bad.
b. Miranda indiscreetly forwarded Lardet’s letter to Rizal
i. Jose’s weakness: sensitivity
ii. When he read Lardet’s letter, he flared up in anger, regarding the Frenchman’s unsavory comment as an affront to his
integrity
c. Carnicero told the Frenchman to apologize rather than accept the challenge
d. Rizal accepted the Frenchman’s apology
V. RIZAL AND FATHER SANCHEZ
a. Father Pastells tried to persuade Rizal to discard his errors of religion
i. He assigned Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez, Rizal’s favorite teacher at Ateneo
1. Sanchez is the only Spanish priest to defend Rizal’s Noli in public
2. Failed to persuade Rizal to discard his unorthodox views on the Catholic Religion
VI. RIZAL’S ENCOUNTER WITH THE FRIAR’S SPY
a. Pablo Mercado posed as a relative, secretly visited Rizal at his house
i. Strange visitor offered his services as a confidential courier of Rizal’s letter and writings for the patriots in Manila which
might incriminate him in the revolutionary movement
b. Rizal, being a man of prudence and keen perception became suspicious
i. Rizal went to the comandancia and denounced the impostor to Captain Juan Sitges
1. As commandant of Dapitan, Sitges ordered the arrest of Pablo Mercado and instructed Anastacio Adriatico to
investigate him immediately
c. The real name of Pablo Mercado was Florencio Namanan
VII. AS PHYSICIAN IN DAPITAN
a. Patients are poor; he gave them free medicine
b. Studied the medicinal plants and their curative values
i. To poor patients, who could not afford to buy imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.
VIII. WATER SYSTEM FOR DAPITAN
a. Rizal held the title of expert surveyor which he obtained from Ateneo
b. He applied his knowledge of engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the townpeople.
i. Engineers marveled how Rizal could have built such a system of waterworks, for he had inadequate tools and his finances
are limited
ii. Without aid from the government, he succeeded in giving a good water system
c. Length of this aqueduct is several kilometers
IX. COMMUNITY PROJECTS FOR DAPITAN
a. Aside from constructing the town’s first water system, he spent many months draining the marshes in order to get rid of malaria that
infested Dapitan
b. The P500 which an Englishman patient paid him was used by Jose to equip the town with its lighting system
i. This lighting system consisted of coconut oil lamps
ii. Electric lighting was unknown then in the Philippines
iii. It was not until 1894 when Manila saw the first electric lights
c. Another project was the beautification of Dapitan
i. He remodeled the town plaza to enhance its beauty
ii. He wanted it to have the same standards as Europe
X. RIZAL AS TEACHER
a. His exile in Dapitan gave him the opportunity to put into practice his educational ideas
b. Established a school; he applied the same system of education that he learned in Ateneo in his school
i. Best is called the emperor and sat at the head of the bench
XI. CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE
a. Was able to built a rich collection of concology
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b.
Among these:
i. Draco Rizali (a flying dragon)
ii. Apogonia Rizali (a small beetle)
iii. Rhacophorus Rizali (a rare frog)
XII. ARTISTIC WORKS IN DAPITAN
a. Rizal made sketches of persons and things that attracted him in Dapitan
XIII. RIZAL AS FARMER
a. Rizal bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay, where he built his home, school, and hospital, and planted cacao, coffee, sugarcane,
coconuts and fruit trees.
b. He acquired more lands until his total holdings reached 70 hectares, containing 6,000 hemp plants 1,000 coconut trees, and
numerous fruit trees, sugarcane, corn, coffee and cacao.
c. Rizal introduced modern methods of agriculture which he had observed in Europe and America.
d. He imported agricultural machinery from the U. S.
e. He invited his friends and family to come to his projected agricultural colony
i. Rizal wanted to establish a new Calamba in Dapitan
ii. This project did not materialize because he could not get the support of the government.
XIV. RIZAL AS BUSINESSMAN
a. In partnership with Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan Merchant, he made profitable business ventures in fishing, copra, and hemp industries,
and lime manufacturing
b. The most profitable business of Rizal was in hemp industry
c. To break the Chinese monopoly on business in Dapitan, Rizal organized the Cooperative Association of Dapitan Farmers
i. Helped the producers and workers by establishing a store wherein they can buy prime commodities at moderate prices.
XV. RIZAL’S INVENTIVE ABILITY
a. While practicing medicine in Calamba, he invented a cigarette lighter which he sent as a gift to Blumentritt
i. He called this sulpukan, which is made of wood
ii. Its mechanism is based on the principle of compressed air
b. He invited a machine for making bricks
i. This machine could manufacture about 6,000 bricks daily
XVI. “MY RETREAT”
a. Serene life as an exile in Dapitan
XVII. RIZAL & JOSEPHINE BRACKEN
a. The death of Leonor Rivera left a poignant void in Jose’s heart
b. Josephine Bracken
i. Came to Dapitan, an Irish, 18 y.o.
ii. Her mother died in childbirth and she was adopted by George Taufer, who later became blind
1. No ophthalmic surgeon in Hong Kong could cure that is why they need to go to Manila to seek the services of the
famous ophthalmic surgeon
2. They heard in Hong Kong that Rizal was in Dapitan
c. Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other at first sight
i. They agreed to marry after a month
ii. But Fr. Obach, the priest of Dapitan, refused to marry them without the permission of the Bishop of Cebu
d. When Mr. Taufer heard of their projected marriage
i. He flared up in anger
ii. Unable to endure the thought of losing Josephine, he tried to commit suicide by cutting of his throat with a razor
iii. Rizal, however, grabbed his wrists and prevented him from killing himself
iv. To avoid the tragedy, Josephine went with Taufer to Manila by the first available steamer
1. The blind man went away uncured because his ailment was venereal in nature, hence incurable
v. Mr. Taufer returned alone to Hong Kong, Josephine stayed in Manila with Rizal’s family.
e. Since no priest would marry them, Rizal and Josephine held hands together and married themselves before the eyes of God.
i. Fr. Obach was scandalized and gossips circulated around
f.
Rizal was expecting a baby
i. Unfortunately, Jose played a prank on her, frightening her so that she prematurely gave birth to an 8 th month baby boy,
who only lived for three hours
ii. This lost son of Rizal was named “Francisco” in honor of his father
XVIII.RIZAL AND THE KATIPUNAN
a. Andres Bonifacio, the “Great Plebian,” was sowing the seeds of an unarmed uprising
i. Founded the Katipunan, the secret revolutionary society
b. Dr. Pio Valenzuela was named emissary to Dapitan
i. To inform Rizal of the plan of the Katipunan to launch a revolution for freedom’s sake
ii. Dr. Valenzuela left Manila on board the steamer, Venus
iii. To camouflage his real mission, he brought with him a blind man named Raymundo Mata
c. Rizal objected to Bonifacio’s audacious project to plunge the country in bloody revolution
i. He was of the sincere belief that it was premature, for two reasons:
1. The people are not ready for revolution
2. Arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry for revolution
ii. He also disapproved of the other plan of the Katipunan to rescue him
1. Because he had given his word of honor to the Spanish authorities
2. And he did not want to break it
XIX. VOLUNTEERS AS MILITARY DOCTOR IN CUBA
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a.
Months before the Katipunan contacted Jose, Rizal had offered his services as military doctor in Cuba, which was then in the throes of
a revolution and a raging yellow fever epidemic.
i. There was a shortage of physicians to minister to the needs of the Spanish troops and the Cuban people.
b. It was Blumentritt who told him of the deplorable health situation in war-ridden Cuba and advised him to volunteer as army physician
there
c. Rizal wrote to Gov.-Gen. Ramon Blanco, Despujol’s successor, offering his services as military doctor in Cuba
i. Blanco notified him of the acceptance of his offer
XX. “THE SONG OF THE TRAVELER”
a. Great was Rizal’s joy in receiving the gladsome news
b. He knew that he was free and he can travel to Europe then Cuba
CHAPTER 23: LAST TRIP ABROAD (1896)
I.
RIZAL MISSES SHIP GOING TO SPAIN
a. Letter to Blumentritt
i. I did not catch the mail ship for Spain
ii. Fearing that my stay in Manila for a month might bring me troubles I made known to the governor general, while remaining
on board, of my wish to be isolated from everybody, except my family.
b. Rizal was transferred to another cruiser by the order of Ramon Blanco
i. Was given good accommodation
ii. He was treated not a prisoner, but a guest detained on board in order to avoid difficulties from friends and enemies
c. Rizal stayed on the cruiser for about a month, pending the availability of a Spain-bound steamer.
II. OUTBREAK OF THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION
a. The Katipunan plot to overthrow Spanish rule by means of revolution was discovered by Fray Mariano Gil
b. This incident struck terror into the hearts of the Spanish officials and residents, producing a hysteria of vindicative retaliation against
the Filipino patriots.
c. The tumult produced by the discovery of the Katipunan plot was aggravated by the Cry of Balintawak which was raised by Bonifacio
and his valiant Katipuneros
i. The revolutionists led by Bonifacio and Jacinto attacked San Juan, but they were repulsed with heavy losses
ii. After the Battle of San Juan, Governor General Blanco proclaimed a state of war in the first eight provinces for rising in
arms against Spain:
1. Manila, BUlacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and Tarlac
III. DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN
a. Rizal received from Governor General Blanco 2 letters of introduction for the Minister of War and the Minister of Colonies, with a
covering letter which absolved him from all blame for the raging revolution
b. Letter by Blanco to the Minister of War:
i. His conduct during the 4 years that he was in exile in Dapitan has been exemplary
ii. He is the more worthy of pardon and benevolence as he is in no way involved either in the criminal attempt that we are
lamenting these days or in any conspiracy or secret society that they have been plotting.
c. Don Pedro Rozas and his son, Periquin
i. Fellow passenger of Rizal
IV. RIZAL IN SINGAPORE
a. Don Pedro, with his son, disembarked at Singapore
i. He advised Rizal to stay too and take advantage of the protection of the British Law
ii. Rizal did not heed his advice
b. Don Manuel Camus
i. Boarded the steamer, urging Jose to stay in Singapore to save his life
ii. Jose ignored their appeal because he had given his word of honor to Governor General Blanco and he did not like to break
it.
V. VICTIM OF SPANISH DUPLICITY
a. Without Jose’s knowledge, Gov. Gen. Blanco was secretly conspiring with the Ministers of War and the Colonies for his destruction
b. One of Jose’s mistakes was to believe that Gov. Gen. Blanco was a man of honor and a friend because:
i. He allowed him to go as a free man to Spain to become a physician-surgeon of the Spanish army in Cuba, where a bloody
revolution was raging
ii. Blanco gave him 2 letters of introduction addressed to the Spanish Ministers of War
c. Blanco and the Ministers of War and the Colonies were exchanging coded telegrams and confidential messages for his arrest upon
reaching Barcelona
i. That Jose was a deportee and was being kept under surveillance
VI. RIZAL ARRESTED BEFORE REACHING BARCELONA
a. A passenger told Rizal the bad news that he would be arrested by order of Gov. Gen. Blanco and would be sent to prison in Ceuta
(Spanish Morocco)
b. Rizal belatedly realized that he was duped by the unscrupulous Spanish officials, particularly Blanco
c. Letter to Blumentritt:
i. I have offered to serve as a physician, risking life in the hazards of war and abandoning all my business
ii. I am innocent and now in reward they are sending me to prison
iii. I am communicating to you this news that you may appraise my situation.
VII. ARRIVAL IN BARCELONA AS A PRISONER (8 days)
a. The trip from Manila to Barcelona lasted exactly 30 days
b. Jose was kept under heavy guard in his cabin for three days
c. Rizal was escorted to the grim and infamous prison-fortress named Monjuich
i. He spent the whole morning in a cell
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d.
e.
Jose’s interview with Despujol
i. Told Rizal that he would be shipped back to Manila
Rizal was taken aboard on a ship full of soldiers and officers
CHAPTER 24: LAST HOMECOMING AND TRIAL
I.
A MARTYR’S LAST HOMECOMING
a. Rizal knew he was facing the supreme test, which might mean the sacrifice of his life, but he was unafraid.
b. He thanked God for giving him the chance to return in order to confront his slanderers and to vindicate his name
c. Diary:
i. Either they do me justice and recognize my innocence and then I will be rehabilitated or they sentence me to death
ii. Society will forgive me and later, without any doubt, justice will be done and I will one martyr
iii. Instead of dying abroad, I will die in my country
iv. I believe that what is happening is the best that can happen to me – God’s will be done
II. CONFISCATION OF RIZAL’S DIARY
a. It was known to the Spanish authorities that Rizal was keeping track of the daily events in his diary
i. They were curious as to what were recorded in his diary
ii. Their suspicion was aroused, for they feared that the diarist might be writing something seditious or treasonable
b. Rizal’s diary was taken away and was critically scrutinized by the authorities
i. Nothing dangerous was found in its contents
ii. The diary was returned to him
III. UNSUCESSFUL RESCUE IN SINGAPORE
a. News of Rizal’s predicament reached his friends in Europe and Singapore
b. They dispatched frantic telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore named Hugh Fort to rescue Rizal from the Spanish steamer when
it reached Singapore by means of a writ of habeas corpus
c. When the steamer arrived in Singapore,
i. Atty. Fort instituted proceedings at the Singapore Court for the removal of Rizal from the steamer
ii. The crux of Mr. Fort’s legal contention was that Rizal was illegally detained on the Spanish steamer
d. Chief Justice Loinel Cox denied the writ on the ground:
i. That the steamer (Colon) was carrying Spanish troops to the Philippines
ii. Hence it is a warship of a foreign power, which under international law was beyond the jurisdiction of the Singapore
authorities
IV. ARRIVAL IN MANILA
a. Rizal was quietly transferred under heavy guard from the ship to Fort Santiago
b. Spanish authorities fished for evidence against Rizal
i. Many Filipino patriots were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal
ii. Rizal’s brother, Paciano, was arrested and cruelly tortured
V. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
a. 2 kinds of evidence were presented against Rizal, namely documentary and testimonial
VI. RIZAL CHOOSES HIS DEFENDER
a. The only right given to Rizal by the Spanish authorities was to choose his defense counsel
b. This was highly restricted, for he had to choose only from a list submitted to him
c. Don Luis Taviel de Andrade
i. He name was familiar to Jose so that he chose the lieutenant to be his defender in court
ii. The brother of Luis Taviel de Andrade, Rizal’s bodyguard in Calamba
VII. READING OF INFORMATION OF CHARGES TO THE ACCUSED
a. Jose was accused of being the principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals
and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion
b. As the accused, Rizal raised no objection on the jurisdiction of the court, but pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion.
i. He admitted that he wrote the Constitution of the Liga Filipina which was merely a civic association
ii. He waived the right to amend or make further statements already made, except that he had taken no part in politics since
his exile to Dapitan.
c. The withdrawal of Blanco from the gubernatorial office sealed Rizal’s fate, for he was more humane in character than the ruthless
Polavieja
i. Blanco believed that Rizal was not a traitor to Spain
ii. Had he remained in longer in office, Rizal would not have been executed
VIII. RIZAL’S MANIFESTO TO HIS PEOPLE
a. Rizal wrote a manifesto to his people appealing to them to stop the necessary shedding of blood and to achieve their liberties by
means of education and liberty
b. Contents:
i. My name had been used as a war cry among some who were in arms
ii. When I had news of what was being planned, I opposed it and demonstrated its absolute impossibility
iii. I was convinced that the idea was highly absurd and would bring great suffering
iv. In spite of my counsels, the movement broke out
v. I spontaneously offered not only my services, but my life, and even my name so that they might use them in the manner
they saw fit to suppress the rebellion
vi. Liberty is desired by placing education as a premise – by means of education and of labor they might have a personality of
their own and make themselves worthy of liberties
vii. In my writings I have recommended redemption
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viii.
IX.
X.
I have written that reforms, to be fruitful, have to come from above, that those that come from below are irregular and
unstable
ix. I condemn this absurd, savage uprising planned behind my back, which dishonors us
x. I abhor its criminal methods and disclaim all participation therein.
c. Rizal’s manifesto was not issued to the people
i. Rizal was saved from the shame of his manifesto’s being misinterpreted and disobeyed by the Filipinos in arms
THE TRIAL OF RIZAL
a. His case was prejudged; he was considered guilty before the actual trial
b. Rizal was not given the right (which any accused is entitled to have in a real court of justice) to face the witnesses against him in open
court
c. The prosecuting attorney urged the court to give the verdict of death to the accused
d. Rizal proved his innocence by twelve points:
i. He could not be guilty of rebellion, for he advised Dr. Pio Valenzuela in Dapitan not to rise in revolution
ii. He did not correspond with the radical, revolutionary elements
iii. The revolutionists used his name without his knowledge. If he were guilty he could have escaped Singapore
iv. If he had a hand in revolution, he could have escaped in a Moro vinta and would not have built a home, a hospital, and
bought lands in Dapitan
v. If he were the chief of revolution, why was he not consulted by the revolutionists?
vi. It was true that he wrote the by-laws of the Liga Filipina, but this is only a civic association – not a revolutionary society.
vii. The Liga Filipina did not live long, for after the first meeting he was banished to Dapitan and it died out.
viii. If the La Liga was organized 9 months later, he did not know about it.
ix. The La Liga did not serve the purpose of the revolutionists, otherwise they would not have supplanted it with the
Katipunan.
x. If it were true that there were some bitter comments in Rizal’s letters, it was because they were written in 1890 when his
family was being persecuted
xi. His life in Dapitan had been exemplary as the politico-military commanders and missionary priests could attest
xii. It was not true that the revolution was inspired by one of his speech at the house of Doroteo Ongjunco, as alleged by
witnesses whom he would like to confront. His friends knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why did the Katipunan send
an emissary to Dapitan who was unknown to him?
e. The military court unanimously voted for the sentence of death
POLAVIEJA SIGNS RIZAL’S EXECUTION
a. Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal o be shot at 7am of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field.
CHAPTER 25: MARTYRDOM IN BAGUMBAYAN
I.
LAST HOURS OF RIZAL
a. Rizal gave to Trinidad the alcohol cooking stove instructing her that there is something inside
i. This “something” was Rizal’s farewell poem
b. 10PM 29 December 1896
i. Rizal wrote his retraction, in which he abjured Masonry and his religious ideas which were anti-catholic
II. MARTYRDOM OF A HERO
a. He requested the commander of the firing squad, that he be shot facing the firing squad
i. His request was denied, for the captain had implicit orders to shot him in the back
b. Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo
i. A Spanish military physician asked his permission to feel his pulse
ii. Castillo was amazed to find it normal, showing that Rizal was not afraid to die
c. It was exactly 7:03 in the morning when he died in the bloom of manhood – aged 35 y. o.
III. AFTERMATH OF A HERO-MARTYR’S DEATH
a. After the hero’s execution, the Spanish spectators shouted “Viva Espana!” “Muerte a los Traidores” (Long live Spain! Death to the
Traitors!)
b. He proved that the pen is mightier than the sword
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CHAPTER 16: IN BELGIAN BRUSSELS LIFE IN BRUSSELS Two