UNIT 4 Answer Key
CHAPTER 13
4. national popular vote
D. Benefits of the Electoral College
known process, identifies, two-party
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(down) chief executive
(across) chief of state
(down) electoral vote
(across) electoral college
(down) platform
(across) swing voter
CHAPTER 13 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Chief of state; President as the ceremonial
head of the government of the United
States; yes
2. Chief executive; President as vested with
the executive power of the United States;
yes
3. Chief administrator; President as the
director of the executive branch of the
Federal Government; yes
4. Chief diplomat; President as the main
architect of American foreign policy and
the nation’s chief spokesman to the rest of
the world; yes
5. Commander in chief; President as the head
of the nation’s armed forces; yes
6. Chief legislator; President as the principal
author of the nation’s public policies; yes
7. Chief of party; President as the leader of
his or her political party; no
8. Chief citizen; President as the
representative of all the American people;
no
9. (a) must be a natural born citizen of the
United States
(b) must be at least 35 years of age
(c) must have been a resident of the United
States for at least 14 years
10. four years
11. It limited to two the number of full terms
that a President may serve.
12. 10 years (if the President succeeds to
the office after the midpoint in another
person’s term and then seeks two full
terms of his or her own)
13. (a) For: It is a reasonable safeguard against
“executive tyranny.”
(b) Against: It is undemocratic because it
limits the right of the people to decide who
will be President. Also, it undercuts the
authority of a two-term President.
14. They have argued that a single,
nonrenewable term would free a President
from the pressures of a campaign for
a second term and so allow the chief
Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: The President’s Job Description
A. Presidential Roles
1. state
2. diplomat
3. commander in chief
B. Qualifications, Presidential Term, and
Pay and Benefits
1. natural born, 35, 14
2. four, 22nd, two
3. White House
II. Section 2: Presidential Succession and the
Vice Presidency
A. Presidential Succession
Vice President
B. Presidential Disability
25th, Acting President
C. The Vice Presidency
Senate, disabled
III. Section 3: Presidential Selection: The
Framers’ Plan
A. Choosing a President
presidential electors, electoral
B. The Election of 1800
political parties, 12th
IV. Section 4: Presidential Nominations
A. How National Conventions Work
major parties, electoral
B. Primaries and Caucuses
delegates, state conventions
C. Choosing a Presidential Candidate
party unity, platform
V. Section 5: The Presidential Election
A. The Presidential Campaign
swing, battleground
B. Flaws in the Electoral College
1. popular vote
2. electors
3. majority
C. Proposed Reforms
1. district, congressional districts
2. proportional
3. direct popular
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
executive to focus on the pressing
demands of the office.
5. d
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. c
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) chief of state: The President is head of
the government and a symbol of all the
people. (b) chief executive: The President
has broad executive powers, including
those relating to foreign policy. (c) chief
administrator: The President is in charge
of the executive branch of government.
(d) chief diplomat: The President is
the main author of U.S. foreign policy.
(e) commander in chief: The President is
the commander in chief of the military.
(f) chief legislator: The President shapes
public policy by working with Congress to
pass laws. (g) chief of party: The President
is the leader of his political party. (h) chief
citizen: The President represents all the
people of the United States.
2. Formal qualifications: The President must
be a natural born U.S. citizen, be at least 35
years old, and have been a resident of the
U.S. for at least 14 years. Salary: $400,000
per year. Benefits: (students may list only
two): living in the White House; the use of
a fleet of cars, Air Force One, and planes
and helicopters; excellent health care;
travel and entertainment funds. Length of
service: Number of full terms: 2, Number
of years: 10.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. f
3. b
4. a
5. d
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. c
9. b
10. d
CHAPTER 13 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
1. (a) did not provide for the succession of
a Vice President; rather, declared that
the powers and duties of the office of the
President were to “devolve on” the Vice
President
(b) declared that the Vice President shall
become President in case of the removal of
the President from office or of his death or
resignation
(c) fixes the order following the Vice
President; says that the Speaker of the
House and then the President pro tem of
the Senate are next in line, followed, in
turn, by the secretary of state and then by
each of the other 14 heads of the Cabinet
departments, in order of precedence
2. It says the Vice President is to become
Acting President if (1) the President
informs Congress, in writing, that he is
unable to discharge the powers and duties
of his office, or (2) the Vice President and
a majority of the members of the Cabinet
inform Congress, in writing, that the
President is so incapacitated.
3. (a) to preside over the Senate
(b) to help decide the question of
presidential disability
Core Worksheet 3
Student interpretations may vary somewhat.
Accept all reasonable interpretations. Possible
answers are given below:
9:30- chief legislator, commander in chief
10:15- chief diplomat
10:20- chief of party
11:15- chief administrator
12:00- chief of party, chief executive
12:15- chief of state
1:00- commander in chief, chief of state, chief
citizen
2:00- chief executive, chief legislator
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. f
3. b
4. c
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
4. The Vice President is very important
because he or she is only a heartbeat
away from the presidency. However, the
Constitution pays little attention to the
office of the Vice President, and many Vice
Presidents have had little to do.
5. To “balance the ticket” means to choose
a running mate (candidate for Vice
President) who can strengthen the
presidential candidate’s chances of being
elected by virtue of certain ideological,
geographic, racial, ethnic, gender, or other
characteristics.
6. Recent Presidents have made much greater
use of their Vice Presidents, so the office
has been reinvented and has become more
influential.
7. The President nominates a Vice President,
who must be confirmed by a majority vote
of both houses of Congress.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Presidential succession is a plan to fill a
vacancy in the presidency.
2. The Presidential Succession Act of 1947
set the order of succession after the Vice
President. The Speaker of the House
is next in line after the Vice President.
3. (a) The 25th Amendment provides for
vice presidential succession if the President
dies, resigns, or is removed from office. It
also provides guidelines for deciding if the
President is disabled. (b) If the President
becomes disabled, the Vice President
becomes Acting President.
4. The Vice President’s formal duties are to
preside over the Senate and decide if the
President is disabled.
5. Some people have a low opinion of the
vice presidency because a vice presidential
candidate is often chosen to balance the
ticket rather than because of his or her
qualifications to be President.
6. The vice presidency has taken on more
importance in recent administrations due
to the expertise and influence of those who
have held the office. Examples include
Dick Cheney and Joe Biden.
6.
7.
8.
Laws or Precedents: Constitution; 25th
Amendment
Next Steps: The President informs
Congress, in writing, that he is unable to
discharge the duties of his office. The Vice
President then assumes duties as Acting
President.
Laws or Precedents: 25th Amendment
Next Steps: The Vice President and
a majority of the Cabinet inform
Congress, in writing, that the President is
incapacitated. The Vice President becomes
Acting President.
Laws or Precedents: 25th Amendment
Next Steps: The President nominates a
successor, with confirmation by majority
vote of both houses of Congress
Laws or Precedents: 25th Amendment
Next Steps: The Speaker of the House
becomes President and then nominates
a Vice President to be confirmed by a
majority vote of Congress.
Laws or Precedents: Presidential
Succession Act of 1947
Next Steps: None—The President cannot
fire the Vice President.
Laws or Precedents: Constitution, which
establishes that the Vice President must be
removed by impeachment
Next Steps: The new President and a
majority of the Cabinet inform Congress,
in writing, that the new President will be
unable to discharge the duties of her office.
The Speaker of the House, as next in line of
succession, serves as Acting President.
Laws or Precedents: 25th Amendment;
Presidential Succession Act of 1947
Next Steps: The President informs
Congress, by written declaration, that no
inability exists. The Vice President and
majority of the Cabinet challenge the
President’s declaration. Congress must
decide within 21 days.
Laws or Precedents: 25th Amendment
Extend Worksheet 3, 4
For numbers 1-18, students should list the
names of the current office holders in the
line of succession to the presidency. Answers
should accurately reflect the current office
holders.
Core Worksheet 3
1. Next Steps: The Vice President becomes
President.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 13 Section 3
Reflection Questions
1. Possible answer: These two leaders are
likely to have many years of experience in
government and experience with wielding
power.
2. Possible answer: I think the people in
positions 1-6 would have sufficient
experience. The Speaker and President
pro tem would likely have the most
experience in a government leadership
role. The people in Cabinet positions 4-6
would have experience in key areas of
government: foreign affairs, the economy,
and the military.
3. Congress probably created the most
important departments first, so
establishing succession by precedent
places people with experience in key
policy areas earlier in the order.
Reading Comprehension 3
1. They were afraid that congressional
selection would put the President “too
much under the legislative thumb.”
2. They believed that selection by popular
vote would lead to “tumult and disorder.”
They also felt that the people, scattered
over so wide an area, could not possibly
know enough about the available
candidates to make wise, informed
choices.
3. The Framers’ plan called for the President
and Vice President to be chosen by a
special body of presidential electors,
who were to be chosen in each State in
a manner the State legislature directed.
Each State would have as many
presidential electors as it had senators and
representatives in Congress. Once selected,
these electors would cast two electoral
votes, each for a different candidate for
President. The candidate with the most
votes would become President, and the
person with the second-most votes the
Vice President.
4. They intended the electors to be the most
enlightened and respectable citizens
from each State, who would to act as
“free agents” in choosing the people best
qualified to fill the presidency and vice
presidency.
5. the electoral college
6. (a) the President and Vice President could
be members of different parties
(b) casting two votes, both for members of
the same party, will often result in a tie for
President
7. (a) party nominations for the presidency
and vice presidency
(b) the nomination of candidates for
presidential electors pledged to vote for
their party’s presidential ticket
(c) the automatic casting of the electoral
votes in line with those pledges
8. It separated the presidential and vicepresidential elections.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. d
3. e
4. a
5. c
Main Ideas
6. d
7. a
8. b
9. d
10. c
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. d
4. b
5. f
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. d
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) Plan: Congress should choose the
President. Reason for Rejection: The choice
of the President should be controlled by
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
2.
3.
4.
5.
the people, not the legislature. (b) Plan:
The President should be chosen by popular
vote. Reason for Rejection: The country is
too large and spread out for voters to learn
about candidates and make wise decisions.
(a) The Framers decided that the President
should be chosen by a special body of
presidential electors called the electoral
college. (b) The electors are chosen by each
state. (c) Each state has as many electors
as it has senators and representatives in
Congress.
In the election of 1800, the electoral system
failed when electoral college voting
produced a tie for the presidency.
The 12th Amendment separated the
presidential and vice presidential elections.
These three things laid the foundation
for the presidential selection system we
have today: the rise of political parties, the
election of 1800, and the 12th Amendment.
• Assumes electors will vote their party
affiliation automatically.
• Reflects the rise of the party system.
• Created the electoral system as it exists
today.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. d
2. c
3. a
4. b
Main Ideas
5. c
6. c
7. d
8. b
9. d
10. c
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. d
3. b
4. c
5. a
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. d
Core Worksheet 3
Framers’ Plan
• Opposed having Congress or citizens elect
the President.
• Wanted educated, informed citizens to select
President (“free agents”).
• Each State would have as many electors as it
has senators and representatives.
• Each State legislature would decide how the
State’s electors would be chosen.
Original Electoral College Function
• Each elector casts two electoral votes,
one vote for two different candidates for
President.
• Candidate with the most votes becomes
President.
• Runner-up candidate becomes Vice
President.
Election of 1800
• Democratic-Republicans and Federalists
each nominated candidates for President,
Vice President, and electors.
• Each of the 73 Democratic-Republican
electors voted for both Jefferson and Burr,
creating a tie for President.
• House of Representatives had to vote 36
times before selecting Jefferson.
12th Amendment
• Requires electors to cast a ballot for
President and a separate ballot for Vice
President.
CHAPTER 13 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
1. some other way—by the two major parties
2. The party gives each State party a certain
number of delegates based on that State’s
electoral vote. In addition, both parties
have developed complicated formulas that
also award bonus delegates to those States
that have supported the party’s candidates
in recent elections.
3. To a large extent, the Republican Party
leaves the matter of delegate selection to
its State organizations and to State law.
The Democratic Party, on the other hand,
has adopted several national rules to
govern the process—mainly to broaden
participation in the delegate selection
process.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
4. A presidential primary is an election in
which a party’s voters (1) choose some or
all of a State party organization’s delegates
to their party’s national convention, and/
or (2) express a preference among various
contenders for their party’s presidential
nomination.
5. “Front-loading” refers to the efforts
by many States to move their primary
contests to earlier dates in the primary
schedule. Front-loading has multiplied
the importance of name recognition and
money, because the front-loaded process
forces contenders to mount and pay
for campaigns in a number of widely
separated States that hold their primaries
early and, often, on the same day or within
a few days of one another.
6. In winner-take-all contests, the
candidate who wins the preference vote
automatically wins the support of all of
the delegates chosen at that primary. In the
proportional representation system, any
candidate who wins at least 15 percent of
the votes cast in a primary gets the number
of that State’s convention delegates that
corresponds to his or her share of that
primary vote.
7. Although it was developed by and for
the Democratic Party, the proportional
representation rule has forced most States
to change their primary laws to account for
the rule. This means that, in many States,
Republican delegates are also chosen on
a proportional representation basis. The
rule has also led several States to give up
the popular selection of delegates and hold
only a preference primary.
8. For the party out of power, the primaries
are often “knock-down, drag-out” affairs,
in which several top personalities and
factions in the party vie with one another
for the presidential nomination. For the
party in power, the contest is generally
not as hard-fought, because either the
President himself is seeking reelection
or has given his backing to someone he
favors for the nomination.
9. One proposal is to hold a single,
nationwide primary and have both parties
choose their presidential candidates in
those contests. National conventions
would be done away with or would be
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
used only to pick the vice-presidential
nominees and/or write party platforms.
Another proposal is the regional primary
plan, in which a series of primaries would
be held at two- or three-week intervals
across the country.
Significant reform would require joint
action by Congress, the several States, and
both major parties. Also, neither party
wants to abandon the national convention,
which is a unifying device.
In those States, delegates to the national
convention are selected by a system of
local caucuses and district and/or State
conventions.
A party’s voters gather in a closed meeting
in local caucuses, most often at the precinct
level. There they express a preference
among the contenders and select delegates
to a local or district convention, where
delegates to a State convention are elected.
At the State level, delegates to the national
convention are chosen.
the Iowa caucuses and the New
Hampshire primary
the national convention
(a) naming the party’s presidential and
vice-presidential candidates
(b) bring the various factions and the
leading personalities in the party together
in one place for a common purpose
(c) adopting the party’s platform
promote party unity, capture the attention
and interest of the country at large, and
generate support for the party’s ticket
(a) welcoming delegates, organizing the
convention, short speeches
(b) more speeches, adoption of the party’s
platform, keynote address
(c) nomination of the party’s vicepresidential candidate, acceptance speech
by the vice-presidential candidate,
nomination of the party’s presidential
candidate
(d) acceptance speech by the presidential
candidate
Most have substantial, well-known records
in public office; most have served in
elective offices; many have been governors;
most are Protestants; most have come
from the larger States (although television
and the Internet have made this less
important); most have a pleasant, healthy
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
appearance, seem to be happily married,
and have an attractive family; few have
been divorced; a well-developed speaking
ability and the ability to project well over
television are also very important.
19. (a) For the first time, both major parties
selected sitting members of the U.S. Senate
as their candidates.
(b) Hillary Clinton became the first
woman to be seriously considered as the
presidential candidate of a major party.
(c) Barack Obama became the first African
American presidential candidate of a
major party (and then the first African
American President).
(d) John McCain was the oldest major
party presidential candidate in history.
for a state convention where national
delegates are selected.
9. National conventions have three main
goals: (a) naming the party’s presidential
and vice presidential candidates,
(b) promoting party unity, and (c) adopting
the party’s platform.
10. (a) A keynote address is given early
in the convention. It sets the tone for
the convention and campaign to come.
(b) The acceptance speech is given at the
end of the convention by the presidential
candidate. This speech is meant to inspire
voters and gain support for the party and
upcoming presidential campaign.
11. Based on history, the most likely
candidates to be nominated are from large
states. They are often governors and are
usually Protestant. However, there is no
fixed profile for a presidential candidate.
For example, in the 2008 election Hillary
Clinton was the first woman to be
seriously considered for the presidential
nomination and Barack Obama broke the
racial barrier to the presidency.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The major political parties use a
national convention system to nominate
presidential candidates.
2. Any candidate who hopes to have a
chance at the party’s nomination must do
well in the primaries.
3. Primaries are difficult to describe because
each state has a different way to choose its
delegates.
4. Proportional representation is a way of
assigning delegates to the candidates in a
primary. It allows each candidate to have
a share of the delegates that is the same as
their share of the primary vote.
5. Primaries force candidates to test their
abilities by competing with each other.
In this way, less capable candidates are
eliminated.
6. (a) One idea for reforming the presidential
primaries is to do away with party
conventions in favor of one nationwide
primary. (b) Another idea is to have a
series of regional primaries held by groups
of states every two or three weeks.
7. Neither party has much interest in
reforming the primary process. They
think the national convention is a way to
promote party unity.
8. A caucus is a closed meeting of members
of a political party who gather to select
delegates. These meetings are held locally,
usually in a precinct. Delegates chosen by
a caucus go to a local convention. At the
local convention, delegates are selected
Core Worksheet A 3
Answers will vary by assigned State.
Core Worksheet B 3
Answers will vary, but possible responses are
shown below.
1. Obama: “come together as one American
family”; “we Democrats . . . measure
progress by. . . .”; “Change comes to
Washington. . . . because the American
people demand it.” McCain: “I work
for you.” “I fight for you.” “I fight to
restore the pride and principles of our
party.” “The party of Lincoln, [Theodore]
Roosevelt, and Reagan . . .” “we believe
in . . .” Note that in his speech, McCain
tries to distance himself from the current
unpopular Republican administration and
create his own brand as a “maverick.”
2. Obama: points to economic trouble and
war as failure of Republican rule; describes
a McCain presidency as an extension
of the Bush administration; points out
that more jobs were created under the
Democratic Clinton administration; “BushMcCain foreign policy…” McCain: states
that his opponent will raise taxes, close
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
3.
4.
5.
6.
CHAPTER 13 Section 5
markets, increase government spending,
cut jobs, reduce wages, force families into
government-run healthcare, force schools
to answer to unions and bureaucracies.
Opinions will vary, but students should
explain their answers.
Obama: tax changes to create domestic
jobs; eliminate capital gains taxes for
small businesses and start-ups; cut taxes
for 95% of working families; invest in
clean coal and safer nuclear power; invest
in renewable energy; education for all;
accessible healthcare; change bankruptcy
laws; protect Social Security. McCain: cut
taxes; open new markets; cut government
spending; create jobs; accessible health
insurance; help displaced workers find
jobs; keep government out of schools;
reduce foreign aid; offshore drilling; more
nuclear power plants; encourage use of
alternative fuels for automobiles.
Opinions will vary, but students should
explain their answers.
Opinions will vary, but students should
explain their answers.
Reading Comprehension 3
1. swing voters, the roughly one-third of the
electorate who have not made up their
mind at the start of the campaign
2. Battleground States are those States in
which the outcome is “too close to call”
and either candidate could win. Both
campaigns tend to concentrate their efforts
in those States.
3. presidential electors
4. The Framers expected the electors to
use their own judgment in selecting a
President. But today, the electors are really
just “rubber stamps,” who are expected
to vote automatically for their party’s
candidates.
5. The electors are chosen by popular vote in
every State, on the Tuesday after the first
Monday in November every fourth year.
6. The electors cast their votes at their State
capital on the Monday after the second
Wednesday in December.
7. They are sent by registered mail to the
president of the Senate in Washington.
8. on January 6
9. The President of the Senate opens the
electoral votes from each State and counts
them before a joint session of Congress.
The candidate with a majority of the
electors’ votes is declared elected.
10. The election is thrown to the House of
Representatives, which chooses a President
from among the top three candidates in the
electoral college. Each State delegation has
one vote, and it takes a majority of 26 to
elect.
11. The Senate decides between the top two
candidates. It takes a majority of the whole
Senate to elect.
12. the Speaker of the House
13. (a) The winner of the popular vote is not
guaranteed the presidency.
(b) The electors are not required to vote in
accord with the popular vote.
(c) Any election might be decided by the
House of Representatives.
14. (a) the winner-take-all feature of the
electoral college system
(b) the way the electoral votes are
distributed among the States, which means
that the allotment of electoral votes does
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. f
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. b
9. d
10. c
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. e
5. f
6. c
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. c
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
not match the facts of population and voter
distribution
15. (a) Voting is by States, not by individual
members, so States with small populations
have as much weight as the most populous
States.
(b) If the representatives from a State are so
divided that no candidate is favored by a
majority, that State loses its vote.
(c) Because a majority of the States is
required for election, there is a real
possibility that the House could not make
a decision by Inauguration Day.
16. District plan: Each State would choose
two electors at large, who would cast
their votes in line with the popular vote
Statewide. The State’s other electors would
be elected, separately, in each of the State’s
congressional districts. Their votes would
be cast in accord with the popular vote in
their district; no
Proportional plan: Each presidential
candidate would receive a share of each
State’s electoral vote equal to his or her
share of that State’s popular vote; no
Direct popular election: Would abolish
the electoral college system and allow
voters in all 50 States and the District of
Columbia to actually choose the President
and Vice President. Each vote would count
equally in the national result, and the
winner would always be the majority or
plurality choice; yes
National popular vote plan: Each State’s
lawmaking body would (1) amend State
election laws to provide that all of a State’s
electoral votes are to be awarded to the
winner of the national popular vote and
(2) enter into an interstate compact, the
Agreement Among the States to Elect the
President by National Popular Vote; no
17. Any three of the following: Smaller States
would lose their advantage under direct
election and would likely kill a direct
election amendment; direct election would
weaken the federal system, because the
States would lose their role in the choice of
a President; direct election would put too
great a load on the election process, because
candidates would have to campaign
strenuously everywhere; direct election
would spur various forms of election fraud,
leading to lengthy post-election challenges;
key groups in certain States would not have
the critical power they now enjoy, and so
would oppose direct election.
18. (a) It is a known process.
(b) It normally identifies the President-tobe quickly and certainly.
(c) Although it presents an enormous
obstacle to minor-party candidates, it helps
promote the two-party system.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) swing voters: Before a presidential
election, about one third of voters are
undecided. Presidential candidates work
hard to get their support. (b) battleground
states: Either candidate could win a
battleground state. Candidates campaign
hard in these states to gain the advantage.
2. The Framers expected presidential electors
to vote for whichever candidate they
believed was most qualified. Instead, electors
today are expected to vote for their party’s
candidates for President and Vice President.
3. Electors are chosen by popular vote in a
winner-take-all system.
4. (a) The winner of the popular vote may not
win the presidency. (b) The Constitution
does not require the electors to vote for
the candidate who wins the popular vote.
(c) If neither candidate wins a majority in
the electoral college, the election would
have to be decided in the House of
Representatives.
5. (a) national popular vote plan, (b) direct
popular election, (c) proportional plan,
(d) district plan
6. (a) The electoral college system is a known
process, (b) it identifies the President
quickly and certainly, (c) and it helps
promote the nation’s two-party system.
Core Worksheet A 3
1. California; 55 electoral votes
2. Alaska, Delaware, District of Columbia,
Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota,
Vermont, Wyoming
3. Students should give the correct number
for their State.
4. 11 States; California (55) + Texas (34) +
New York (31) + Florida (27) + Illinois
(21) + Pennsylvania (21) + Ohio (20) +
Michigan (17) + Georgia (15) + New Jersey
(15) + North Carolina (15) = 271
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
5. Possible response: Yes. States with larger
populations have more electoral votes,
which is fair. At the same time, small States
are given slightly more voting power
than population would dictate, which is
consistent with the principle of federalism.
This is a good compromise. It mostly
expresses the will of the majority, while
preserving some balance of power among
States of different sizes.
Advantages: Would do a better job of
weighing popular votes equally than the
current system or the district plan; would not
require a constitutional amendment to become
effective.
Disadvantages: Smaller States would still be
over-represented because of their two Senatebased electors, so the loser of the popular
vote could still win; the election would often
be thrown into the House; it is an unknown
process and might have hidden defects that
could not be known until they appeared in
practice.
Direct Popular Election
Brief Description: Would abolish, not simply
reform, the electoral college system; voters
in all 50 States and the District of Columbia
would actually choose the President and Vice
President. Each vote would count equally
in the national result, and the winner would
always be the majority or plurality choice.
Advantages: Would ensure that the winner
of the national popular vote would win the
presidency; would uphold the democratic
value of equality.
Disadvantages: The Constitution would have
to be amended to accomplish this; smaller
States would likely oppose it; key groups in
some States would lose the power they now
enjoy and would oppose it; could weaken the
federal system; might put too great a load on
the election process because candidates would
have to campaign strenuously everywhere;
might spur various forms of voter fraud and
lead to lengthy post-election challenges; it is
untried and might have hidden defects that
could not be known until they appeared in
practice.
National Popular Vote
Brief Description: Each State’s lawmaking
body would (1) amend State election laws to
provide that all of a State’s electoral votes are
to be awarded to the winner of the national
popular vote and (2) enter into an interstate
compact, the Agreement Among the States
to Elect the President by National Popular
Vote. That compact, and with it each State’s
election law changes, would come into force
only if and when agreed to by enough States
to account for a majority of the 538 electoral
votes.
Advantages: Appears to satisfy the major
objections to the current electoral college
Core Worksheet B 3
Current Electoral College
Brief Description: Each State has as many
electors as it has members of Congress. The
electors are chosen by popular vote in each
State, and in every State except Maine and
Nebraska, they are chosen at-large, or on a
winner-take-all basis.
Advantages: It is a known process; in most
elections, it identifies the President-to-be
quickly and certainly; it helps promote the
two-party system; it forces candidates to
campaign in the smaller competitive States.
Disadvantages: The winner of the popular
vote is not guaranteed the presidency; electors
are not required to vote in accord with the
popular vote; any election might be decided in
the House of Representatives.
District Plan
Brief Description: Each State would choose
two electors at large, who would cast their
votes in line with the popular vote Statewide.
The State’s other electors would be elected,
separately, in each of the State’s congressional
districts. Their votes would be cast in accord
with the popular vote in their district.
Advantages: Would bring election results
more in line with the popular vote than
the current system; would not require a
constitutional amendment to become effective.
Disadvantages: It prevents the weighing of
all votes equally because every State has two
electoral votes, no matter what its population;
it is an unknown process and might have
hidden defects that could not be known until
they appeared in practice.
Proportional Plan
Brief Description: Each candidate would
receive a share of each State’s electoral vote
equal to his or her share of that State’s popular
vote.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
system and does so without the need to
amend the Constitution; four States have
already signed the legislation into law; has the
support of several nonpartisan groups and
several major newspapers around the country.
Disadvantages: Would have the same
disadvantages as direct popular election,
except that the Constitution would not need to
be amended.
Answers to the question will vary, but
students’ opinions should relate to the
advantages and disadvantages they have
identified in the chart. (For example: “We
think that direct popular election would be
the best method of selecting the President
because it upholds the core democratic value
of equality.”)
to the junk pile, he would be saying it is
completely without value.
3. (a) The machine is a comical contraption
consisting of part of a locomotive,
umbrellas, a weathervane, and other
mechanical parts that don’t seem to do
anything productive. (b) The machine
seems to say that the electoral college is
like the contraption; that is, it is poorly
put together and doesn’t work. (c) The
cartoonist seems to recommend that the
electoral college system be closely studied
and overhauled or done away with in
favor of a new system.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. f
6. d
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. b
10. d
Skills Worksheet 3
1. The person in the tall hat represents the
United States (Uncle Sam); the machine he
is pushing represents the electoral college
system.
2. Both antiques and junk are old, but an
antique is something that has value and
is still worth keeping; a piece of junk
has no value at all. The person in the
cartoon is trying to decide where to take
the “electoral college machine”—to the
antique store or the junkyard. The main
point of the cartoon is that the electoral
college system has problems—it is either
antiquated or it is outright junk—and
Americans need to decide whether to keep
it or eliminate it entirely.
3. The “electoral college” machine is drawn as
a ridiculous-looking, ungainly contraption.
This suggests that the cartoonist believes
the electoral college is a preposterous,
outdated system that should be discarded.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. f
6. d
Main Ideas
7. a
8. c
9. b
10. a
Skill Activity 2
1. (a) Uncle Sam represents the United States.
(b) The machine represents the electoral
college system.
2. (a) Uncle Sam can steer the electoral
college to a junkyard or an antique store.
(b) Both options illustrate the artist’s
opinion that the electoral college is no
longer useful. An item in an antique store
could be useful to some degree, though
presumably out of date. If Uncle Sam
chooses to relegate the electoral college
CHAPTER 13
Test A
Key Terms
1. i
2. a
3. h
4. c
5. b
6. g
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
7. d
8. f
9. j
10. e
Main Ideas
11. c
12. a
13. d
14. a
15. c
16. b
17. a
18. a
19. b
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. Possible response: The only
constitutionally mandated duties of the
Vice President are to preside over the
Senate and to help decide the question of
presidential disability. Historically, the vice
presidency has been treated as an office of
little real consequence. Even an individual
of great personal talent has often been
unable to use that talent in the capacity of
Vice President.
Critical Thinking
22. Students may say that the last several
Presidents have made much greater use
of their Vice Presidents. The office has,
in effect, been reinvented. Recent Vice
Presidents such as Dick Cheney and Joe
Biden have become trusted advisors who
work closely with their Presidents to help
shape policy. This is a departure from the
“traditional” role of the Vice President.
Essay
23. Sample response: The Framers originally
devised a system that they hoped would
allow presidential electors to freely
choose the “wisest and best” person
to be President. However, the rise of
political parties in the early 1800s quickly
exposed flaws in this system as political
parties began to form and nominate
their own candidates for President.
They also nominated electors with the
understanding that those electors would
no longer vote “freely” but would instead
vote for their party’s nominees—not
necessarily the “best and wisest” people
available. The linking of nomination with
party identification continues to this day.
Today’s presidential primary system
plays the major part in deciding the
presidential nominating contests. The
primary system is a great improvement
over the closed, unrepresentative
congressional caucus system and the
boss-dominated conventions formerly
used by the major parties. Nevertheless,
these primaries place huge demands on
potential candidates in terms of time,
effort, money, scheduling, and fatigue.
Name recognition can be a huge factor—as
is the ability to raise large sums of money.
Often, individuals are unable to compete
for their party’s nomination simply
because of a lack of funds. Few would
argue that a candidate’s fund-raising
ability necessarily makes him or her the
“best” or most qualified candidate.
Still, if the current process does not
always result in the absolute “best”
candidates, it does tend to democratize the
nomination process and force would-be
nominees to test their candidacies in actual
political combat. Thus, lesser nominees
are screened out so that only the strongest
candidates are left in the running for the
nomination.
Test B
Key Terms
1. j
2. i
3. h
4. b
5. a
6. e
7. c
8. f
9. d
10. g
Main Ideas
11. c
12. d
13. c
14. c
15. b
16. b
17. d
18. a
19. d
20. b
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Primaries place huge demands on
potential candidates in terms of time,
effort, money, scheduling, and fatigue.
Name recognition can be a huge factor—as
is the ability to raise large sums of money.
It does not follow that a candidate’s
fundraising ability necessarily makes
him or her the “best” or most qualified
candidate.
For these reasons, the current primary
process may not always result in the
best candidates for President and Vice
President. However, it does force would-be
nominees to test their candidacies in actual
political combat. Some are necessarily
screened out so that only the strongest
candidates are left in the running for the
nomination.
Document-Based Question
21. Possible response: (a) The author does
not believe a person can accomplish
great things as Vice President, because
he is convinced that the office itself is
unimportant. (b) Some have a low opinion
of the vice presidency because the Vice
President is chosen to balance the ticket, or
attract voters, rather than because of his or
her qualifications. Also, the possibility of
succession to the presidency is not usually
considered by a political party in its choice
of Vice President.
Critical Thinking
22. (a) The Vice President has only two formal
duties according to the Constitution: to
preside over the Senate and to help decide
if the President is disabled. (b) The vice
presidency is a very important office. The
vice president is “only a heartbeat away”
from the presidency. In recent years, Vice
Presidents such as Dick Cheney and Joe
Biden, with their extensive foreign policy
experience and influence, have shown the
importance of the office.
Essay
23. Possible response: The Framers of the
Constitution created a system that allowed
presidential electors to freely choose
the best person for President. They did
not anticipate the influence of political
parties. By the election of 1800, political
parties nominated the presidential and
vice presidential candidates and electors
pledged their votes based on party. This
link between nomination and party
continues to this day. It is possible that if
the system operated today as the Framers
originally intended it would help to ensure
that the best candidate is elected regardless
of his or her political affiliation.
Today’s presidential primary system,
a key part of the selection process, is
confusing. Because of this fact, relatively
few people participate in primaries.
This lack of participation weakens the
presidential selection process as a whole.
To simplify the process, some people have
suggested one nationwide primary be held
for each political party. Others suggest a
series of regional primaries. It is possible
that one of these changes could encourage
more voters to participate.
CHAPTER 14
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. a person who commands, or a leader
2. the result of discussions or
negotiations between groups
3. ordinance; Possible sentence: The
power to issue executive orders comes
from the ordinance power.
4. appoint; Possible sentence: The President
will appoint an ambassador to Spain.
5. oath; Possible sentence: The witness had to
take an oath before testifying.
6. recognize; Possible sentence: The U.S.
recognizes some countries with which it
has serious disagreements.
7. veto; Possible sentence: The President used
his veto to stop the bill.
Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: The Growth of Presidential
Power
A. Article II of the Constitution
office of President
B. Growth of Presidential Power
1. health, education, and welfare
2. war, power
C. The Presidential View
1. expanded
2. Constitution
II. Section 2: The Executive Powers
A. The Power to Execute the Law
carries out; interpret
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
B. The Ordinance Power
executive order
C. The Appointment Power
appoint
D. The Removal Power
1. appointed
2. Johnson, Wilson
E. Executive Privilege
executive privilege, private
III. Section 3: Diplomatic and Military Powers
A. Power to Make Treaties
1. diplomat, treaties
2. Senate, two-thirds
B. Executive Agreements
Congress
C. Power of Recognition
1. recognition
2. ambassador
D. Commander in Chief
military forces
IV. Section 4: Legislative and Judicial Powers
A. Chief Legislator
1. bills, vetoed
2. State of the Union address
3. pocket veto
B. Judicial Powers
1. pardon
2. reprieves, pardons, clemency
3. amnesty
5.
6.
7.
8.
unique position from which the President
can attract and hold the public’s attention
No, the Constitution places restraints
on the President’s power, including the
Supreme Court’s right to rule on the
constitutionality of presidential actions.
The stewardship theory of the presidency
says that the President is a steward of the
people and should do everything he or she
can for the people, even if not specifically
authorized to do so.
Roosevelt believed in the stewardship
theory of the presidency, while Taft did
not. Taft felt that the President should
not exercise any power that could not be
traced to a specific grant of power.
An “imperial presidency” is looked upon
by critics as a too-powerful President
running the government like an emperor
without consulting Congress or seeking its
approval, in effect, making the President
unaccountable to Americans.
Reading Comprehension 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
CHAPTER 14 Section 1
5.
Reading Comprehension 3
1. the Executive Article
2. the power to command the armed forces,
to make treaties, to approve or veto acts of
Congress, to send and receive diplomatic
representatives, and to make sure that the
laws are faithfully executed
3. a stronger, independent presidency
4. Any five of the following: the unity of
the presidency; the nation’s increasingly
complex social and economic life; the need
for immediate and decisive action in times
of crisis; the need for the executive branch
to flesh out the laws that Congress has
passed; the ways many Presidents have
played their roles as chief legislator, party
leader, and chief citizen; the huge amount
of staff at a President’s disposal; the
6.
7.
8.
the office of the President
to see that laws are carried out
executive branch
because it describes the President’s power
in broad terms and because over the years
different meanings have been given to
some of the powers
areas could include health, education,
welfare, the economy, or during times of
war
Answers could include President’s
Truman’s decision to drop the atomic
bomb in 1945; President Clinton sending
troops to Haiti; three Presidents sending
troops to Vietnam; President Franklin
Roosevelt creating programs for new jobs
Answers could include President Truman
attempting to keep the steel mills from
shutting down; President Bush attempting
to set up military tribunals to try people
captured in the war against terrorism; or
President Nixon attempting to keep tape
recordings of his conversations secret.
President Taft felt that the President
should not exercise any power that could
not be traced to the Constitution or an act
of Congress.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Core Worksheet 3
Upon taking office, the new President immediately
replaces all Cabinet members with members
of his own political party. Power to make
appointments. Within bounds: President may
appoint whomever he or she wants in the
executive branch.
Answers will vary. Those provided below are
samples.
Civil war breaks out in a small South American
country and the American-supported government
is overthrown. Without the consent of Congress,
the President sends U.S. troops to the country’s
aid. Power to serve as commander in chief.
Within bounds: Power is specifically granted;
crisis required quick action. Exceeds: This
power does not give the President the right to
interfere in affairs of other nations.
In response to a Supreme Court ruling he opposes,
the President says, “[Chief Justice] John Marshall
has made his decision: now let him enforce it!”
Obligation to “faithfully execute” the laws.
Exceeds: President must execute all laws, not
just those he likes.
Because of a dispute over riders on the bill,
Congress adjourns without authorizing funds
to support the army. As a result, soldiers are not
paid. The President calls a special session to urge
Congress to pass the bill. Power to call a special
session. Within bounds: Paying soldiers is too
important to wait until the next session; as
commander in chief, the President should look
out for the interests of the military. Exceeds:
This is a legislative, not an executive, matter.
1. power as commander in chief and power
to make treaties
2. power to call a special session; Congress
meets nearly continuously now, so there is
little need to call a special session.
3. Students might suggest that the President’s
power as commander in chief is the most
influential, because the President can use it
to involve the nation in armed conflict. The
power to make treaties is also far-reaching,
since it involves other nations. Students
might suggest that the least influential
powers are those with a narrow focus,
such as the power to call special sessions
or grant pardons.
The President’s closest aides are indicted for a
crime. As investigations begin to implicate the
President himself, he resigns to avoid impeachment.
The Vice President, upon assuming the presidency,
pardons the former President. Power to grant
pardons except in cases of impeachment.
Within bounds: Former President was not
impeached; publicity would prevent a fair
trial; nation needed to heal. Exceeds: President
resigned to avoid impeachment; he should
face charges like any other citizen.
Core Worksheet 2
power to command the armed forces
power to grant pardons
power to make treaties
power to make appointments
power to make recess appointments
power to call special sessions
power to adjourn Congress
power to execute the law
power to make appointments
Strong opposition to the President’s nominee
for ambassador holds up a confirmation vote
for months. Frustrated with the delay, the
President uses the Senate recess to appoint the
person without Senate confirmation. Power to
make recess appointments. Within bounds:
Constitution grants this power specifically;
President needed to fill an important post.
Exceeds: Power was used in this case to get
around the confirmation process, which is part
of checks and balances.
Civil war breaks out in a small South American
country. The President sends troops to the country.
He does not have the Senate’s approval. Power to
serve as commander in chief. Within limits:
Power is specifically granted; crisis required
quick action. Goes beyond: This power does
not give the President the right to interfere in
affairs of other nations.
The President negotiates a treaty that dissolves
tariffs between the United States and two other
nations. Power to make treaties. Within
bounds: Power is expressly given.
Congress adjourns. It has not passed a bill to pay
soldiers in the army. The President calls a special
session to try to get the bill passed. Power to call a
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
special session. Within limits: Paying soldiers
is too important to wait until the next session;
as commander in chief, the President should
look out for the interests of the military. Goes
beyond: This is a legislative, not an executive,
matter.
to involve the nation in armed conflict. The
power to make treaties is also far-reaching,
since it involves other nations. Students
might suggest that the least influential
powers are those with a narrow focus,
such as the power to call special sessions
or grant pardons.
The President resigns before he can be impeached.
The Vice President then becomes President. He
pardons the former President. Power to grant
pardons except in cases of impeachment.
Within limits: Former President was not
impeached; publicity would prevent a fair
trial; nation needed to heal. Goes beyond:
President resigned to avoid impeachment; he
should face charges like any other citizen.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1 b
2. d
3. a
4. e
5. f
6. c
Main Ideas
7. c
8. c
9. a
10. d
The President chooses an ambassador, but the
Senate opposes his choice. The President appoints
the ambassador during a Senate recess. Power
to make recess appointments. Within limits:
Constitution grants this power specifically;
President needed to fill an important post.
Goes beyond: Power was used in this case to
get around the confirmation process, which is
part of checks and balances.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. d
2. f
3. e
4. a
5. b
6. c
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. d
The President negotiates a treaty. The treaty will
end tariffs between the United States and two other
nations. Power to make treaties. Within limits:
Power is expressly given.
A new President takes office. He fills his Cabinet
with members of his own political party. Power to
make appointments. Within limits: President
may appoint whomever he or she wants in the
executive branch.
CHAPTER 14 Section 2
The President disagrees with a Supreme Court
ruling. He says, “[Chief Justice] John Marshall
has made his decision: now let him enforce it!”
Obligation to “faithfully execute” the laws.
Goes beyond: President must execute all laws,
not just those he likes.
Reading Comprehension 3
1. to enforce, administer, and carry out the
law
2. the oath of office in Article II, Section 1,
and the “take care” provision in Article II,
Section 3
3. By executing and enforcing the law, the
executive branch also interprets it.
4. An executive order is a directive, rule, or
regulation issued by the President that has
the effect of law.
5. the Constitution, which implies that
the President has ordinance power, and
Congress itself, which has delegated to the
President and presidential subordinates
1. power as commander in chief and power
to make treaties
2. power to call a special session; Congress
meets nearly continuously now, so there is
little need to call a special session.
3. Students might suggest that the President’s
power as commander in chief is the most
influential, because the President can use it
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
believe should not be made public, within
certain bounds set by the Supreme Court.
the power to spell out the policies and
programs it has approved
ambassadors and other diplomats; Cabinet
members and their top aides; the heads of
independent agencies; all federal judges,
U.S. marshals, and attorneys; and all
officers in the armed forces
the Senate
The Constitution allows the President
to make appointments to fill vacancies
during recesses of the Senate, so it
is possible for the President to make
appointments during those recesses that
are not confirmed by the Senate.
In Myers v. United States, the Supreme
Court held that the removal power was
an essential part of the President’s power,
because it was necessary to faithfully
execute the laws.
It recognized the existence of, and need for,
executive privilege, but it also said that the
privilege was limited to matters involving
national security and could not be used
to prevent evidence from being heard in a
criminal proceeding.
Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. two goals: (a) the immediate desegregation
of the armed services and (b) the creation
of an advisory committee to determine
needed changes in the rules, procedures,
and practices of the armed forces to carry
out this new policy
2. the ordinance power, or the presidential
power to issue executive orders
Core Worksheet 3
William Rehnquist, the Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court, passes away after a long illness.
Appointment power. President’s staff
conducts a search; President nominates a
candidate and sends name to Senate for
confirmation.
The President decides to remove the chair of the
Federal Trade Commission, who publicly opposes
the President’s policies. No executive power.
No next steps; President may not remove
a member of an independent regulatory
commission.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. to carry out the law
2. that the President must make sure all
federal laws are followed even if the
President does not agree with the law
3. the President’s power to issue orders or
allow other members of the executive
department to issue orders
4. the Constitution and acts of Congress
5. ambassadors, Cabinet members, the heads
of independent agencies, federal judges,
U.S. marshals, attorneys, and other topranking officers.
6. the Senate
7. The act was passed to try to to prevent a
President from removing a person holding
office by presidential appointment until
the Senate voted to confirm a replacement.
The President vetoed the bill but his veto
was overridden. In the end, President
Johnson fired several officers, and
Congress voted to impeach him. Johnson
was not impeached and the law was finally
repealed in 1887.
8. “Executive privilege” is the right of the
President and the executive department
to keep private any information that they
During World War II, the United States needs to
ration gasoline to make more available to the armed
forces. Ordinance power. President issues
executive order to implement rationing.
The President wants to appoint a federal
district judge in California. Appointment
power. President asks local senators for
recommendations; President nominates
one; sends name to Senate for confirmation
process.
Congress passes a law regarding immigration.
Power to execute laws. President and
executive staff work out details for
implementing law.
1. Top appointments require Senate approval;
President may not remove members of
an independent regulatory commission;
President must execute all laws, not just
those that conform to his or her views.
2. Students might suggest that the President
can appoint to influential positions
people who share his or her views. These
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
appointees can then make decisions and
take actions that further the President’s
agenda.
3.
Extend Worksheet 3
Answers will vary depending upon
the position selected. Answers to the
Reflection Questions should demonstrate an
understanding of the confirmation process
and the challenges of the confirmation process.
4.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. f
4. a
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. a
8. d
9. b
10. d
5.
6.
7.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. e
4. a
5. d
6. c
Main Ideas
7. a
8. d
9. c
10. a
(c) ratified by the President by the
exchange of formal notifications with the
other party or parties to the agreement
Since treaties require a two-thirds vote of
the Senate while joint resolutions require
only a majority vote in each house, the
President may seek a joint resolution if a
treaty fails in the Senate.
Require Senate approval? Treaties: yes;
Executive Agreements: no
Supersede federal law? Treaties: yes;
Executive Agreements: no
Binding on the U.S.? Treaties: yes;
Executive Agreements: yes
Permanent part of American law?
Treaties: yes; Executive Agreements: no
The President is exercising the power of
recognition, which means that the United
States acknowledges the existence of that
country and its government.
by enacting joint resolutions authorizing
the President to use military force
(1) if Congress has declared war; (2) if
Congress has specifically authorized that
action; or (3) when an attack on the United
States or any of its armed forces has
occurred
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The President deals with heads of foreign
governments and helps prepare treaties.
The President attends summit meetings
with heads of other governments and
suggests peace agreements.
2. (a) negotiated by the President, usually
acting through the secretary of state
(b) require approval by a two-thirds vote
of the Senate
(c) ratified by the President
3. Treaties
Require Senate approval? Yes
Binding on the U.S.? Yes
Permanent part of American law? Yes
Executive Agreements
Require Senate approval? No
Binding on the U.S.? Yes
Permanent part of American law? No
4. The President is exercising the power of
recognition, which means that the United
States accepts the country as a nation.
5. If a serious problem occurs with a foreign
country, the President may ask that the
CHAPTER 14 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Although the Constitution does not
actually say that the President is the chief
diplomat, it does make the President the
commander in chief of the armed forces.
This role and the other presidential powers
have made the President the country’s
chief diplomat.
2. (a) negotiated by the President, usually
acting through the secretary of state
(b) require approval by a two-thirds vote
of the Senate before they become effective
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
country’s ambassador return to his or her
country.
6. the President commands the country’s
military forces and can send them
anywhere in the world
7. The President must report to Congress
within 48 hours after sending troops
abroad and the troops may remain for
no longer than 60 days, unless Congress
approves a longer time.
Afghanistan, and Iraq. Congress can pass law,
such as the War Powers Resolution, limiting
the President’s power; courts may rule on
constitutionality.
Congressional resolutions: Joint resolutions of
Congress authorizing use of military force,
enacted at request of President; require only
a majority vote of each house. Examples:
Resolution authorizing President Eisenhower
to send warships to defuse tensions between
Taiwan and People’s Republic of China;
resolution authorizing Operation Iraqi
Freedom. Congress may vote down requested
joint resolution.
Core Worksheet 3
Diplomatic Power:
Treaties: Formal agreements between two
sovereign states; President negotiates through
secretary of state; once Senate approves and
President ratifies, treaties become permanent
part of U.S. law. Example: Treaty of Versailles,
which the Senate never approved. Approval
requires 2/3 vote of Senate; Congress may
abrogate a treaty by passing a law contrary
to its provisions; courts may rule on
constitutionality of treaties.
Deployment: Presidents have sent troops as
show of force, as international peacekeepers,
and as part of undeclared wars; few limits
exist on President’s power as commander
in chief. Examples: Theodore Roosevelt sent
Great White Fleet to intimidate; Bill Clinton
sent troops to Kosovo to help end civil war
there; Harry Truman sent troops to Korea to
fight an undeclared war. Congress may pass
laws to limit power; War Powers Resolution
requires congressional authorization or
declaration of war to deploy troops unless
United States attacked—in which case
Congress must authorize deployment of
longer than 60 days.
Executive agreements: Pacts between President
and heads of foreign states; do not require
Senate approval; do not supersede federal
or State laws, but are otherwise binding;
not permanent part of U.S. law. Example:
Destroyers-for-bases agreement of 1940, that
gave Britain naval vessels in exchange for
99-year leases on several air and naval bases.
Executive agreements do not supersede
laws passed by Congress; courts can rule on
constitutionality of agreements.
Skills Worksheet 3
1. possible answers: uneven distribution
of income; consumer debt; declining
farm prices; lending to other countries;
speculation in stocks
2. Answers will vary, but students should
outline three strategies as well as the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
3. Answers will vary. Students should choose
one of the strategies identified in the
previous question and explain why they
think it would be the most effective in
reducing unemployment.
4. (a) benefits: would enhance the value of
the nation’s natural resources and would
relieve distress by providing employment;
drawbacks: required feeding, clothing
and caring for nearly twice as many
men as were in the regular army (b) by
economic indicators, such as the number of
employed and unemployed people
Recognition: Acknowledges legal existence of
a nation or its government by receiving its
diplomats; does not mean approval of that
government’s conduct; President may recall
U.S. diplomats or expel foreign diplomat
as persona non grata. Example: The United
States recognizes most nations, including the
People’s Republic of China; United States
recalled its diplomats from Cuba when Castro
took control. No legislative or judicial check.
Military Power:
Undeclared war: Deployment of troops without
congressional declaration of war; unclear
whether Constitution gives President this
power, but many Presidents have used it.
Examples: Conflicts in Korea, Vietnam,
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 14 Section 4
Skill Activity 2
1. consumers, businesses, farmers, financial
sector, homeowners
2. Answers will vary, but students should
outline two strategies as well as the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
3. Answers will vary. Students should choose
one of the strategies identified in the
previous question and explain why they
think it would be the most effective in
reducing unemployment.
4. (a) benefits: would enhance the value of
the nation’s natural resources and would
relieve distress by providing employment;
drawbacks: required feeding, clothing
and caring for nearly twice as many
men as were in the regular army (b) by
economic indicators, such as the number
of employed and unemployed people
Reading Comprehension 3
1. They make it possible for the President
to check the actions of Congress and the
federal courts.
2. the State of the Union message, the
President’s budget message, and the
annual Economic Report
3. sign the bill, making it law; veto the bill,
returning it to Congress; allow a bill to
become law by not acting on it within ten
days; or, if Congress adjourns within ten
days of sending the bill, the President may
let the measure die by not acting on it (the
pocket veto).
4. It takes a two-thirds vote in both houses
to override a veto, which Congress can
seldom muster, so even the threat of a veto
may defeat a bill or cause Congress to
change provisions of the bill.
5. Signing statements are statements issued
by Presidents as they approve some
measures. They have been used to point
out constitutional or other problems that
Presidents have seen in newly enacted
laws or to direct the manner in which new
laws are to be enforced.
6. Potential benefit: The line-item veto
could be used to reduce wasteful and
unnecessary federal spending. Potential
drawback: The line-item veto would shift
more power to the executive branch.
7. Because Congress is now in session
through most of the year, special sessions
are generally unnecessary.
8. Reprieve: postponement of the execution
of a sentence
Pardon: legal forgiveness of a crime
Commutation: reducing a fine or the
length of a sentence imposed by a court
Amnesty: a blanket pardon offered to a
group of law violators
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. f
2. a
3. d
4. e
5. b
6. c
Main Ideas
7. a
8. d
9. d
10. b
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. f
2. c
3. e
4. b
5. d
6. a
Main Ideas
7. a
8. d
9. d
10. c
Reading Comprehension 2
1. By using them, the President can check the
actions of Congress and the federal courts.
2. (a) the State of the Union message, (b) the
President’s budget, and (c) the annual
Economic Report
3. (a) sign the bill, making it law; (b) veto
the bill, returning it to Congress; (c) allow
a bill to become law by not acting on it
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
within 10 days; (d) exercise a pocket veto
by not acting on a bill within 10 days after
Congress adjourns
4. Benefit: The line-item veto could cut down
on federal spending. Drawback: The lineitem veto would give too much power to
the executive branch.
5. Reprieve: delay in the carrying out of a
sentence
Pardon: legal forgiveness of a crime
Amnesty: a pardon offered to a large
group of people
5. f
6. a
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. d
Landmark Decisions of the Supreme
Court 3, 4
Students’ answers should indicate thoughtful
consideration of the issues and logical
reasoning in their decisions.
Core Worksheet 3
Landmark Decisions of the Supreme
Court 2
1. He pardoned men who had either not
registered or those who had gone abroad
to avoid the draft.
2. He did not pardon deserters who served
in the war but left before their tour of duty
was completed. He also did not pardon
soldiers who received a less-than-honorable
discharge, civilian protesters, selective
service employees, or persons who had
committed violent acts against the draft.
3. Possible answers: No—Draft dodgers
broke the law. It isn’t fair to allow evaders
to go unpunished when others fought
and died for their country. Yes—Many
patriotic Americans disagreed with U.S.
involvement in this war. The pardon was
designed to help the nation heal from the
turmoil of the Vietnam era.
Time line:
1. The burglars were members of President
Nixon’s re-election campaign and they
broke into the DNC headquarters.
2. because it was clear that the burglars were
looking for information to help President
Nixon win re-election.
3. They were told to keep secret Nixon’s
involvement in the crime.
4. with outrage over the abuse of power
5. They found that Nixon had paid the burglars
to gain their secrecy and that Nixon had tape
recordings of White House meetings.
6. No; because the tapes were incomplete or
missing, which suggested that Nixon was
still hiding information.
7. He resigned from office.
8. Possible answer: If President Nixon had
claimed, and proven, national security needs,
the outcome might have been different,
as the Court recognized the legitimacy of
executive privilege in matters involving
national security. However, the Court would
have had to weigh national security needs
against the 5th and 6th Amendment rights of
those facing criminal prosecution.
9. Executive privilege can be legitimately
claimed in military and diplomatic matters
when disclosure could endanger national
policies, offend a foreign nation, or risk
revealing national secrets.
10. Students’ paragraphs will vary depending
on the example they choose and the
position they take on the use of executive
privilege. They should support their
arguments by citing United States v. Nixon
or other cases.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. f
4. d
5. b
6. a
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. d
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. d
2. b
3. e
4. c
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 14
Essay
23. Answers will vary. Students should
understand that the President needs to be
powerful enough to take immediate and
decisive action in times of crisis, but they
should also recognize that limits on the
President’s powers are necessary to keep
the President from becoming a tyrant who
is unaccountable to the American people.
Test A
Key Terms
1. d
2. g
3. e
4. f
5. c
6. j
7. a
8. b
9. i
10. h
Main Ideas
11. b
12. c
13. b
14. a
15. b
16. c
17. b
18. d
19. b
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. Possible answer: Johnson meant that
the President of the United States has
powers that no other person has. These
powers make him or her “bigger,” or more
powerful, than he or she would otherwise
be. However, these powers also create
demands that are more than any one
person can handle. The executive branch
has grown larger to help the President
meet these demands.
Critical Thinking
22. Students should note that the War
Powers Resolution lists the circumstances
under which the President may commit
American military forces to combat. These
include: (1) when Congress has declared
war; (2) when Congress has authorized
the action; and (3) when an attack on
the United States or any of its armed
forces has occurred. Even under the third
circumstance, the President may commit
American forces for no more than 60 days
without congressional approval. These
restrictions limit the President’s power as
commander in chief—a role given to him
or her by the Constitution.
Test B
Key Terms
1. b
2. j
3. d
4. f
5. c
6. i
7. a
8. g
9. e
10. h
Multiple Choice
11. b
12. c
13. b
14. a
15. b
16. c
17. b
18. d
19. b
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. Johnson meant that the President of the
United States has powers that no other
person has. These powers make him (or
her) “bigger,” or more powerful, than he
or she would otherwise be. However, these
powers also create demands that are more
than any one person can handle.
Critical Thinking
22. The President must report to Congress
in writing within 48 hours after sending
troops to a foreign country. The troops can
only stay in a foreign country for 60 days
without the approval of Congress.
Essay
23. Answers will vary. Students should
understand that the President needs to be
powerful enough to take immediate and
decisive action in times of crisis. Students
should also recognize that limits on the
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Unit 4 Answer Key (continued)
President’s powers are necessary to keep
the President from becoming a tyrant who
is unaccountable to the American people.
IV. Section 4: Independent Agencies
A. Independent Agencies
executive agencies, regulatory
commissions, government corporations
B. Independent Executive Agencies
1. NASA
C. The OPM and the Civil Service
1. hires, promotes, pays
2. Pendleton Act
3. draft
D. Other Independent Agencies
1. Independent regulatory commissions
2. government corporation
CHAPTER 15
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1.bureaucracy: noun; government marked
by diffusion of authority among numerous
offices and adherence to inflexible rules
of operation. From the French for “office”
and the Greek for “rule.”
2.domestic: adj.; of or relating to a country’s
internal affairs. From the Latin for
“house.”
3.civilian: noun; a person following the
pursuits of civil life. “Civil” is from the
Latin for “citizen.”
4.executive departments
5.bureaucrat
6.attorney general
CHAPTER 15 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1.a large, complex administrative structure
that handles everyday business in an
organization
2.(a) hierarchical authority
(b) job specialization
(c) formalized rules
3.The hierarchy speeds action by reducing
conflicts over who has the power to make
decisions. Job specialization promotes
efficiency because each person focuses on
one particular job. Formalized rules allow
workers to act with speed and precision
and also allow work to continue even
when there is turnover in an organization.
4.the executive branch
5.It says very little about government
administration, but it does make the
President the chief administrator of the
Federal Government, and it suggests
executive departments, particularly ones
for military and foreign affairs.
6.Executive Branch: Executive Office of
the President; Cabinet departments;
Independent agencies
7.(a) reserved for agencies of Cabinet rank
(b) used to refer to any governmental body,
or to identify a major unit headed by a
single administrator of near-cabinet status
(c) used to identify a major unit headed
by a single administrator of near-cabinet
status
(d) usually given to agencies charged with
the regulation of business activities; also
given to some investigative, advisory, and
reporting bodies
Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: The Federal Bureaucracy
A. Structure and Major Elements
1. pyramid
2. executive branch
B. Executive Branch Names
departments
C. Staff and Line Agencies
1. line
2. staff
II. Section 2: The Executive Office of the
President
A. The EOP, The White House, and the
National Security Council
1. Executive Office
2. chief of staff
3. National Security Council, security
B. The Office of Management and Budget
budget
C. Other Offices in the EOP
Council of Economic Advisors
III. Section 3: The Cabinet Departments
A. Executive Departments
1. Attorney General
2. Defense; Homeland Security
B. Understanding the Cabinet
1. executive departments
2. President, Senate
3. ability, experience, race, gender
4. executive department, advise
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314
UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom or middle
A parent-to-be wants to make sure a cradle is
safe before buying it:
Agency: Consumer Product Safety Commission
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A high school senior wants to enlist in the
army:
Agency: Department of Defense
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
An investor wants information about a
publicly traded company:
Agency: Securities and Exchange Commission
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
An ambassador visits to discuss a free trade
agreement with the United States:
Agency: Office of the United States Trade
Representative
Level of Bureaucracy: top
A teacher needs lesson plan ideas:
Agency: Department of Education
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A college senior wants to become a spy for
her country:
Agency: Central Intelligence Agency
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A mom and pop store needs a loan to expand:
Agency: Small Business Administration
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A citizen overhears what he believes is a
terrorist plot:
Agency: Department of Homeland Security
Level of Bureaucracy: probably middle
The president of a developing nation wants
to invite American volunteers to help
business leaders in her country learn how to
use information technology:
Agency: Peace Corps
Level of Bureaucracy: top
An economics research team wants federal
funding for a study on economic trends:
Agency: Council of Economic Advisors
Level of Bureaucracy: probably middle
1. bottom
2. because most day-to-day issues that arise
can be handled at the lowest levels
(e) most often given to those agencies that
conduct business-like activities
8. Staff agencies serve in a support capacity,
offering advice and other assistance in the
management of the organization, while
line agencies actually perform the tasks
for which the organization exists. Line
agencies have goals to meet, while staff
agencies help the line agencies meet those
goals as effectively as possible.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. A bureaucracy is a large, complex
administrative structure that handles
everyday business in an organization.
2. Diagrams should be labeled as follows
from top to bottom: The President;
Executive Office of the President; executive
departments; other agencies, commissions,
bureaus, etc.
3. (a) Departments are agencies that make up
the cabinet.
(b) Corporations and authorities are
agencies that carry on a business.
4. (a) staff agency (b) line agency
Core Worksheet 3
A Gulf War veteran has a question about his
benefits:
Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A group of bank presidents want to lobby for
a cut in the federal interest rate to boost the
economy:
Agency: Federal Reserve System
Level of Bureaucracy: top
A computer manufacturer wants advice
about export regulations:
Agency: Department of Commerce
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A witness to an airplane crash notices an
explosion before the plane goes down:
Agency: National Transportation Safety Board
Level of Bureaucracy: probably middle
The chief executive officer of a public
television station wants to request federal
funding for a new series:
Agency: National Endowment for the Arts
Level of Bureaucracy: probably middle
An employee wants to blow the whistle
on his employer, who authorizes dumping
hazardous material into a river:
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
Core Worksheet 2
A Gulf War veteran has a question about his
benefits:
Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A parent-to-be wants to make sure a cradle is
safe before buying it:
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Unit 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 15 Section 2
Agency: Consumer Product Safety Commission
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A high school senior wants to enlist in the
army:
Agency: Department of Defense
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
An ambassador visits to discuss a trade
agreement with the United States:
Agency: Office of the United States Trade
Representative
Level of Bureaucracy: top
A small store needs a loan to expand:
Agency: Small Business Administration
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
A citizen overhears what he believes is a
terrorist plot:
Agency: Department of Homeland Security
Level of Bureaucracy: probably middle
A teacher needs lesson plan ideas.
Agency: Department of Education
Level of Bureaucracy: bottom
1.bottom
2.because most day-to-day issues that arise
can be handled at the lowest levels
Reading Comprehension 3
1.The White House: nerve center of the
executive branch; includes the President’s
key personal and political staff
National Security Council: advises the
President in all domestic, foreign, and
military matters that relate to the nation’s
security
Office of Management and Budget:
prepares the federal budget; monitors
spending; keeps the President up to date
on the work of the executive agencies;
maintains consistency on policy positions;
helps prepare executive orders and veto
messages
Office of National Drug Control Policy:
prepares an annual national drug control
strategy; coordinates efforts in the war on
drugs
Council of Economic Advisers: advises
the President on the state of the national
economy and helps prepare the annual
Economic Report to Congress
Office of Policy Development: advises
the President on matters relating to the
nation’s domestic affairs
Council on Economic Quality: aids
the President in environmental policy
matters and in writing the annual “state
of the environment” report to Congress;
sees that federal agencies comply with
environmental laws and policies
Office of the Vice President: makes it
possible for the Vice President to perform
his or her duties
Office of the United States Trade
Representative: advises the President in
all matters of foreign trade; represents the
President in foreign trade negotiations
Office of Science and Technology Policy:
advises the President in all scientific,
engineering, and other technological
matters relating to national policies and
programs
Office of Administration: general
housekeeping agency for all the other units
in the Executive Office; provides them
with support services to do their jobs
2.the President (chair), the Vice President,
and the secretaries of state, treasury, and
defense
Quiz A
Key Terms
1.e
2.f
3.d
4.a
5.c
6.b
Main Ideas
7.a
8.c
9.b
10.a
Quiz B
Key Terms
1.d
2.f
3.e
4.c
5.b
6.a
Main Ideas
7.c
8.c
9.b
10.a
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316
Unit 4 Answer Key (continued)
3.The budget-making process begins more
than a year before the start of the fiscal
year for that budget. Each federal agency
prepares estimates of its spending needs,
which the OMB reviews and revises. The
revised spending estimates are fitted into
the President’s overall budget, which is
then submitted to Congress.
Major Activities: staff agency whose main
job is to advise on domestic, foreign, and
military affairs related to national security; the
intelligence agencies within it have conducted
secret operations
Office of Management and Budget:
Director/Head: director appointed by
President and confirmed by Senate
Other Key Members: None.
Purpose of Agency: prepares federal budget
submitted to Congress annually
Major Activities: reviews and revises estimates
of spending needs prepared by each agency;
fits them into President’s overall spending
program to create budget for next fiscal
year; monitors spending of appropriated
funds; continually studies organization and
management of executive branch and keeps
President up to date on work of all agencies;
checks agency stands on all legislative matters
for consistency with President’s policies; helps
prepare executive orders and veto messages
The White House
1.The White House Office contains the
President’s most trusted advisors. This
group is most influential in determining
national policy in a wide range of critical
areas.
2.These advisors gather information in their
areas of expertise and present it to the
President, along with their ideas, to help
the President make policy decisions.
National Security Council:
1.The President consults with the top
advisors in this group before taking most
major steps in foreign affairs.
2.NSC advisors help the President formulate
foreign policy based on the President’s
priorities, to be carried out by the military
and intelligence agencies, among others.
Office of Management and Budget:
1.The federal budget it prepares annually
serves as a detailed work plan for the
conduct of government. Its work in
studying the organization and management
of the executive branch keeps the President
informed about the activities of all agencies.
2.In the budget, funds are allocated to
programs according to the President’s
priorities. The OMB also makes sure that
the stand taken on legislative matters by
the other agencies remains consistent with
the President’s policies.
Reading Comprehension 2
1.The White House: People closest to
the President work here, including the
President’s key personal and political staff.
National Security Council: This unit
advises the President about the security of
the country.
Office of Management and Budget: This
office prepares the federal budget, studies
how the executive branch is run, controls
the amount of money spent, and helps
write executive orders.
2.(a) Each federal agency submits an
estimate of how much money it will need.
(b) The OMB holds hearings. (c) The
President sends the completed budget to
Congress.
Core Worksheet 3
The White House:
Director/Head: chief of staff
Other Key Members: counselor to President,
senior advisors, press secretary, President’s
physician, chief of staff and press secretary to
first lady
Purpose of Agency: nerve center for entire
executive branch
Major Activities: aids President in vital areas
such as foreign policy, defense, homeland
security, the economy, political affairs,
congressional relations, speech writing,
contacts with news media and the public
National Security Council:
Director/Head: President chairs meetings;
President’s assistant for national security
affairs directs
Other Key Members: Vice President;
secretaries of state, treasury, and defense;
Director of National Intelligence, chairman of
Joint Chiefs of Staff; small staff of foreign and
military policy experts
Purpose of Agency: advises President on
national security
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz A
assistant secretaries aid the secretary.
Each department is divided into subunits,
or agencies, which are usually further
divided into smaller working units. Many
of these agencies have regional or district
offices, which direct activities in the field.
3. The Cabinet is an informal advisory
body brought together by the President.
Traditionally, it includes the heads of
the 15 executive departments, but other
top officials usually attend its meetings.
Cabinet members are appointed by the
President, subject to confirmation by the
Senate. Various factors, including party
affiliation, professional qualifications,
practical experience, geography, gender,
race, and the opinions of interest groups,
influence the President’s choice of Cabinet
members.
4. They are (1) the administrative heads
of their executive departments and
(2) advisors to the President.
5. The growth of other presidential resources,
particularly the vast amount of staff
assistance in the Executive Office of the
President, has eclipsed the Cabinet’s role.
Key Terms
1. b
2. e
3. a
4. c
5. d
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. a
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. e
3. a
4. c
5. d
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. a
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Executive departments, also called Cabinet
departments, are the traditional units
of federal administration. There are 15
executive departments.
2. Each department is headed by a secretary
(or by the attorney general, in the case
of the Department of Justice). A deputy
secretary aids the secretary. Each
department is divided into smaller units.
These agencies have offices around the
country, wherever they are needed to serve
the people.
3. (a) The Department of Defense is the
largest executive department.
(b) The Department of Homeland Security
is the newest executive department.
4. The Cabinet is a group of advisors to the
President made up of the heads of the 15
executive departments.
5. When a President chooses the members
of the Cabinet, he or she considers
various factors, including party affiliation,
experience and abilities, gender and race.
CHAPTER 15 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Department of State: 1789
Department of the Treasury: 1789
Department of Defense: 1789
Department of Justice: 1789/1870
Department of the Interior: 1849
Department of Agriculture: 1889
Department of Commerce: 1903
Department of Labor: 1913
Department of Health and Human
Services: 1953
Department of Housing and Urban
Development: 1965
Department of Transportation: 1967
Department of Energy: 1977
Department of Education: 1979
Department of Veterans Affairs: 1989
Department of Homeland Security: 2002
2. Each is headed by a secretary (or by
the attorney general, in the case of
the Department of Justice). An under
secretary or deputy secretary and several
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
6. (a) Each Cabinet member is the leader
of an executive department and (b) an
advisor to the President.
7. The Cabinet’s importance has declined
because of the growth of the Executive
Office of the President, which employs
many advisors who help the President.
Core Worksheet 3
The student should correctly identify the
department functions and use those functions to
inform the list of qualifications for the position.
3.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. c
3. f
4. a
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. d
8. a
9. c
10. d
4.
5.
6.
Quiz B
7.
Key Terms
1. b
2. d
3. f
4. a
5. e
6. c
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. d
CHAPTER 15 Section 4
Independent Executive Agencies:
Examples include GSA, NASA, EPA,
and OPM, as well as many other smaller
agencies
Independent Regulatory Commissions:
Examples include SEC, Federal Reserve
System, and nine other agencies
Government Corporations: Examples
include: FDIC, Export-Import Bank of the
U.S, U.S. Postal Service, and many others
They were hired according to the
patronage, or spoils, system, which gave
jobs, contracts, and other favors to political
supporters and friends of those in power.
The civil service system is used to hire
federal workers today. It was created in
response to the assassination of President
Garfield by a disappointed office-seeker
and made merit the basis for hiring and
promotions in the federal work force.
the Selective Service System
The independent regulatory commissions
are largely beyond the reach of presidential
direction and control because of the way
Congress has structured them. They are
not only executive bodies, but also quasilegislative and quasi-judicial bodies.
Government corporations are set up
like private corporations. Each is run
by a board of directors, with a general
manager who directs the corporation’s
operations. Like private corporations,
most government corporations produce
income that is folded back into the
business. However, Congress determines
the purpose and functions of government
corporations, and those who work for
these corporations are public employees.
In addition, these corporations are
financed by public funds, not by private
investors.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) Some agencies do not fit well within
any of the departments.
(b) Some agencies were located outside
Cabinet departments to provide services
for government agencies.
(c) Some agencies are outside Cabinet
departments by accident. (d) Others were
made independent agencies because of
the peculiar and sensitive nature of their
functions.
Reading Comprehension 3
1. (a) because some agencies do not fit well
within any of the departments
(b) to protect some agencies from the
influence of partisan and pressure politics
(c) by accident
(d) because of the peculiar and sensitive
nature of their functions
2. Independent Agencies:
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
applicants, hires them, and pays and
promotes them based on merit. This
system helps find and retain good workers
to serve the people.
2. Independent agencies include:
(a) independent executive agencies.
(b) independent regulatory commissions.
(c) government corporations.
3. Workers were selected according to the
patronage system (or spoils system).
This system gave government jobs to
supporters and friends of government
leaders.
4. The civil service system is used to hire
federal workers today. Hiring is based on
the merit system.
5. All males between the ages of 18 and 26
were required to register for service in the
military. Local selective service boards
picked the people who would serve.
6. Independent regulatory commissions are
independent agencies created by Congress
to regulate important aspects of the
economy. They are beyond the President’s
control.
7. Government corporations are different
from other independent agencies because
they were set up by Congress to carry out
business activities.
Core Worksheet 2
Sample answers are given below:
Job Title: Biological Science Laboratory
Technician
Duties: maintains lab facilities, equipment,
supplies, and records; performs isolation of
RNA and DNA in certain cells and other tests;
coordinates specimen processing
Main dept. and agency: Department
of Veterans Affairs; Veterans Health
Administration
Qualifications: 1 year specialized experience
in research lab performing specified duties;
successful completion of at least 6 months of
graduate level education in molecular and
microbiology and biochemistry
Pay and benefits: $34,808–$56,047; health
insurance; sick leave; vacation time; employee
assistance programs
Location: Loma Linda, CA
1. Answers will vary, but students should
include examples to explain their
responses.
2. Answers will vary, but students should
provide reasons for their responses.
3. The OPM administers the civil service
system, including hiring and promoting
civil servants.
Core Worksheet 3
Sample answers are given below:
Job Title: Biological Science Laboratory
Technician
Duties: maintains lab facilities, equipment,
supplies, and records; performs isolation of
RNA and DNA in certain cells and other tests;
coordinates specimen processing
Main dept. and agency: Department
of Veterans Affairs; Veterans Health
Administration
Qualifications: 1 year specialized experience
in research lab performing specified duties;
successful completion of at least 6 months of
graduate level education in molecular and
microbiology and biochemistry
Pay and benefits: $34,808–$56,047; health
insurance; sick leave; vacation time; employee
assistance programs
Location: Loma Linda, CA
1. Answers will vary, but students should
include examples to explain their
responses.
2. Answers will vary, but students should
provide reasons for their responses.
3. The OPM administers the civil service
system. It gives tests to identify qualified
Skills Worksheet 3
1. In addition to the arguments in the article,
other arguments in favor of reinstating
the draft might include the following: The
draft ensures more racial/economic equity
among enlisted personnel; it also fulfills
one’s duty to the United States. Arguments
against reinstating the draft might include:
High-tech weaponry makes a large
fighting force unnecessary; volunteers
make better soldiers than draftees; and
conscription is a form of forced labor.
2. Answers will vary, but students should
state the advantages and disadvantages of
each option.
3. Answers will vary. Students should make
a decision and explain how they arrived at
that decision.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Skill Activity 2
6. (1) Congress and the President authorize
a draft, (2) a lottery is held, (3) all parts
of selective service are activated, (4) men
called up report for a physical, mental, and
moral evaluation to determine their fitness
for military service, (5) local and appeals
boards process registrant claims and issue
induction orders, (6) first draftees are
inducted
7. It is a drawing based on birthdays to
determine the order in which registered
men are called up by Selective Service.
Reflection Questions
Possible responses: Yes. In times of crisis,
the draft provides an efficient way to build
military forces quickly. A lottery is fair
because each man has an equal chance of
being drawn for call-up. OR: No. Compulsory
service violates individual rights. Service
should be voluntary. Also, in the past,
deferments have gone to people with wealth
and power, putting the burden of combat
disproportionately on the less wealthy and the
powerless.
1. Students should examine the table and
imagine that they will participate in a
congressional vote on the issue of bringing
back the draft.
2. If the draft were brought back,
congressmen would be slower to approve
military action since their own sons and
daughters may be involved. A draft
would ensure that people of all races and
classes have to serve. Everyone would
equally fulfill their duty to serve their
country. If the draft is not brought back,
the professional and highly motivated allvolunteer military would be preserved.
Civilians would not have their lives
disrupted by military service, thought by
some to be forced labor.
3. Answers will vary. Students should make
a decision and explain how they arrived at
that decision.
Extend Worksheet 3, 4
1. an independent agency established to
provide manpower to the armed forces in
an emergency and to run an Alternative
Service Program for men classified as
conscientious objectors during a draft
2. almost all male U.S. citizens, and male
aliens living in the U.S., who are 18
through 25 years old
3. noncitizens in the U.S. on student or visitor
visas or men who are part of a diplomatic
or trade mission and their families; men
who are in hospitals, mental institutions,
or prisons while they are committed;
men currently serving in the military on
full-time active duty or attending service
academies; conscientious objectors may file
a claim for consideration of exemption
4. online, at the post office, by mail, check
a box on the application form for Federal
Student Financial Aid, at your high school
if a staff member or teacher has been
appointed as a Selective Service Registrar;
within the 60-day window of 30 days
before your 18th birthday to 30 days after
your 18th birthday
5. online, at post office, directly from
Selective Service, at high schools with a
Selective Service and provide one’s full
name, address, date of birth, telephone
number, Social Security number, signature
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. d
3. e
4. b
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. d
8. b
9. a
10. b
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. a
2. d
3. e
4. b
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. a
10. b
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 15
people. These functions include
environmental regulations, workplace
policies, homeland security, foreign
relations, public health and disease
control, education, trade, and much more.
The organization of the bureaucracy,
based on hierarchical authority, job
specialization, and formalized rules, can
make the bureaucracy an effective way
for people to work together. However, the
federal bureaucracy has been criticized for
intruding upon powers given to the States,
as in the case of education. It is often seen
by average citizens as large, impersonal,
and indifferent to people’s problems.
Sometimes various agencies appear to be
more interested in competing for power
than serving the purpose for which they
were intended. Also, the bureaucracy has
been criticized for creating regulations
and red tape that interfere with the
activities of businesses. Although the
federal bureaucracy has its critics and
may not even be considered essential
for good government, the structure of
the bureaucracy allows the government
to function to the best of its ability and
complete the tasks necessary for the
nation’s well-being and the public good.
Test A
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. c
4. g
5. e
6. j
7. i
8. d
9. h
10. a
Multiple Choice
11. b
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. a
16. b
17. b
18. d
19. d
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. Possible answer: Bagehot believes
bureaucracy makes a government too
large and affects the quality of government
services. Many people agree with his
opinion. Although many government
regulations are designed to protect people,
the federal bureaucracy is often criticized
for overregulating businesses, leading to
waste, red tape, and delays.
Critical Thinking
22. Staff agencies help the chief executive
and other administrators by offering
advice and other assistance in the
management of the organization. Line
agencies actually perform the tasks for
which the organization exists. Congress
and the President give line agencies
goals to meet, and the staff agencies
help the line agencies meet these goals
through advising, budgeting, purchasing,
managing, and planning.
Essay
23. Possible answer: The federal bureaucracy
handles the everyday business of
government on behalf of the President.
It performs many important functions
that are intended to serve the American
Test B
Key Terms
1. a
2. d
3. b
4. e
5. c
6. i
7. h
8. f
9. g
10. j
Main Ideas
11. b
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. a
16. b
17. b
18. d
19. d
20. c
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 16
Document-Based Question
21. (a) Possible answer: Bureaucrats think they
are supposed to enlarge the government,
rather than allowing citizens to act freely.
In doing so, the quality of government
suffers. (b) Possible answer: The author
believes bureaucracy makes government
too large which affects the quality of
government services. (c) Many people
agree with his opinion. Although many
government regulations are designed to
protect people, the federal bureaucracy
is often criticized for overregulating
businesses, leading to waste, red tape, and
delays.
Critical Thinking Question
22. Staff agencies help the chief executive
and other administrators. Staff agencies
offer advice and other assistance in
the management of the organization.
Line agencies are responsible for the
organization’s goals. Congress and the
President give line agencies goals to meet.
Staff agencies help the line agencies meet
these goals. For example, a staff agency
might provide help through advising,
budgeting, purchasing, managing, and
planning.
Essay
23. Possible answer: The federal bureaucracy
handles the everyday business of
government on behalf of the President. It
performs many important functions that
are intended to serve the American people.
These functions include environmental
regulations, workplace policies, homeland
security, foreign relations, public health
and disease control, education, trade,
and much more. However, the federal
bureaucracy has been criticized for
intruding upon powers given to the states,
as in the case of education. It is often seen
by average citizens as large, impersonal,
and indifferent to people’s problems.
Sometimes various agencies appear to be
more interested in competing for power
than serving the purpose for which they
were intended. Also, the bureaucracy has
been criticized for creating regulations and
red tape that interfere with the activities of
businesses.
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. progressive
Definition: A tax rate that increases as
income increases.
2. deflation
Definition: A sharp or steady decrease in
the price of goods.
3. interest
Definition: A charge to borrow money.
4. entitlement is correct
5. incorrect; surplus
6. recession is correct
7. incorrect; inflation
Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Taxes and Other Revenue
A. Taxing Powers and Taxing Power Limits
1. money
2. Constitution
B. Current Federal Taxes and Nontax
Revenue
1. income, regressive
2. excise, estate, gift
3. goods (or imports)
4. nontax
II. Section 2: Borrowing and the Public Debt
A. Federal Government Borrowing
1. Constitution
2. deficit
3. surplus
B. Economic Theories
1. demand-side
2. supply-side
C. Borrowing and the Public Debt
1. Congress
2. Treasury
3. public debt
III. Section 3: Spending and the Budget
A. How Federal Money is Spent
1. Entitlement
2. Defense
B. Types of Spending
1. controllable, uncontrollable
2. debt, Social Security, stamps
C. The Federal Budget
1. President, Congress
2. October 1
IV. Section 4: Fiscal and Monetary Policy
A. The Government’s Economic Goals
employment, prices, growth
B. Fiscal and Monetary Policy
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
1. tax, spend
2. money supply
3. reserve, discount rate
Corporation income
Definition: tax on each corporation’s net
income
Rate(s): 15–35 percent
Progressive
OASDI
Definition: tax to finance the basic Social
Security program
Rate(s): employees: 6.2 percent; selfemployed: 12.4 percent; employers:
6.2 percent
Regressive
Medicare
Definition: tax to finance Medicare, or
healthcare for the elderly
Rate(s): employees: 1.45 percent; selfemployed: 2.9 percent; employers:
1.5 percent
Regressive
Unemployment
Definition: tax to pay benefits to jobless
workers
Rate(s): employer: 6.2 percent (with
credit of up to 5.4 percent for State
unemployment taxes)
Regressive
Excise
Definition: tax laid on the manufacture,
sale, or consumption of goods and/or the
performance of services
Rate(s): various
Regressive
Estate
Definition: levy imposed on the assets of
one who dies
Rate(s): 18–45 percent
Progressive
Gift
Definition: levy imposed on the making of
a gift by one living person to another
Rate(s): 18–45 percent
Progressive
13. taxes laid on goods brought into the
United States from abroad
14. Any three of the following: earnings of the
Federal Reserve System (mostly interest
charges); interest on other loans; canal
tolls; fees for such items as passports,
copyrights, patents, and trademarks; sale
or lease of public lands; fines imposed
by federal courts; the “conscience fund”;
seigniorage (profit made by U.S. Mint
CHAPTER 16 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. the various means a government uses to
raise and spend money
2. A cut in taxes means more money in the
hands of consumers, and their increased
spending power means more jobs. An
increase in taxes takes money away from
consumers and so tends to slow the
economy and reduce inflation.
3. the power to tax
4. (a) to raise the money needed to operate
the government
(b) to regulate, even discourage, some
activity that government believes is
harmful to the general public
5. (a) Taxes can be levied only for public
purposes.
(b) Taxes may not be applied to exports.
(c) Direct taxes must be equally
apportioned among the States.
(d) All indirect taxes must be set at the
same rate in all parts of the country.
6. Because wealth is not evenly distributed
among the States, a direct tax laid in
proportion to population would be
grossly unfair. The impossibility of taxing
incomes fairly in accord with any plan of
apportionment led to the adoption of the
16th Amendment in 1913.
7. The Federal Government cannot tax the
States or any of their local governments
in the exercise of their governmental
functions, because the “power to tax
involves the power to destroy.” The
Supreme Court laid down this rule in
McCulloch v. Maryland.
8. the individual income tax
9. a person’s total income for a year less
certain exemptions and deductions
10. April 15
11. through withholding
12. Individual income
Definition: tax levied on each person’s
taxable income
Rate(s): 10–35 percent
Progressive
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
in the production of coins); sale of mintcondition stamps to collectors
Customs duties: Tax on goods imported
from other countries.
9. Students may list any three of the
following: interest charges of the Federal
Reserve; canal tolls; fees for passports,
copyrights, patents, and trademarks;
money from the sale of federal bonds;
fines; and revenue from the collectors of
stamps.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Good fiscal policy is important because
fiscal policy affects the economy.
2. Students should list two of the following:
The taxing power is used as the
main source of money for the federal
government. It is also used to regulate or
prevent an activity or force a change.
3. (a) Taxes can be levied only for public
purposes, not private.
(b) Taxes may not be placed on articles
exported by a state.
(c) Direct taxes must be evenly collected
among the states according to population.
(d) Indirect taxes must be set at the same
rate in all parts of the country.
4. A progressive tax is a tax that is in
proportion to a person’s income. The
income tax is a good example of a
progressive tax, since the income tax
increases with the level of one’s income.
5. Individuals have to file an income tax
return each year showing their earnings.
6. Most people pay their income taxes
through withholding; that is, their
employer withholds a certain amount of
money from their paychecks.
7. (a) Individual income
Description: Tax on an individual’s
income. Withheld from most employee
paychecks. Produces the largest amount of
revenue for the government.
Progressive
(b) Corporation income
Description: Taxes paid by a corporation
on its net income.
Progressive
(c) Social insurance
Description: These taxes are used to
fund Social Security, Medicare, and the
unemployment compensation program.
They are payroll taxes withheld from
employee paychecks.
Regressive
8. Excise tax: Tax on gasoline, tobacco, liquor,
firearms.
Estate tax: Tax on the estate of a person
who dies.
Gift tax: Tax imposed on a gift by a living
person.
Bellringer Worksheet 3
Earnings: Gross Pay: $342.00
Deductions: OASDI Tax: $21.20; Medicare Tax:
$4.96; Total Deductions: $70.62
Gross Pay: $342.00
Total Deductions: $70.62
Net Pay: $271.38
On Check: $271.38; two hundred seventy-one
and 38/100
Core Worksheet 3
1. OASDI
You Owe: $30,000 × .062 = $1,860
Your Spouse Owes: $30,000 × .124 = $3,720
Medicare
You Owe: $30,000 × .0145 = $435
Your Spouse Owes: $30,000 × .029 = $870
Total
You Owe: $1,860 + $435 = $2,295
Your Spouse Owes: $3,720 + $870 = $4,590
Which of you pays more: your spouse,
because tax rates are higher for selfemployed people
2. Income tax is paid on income from any
taxable source—not just wages from
a job. Also, point out to students that
unemployment compensation payments
are taxable as income.
3. retail customers
4. (a) $580
(b) $580
(c) Keesha: 1.16%; Josh: 3.87%
(d) Josh, because the tax takes a larger
percentage of his salary than it does of
Keesha’s salary
Core Worksheet 2
1. You Owe: OASDI = $1,860; Medicare =
$435; TOTAL = $2,295
Your Spouse Owes: OASDI = $3,720;
Medicare = $870; TOTAL = $4,590
Who pays more: your spouse
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why: Self-employed people have higher
tax rates and thus pay more taxes.
Income tax is paid on income from any
taxable source, including unemployment
compensation benefits.
c (retail customers)
b (Income taxes are progressive; custom
duties, payroll taxes, and excise taxes are
regressive taxes.)
Josh: d (3.87%); Keesha: a (1.16%); Josh,
because the tax takes a larger percentage of
his salary than it does of Keesha’s salary
6.
7.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. a
3. d
4. b
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. b
8. d
9. c
10. a
8.
9.
10.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. a
3. d
4. b
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. b
8. d
9. c
10. a
revenues. Supply-side economics says that
lower taxes increase the supply of money
in private hands and so stimulate the
economy.
Borrowing is authorized by Congress
but actually carried out by the Treasury
Department, which issues various kinds of
securities to investors, including Treasury
notes and bonds. The government must
then repay a certain sum, plus interest, on
these securities on a certain date.
because investors can find no safer
securities than those issued by the United
States, and because the interest on federal
securities cannot be taxed by the States or
their local governments
the total outstanding indebtedness of the
Federal Government (all of the money the
government has borrowed and not yet
repaid, plus the accrued interest on that
borrowing)
There is no constitutional limit on the
public debt, but Congress has put a
statutory ceiling on it. However, Congress
simply raises that ceiling whenever fiscal
realities seem to call for it.
because it is monumental and its interest
obligations will have to be met by
tomorrow’s taxpayers
Reading Comprehension 2
1. When the federal government spends
more than it takes in, it must borrow
money to make up the difference. This is
called a budget deficit or deficit spending.
2. When the government has a surplus, this
means the government takes in more
money than it spends.
3. (a) John Maynard Keynes, spend large
amounts of money, increased employment,
more tax revenue. (b) Ronald Reagan,
George W. Bush, lower taxes, stronger
economy.
4. Many people are concerned about the
long-term results of the huge public
debt. It may affect taxpayers far into the
future. They will have to repay not only
the debt but also the enormous amount of
accumulated interest.
CHAPTER 16 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
1. deficit; by borrowing
2. more income than outgo
3. beginning with the Depression years of the
1930s
4. John Maynard Keynes
5. Demand-side economics says that
increases in public spending stimulate the
economy and result in higher employment,
which will then produce higher tax
Core Worksheet 3
1. Congress raised the Social Security payroll
tax, increased the age when people can
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
2.
3.
4.
5.
Skills Worksheet 3
draw Social Security, and passed the
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings law.
Congress passed the Budget Enforcement
Act (PAYGO) and the Balanced Budget
Act.
The national debt became so large
because Congress increased homeland
security spending, increased U.S. military
operations, and passed tax cuts.
Sample answer: The large baby boomer
population is retiring, and the smaller
working population may not be able
to provide the funds needed for Social
Security and Medicare for these retirees.
The war on terrorism is not likely to
end soon, requiring further military and
security spending.
Possible answer: Politicians want to win
elections, so they seldom advocate higher
taxes or reduced spending on popular
programs. Also, fighting terrorism will
likely require huge outlays for years to
come.
1. The subject of the graph is the U.S. federal
budget surpluses and deficits from 1960 to
2006. The numbers on the x axis represent
the years 1960 to 2006. The numbers on
the y axis represent dollar amounts (in
billions).
2. The United States enjoyed a budget
surplus from 1998 to 2001. There was also
a very small surplus in 1969. The United
States experienced its greatest budget
deficit in 2004 (over $400 billion). In 1992,
the budget deficit was about $300 billion.
3. From 1960 until the mid-1970s, the Federal
Government kept a nearly balanced
budget. Since then, the amount of the
federal surplus/deficit has fluctuated
wildly. Students should conclude that
since the late 1960s, government spending
has outpaced tax receipts in most years.
Skill Activity 2
1. (a) The graph shows the U.S. federal
budget surpluses and deficits from 1960 to
2006. (b) The numbers on the x axis show
the years 1960 to 2006. (c) The numbers
on the y axis show dollar amounts (in
billions). (d) The horizontal line labeled
0 is the point on the graph at which the
budget is balanced—that is, there is no
budget surplus or deficit. Surpluses are
shown above the line; deficits are shown
below the line.
2. (a) The United States had a budget surplus
from 1998 to 2001. (b) The United States
experienced its greatest budget deficit in
2004 (over $400 billion).
3. For most of the period since the early
1970s, the federal government had large
budget deficits. The only exception to this
was the period from 1998 to 2001 when the
government had a surplus.
Core Worksheet 2
1. Congress raised the Social Security payroll
tax, increased the age when people can
draw Social Security, and passed the
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings law.
2. Congress passed the Budget Enforcement
Act (PAYGO) and the Balanced Budget
Act.
3. The national debt became so large
because Congress increased national
security spending, increased U.S. military
operations, and passed tax cuts.
4. Sample answer: The large baby boomer
population is retiring, and the smaller
working population may not be able
to provide the funds needed for Social
Security and Medicare for these retirees.
The war on terrorism is not likely to
end soon, requiring further military and
security spending.
5. Possible answer: Politicians want to win
elections, so they seldom advocate higher
taxes or reduced spending on popular
programs. Also, fighting terrorism will
likely require huge outlays for years to
come.
Extend Worksheet 3, 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
Democrats
Republicans
Answers will vary.
Possible response: Deficit reduction is not
likely. Neither side seems to know if tax
cuts ultimately increase revenue, because
both sides cite historical statistics to
support their opposing views.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz A
5. Congress; the President
6. Each federal agency prepares detailed
estimates of its spending needs for a
twelve-month period, which it then
submits to the Office of Management and
Budget. The OMB reviews all of the agency
proposals, often in budget hearings.
The revised spending plans for all of the
agencies are fitted into the President’s
overall program and become a part of the
budget document the President sends to
Congress.
7. (a) House and Senate Budget Committees
conduct hearings on the Budget
Resolution.
(b) House and Senate Budget Committees
present Budget Resolutions.
(c) House and Senate subcommittees meet
to create a single Budget Resolution.
(d) House and Senate vote on final version
of Budget Resolution.
(e) House and Senate Appropriations
Committees develop 13 spending bills.
(f) House and Senate subcommittees meet
to settle on one bill for each of the 13
appropriations measures.
(g) Full House and Senate vote on final
version of the appropriations bills, and the
bills are sent to the President.
8. Congress must pass a continuing
resolution to ensure funds are available
until the appropriations bills can be
enacted.
Key Terms
1. a
2. d
3. b
4. f
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. a
10. b
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. e
3. c
4. a
5. d
6. f
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b
CHAPTER 16 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. benefits that federal law says must be
paid to all those who meet the eligibility
requirements
2. (a) OASDI, or Social Security
(b) Medicare
(c) Medicaid
(d) food stamps
(e) unemployment insurance
(f) veterans’ pensions and benefits
3. Controllable (or discretionary) spending
consists of those budget items about
which Congress and the President can
make choices each year; uncontrollable
(or mandatory) spending is that spending
that neither Congress nor the President
has the power to change directly. Nearly
80 percent of all federal spending is
uncontrollable.
4. (a) interest on the public debt
(b) entitlements, such as Social Security
benefits and food stamps
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) Entitlement programs
Spent for: Department of Health and
Human Services (Medicare, Medicaid,
food stamps, veteran’s benefits, Social
Security)
(b) Defense
Spent for: Department of Defense (Armed
forces), Department of Energy (nuclear
weapons research), Department of
Homeland Security
(c) Public Debt
Spent for: Interest on the public debt
2. (a) Controllable spending: Congress and
the President may determine how much to
spend on these budget items.
Examples: highways, national parks, and
civil service pay.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B
(b) Uncontrollable spending: Congress
and the President may not change the
funding of these programs. The funds for
these programs increase as the needs of the
programs increase.
Examples: the public debt, Social Security
benefits, food stamps
3. (a) President: Prepares the budget for
Congress to review. Approves the final
budget.
(b) Congress: Reviews the President’s
budget through committees. Sends the
budget back to the President for final
approval.
4. (a) Each federal agency sends its requests
for funding to the Office of Management
and Budget (OMB). After reviewing the
requests, the OMB submits a spending
plan for all the government agencies.
(b) The Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
helps the Budget Committee in each house
to study the budget requests.
(c) The House and Senate Appropriations
Committees look at all the requests for
money in the President’s budget. They
also listen to testimony from citizens. The
Appropriations Committees then put
together the bills to appropriate funds for
the agencies.
5. (a) Congress must have the budget
approved by the President by October 1,
the beginning of the fiscal year.
(b) If Congress misses the deadline, it
must pass an emergency spending bill,
or continuing resolution, and have it
approved by the President.
Key Terms
1. f
2. d
3. b
4. a
5. e
6. c
Main Ideas
7. c
8. d
9. a
10. c
CHAPTER 16 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
1. the total amount of final goods and
services produced in the country each year
2. (a) full employment (b) price stability
(c) economic growth
3. (a) a general increase in prices throughout
the economy (b) a general decrease in
prices throughout the economy (c) period
when there is an absence of economic
growth and the economy shrinks
4. Higher prices due to inflation rob
consumers of purchasing power because
their dollars buy less than they once did.
Deflation makes it difficult for people and
businesses to borrow money because the
assets they use to borrow against decline
in value. Deflation also hurts farmers and
other producers, who receive less for their
products. This can make it difficult for
them to pay off loans, and so hurt banks
and investors.
5. As a general rule, an increase in government
spending means heightened economic
activity; spending cuts tend to dampen that
activity. Tax increases take money out of
people’s pockets and can slow economic
growth. Tax cuts can boost economic activity.
6. the government’s power to influence the
economy through the money supply and
the availability of credit
7. Increasing the money supply can provide
a short-term boost to the economy, leading
to economic growth and an increase in
employment. Decreasing the money
supply has the opposite effect and slows
inflationary pressures.
Core Worksheet A 3
Answers will vary.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. f
2. d
3. b
4. a
5. e
6. c
Main Ideas
7. c
8. d
9. b
10. a
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
from a Federal Reserve Bank. When the
Fed raises the discount rate, the banks
borrow less money and charge their
customers higher interest rates.
8. Mechanism: Open market operations
Definition: process that involves the
buying or selling of government securities
from and to the nation’s banks
Increases the Money Supply by: buying
government securities back from the banks
Decreases the Money Supply by: selling
government securities
Mechanism: Reserve requirement
Definition: the amount of money that
banks must keep “in reserve” in their
vaults or on deposit with one of the 12
Federal Reserve Banks
Increases the Money Supply by: relaxing
the reserve requirement
Decreases the Money Supply by:
increasing the reserve requirement
Mechanism: Discount rate
Definition: rate of interest a bank must pay
when it borrows money from a Federal
Reserve Bank
Increases the Money Supply by: lowering
the discount rate
Decreases the Money Supply by: raising
the discount rate
Core Worksheet 3
1. about 5.5%; trending upward
2. Yes. Unemployment is on the rise, and the
current rate is only about 3/4 of a point
below the highest point in recent history.
The spike in unemployment suggests that
economic activity is slowing.
3. about 5%; trending upward
4. Yes. Inflation is at its highest rate in recent
history and is rising.
5. about 1% or 2%; steep drop
6. Yes. Economic growth took a steep drop
in the last quarter of 2007 and first quarter
of 2008 and is at its lowest point in recent
years.
7. Answers will vary. Some students might
suggest actions aimed at stimulating
employment and economic growth, such
as increasing government spending,
cutting taxes, buying back securities,
decreasing the reserve requirement, or
reducing the discount rate. Point out to
these students that these actions would
also increase inflation. Other students
might target high inflation by suggesting
that the government cut spending, increase
taxes, sell securities, increase the reserve
requirement, or raise the discount rate.
Point out to these students that any of
these actions will also slow economic
growth and increase unemployment.
Students should recognize that there is no
one right way to solve economic problems.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The gross domestic product (GDP) is
the total amount of goods and services
produced in the country each year.
2. (a) Full employment: Enough jobs for all
citizens who want to work.
(b) Stable prices: Small price increases and
decreases.
(c) Economic growth: The gross domestic
product increases steadily, creating better
living conditions for more Americans.
3. (a) Growing economy: The GDP increases
at a steady rate.
(b) Recession: May occur when economic
growth (reflected in the GDP) slows.
4. Fiscal policy is the way the federal
government uses its power to tax and
spend.
5. (a) Open market operations: When the Fed
buys or sells government securities from
or to banks, increasing or decreasing the
money supply.
(b) Reserve requirement: The amount of
money set by the Fed that banks must keep
on hand.
(c) Discount rate: The rate of interest the
Fed charges to banks for borrowing money
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. d
4. b
5. a
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. a
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B
instead of the current large amount of
paperwork.
Critical Thinking
22. A good response should indicate that
supply-side economics is based on
the theory that tax cuts increase the
amount of money in private hands and
thereby stimulates the economy. Flat
tax proponents claim that their system
amounts to a tax cut for most taxpayers;
therefore, the theory is most likely to be
accepted by a supply-side economist.
Essay
23. Students may note that the federal budget
should reflect Americans’ priorities in
a number of ways. For example, the
Federal Government seeks to achieve
three main goals in the economic realm:
full employment, price stability, and
economic growth. Therefore, the budget
should reflect fiscal policy that seeks
to achieve these goals. In times of high
unemployment, for example, the budget
may contain many spending measures
designed to stimulate the economy and
put people to work.
Students may also explain that the
Constitution gives Congress the authority
to collect taxes to pay for the common
defense and general welfare of the United
States. In that regard, the federal budget
should reflect Americans’ priorities
regarding these matters. Expenditures for
defense, for old-age pensions, for national
parks, for poverty programs—all of these
reflect things Americans have decided
are important enough for the Federal
Government to act upon.
The federal budget is a major political
statement, a declaration of the public
policies of the United States. These policies
should ultimately have as their source the
will of the people.
Key Terms
1. e
2. b
3. d
4. c
5. a
6. f
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. d
10. c
CHAPTER 16
Test A
Key Terms
1. e
2. g
3. f
4. h
5. j
6. c
7. a
8. b
9. i
10. d
Multiple Choice
11. c
12. b
13. a
14. b
15. b
16. d
17. c
18. d
19. b
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. Sample response: Perhaps the most
important way this proposal would change
the way income taxes are collected in the
United States is that income taxes would
no longer be progressive taxes (the higher
one’s income, the higher the tax rate) and
would become regressive (taxes levied at a
flat rate).
This proposal would also simplify
the process of filing income taxes, since
it requires only a postcard-sized form
Test B
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. d
4. g
5. j
6. b
7. i
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
8. a
9. h
10. c
Main Ideas
11. c
12. b
13. a
14. b
15. b
16. d
17. a
18. d
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. (a) The author is proposing that the United
States change its system of collecting
income taxes to a flat tax system. (b) The
current system does not treat all taxpayers
equally. Since the income tax system is
progressive, it charges higher taxes for
higher earnings. This discriminates against
those who are successful and want to save
and invest their money. (c) Under a flat tax
system, income taxes would no longer be
progressive taxes (the higher one’s income,
the higher the tax rate) and would become
regressive (taxes levied at a flat rate). This
proposal would also simplify the process
of filing income tax returns, since it would
require only a postcard-sized form instead
of the current large amount of paperwork.
Critical Thinking Question
22. A supply-side economist would be most
likely to support changing the tax system
to put more money in private hands.
Supply-side economics is based on the
theory that more money in private hands
will stimulate the economy.
Essay
23. Certain budget items fall into the category
of uncontrollable spending; that is, the
federal government has little control over
their funding. Americans expect these
programs to continue, so the federal
government must first cover the costs of
these items which include entitlements
such as Social Security and the interest that
must be paid on the public debt. Most of
the spending by the federal government
is controllable spending. Congress and
the President have more flexibility in
funding these items in relation to national
priorities.
In addition, priorities in the federal
budget often reflect the attitudes
and beliefs of the political party or
administration that is in power. For
example, different administrations may
have different attitudes toward new
social programs or ways to stimulate the
economy.
Further, the state of the economy often
determines budget priorities. During
times of high unemployment, the public
may expect the government to increase
government spending or cut taxes to
stimulate the economy.
The budget is prepared by the President
each year, and Congress reviews it and
decides how the money will be spent.
This is a lengthy process involving much
debate. Congress listens to many points
of view, including the thoughts of citizens
on budget issues. Ideally, the priorities of
Congress supported by the budget are in
line with the priorities of most Americans.
CHAPTER 17
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. Sample sentence: The United States hoped
to keep communism from spreading
through its policy of containment.
2. Sample sentence: A policy of deterrence
required the nation to build a strong
military to avoid future wars.
3. Sample sentence: Through détente,
tensions became more relaxed between the
two nations.
4. domestic; domestic affairs refers to
problems at home, while foreign affairs
refers to issues outside the country.
5. foreign aid; foreign aid is assistance given to
another country, while foreign policy refers
to the relationship with other countries.
6. terrorism; terrorism is violence used for a
political purpose, while espionage is spying.
Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy
A. Foreign Affairs
1. isolationism
2. internationalism
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
B. Foreign Policy
1. foreign policy
2. President
C. The State Department
secretary of state, foreign affairs
D. Overseas Representatives
1. Ambassadors
2. passports
II. Section 2: National Security
A. The Department of Defense
1. armed
2. civilians
3. Army, Navy, Air Force
B. National Security
1. National Intelligence
2. terrorism
III. Section 3: American Foreign Policy
Overview
A. Foreign Policy Before World War I
1. Monroe, China
2. Good Neighbor
B. The Two World Wars
1. World War I
2. World War II
C. New Principles
collective security, deterrence
D. The Cold War
containment
E. Korea and Vietnam
1. North Korea
2. Richard Nixon
F. The End of the Cold War
1. détente
2. Mikhail Gorbachev
G. Dangers Today
1. al Qaeda
2. Iraqi Freedom
IV. Section 4: Foreign Aid and Defense
Alliances
A. Foreign Aid and Security
1. economic, military
2. regional security
B. United Nations
1. peace
2. United States, Security Council
2. Before the 1940s, America’s foreign
relations were largely shaped by a policy
of isolationism, a purposeful refusal to
become involved in the affairs of the rest
of the world. World War II convinced the
American people that they could not live
in isolation, and American foreign policy
since then has been characterized by
internationalism.
3. Foreign policy is all of the stands and
actions that a nation takes in every aspect
of its relationships with other countries—
diplomatic, military, commercial, and all
others.
4. The President is both the nation’s chief
diplomat and the commander in chief of
the armed forces. As a result, the President
bears the major responsibility for making
and conducting foreign policy.
5. The State Department, headed by the
secretary of state, is the President’s “right
arm” in foreign affairs. This department
was the first of the executive departments
Congress created, and its secretary ranks
first among the members of the President’s
Cabinet. Although some Presidents have
relied more heavily on the secretary
of state than others, this position has
been important and influential in every
administration.
6. The Department of State is organized
along both geographic and functional
lines, with some agencies dealing with
matters involving particular regions of the
world, while others have broader missions.
Most bureaus are headed by an assistant
secretary and include several offices.
7. the right to send and receive diplomatic
representatives
8. an official representative of the United
States appointed by the President
to represent the nation in matters of
diplomacy
9. Foreign Service officers promote American
interests abroad in various ways, including
encouraging trade, gathering intelligence
data, advising people who want to enter
the United States, and aiding U.S. citizens
abroad who need legal advice or other help.
10. Diplomatic immunity means that
ambassadors, their families, and other
diplomats serving overseas are not subject
to the laws of the state to which they are
CHAPTER 17 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Domestic affairs are a nation’s events at
home, while foreign affairs are the nation’s
relationships with other nations.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B
accredited, and it is essential to the ability
of every nation to conduct its foreign
relations. It protects embassy personnel
from arrest, lawsuits, and taxes. It also
prevents their official residences from
being searched without their consent and
protects their official communications,
papers, and other properties.
11. A passport is a legal document issued by a
state that identifies a person as a citizen of
that state, while a visa is a permit to enter
another state and must be obtained from
the country one wishes to enter.
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. a
4. d
5. b
6. c
Main Ideas
7. b
8. d
9. c
10. d
Reading Comprehension 2
CHAPTER 17 Section 2
1. (a) Domestic affairs are events that happen
at home. (b) Foreign affairs refers to the
nation’s relationship with other countries.
2. (a) Foreign policy is the plan a country
follows in dealing with other countries.
(b) The President is responsible for making
and carrying out foreign policy and
working on peace agreements, with the
help of many officials and agencies.
3. The four goals are protecting America;
advancing democracy; promoting American
values; supporting diplomatic officials.
4. ambassador: An ambassador is appointed
by the President to represent the United
States in other countries.
diplomatic immunity: Diplomatic
immunity means that a diplomat is not
bound by the rules of a host country and
cannot be arrested.
passport: A passport is identification
issued by a government to its citizens who
want to travel internationally.
visa: A visa is a permit to enter a foreign
country issued by that country.
Reading Comprehension 3
1. the Department of Defense; it was created
to unify the nation’s armed forces and to
bring the then-separate army and navy
under the control of a single Cabinet
department
2. The Constitution makes the elected
President the commander in chief of the
armed forces. It also gives broad military
powers to Congress.
3. The National Security Act of 1947 provides
that the secretary of defense cannot have
served on active duty in any of the armed
forces for at least 10 years before being
named to that post.
4. (a) the President’s chief aide and advisor in
making and carrying out defense policy
(b) the operating head of the Defense
Department
5. the Pentagon
6. the chairman of the Joint Chiefs, vice
chairman of the Joint Chiefs, the army
chief of staff, the chief of naval operations,
the commandant of the Marine Corps, and
the air force chief of staff; they serve as the
principal military advisors to the secretary
of defense, the President, and the National
Security Council.
7. Department of the Army:
Responsible for: military operations on
land
Highest Ranking Officer: army chief of
staff
Department of the Navy:
Responsible for: sea warfare and defense
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. b
4. d
5. a
6. c
Main Ideas
7. b
8. b
9. d
10. c
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Highest Ranking Officer: chief of naval
operations
Department of the Air Force:
Responsible for: military air and aerospace
operations
Highest Ranking Officer: chief of staff of
the air force
the Regular Army, the Army National
Guard, and the Army Reserve
It is a separate armed service within the
Navy Department, but it is not under the
control of the chief of naval operations. It
is a combat-ready land force for the navy,
with two major combat missions: (1) to
seize and defend land bases from which
the navy and marines can operate and (2)
to carry out other land operations essential
to a naval campaign.
It was established as a result of the pre9/11 failure of the government’s several
intelligence agencies to collect and share
information that might have warned of
al Qaeda’s coming attacks. Its job is to
integrate foreign and domestic intelligence
in defense of the homeland and of U.S.
interests abroad.
Any three of the following: the National
Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), the FBI,
the DEA, the CIA, the National Geospatial
Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency,
the National Security Agency
(a) spying
(b) the use of violence to intimidate a
government or a society, usually for
political or ideological reasons
the Department of Homeland Security
(a) border and transportation security
(b) infrastructure protection
(c) emergency preparedness and response
(d) chemical, biological, radiological, and
nuclear defense
(e) information analysis (intelligence)
Any five of the following: the Secret
Service, U.S. Immigration and Customs
Enforcement, Coast Guard, Transportation
Security Administration, U.S. Citizenship
and Immigration Services, Federal
Emergency Management Agency
2. The Framers gave some military power
to civilian authorities to ensure that this
power would not be abused. For example,
Congress has the power to declare war,
and the President is commander in chief of
the armed forces.
3. The act stated that the secretary of defense
cannot have served on active duty in the
military for at least ten years before being
named to that post.
4. the Pentagon
5. Army: The Army handles military
operations on land.
Navy: The Navy handles sea warfare and
defense.
Air Force: The Air Force handles military
air and aerospace missions.
6. the Regular Army, the Army National
Guard, and the Army Reserve
7. the Marine Corps
8. The DNI was created in 2005 in response
to the September 11, 2001, attacks.
9. Any three of the following are acceptable:
the FBI, the Drug Enforcement Agency
(DEA), the CIA, and the National Security
Agency (NSA).
10. espionage: spying
terrorism: the use of physical force or
violence to achieve political goals
11. The three major responsibilities are
prevention, protection, and response.
Core Worksheet 3
1. Possible response: Some students might
feel that citizens have a right to know
so that they can take actions to protect
themselves. Other students might feel that
tipping off the enemy would jeopardize
more Americans than would secrecy.
2. Possible response: Some students might
say that such actions violate constitutional
rights and that there should be solid
evidence of wrongdoing before the
government can take such actions. Other
students might say that innocent citizens
have nothing to fear from these activities
and should be willing to give up some
privacy for the sake of security.
3. Possible response: Some students might
say that enemy prisoners in any war
have been held without trial; the war on
terrorism is no different. Other students
might note that some of these detainees
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The Defense Department is in charge of the
military.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
might be innocent, since the enemy is hard
to distinguish from other civilians in the
war on terrorism. We have an obligation to
find out, through trials, who is and is not
an enemy combatant.
4. Possible response: Yes; the public has a
right to know so that they can take actions
to protect themselves. OR No; sometimes
our security agencies need to keep secrets
from the enemy in order to find all those
responsible for the threat.
5. Possible response: Yes; the government’s
responsibility for national security
includes protecting against threats from
within. Civilian control of the military
will prevent abuses. OR No; civil unrest
is part of free speech. The military has no
business restricting the rights of American
citizens.
5. Possible response: Yes; the government’s
responsibility for national security
includes protecting against threats from
within. Civilian control of the military
will prevent abuses. OR No; civil unrest
is part of free speech. The military has no
business restricting the rights of American
citizens.
Skills Worksheet 3
1. The problem is that the U.S. military
is redeploying troops, and soldiers are
serving multiple tours of duty. This puts
a great strain on the troops and their
families. At the same time, the strain could
risk successful responses if crises arise
elsewhere in the world.
2. Students’ responses will vary but should
focus on ways to prevent the overdeployment of troops into a combat zone.
3. Students’ responses will vary. Possible
factors include money (paying soldiers
more to increase enlistment) and human
resources (more soldiers would result in
fewer redeployments). Ways to measure
the effectiveness of a solution to the
problem might involve comparing the
amount of time soldiers are on active
duty before and after the solution is
implemented, or comparing casualty
rates or recruitment rates before and after
implementation of the solution.
Core Worksheet 2
1. Possible response: Some students might
feel that citizens have a right to know
so that they can take actions to protect
themselves. Other students might feel that
tipping off the enemy would jeopardize
more Americans than would secrecy.
2. Possible response: Some students might
say that such actions violate constitutional
rights and that there should be solid
evidence of wrongdoing before the
government can take such actions. Other
students might say that innocent citizens
have nothing to fear from these activities
and should be willing to give up some
privacy for the sake of security.
3. Possible response: Some students might
say that enemy prisoners in any war
have been held without trial; the war on
terrorism is no different. Other students
might note that some of these detainees
might be innocent, since the enemy is hard
to distinguish from other civilians in the
war on terrorism. We have an obligation to
find out, through trials, who is and is not
an enemy combatant.
4. Possible response: Yes; the public has a
right to know so that they can take actions
to protect themselves. OR No; sometimes
our security agencies need to keep secrets
from the enemy in order to find all those
responsible for the threat.
Skill Activity 2
1. The problem is that the U.S. military is
redeploying troops to Iraq from a limited
pool of volunteers. Soldiers are serving
multiple tours of duty, their tours are
longer, and there is less rest between
deployments. This puts a great strain
on the troops and their families. Repeat
deployments also appear to be hurting
recruitment and reducing the ability of
the National Guard to respond to national
crises.
2. Students’ responses will vary but should
focus on ways to prevent the repeat
deployment of troops into a combat zone.
A possible solution would be to increase
enlistment benefits and recruitment efforts
at home. Another possible solution might
be to see if rotating troops to Iraq from
other areas of the world, such as Korea,
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
for example, might reduce the problems
relating to repeated tours.
3. Students’ responses will vary. Possible
factors include money (paying soldiers
more to increase enlistment) and human
resources (more new enlistments resulting
in fewer repeat deployments).
4. Ways to measure a solution’s effectiveness
might involve comparing the amount of
time soldiers are on active duty in Iraq
both before and after the solution was
implemented.
Possible example: Agents tap the phone of a
terrorist suspect to gather evidence of a plot.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. c
3. b
4. e
5. f
6. d
Main Ideas
7. d
8. b
9. a
10. b
Extend Worksheet 3, 4
1. border and transportation security
Possible summary: to prevent people from
entering the country illegally or bringing
in illegal substances
Possible example: Border patrols watch for
people trying to cross the border without
going through a checkpoint.
2. infrastructure protection
Possible summary: to protect important
structures, such as bridges and power
plants
Possible example: Guards constantly
watch the areas surrounding structures the
department has identified as high-profile
targets, such as the Golden Gate Bridge
and Statue of Liberty.
3. emergency preparedness and response
Possible summary: to plan actions that
federal and local groups should take in
different emergency situations
Possible example: The department
conducts a mock bomb attack, with
actors playing the role of terrorists and
victims. Official observers then assess the
performance of local law enforcement and
the Red Cross in handling the situation.
4. chemical, biological, radiological, and
nuclear defense
Possible summary: to stop terrorists from
using harmful substances to attack the
United States or its interests abroad
Possible example: Special units train dogs
to sniff out certain harmful substances in
luggage and shipping containers.
5. information analysis
Possible summary: to gather information
secretly, looking for leads that might help
thwart an attack
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. a
3. d
4. b
5. f
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. c
9. d
10. b
CHAPTER 17 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. to protect the security and well-being of
the United States
2. isolationism
3. The Monroe Doctrine declared that the
United States would look on any attempt
by foreign nations to extend their system
to any portion of the Western Hemisphere
as dangerous to the peace and safety of
the United States. Many Latin Americans
came to view this doctrine as a selfish
policy designed to protect the political and
economic interests of the United States, not
the independence of other nations in the
Western Hemisphere.
4. The belief in Manifest Destiny led the
United States to expand its boundaries
across the continent to the Pacific Ocean.
5. The Roosevelt Corollary used the
American military to police Latin America
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
and quell revolutions and other unrest
there. The Good Neighbor Policy, on the
other hand, was a conscious attempt to
win friends in Latin America by reducing
the amount of political and military
intervention in the region.
Yes, it was incorporated into the InterAmerican Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance
(the Rio Pact) of 1947, and the United
States remains the dominant power in the
Western Hemisphere.
The Open Door policy demanded equal
trade access for all nations in China and
the preservation of China’s independence
and sovereignty over its own territory.
World War I forced the United States
out of its isolationism, but after the
war, the United States pulled back from
involvements abroad and refused to
join the League of Nations. America’s
commitment to isolationism was finally
ended by World War II, which transformed
the United States into the mightiest
military power in the world.
the principle of collective security—
keeping international peace and order
the strategy of maintaining military might
at so great a level that that very strength
will deter an attack on this country by any
hostile power
It was called the cold war because it was
not, for the most part, a “hot war” of
military action, but rather a time of threats,
posturing, and military build-up by the
United States and the Soviet Union.
The Truman Doctrine declared that it was
the policy of the United States to support
free peoples who were resisting attempted
subjugation by armed minorities or
outside pressures. It became part of the
policy of containment, which was rooted
in the belief that if communism could
be kept within its existing boundaries, it
would collapse under the weight of its
own internal weaknesses.
No, not all of the conflicts of the cold war
were “cold.” The United States fought two
“hot wars” against communist forces in
South Korea and Vietnam.
The policy of détente was a purposeful
attempt to improve relations (“relax
tensions”) with the Soviet Union and
China. To implement this policy, Nixon
made trips to Beijing and Moscow.
15. Yes, the policies of deterrence and
containment worked. The Soviet Union
collapsed in 1991, and the cold war is now
history.
16. (a) Iran appears bent on becoming a
nuclear power.
(b) North Korea also has nuclear
aspirations.
(c) There have been protracted civil wars
in Africa.
(d) There have been repeated clashes
between Pakistan and India.
(e) Recurring cycles of violence and
reprisal continue to characterize the IsraeliPalestinian relationship.
(f) The Taliban has mounted an
increasingly effective insurgency in
Afghanistan.
(g) Efforts to stabilize and rebuild Iraq,
and to establish a democratic government
there, have proved difficult, as much of the
country has been torn apart by violence
bordering on civil war.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. American foreign policy aims to keep
Americans safe and to help other countries
remain at peace.
2. isolationism
3. President James Monroe; 1823; European
nations should not interfere in North and
South America.
4. John Hay; 1899; trading opportunities;
China
5. The country was forced by an attack to
enter World War I and quickly returned
to isolationism after the war. World War
II transformed the United States into the
strongest military power in the world and
ended the country’s isolationism for good.
6. Deterrence is the strategy of building a
strong military to keep other countries
from attacking.
7. The Cold War was a period of hostilities
between the United States and the Soviet
Union that stopped short of actual warfare.
8. The principle of collective security, or
countries acting together to promote peace
and security, was reflected in the creation
of the United Nations.
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Core Worksheet B 3
The Truman Doctrine provided aid to
countries threatened by communism.
Keeping countries from becoming
communist was the goal of the policy of
containment.
Détente means a “relaxation of tensions,”
which was an attempt of the Nixon
administration to improve relations with
China and the Soviet Union.
Yes, the policies of deterrence and
containment helped to bring about the fall
of the Soviet Union.
The United States wanted to keep
communism from spreading to South
Korea or South Vietnam.
Any two of the following are acceptable:
Terrorist groups like al Qaeda worry
people in democratic countries; dangerous
countries like Iran and North Korea are
interested in becoming nuclear powers;
some countries in Africa are embroiled
in civil wars; tensions between Iran and
Pakistan threaten the world; relationships
between Israel and other countries in the
Middle East are often violent; the Taliban
has resurged in Afghanistan since 2001.
President George W. Bush believed Saddam
Hussein was a threat to the security of
the United States. He tried to convince
the United Nations to take action but
was unsuccessful. Bush then persuaded
Congress to approve his invasion plans.
The United States invaded Iraq and
defeated Saddam Hussein in six weeks.
A Example summary: A main goal of U.S.
foreign policy is to create a world in which
all nations forge their own way of life
without interference from other nations.
Such interference was a major reason for
fighting World War II.
B Example summary: Every nation must
decide whether to adopt freedom and
democratic values or oppression and
communist values. Often this decision
cannot be made freely.
C Example summary: The U.S. policy will
be to provide economic and financial aid
to help free nations resist forces trying to
dominate them, so that they can determine
their own way of life.
D Example summary: Depressed economic
conditions breed totalitarianism, which
flourishes when people lose hope for a
better life. It is our duty as a world leader
to help free nations remain free. If we fail
in this task, our security and that of the
rest of the world will be in danger.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. d
3. f
4. e
5. c
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. b
9. b
10. d
Core Worksheet A 3
The events and their associated foreign
policies should be listed on the timeline in the
sequence shown below:
4, 1867, f, h
7, 1898, f, h
10, 1899, i
6, 1903, j
12, 1917, g
13, 1941, g
11, 1945, a
1, 1948, b
5, 1950, a, b
3, 1962, b, d
14, 1965, b
2, 1972, c
8, 1979, b
9, 2003, a, g
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. d
3. f
4. e
5. c
6. a
Main Ideas
7. d
8. b
9. d
10. b
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 17 Section 4
International Organization in San
Francisco in 1945. Representatives of 50
nations drafted the United Nations Charter
at this conference. After the UN Charter
was ratified by these 50 states, it went into
force on October 24, 1945. The UN held
the first session of its General Assembly on
January 10, 1946.
5. the maintenance of international peace
and security, the development of
friendly relations between and among all
nations, and the promotion of justice and
cooperation in the solution of international
problems
6. (a) The General Assembly has been called
“the town meeting of the world.” It
meets once a year, and each of the UN’s
members has a seat and a vote in the
Assembly. It elects the 10 nonpermanent
members of the Security Council, the
54 members of the Economic and Social
Council, and the elective members of the
Trusteeship Council. It also selects the
secretary-general and the 15 judges of
the International Court, in conjunction
with the Security Council. It shares with
the Security Council the power to admit,
suspend, or expel members, but the
Assembly alone may propose amendments
to the charter.
(b) The Security Council meets in
continuous sessions. It is made up of
the 10 nonpermanent members chosen
by the General Assembly, as well as five
permanent members—the United States,
Britain, France, Russia, and China. It
bears the UN’s major responsibility for
maintaining international peace. It can
place economic and military sanctions
on an offending nation and has provided
peacekeeping forces in several world
trouble spots.
(c) The Economic and Social Council is
responsible for carrying out the UN’s
many economic, cultural, educational,
health, and related activities. It coordinates
the work of the UN’s specialized agencies,
including the WHO, IMF, World Bank
Group, and FAO.
(d) The Trusteeship Council originally
monitored the way in which various UN
members administered 11 Trust Territories.
Because all of the Trust Territories have
Reading Comprehension 3
1. economic aid and military aid
2. Immediately after World War II, American
aid was primarily economic, and Europe
received most of American help. Since
that time, however, military assistance
has assumed a large role in aid policy, and
the largest amounts of American aid have
gone to Asia, the Middle East, and Latin
America.
3. NATO:
Member Nations: originally the United
States, Canada, the United Kingdom,
France, Italy, Portugal, the Netherlands,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway,
and Iceland; now 26 countries in Europe
and North America
Year Began: 1949
Still in Effect?: Yes
Rio Pact:
Member Nations: United States, Canada,
and 32 Latin American countries
Year Began: 1947
Still in Effect?: Yes
ANZUS Pact:
Member Nations: Australia, New Zealand,
United States
Year Began: 1951
Still in Effect?: Yes
Japanese Pact:
Member Nations: Japan, United States
Year Began: 1951
Still in Effect?: Yes
Philippines Pact:
Member Nations: Philippines, United
States
Year Began: 1951
Still in Effect?: Yes, but there have been
disagreements over its redrafting
Korean Pact:
Member Nations: United States, South
Korea
Year Began: 1953
Still in Effect?: Yes
Taiwan Pact:
Member Nations: United States,
Nationalist China
Year Began: 1954
Still in Effect?: No (ended in 1980)
4. The United Nations came into being
at the United Nations Conference on
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
now achieved self-governing status, the
Trusteeship Council now exists in name
only.
(e) The International Court of Justice,
also known as the World Court, is the
UN’s judicial arm and sits in permanent
session at the Peace Palace in The Hague.
It handles cases brought to it voluntarily
by both members and nonmembers of the
UN. It also advises the other UN bodies on
legal questions.
(f) The Secretariat is the civil service
branch of the UN. It is headed by the
secretary-general, who heads a staff of
some 9,000 people who conduct the dayto-day work of the UN. The secretarygeneral prepares the UN’s budget and
may bring before the Security Council
any matter he believes poses a threat to
international peace and security.
7. The United States has a long and close
relationship with the UN. The United
States occupies a permanent place in
the Security Council and funds over 20
percent of the UN budget. However, the
United States has at times been critical of
the UN and has even withheld payment
of funds to it. Yet, despite disagreements,
the United States often works closely with
the UN on a variety of issues to further
policies that are important to both, such as
environmental and humanitarian crises.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) The two kinds of foreign aid are
economic aid and military aid. (b) The U.S.
gives more military aid today.
2. Regional security alliances are treaties
that countries make with other countries
to protect themselves from danger in a
particular part of the world.
3. NATO
Purpose: NATO was formed to promote
peace and provide common defense
against attack.
Members: countries bordering the North
Atlantic, including the United States; now
26 members
ANZUS pact
Purpose: The ANZUS pact is a defense
pact covering the South Pacific.
Members: United States, Australia, New
Zealand
Organization of American States
Purpose: This pact promotes policies that
improve economic and social development
in the Americas.
Members: nations from North, South, and
Central America
(a) The United Nations was established in
1945 when fifty countries met in California.
(b) The United Nations was formed after
World War II to keep peace in the world,
develop friendly relations among nations,
and protect human rights.
The UN General Assembly has been called
“the town meeting of the world.”
(a) The Security Council is a 15-member
panel of the United Nations. (b) It has
the major responsibility for keeping
international peace.
Food and Agriculture Organization: To
end hunger in countries around the world
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO): To end extreme
poverty around the world
World Bank Group: Supports programs
that fight poverty and improve living
conditions in developing nations
United Nations Children’s Fund
(UNICEF): To provide food, clothing, and
health care to children
World Health Organization (WHO):
Supports the attainment of good health
around the world
The United States funds over 20 percent of
the UN budget and holds a permanent seat
on the Security Council. The United States
sometimes disagrees with UN decisions
and has withheld money. Nonetheless, the
United States generally works closely with
the United Nations.
Core Worksheet A 3
A sample answer for the Environmental
column is given below:
Issue: deforestation of the Amazon rainforest
Country or region: Northern South America,
especially Brazil
Type of aid and organizations providing
it: Possibly monetary and scientific;
possible organizations: UNESCO, UN
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
World Wildlife Fund
Benefits to region affected: Preserving the
rainforest enables the region to earn income
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B
from sustainable harvesting of the forest’s
resources and from tourism.
Benefits to the United States: The rainforest’s
biodiversity benefits all nations, including
the United States, by providing unique plants
used for medicines and by removing carbon
waste from the atmosphere.
Key Terms
1. d
2. f
3. c
4. a
5. b
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. b
10. a
Core Worksheet B 3
1. They might resort to rebellion against their
oppressors.
2. Possible response: freedom of speech,
freedom of religion, equality for all
without discrimination, freedom from fear
and want
Article 3
Y
Article 5
Y
Article 7
Y
Article 9
Y
Article 11 Y
Article 13 N
Article 14 N
Article 16 N
Article 17 Y
Article 18 Y
Article 20 Y
Article 21 Y
Article 23 N
Article 24 N
Article 25 N
Article 26 N
Article 27 N
Critical Thinking
1. Students’ answers will vary but will most
likely include the basic rights described in
the U.S. Constitution.
2. Students’ answers will vary but should show
an understanding of basic human rights and
should be well-reasoned and clearly stated.
CHAPTER 17
Test A
Key Terms
1. c
2. j
3. e
4. f
5. g
6. b
7. a
8. i
9. h
10. d
Multiple Choice
11. c
12. d
13. a
14. c
15. b
16. c
17. d
18. b
19. b
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. Possible response: During the cold war,
the United States adopted a strategy of
deterrence—maintaining a strong military
to discourage any attack by a hostile
power. This resulted in a build-up of the
military that is reflected in the increase in
active duty personnel from 1979 to 1989.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union
in 1991, the military was downsized
dramatically, which is reflected in the
figures from 1991 to 1999.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. b
3. d
4. a
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. b
10. a
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued)
18. a
19. b
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. (a) The number of active duty military
personnel first increased from 1979 to 1987
and then began to decrease gradually.
(b) The build-up in forces reflects the U.S.
policy of deterrence through the Reagan
administration; the gradual decrease after
1987 reflects the lessened need for high
troop numbers after the collapse of the
Soviet Union.
Critical Thinking Question
22. (a) The five areas of responsibility are
(1) to protect infrastructure providing
necessary services, including water, roads,
and bridges; (2) to safeguard against
terrorist attacks; (3) to make the country’s
borders and ports secure; (4) to work with
local governments to prepare citizens for
possible emergencies; and (5) to study
intelligence gathered by other government
agencies. (b) The work of the department
is complex because the United States is a
vast country with a very long border to
protect. The Department of Homeland
Security must work with many different
agencies, state and local governments, and
the American public.
Essay
23. Students’ opinions will vary, but their
essays should reflect an understanding
of some of the various policies that the
United States has pursued. Students could
mention the shift in American foreign
policy during and after World War II from
isolationism to internationalism. Students
could outline the participation of the
United States in the United Nations and
other security alliances. Students might
comment on the kinds of foreign aid the
United States provides and the purposes
this aid serves as well as the role the
United States plays in dealing with threats
to international peace and security.
Critical Thinking
22. Sample response: The five areas of
responsibility are (1) border and
transportation security; (2) infrastructure
protection; (3) emergency preparedness
and response; (4) chemical, biological,
radiological, and nuclear defense; and
(5) information analysis (intelligence).
The work of the department is complex
because the United States is a vast country
and its protection requires the coordinated
effort of the department’s agencies, State
and local governments, and the American
public.
Essay
23. Students’ opinions will vary, but their
essays should reflect an understanding of
the various policies that the United States
has pursued in its interactions with other
countries, from the founding of the nation
to the present. Students might mention
the shift in American foreign policy from
isolationism to active internationalism,
the participation of the United States in
the United Nations and other security
alliances, and the current emphasis on
collective security. Students might also
mention the kinds of foreign aid the
United States provides and the purposes
this aid serves, as well as the role the
United States plays in combating threats to
international peace and security.
Test B
Key Terms
1. c
2. j
3. e
4. f
5. g
6. b
7. a
8. i
9. h
10. d
Main Ideas
11. b
12. c
13. c
14. d
15. a
16. c
17. b
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UNIT 4 Answer Key (continued) - Riverside County Office of