IEPS2014
International Education Postgraduate Seminar 2014
23-24 December 2014
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor
Malaysia
PROCEEDINGS
VOLUME 3
INNOVATION, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR
EDUCATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
2014
Published by:
FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
Faculty of Education
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, Johor, Johor Bahru
Malaysia
@ Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
All reserved. None of the publication of this proceeding can be republished or
transferred in any means, electronically or mechanically such as copying,
recording or storing for reproduction or accessed without the written consent
from the holders of the rights.
All the papers in this proceeding are presented at the International Education
Postgraduate Seminar 2014, 23 - 24 December 2014 at Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia
Cataloguing-in – Publication Data
International Education Postgraduate Seminar (2014 : Johor Bahru, Johor)
IEPS2014 International Education Postgraduate Seminar 2014:
PROCEEDINGS INNOVATION, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR
EDUCATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY, VOLUME III, 23 – 24 December 2014,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor Malaysia /
Edited by: Lokman Mohd Tahir, Aede Hatib Musta’amal, Azlina Mohd
Kosnin, Halijah Ibrahim, Mohd Safarin Nordin, Sarimah Ismail, Najua
Syuhada Ahmad Alhassora, Ana Haziqah A Rashid, Farhana Diana Deris,
Mohd Rustam Mohd Rameli, Norhafizah Sulaiman, Nor Farhah Saidin.
ISBN 978-967-12174-6-7
1. Education, Higher—Malaysia—Congresses.
2. Educational change—Malaysia—Congresses. I. Lokman Mohd Tahir,.
II. Aede Hatib Musta’amal. III. Azlina Mohd Kosnin. IV. Halijah Ibrahim.
V. Mohd Safarin Nordin. VI. Sarimah Ismail. VII. Najua Syuhada Ahmad
Alhassora. VIII. Ana Haziqah A Rashid. IX. Farhana Diana Deris.
X. Mohd Rustam Mohd Rameli. XI. Norhafizah Sulaiman. XII. Nor
Farhah Saidin. XIII. Tittle.
378.595
Designed by:
Graphic Unit, Faculty of Education, UTM
Proofreaders:
Najua Syuhada Ahmad Alhassora
Ana Haziqah A Rashid
Edited by:
Lokman Mohd Tahir
Aede Hatib Musta’amal
Azlina Mohd Kosnin
Halijah Ibrahim
Mohd Safarin Nordin
Sarimah Ismail
Najua Syuhada Ahmad Alhassora
Ana Haziqah A Rashid
Farhana Diana Deris
Mohd Rustam Mohd Rameli
Norhafizah Sulaiman
Nor Farhah Saidin
Message from the Patron
PROF. DR BAHARUDDIN ARIS
Assalamualaikum
greetings!
Wrt
Wbt
and
warmest
In consonance with Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia’s aspiration to be recognised as a world
class centre of academic and technological
excellence through its commitment in enhancing
innovative education and developing cutting-edge research while
perfecting the technical and professional workforce of the nation, I am
pleased that the Faculty of Education with strong support from its
Postgraduate Student Society (PGSSFP) is organising the first International
Education Postgraduate Seminar (IEPS2014).
One of the basic aims of research is to make human lives better, including
the researchers themselves. To achieve this, researchers need to go beyond
producing good dissertations. Research findings must be disseminated to
become part of international literature to allow a more robust and
condensed understanding of different phenomena in theoretical and
practical avenues. Sharing research findings and future objectives of
exploration via presentations and publications is essential in helping
researchers enhance self-development, expand intellectual horizon, and
acquaint with the publishing and sharing practices. Research cannot and
should not be done in isolation; I hope this seminar will not only provide
young and budding researchers a glimpse of the world of research that all
academicians need to embrace but also foster connections and
collaborations between researchers.
Seeing this seminar taking place gives me great pleasure. I applaud the
concentrated efforts between lecturers, support staff and postgraduates at
the Faculty. I am also very proud of all the presenters and participants who
are part of the community of this first IEPS2014. This is indeed a great step
forward for everyone!
Congratulations!
Message from the General Chair
DR AZLINA MOHD KOSNIN
Assalamualaikum Wrt Wbt and warmest
greetings!
It gives me great pleasure to welcome
everyone to the International Education
Postgraduate Seminar (IEPS2014).
With the aim to transform all of research activities of the education
postgraduates into an event of sharing and communication, IEPS2014
provides excellent opportunities for students to share initial findings and
research directions and to receive helpful critique that will guide them
towards better practices. This event will not only be helpful in informing
research practices but will also be a contributor in developing students as
future researchers and academicians.
The theme of this seminar, “Innovation, Issues and Challenges for
Educational Sustainability” is most accurate to be brought forward because
this theme signals the important shift in education. Be it in curriculum
development, assessment, leadership, science education, vocational
education, psychology, counseling, or multimedia education, the aims of
research in education must be geared towards achieving educational
sustainability.
To IEPS2014 Advisory and Organising Committee, I congratulate you for
spearheading this FIRST International Education Postgraduate Seminar
(IEPS2014). I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to the School
of Graduate Studies for the generous grant, support and contribution. This
appreciation also goes to everyone who have contributed in one way or
another. Thank you for seeing the potentials of our postgraduates, for
investing in their future, to inspire and to foster successful community.
To all delegates, presenters, and participants, this seminar is now all yours.
I hope everyone will find the seminar inspiring and enriching, through
discussions and networking with new acquaintances and colleagues.
Message from the Organising Chairperson
FARHANA DIANA DERIS
Assalamualaikum Wrt Wbt and warmest
greetings! Welcome to the FIRST International
Education Postgraduate Seminar!
In promoting educational sustainability, we need
to take into account the context in which we live in,
and the ways in which the world is interrelated; the
society today lives in a world that is decisively supported and
interconnected by technology. Embracing this monumental advancement,
educational institutions need to produce world-class human capital with
competent skills and intellectual capacity, commendable traits, values and
attributes that are pertinent in the present and future context and necessary
in thriving in this social and technological context.
This indeed highlights the importance of deliberation and exchange of
ideas, experience and opinions in the pursuit of improving the different
fields of education. Thus, this seminar, aptly themed, “innovation, issues
and challenges for educational sustainability”, is very timely. This seminar
also captures the overarching role of multiple perspectives in informing
practices, revolutionising the way teaching and learning are conceptualised,
and inspiring new methodologies. Therefore, I hope this two-day seminar
not only will enrich participants with research-related experiences but will
also pave the way for fruitful dialogues and insightful deliberations towards
achieving educational sustainability.
I would also like to take this opportunity to express my sincerest gratitude
and appreciation to everyone who have contributed in one way or another
to the success of this seminar, especially to the organising committee, the
Postgraduate Student Society, Faculty of Education (PGSSFP). To all
invited speakers, presenters and participants, thank you for your
participation and support, without which this seminar would not have been
possible.
See you again at the SECOND International Education Postgraduate
Seminar!
IEPS2014 COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr Baharuddin Aris
Patron
Assoc. Prof. Dr Muhammad Sukri Saud
Advisor
Dr Azlina Mohd Kosnin
General Chair
Dr Aede Hatib Musta’amal @ Jamal
Vice Chair
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Dr Nor Fadila Mohd Amin
Secretary I
Dr Halijah Ibrahim
Secretary II
Dr Nor Hasniza Ibrahim
Treasurer & PGSSFP Advisor
Pn Mulenawati Munawi
Assistant Treasurer
Assoc. Prof. Dr Lokman Tahir
Papers and Publication
Dr Mohd Safarin Nordin
Papers and Publication
Dr Sarimah Ismail
Papers and Publication
Assoc. Prof. Dr Noraffandy Yahaya
Technical, Equipment, and Broadcasting
Dr M Al-Muz-Zamil Yasin
Technical, Equipment, and Broadcasting
Dr Yusri Kamin
Logistics and Venue
Dr Abdul Halim Abdullah
Logistics and Venue
Dr Mahani Mokhtar
Protocol and Event Management
Dr Adibah Abdul Latif
Certificate, Token and Honorariums
Dr Noor Dayana Abdul Halim
Publicity, Graphic and Montage
Pn Siti Noraini Mohd Zali
Publicity, Graphic and Montage
Dr Norazrena Abu Samah
Website and Communication
Dr Hasnah Mohamed
Website and Communication
Dr Megat Aman Zahiri Megat Zakaria Website and Communication
Website and Communication
Website and Communication
ORGANISING COMMITTEE
Farhana Diana Deris
Suraiya Haji Muhamad
Fatimah Sarah Yaacob
Crystal Joan Peter
Kho Pui Wun
Nur ‘Aqilah Mohd Norain
Norhafizah Sulaiman
Noor Izzati Ariff
Organising Chairperson
Organising Vice Chairperson
Secretary III
Vice Secretary (Department of Technical and
Engineering Education)
Vice Secretary (Department of Educational Science,
Mathematics and Creative Multimedia)
Vice Secretary (Department of Educational Foundation and
Social Science)
Treasurer II
Vice Treasurer
Sponsorship & Exhibition
Mohd Rustam Mohd Rameli
Nurul Sa’dah Saipuldin
Nor Farhah Saidin
Papers and Publication
Najua Syuhada Ahmad Alhassora
Ana Haziqah A. Rashid
Mohd Nur Al Sufi Romele
Publicity, Graphic and Montage
Nur Jannah Jamil
Logistics and Venue
Uzailun Nafais Zainal Abidin
Technical, Equipment, and Broadcasting
Sashendran A/L Vanarajan
Secretariat
Suhaimi Zakaria @ Othman
Latifah Abdul Raub
Protocol and Event Management
Muhammad Umar Khan
Norulbiah Ngah
Nurul Farhana Jumaat
Noor Azaref Naim
Rosidah Abdullah Sani
Zurina Hamid
Samira Nikian
Hazlin Haron
Miller Yong
Norashuha Tajuddin
Faridah Mat Nor
Siti Rahimah Mohd Yusop
Norhayati Ahmad
Rafaquat Ali
Ahmad Firdaus Abd Hadi
Siti Khadijah Lokman
Hafzan Ibrahim
Noriadah Abdul Karim
Diyana Zulaika Abdul Ghani
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ID NO.
TITLE
PAGE
2
Predicting Model of Academic Buoyancy:
The Roles of Achievement Goals and SelfRegulation
Mohd Rustam Mohd Rameli, Azlina Mohd
Kosnin
1
5
Pengaruh
Kompetensi
Keusahawanan
Terhadap Tingkahlaku Inovatif
Mohd. Asri Ispal, Mohd. Khata Jabor, Asnul
Dahar Minghat
14
19
A Myopic Comparative Review Between
Five-Factor Model And Hexaco Model Of
Human Personality
Mahtab Ghadimi, Mohd Tajudin Ninggal
Mohd Tajudin Ninggal
27
23
Holistic
Approach For
Correctional
Education In TVET: Hatching The Hace In
Prison Education
Muhamad Afzamiman Aripin, Rohana
Hamzah, Ros Eliana Ahmad Zuki, Akhmal
Annas Hasmori
38
24
Designing Educational Simulation For
Impact Test Machine
Ahmed Hadi Hatif Shubber, Amirmudin Bin
Udin, Asnul Bin Minghat
49
29
Perlaksanaan
Amalan
Kepimpinan
'Turnaround' Dalam Kalangan Pengetua
Sekolah Menengah Di Negeri Sabah
Irene Branda Macus, Khadijah Bt Daud
63
32
Internet Usage Among Undergraduate
Students In A Public University In Malasia
Lu Xi, Yeo Kee Jiar
76
33
Meeting Supervisors' Expectations of
Undergraduates Final Year Project Reports
Salawati Ahmad, Masputeriah Bte Hamzah
83
35
KeberkesananModulNilaiKelestarianDalam
TopikDayaTingkatanEmpat
MohdFadhliZakaria, FatinAliahPhang
94
37
Construction On Molee Career Instrument
(Mci) As Selection Tool In Allied Health
Courses
Gooh Mo Lee, Syed Mohamed Shafeq Bin
Syed Mansor, Yeo Kee Jiar, Yahya Buntat
112
40
The Need For Problem-Based Learning In
Nigerian Secondary Schools Chemistry
Lessons
Abubakar Abbas Babayi, Mohammad
YusofArshad
121
41
Cadangan Pembinaan Model Penghujahan
Saintifik Dalam Kimia
Chuzairy Hanri, Mohammad Yusof Arshad
132
44
ESL Learners’ English Learning Attitudes
In Chinese Independent High Schools Khei
146
Yok Man @ Khei Yok Lee, Noor Zainab Bt
Abdul Razak
50
Investigating The Existing Literary Text In
School: Students Perception About The
Need Of Criteria In Text Selection
Aryanti Ishak, Zaidah Zainal
156
51
The Corelation Between Psychological
Needs And Social Network Activities
Shima Mashayekhi, Mohd Tajudin Md.
Ningal
166
60
Pengetahuan Teknologi Guru Cemerlang
Fizik
ZarirahAbdul Hamid, FatinAliahPhang
178
62
Persepsi Majikan Terhadap Pekerja Bagi
Industri Pembuatan
Chua Siew Lian, Yusri Kamin
189
63
Pembentukan Item Instrumen Sistem
Kepercayaan Yang Salah: Suatu Kajian
Kualitatif
Mohd Nur Al Sufi Romele, Syed Mohammed
Shafeq Syed Mansor
202
64
Inculcation Of Values To Overcome
Disciplinary Problems In Skill-Based
Educational Institutions
Nor Aishah Abdul Aziz, Mohd Zolkifli Abd
Hamid
218
65
Generic Employability Skills Integration In
Technical And Vocational Education
Curriculum: A Requirement For The
232
Preparation Of The 21st Century Workforce
Azlan Abdul Latip, Muhammad Inti
66
Komitmen
Kerja
Pengetua
Dalam
Melaksanakan
Tugas
Pada
Sekolah
Menengah Pertama (Smp) Negeri Di Bandar
Padang
Syahril, Khadijah Binti Daud Daud
243
67
Assessment
Practices
And
Epistemological Beliefs
Lee Ween Shin, Fatin Aliah Phang
Physics
252
72
Penerapan Strategi Pengutaraan Masalah
Untuk Meningkatkan Kemahiran Berfikir
Aras Tinggi
MuniandyVinogharri, JohariSurif
265
74
Patterns Of Teaching Approach Adopted By
Preservice Teachers In Teaching Writing
Sarala @ Thulasi Palpanadan, Fauziah
Ismail, Abdul Rahim
291
80
Stail Pembelajaran Guru Pelatih Dalam
Praktikum Latihan Mengajar
Nur’Ain Baharin, Mohd Zolkifli Abd
Hamid, DayanaFarzeeha Ali
304
84
The Socratic Method Online To Improve
Critical And High Order Thinking Among
Students
Salihuddin
Md.
Suhadi,
Hasnah
Mohammed, Norasykin Mohd.Zaid, Zaleha
Abdullah, Baharuddin Aris
319
87
Difficulties
325
Of
Implementing
Communicative Language Teaching (Clt) In
Malaysia
Samira Nikian, Faizah Mohamad Nor
92
A Framework Of Scenario-Epistemic Game
For Proffesional Skills And Higher Order
Thinking Skills
Kho Pui Wun, Jamalludin Harun
340
96
Conceptual Framework Of Video Learning
Based On Popbl
Cbe Khairul Anuar Abdul Rahman,
Muhammad Sukri Saud, Yusri Kamin,
Norazrena Abu Samah
355
100
Persepsi Pelajar Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
(Sbp) Terhadap Mata PelajaranFizik
NurHazwaniZakaria, Mohamad Bilal Ali
370
102
Mengenal
pasti
Kesan
Pendidikan
Keusahawanan Pada Pelajar Kejuruteraan
Ahmad Firdaus Abd Hadi, Khata Jabor,
DayanaF arzeha Ali
385
106
Personality Traits And Life Satisfaction: A
Study Among Students In A Public
University
Seyedeh Maryam Geramian, Mohd Tajudin
Ninggal
397
107
Task Induced Involvement:The Issue Of
Reactivity On The Development Of
Vocabulary: A Review Paper
Halah Abdulelah Mohammed, Norazman
Abdul Majid, Tina Abdllah
408
109
The Study Of Argumentative Knowledge
Construction In Web 2.0 Learning
Environment Towards Students’ Critical
Thinking Skills
Siti Nur Khadijah Aishah Ibrahim,
Jamalludin Harun
415
114
Pendidikan
Teknikal
Dan
Latihan
Vokasional Ke Arah Pemupukan Kemahiran
Generik Hijau
Nadia Hartini Mohd Adzmi, Mohd Zolkifli
Abd Hamid, Yusri Kamin
435
121
Employing Written Corrective Feedback In
Teaching Writing
Ng Siew Fong, Wan Fara Adlina Wan
Mansor, Abdul Rahim Haji Salam
446
122
Amalan Kepimpinan Tranformasi Guru
Besar Dan Impaknya Terhadap Komitmen
Guru Sekolah Rendah Di Negeri Sabah
Faridah Mat Noor, Khadijah Bt Daud
451
124
Pendekatan Konteks Pengguna Dalam
Rekabentuk Persekitaran Pembelajaran
Secara Talian Terus
Nur Syamimi Mohd Razali, Noraffandy
Yahaya
470
125
Kompetensi Pengetua Dan Pengurusan
Perubahan Di Sekolah
Kalithasan Muniandy, M.Al-Muzzammil
Yasin
474
126
Mengkaji Kemahiran Berfikir Kritis Dan
Pencapaian Pelajar Menerusi Persekitaran
490
Pembelajaran Kolaboratif Berbantukan
Komputer
Bagi
Subjek
Bahasa
Pengaturcaraan
Siti Mastura Baharudin, Jamalludin Harun
129
Fostering Problem Solving In Chemistry:
The Importance, Difficulties And The Needs
Of Scientific Creativity
SitiSalbiah Omar, Noor Dayana Abdul
Halim, JohariSurif, JamalludinHarun
507
131
Penghasilan Video Interaktif Bagi Pengujian
Ketangkasan Reaktif Khusus Untuk
Permainan Bola Jaring
NurEzzainiMohd Nor, Halijah Ibrahim
520
142
RobotikDalamPendidikan Di Malaysia
Hafzan Ibrahim, Mohamad Bilal Ali,
FatinAliahPhang, Norazrena Abu Samah
530
145
Conceptual
Changes
In
Scientific
Argumentation Through Guided Group
Settings
Heng Lee Ling, Johari Surif,Seng Cher Hau
539
146
Concept Map As an Alternative Assessment
in Laboratory Activities
Intan Baizura A Ghani, Noraffandy Yahaya,
Nor Hasniza Ibrahim, Mohamed Noor
Hassan
550
149
Quantitative Research on Education For
Sustainable Development (Esd) Practices
Among Malaysian Polytechnics
Crystal Joan Peter, Wilfredo Libunao
561
152
Parental Monitoring On The Adolescence
Development
Normalis Bazid, Zainudin Abu Bakar
577
154
Kerangka Konseptual Kesediaan Guru
Dalam
Melaksanakan
Pentaksiran
Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS) Di Sekolah
Menengah Semenanjung Malaysia
SivakkumarBalakrishnan, Muhammad Sukri
Saud
591
156
Tinjauan Masalah Pengurusan Proses PBS
Dan Ciri-Ciri Elemen Pentaksiran Yang
Perlu Ada Dalam Satu Sistem Pengurusan
Eportfolio PBS
Suhaizal Hashim, Jamalludin Harun
605
162
Pendekatan
Pembelajaran
Berasaskan
Konteks Untuk Memupuk Literasi Sains
dalam Bilik Darjah
Latifah Abdul Raub, Muhammad Yusof
Arshad, Nurbiha A.Shukor
619
168
Chemical Problem-Solving Competency Of
Open-Ended Problems Aiming To Improve
Higher Order Thinking Skills(HOTS):
Authentic Practice Suraiya Muhamad,
Jamalludin Harun, Johari Surif, Noor
Dayana Abdul Halim
632
171
Menggalakkan
Kemahiran
Pemodelan
Pelajar Dalam Kimia Menggunakan Process
Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (Pogil)
Siti Zubaidah Omar, Muhammad Yusof
Arshad, Mohd Shafie Rosli, Nurbiha
A.Shukor
646
173
Impak Personaliti Pengetua Terhadap
Prestasi Sekolah Di Smp Sulawesi Selatan
Indonesia
Usman Baharuddin, Khadijah Binti Daud
656
174
E-Learning Environment For Deaf Students
In Learning Science: A Theoretical
Framework
Mohd Hisyamuddin Mohd Hashim, Zaidatun
Tasir
666
176
Pelaksanaan
Pembelajaran
Berasaskan
Projek (PjBL) Di Politeknik Malaysia. Satu
Kajian Awal
Mohd Noramdzan Mohd Yusof, Aede Hatib
Musta’amal, Nor Salwa Ismail
677
180
Factors Causing Secondary
Involved In Loitering
Gan Lui Nam, Yeo Kee Jiar
Students
688
184
Kesan Pengurusan Pengetahuan Dan
Mediator Budaya Sekolah Ke Atas
Keberkesanan Pengurusan Sekolah
Tee Bee Tin, Dr. Khadijah binti Daud
695
185
Kaedah
Pengajaran
Pendidikan
Keusahawanan: Suatu Kajian Literatur
Roziati Sumin, Yahya Buntat, Siti Suhaila
Samian, Normala Rahmat
708
191
The Impact Of Teaching Strategies And
Chinese Language Learning In National
School
Ng Sar Ee, Yeo Kee Jiar
720
192
Pengaruh Amalan Nilai Kendiri Pengetua
Terhadap Sikap Kerja Dan Disiplin Kerja
Muhammad Asri, Lokman Mohd Tahir
728
193
The Level And Causes Of Stress Intention
To Resign Working Among Geography
Teachers In A District In Malaysia
Shahrudin Jemaat, Irkhaniza Md Rahim,
Syed Mohamed Syafeq Mansor
739
195
Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek (PBP) Dan
Pendidikan Abad Ke-21
Mazlan Setapa, Mohamad Bilal Ali, Fatin
Aliah Phang, Abd Khamim, Ismail
754
197
Psikospiritual Islam Dan Kesan Aplikasinya
Dalam Kehidupan Manusia
Nur Afzan Muhamad, Azlina Mohd Kosnin
767
202
Modul Pengajaran Sains Topik “Nutrisi”
Berteraskan Model Konstruktivis Bersepadu
Zainab binti Jelani jelani, Johari bin Surif
Surif
778
207
Pengaruh Kepimpinan Instruksional Guru
Besar Dan Efikasi Kolektif Guru Terhadap
Komitmen Organisasi Guru
Khadijah Daud, Hafizuddin Md Shakhih
795
215
Kriteria Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran
Kursus Pendidikan Vokasional Yang Dapat
Membangunkan Pemikiran Aras Tinggi
Pelajar
Nurzalina Hashim, Muhammad Sukri Saud
814
218
Strategi Pengajaran Sains Berasaskan
Epistemologi Saintifik
Mohamad Faqih Junus, Fatin Aliah Phang
823
219
Epistemology, Scientific Epistemology,
Epistemology Move: A Review
Muhammad Hidayat Ishak, Fatin Aliah
Phang
842
221
Transformasi Psikologi Diri Pensyarah IPG
Menerusi Aplikasi Profil Personaliti Tajma
Hasbullah Abukassim, Mohd Tajudin
Ninggal Mohd Tajudin Ninggal
852
225
Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah Dalam
Sains:Satu Meta Analisis
Mohd Mokhzani Ibrahim, Mohammad Yusof
Arshad, Nurbiha A.Shukor, Mohd Shafie
Rosli
862
227
Perbandingan Kurikulum Sains (KBSM)
Dengan Pendidikan Saintis Muslim Zaman
Kegemilangan Islam
Nurhasyimah Ismail, Norhasniza Ibrahim
876
234
Floating Facilitation in Malaysian Chemistry
Pbl Lesson
Tan Yin Peen, Mohammad Yusof Arshad
891
237
Teknik Pembelajaran Tilawah Al-Qur’an Di
Era ICT
Noor Azaref Naim, Jamalludin Harun
907
238
Chemistry Teachers' Understanding Of
Models Of Teaching And Learning In
Practical Work
922
Oi Lee Jenny Cheng, Mohammad Yusof
Arshad,
242
Cognitive
Ability
And
Academic
Achievement
Of Undergraduates In
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Chong Yi Long, Yeo Kee Jiar
935
245
Investigation of Efl Adults Motivation
toward Using Commercial Computer Games
to Learn English Language
Elham Mahmoudi, Adlina Bt Samad
950
247
Criteria For Selecting Bulding Technology
Students For Creative Thinking Skill
Acquisition In Nigeria Technical Colleges
Jonathan Ojo Oke, Aede Hatib Musta’amal
965
252
Development Of Matter Concept
Submicroscopic Level Across Ages
Nurdiana Abdullah, Johari Bin Surif
979
On
1
PREDICTING MODEL OF
ACADEMIC BUOYANCY: THE
ROLES OF ACHIEVEMENT
GOALS AND SELF-REGULATION
Mohd Rustam Mohd Rameli & Azlina Mohd Kosnin
ABSTRACT
The existence of challenges in learning Mathematics is an
undeniable reality. The challenges come from various sources and
each of the sources can affect students’ learning progress in certain
ways. To ensure students are able to pursue their academic goals, it
is important to identify students’ ability to overcome the academic
challenges that they face. Students’ capacity to overcome their
daily academic challenges is known as academic buoyancy.
Academic buoyancy acts as a protective element to make students
persist in the learning process. This paper suggests a model of
academic buoyancy in Mathematics where achievement goal
orientations and self-regulation are the two individual
characteristics postulated as the predictors. The Bigg’s 3P model of
effective learning is used as the basis of the model. The 3P model
involves two main phases (presage and process) which will
determine students’ learning outcomes. In the model proposed in
this paper, achievement goal orientation presages students’ selfregulation process which will then influence students’ academic
buoyancy in Mathematics. The suggested model can become a
guideline for teachers, parents and academic practitioners in
2
assisting students in facing daily academic challenges in the
Mathematics.
Keywords: Challenges, Capacity, Academic
Achievement Goal Orientations, Self-Regulation
Buoyancy,
STUDENTS WELLBEING AND ACADEMIC BUOYANCY
Students’ wellbeing which is referred as students’ survival in daily
schooling life is given much attention in the education system.
This is due to the belief that wellbeing is a significant element that
is related to positive learning outcomes. Besides, this variable is a
social construct emphasized by teachers, psychologists, counselors,
parents and educational researchers in assessing student selfdevelopment (Miller, Connolly and Maguire, 2013).
Measuring students’ academic buoyancy is one of the effective
methods to understand and conceptualize students’ wellbeing or
survival in the education context (Martin and Marsh, 2006, 2008).
Academic buoyancy is a significant element in assisting students to
manage and face academic risks especially the risks which
frequently and continuously occur in daily life (Martin and Marsh,
2009). These risks include the possibility of getting bad marks in
evaluation or failed to submit assignment before the deadline. It is
important for academic practitioners to give emphasis to the
elements of academic buoyancy in assisting students to face
academic difficulties.
OVERVIEW OF ACADEMIC BUOYANCY
Adversities and difficulties in learning are the challenges in daily
schooling life (Finn and Rock, 1997; Martin and Marsh, 2006,
2009). Recent research showed that student’s capacity to face the
challenges is a significant element in determining their academic
progress. This capacity is referred to academic buoyancy which is
3
related to the question on how good a student is able to face
academic difficulties (Martin and Marsh, 2009). Students who are
highly buoyant will have great ability to overcome daily schooling
challenges. This is because academic buoyancy acts as a protective
element and can also be the activator of calmness in oneself
(Martin and Marsh, 2008).
Academic buoyancy actually is a variable originated from the
literature of academic resiliency. However, academic buoyancy
does have its differences from the constructs of resiliency,
everyday hassles or overcome strategies. Specifically, buoyancy is
more related with daily resilience and focusing on individual
response towards daily challenges faced by most people and not
towards the continuous and critical challenges faced by a relatively
small number of people (Martin and Marsh, 2008, 2009).
Previous researches indicate that academic buoyancy can be
predicted by motivational beliefs (Martin, Colmar, Davey and
Marsh, 2010; Martin and Marsh, 2006) and also acts as a predictor
of students’ academic outcomes (Marsh, 2007). For example, selfefficacy, planning, persistence in doing task, monitoring and low
level of anxiety are the predictors of academic buoyancy (Martin,
Colmar, Davey, and Marsh, 2010). At the same time, academic
buoyancy has also been shown to predict student’s engagement,
student’s achievement and stress level of students (Marsh, 2007;
Putwain, Connors, Symes and Douglas-Osborn, 2012). However, the
selection process for the predicting variables is somewhat ad hoc
without having strong theoretical framework. Therefore the
framework of predicting academic buoyancy in Mathematics need
to be considered.
STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT GOAL ORIENTATION AND
ACADEMIC BUOYANCY
Nowadays, Mathematics is no longer passively learnt by students
(Dilworth, 1996). The focus of Mathematics education has shifted
from development of Mathemtics competencies to prepare students
4
who are fully functioning and able to continue the academic goals
(Pajares, 2001). Knowing how a student adopts specific
achievement goal orientation is significant in monitoring their
learning progress since achievement orientation is a mediator of
students learning process. Besides, different achievement goal
orientation will affect the different way of students’ engagement
and response in a certain achievement situation (Pintrich and
Schunk, 1996).
Previous studies has showed that students with different profile
of achievement goal orientation will differ in their subjective wellwellbeing (Tuominen-Soini, Salmela-Aro, Niemivirta, 2008). For
example, student with success-oriented profile is reported to have
negative emotional effect such as stress and anxiety. Align with
that, it is relevant to explore how the construct of wellbeing which
is buoyancy in the context of education in order to find out
students capacity in facing academic challenges and difficulties.
Specifically in the Mathematics education context, studies
reported that the nature of Mathematics tasks, classrooms norm
and also the nature of techers practices are very much influence the
students’ goals and intention to learn Mathematics (Meyer and
Turner, 2002; Pape, Bell and Yetkin, 2003; Turner, , Midgley,
Meyer, Gheen and Anderman, 2002). In addition, many educational
psychologist have conducted research related to motivation in the
context of Mathematics classroom. The significance of conducting
the studies is due to the situation that most of Mathematics
classrooms induce the negative effect on students’ motivation
(Ryan and Patrick, 2001). For instance, many teachers tend to
teach in the way they are being taught traditionally which much
related to performance-approach goal orientation (Brown and
Smith, 1997) and contribute to the nature of competition among
students (Anderman, Maehr, Midgley, 1999). The nature of
classroom setting that affect student motivation is also a strong
basis to the exploration of students’ academic buoyancy.
5
STUDENTS’
BUOYANCY
SELF-REGULATION
AND
ACADEMIC
In the last decade, the main aim for education has shifted from
producing students who are receiving knowledge in certain domain
to the enhancement of their autonomy and reflection (Dochy,
2001). Therefore, students nowadays are expected to enhance their
autonomy and learning competencies in depth to adopt the lifelong
learning and facing unexpected situation (Poldner, Simons,
Wijngaards and van der Schaaf, 2012). Self-regulation is one of the
important variables in determining academic progress since it is
one of the essential competencies to be build up especially in the
transition period from secondary schooling to tertiary education
(Torenbeek, Jansen and Hofman, 2010) despite of to ensure the
success in university learning process (Heikkilaa and Lonka, 2006;
Pintrich, 2004).
Many students was reported to have low ability in regulate
their learning. This is because learning regulation is high level skill
(Perry, Phillips amd Dowler, 2004; Pintrich, 2004; Winne, 2005;
Zimmerman, 2002) and also the degree of effectivness in using
self-regulation strategy is differ among students (Annevirta and
Vauras, 2006; Hong and Peng, 2008; Veenman, van Hout-Wolters
and Afflerbach, 2006). Moreover, enhancement of regulated
learning skill is becoming more important during the period of
transition from primary school to secondary school. This is
because the learning process in primary school is monitored
closely by the teacher but independent learning (schedule
arrangement, completion of homework, carrry out different tasks
given by different teacher) is practiced more in the secondary
school life (Butler, 2002; Cleary and Zimmerman, 2004).
In order to ensure that students are able to be independent in
their learning, acuquistion of regulation skills is very much
important. Unfortunately, previous studies showed that students in
their transition to the secondary school build up negative
motivation belief such as low self-efficacy towards ability in
regulating their learning (Corpus, McClintic- Gilbert and Hayenga,
6
2009; Usher and Pajares, 2008). This situation happen because
students lack of motivation and confidence in planning strategy
and academic practice which eventually feel difficult to face
academik needs. Align with the delivery of contemporary science
education that emphasize on acquisition of higher order thinking
(focus on learning process and skills to acquire new knowledge)
rather than only acquisition of basic skills and facts (Resnick,
1987; Zohar, 2004) has shifted the educators pedagogical model in
the 21st century which emphasize on the enhancement of selfregulatd learning (Duschl and Grandy, 2008; PISA, 2006).
PREDICTING MODEL OF ACADEMIC BUOYANCY
Academic buoyancy is related with all students in school which
establishing and validate a model in predicting students’ academic
buoyancy is a significant effort. For the purpose of this study, two
predictors of academic buoyancy which are achievement goal
orientation and self-regulation are choosen based on three main
reasons. Firstly, the suggested model is based on the Biggs’ 3P
effective learning Model. According to Bigss (1993), three
elements which are presage, process and product need to be taken
into account in learning process. All the three P’s are related with
each other in determining learning outcomes. Align with the
suggested model, the achievement goal orientation is a presage
phase which is followed by the process of self-regulation and its
lead to learning outcome which is academic buoyancy in
Mathematic.
Secondly, selection of achievement goal orientation and selfregulation is because the focus of this study on the individual
characteristic. This is based on the research findings on academic
resilience which showed that individual characteristic model is one
of the significant models in determining students’ resilience as
compared to effective school model, school resources model or
peers group model (Borman and Rachuba, 2001). Lastly, the
positive relationship between achievement goal orientation and
7
self-regulation with other academic variables is used as the basis to
establish their relationship wth academic buoyancy.
Different achievement goal was given attention in the research
on achievement motivation (Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). One of
the focus is on the relationship between achievement orientations
and academic performance. A lot of studies reported the significant
relationship between achievement orientation with academic
achievement in school and university setting (Murayama and
Elliot, 2009; Steinmayr and Spinath, 2009). Eventhough much
studies has indicated the importance of achievement orientation in
the academic context but its relationship with other predictor of
academic achievement still not much has been explored
Beside that, personal ability to be independent and resilient is
much related with academic achievement and academic
adjustment. The success adjustment can be seen through students’
learning behavior and their academic achievement. Eventhough
cognitive ability is related with academic success however recent
research reported that ability to regulate learning has a huge
influence on academic performance rather than their IQ
(Duckworth and Seligman, 2005). Previous research has been
conducted by focusing the influence of self-regulation towards
academic achievement but its relationship with academic buoyancy
still scarce.
SUMMARY
In going through the life as a students in school, the challenges,
adversities and difficulties are cannot be avoided to be faced.
(Martin dan Marsh, 2009). Specific in learning Mathemtics, the
nature of the subjects itself and also the negative perception
towards the subjects are the big challenges exist among students
(Gomez-Chacon, 2000). Moreover, the assessment pressure and
feeling of anxiety are another adversities need to be faced by the
students throughout their learning process in Mathematics (Arem,
2003; Marzita, 2002). Therefore, exploration on students’
8
academic buoyancy which related to their capacity to face those
challenges is very essential in order to ensure the students are able
to achieve the academic goals and persist in their Mathematics
learning.
Establishing a valid model in predicting academic buoyancy is
needed since not much model has existed or validated in previous
studies. Therefore the academic buoyancy model as suggested in
this study is very relevant. The strong basis of Biggs’ 3P effective
learning Model and also the significant of individual characteristic
model give a significant value to the proposed model.
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14
PENGARUH KOMPETENSI
KEUSAHAWANAN TERHADAP
TINGKAHLAKU INOVATIF
Mohd. Asri Ispal, Mohd Khata Jabor & Asnul Dahar Minghat
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti hubungan di antara
kompetensi keusahawanan terhadap tingkahlaku inovatif.
Responden yang terlibat dalam kajian ini ialah guru praperkhidmatan (pelajar) yang sedang mengikuti pengajian Program
Ijazah Sarjana Muda Perguruan (PISMP) di Institut Pendidikan
Guru Malaysia (IPG). Seramai 413 orang pelajar PISMP telah
dipilih daripada beberapa buah IPG di seluruh Malaysia. Instrumen
soal selidik digunakan untuk mendapatkan maklumbalas responden
terhadap konstruk-konstruk yang dikaji. Instrumen untuk
mengukur konstruk kompetensi keusahawanan telah dibangunkan
sendiri oleh pengkaji. Instrumen untuk mengukur tingkahlaku
inovatif adalah ubahsuai daripada Messmann & Mulder (2012).
Analisis pengesahan faktor peringkat kedua (second order
confirmatory factor analysis) digunakan untuk mendapatkan
indeks padanan model hipotesis dengan data kajian. Modifikasi
model dilakukan untuk mendapatkan nilai indeks padanan yang
baik (good fit) dalam menentusahkan model pengukuran konstruk
kompetensi keusahawanan dan tingkahlaku inovatif. Semua model
pengukuran digabungkan untuk membentuk model persamaan
struktural. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kompetensi keusahawanan
15
mempunyai hubungan langsung yang positif dengan tingkahlaku
inovatif. Beberapa implikasi kajian dikemukakan dalam
penyelidikan ini khususnya dalam penyediaan bakal guru yang
inovatif.
Kata kunci: Kompetensi Keusahawanan, Tingkahlaku Inovatif,
Pendidikan Guru
PENGENALAN
Kajian lepas telah membuktikan tingkahlaku inovatif merupakan
penyumbang kepada peningkatan prestasi (Chan & Amran, 2014;
Bjornali & Storen, 2012; Messmann & Mulder, 2012; Nik Azida et
al, 2010). Walau bagaimanapun, dalam konteks pendidikan, kajian
terhadap aktiviti yang menjurus kepada tingkahlaku inovatif,
penyertaan guru dalam proses dan pembangunan inovasi masih
kurang (Messman et al., 2010). Selain itu, guru menghadapi
beberapa kekangan untuk meletakkan tingkahlaku inovatif sebagai
pencetus kreativiti dan inovasi dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran
di bilik darjah. Nemeržitski et al., (2013) menyatakan bahawa
faktor yang menjadi penghalang kepada guru mempamerkan
tingkahlaku inovatif ialah persepsi terhadap keyakinan mereka
cenderung untuk tidak inovatif.
Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk mengenalpasti pengaruh
kompetensi keusahawanan terhadap tingkah laku inovatif. Kajian
untuk mengenalpasti kesan kompetensi keusahawanan terhadap
tingkah laku inovatif dalam organisasi di semua peringkat amat
sedikit dan sukar ditemui dalam literatur (Bjornali & Storen, 2012;
Mitchelmore & Rowley, 2010). Berikut ialah kerangka konsep
kajian yang dikemukakan:
Kompetensi
Keusahawanan
Rajah 1 : Model hipotesis kajian
TIngkahlaku
Inovatif
16
KOMPETENSI KEUSAHAWANAN
Secara umumnya, kompetensi merupakan piawaian untuk
melaksanakan sesuatu tugas dengan spesifik. Konsep kompetensi
menggabungkan elemen pengetahuan, kemahiran dan ciri-ciri
tertentu yang harus dimiliki oleh seseorang individu untuk
melaksanakan tugas yang diarahkan dengan berkesan (Rao, 1997).
Kompetensi yang dimiliki oleh seseorang mempunyai hubungan
secara langsung dengna prestasi kerja (Rao, 1997; Spencer &
Spencer, 1993). Sekiranya seseorang pekerja memiliki kompetensi
yang tinggi, maka prestasi kerja yang dihasilkan juga adalah tinggi.
Dalam kajian lepas, kompetensi mempunyai banyak definisi
(Hayton & McEvoy, 2006; Hoffman, 1999). Istilah “kemahiran”,
“kepakaran”, “kepintaran” dan “kecekapan” adalah saling
berkaitan dan kerap kali istilah silih berganti (Mitchelmore &
Rowley, 2009; Smith & Morse, 2005). Istilah kompetensi asalnya
digunakan dalam bidang pendidikan untuk menjelaskan
tingkahlaku guru pelatih (Mitchelmore & Rowley, 2009). Istilah
itu digunakan secara meluas dan banyak dibincangkan dalam
bidang pengurusan terutamanya di Amerika Syarikat (Boyatzis,
1982). Kompetensi tidak dilihat sebagai senarai tugas yang perlu
dilaksanakan tetapi lebih kepada kebolehan seseorang dalam
melaksanakan tugas yang diberikan. Boyatzis (1982)
membangunkan model kompetensi dengan melibatkan dua ribu
pengurus dan telah mengenalpasti lebih 100 ciri kompetensi untuk
pengurus. Dam et al. (2010) menjelaskan kompetensi sebagai ciriciri peribadi individu yang akan menyumbang kepada prestasi
kerja. Dam et al. (2010) mengkelaskan kompetensi keusahawanan
kepada tiga dimensi, iaitu pengetahuan, sikap dan kemahiran.
Kombinasi ketiga-tiga dimensi kompetensi tersebut diperlukan
untuk menghasilkan pencapaian yang cemerlang sebagai usahawan
yang berjaya. Walau bagaimanapun, sehingga kini belum ada
senarai kompetensi keusahawanan yang boleh digunakan secara
sejagat (Man dan Lau, 2000).
Terdapat beberapa kajian terdahulu yang mengaitkan
keusahawanan dengan pendidikan guru (Norasmah dan Rasmuna,
17
2012; Zaidatol Akmaliah dan Bagheri, 2011; Zaidatol Akmaliah
dan Bagheri, 2010; Sarimah et al., 2010; Dam et al., 2010).
Kemahiran keusahawanan dalam kalangan warga pendidik adalah
mustahak kerana menjanjikan potensi besar dalam membentuk
modal insan yang inovatif khususnya apabila berhadapan dengan
cabaran pendidikan semasa (Zaidatol Akmaliah dan Bagheri, 2011;
Dam et al., 2010).
Abd. Rahim et al. (2001) menjelaskan, antara kompetensi
keusahawanan yang perlu dibentuk melalui pendidikan
keusahawanan ialah keperluan untuk pencapaian, kepimpinan,
kreatif, berkeyakinan, mempunyai hubung jalin, berinisiatif,
mengambil risiko, berimaginasi dan berkeupayaan menganalisa.
Dam et al. (2010) menjelaskan, kompetensi keusahawanan yang
releven dengan pendidikan guru untuk membentuk tingkahlaku
keusahawanan ialah pengetahuan keusahawanan, efikasi kendiri,
pemikiran kreatif, kerja berpasukan, kebolehsuaian dan kemahiran
jaringan. Kepentingan penguasaan kompetensi keusahawanan
semakin dirasai keperluannya apabila wujud masalah
penggangguran yang semakin meruncing (Norasmah dan
Rasmuna, 2012). Menurut mereka lagi, pendedahan kompetensi
keusahawanan melalui pendidikan memberi peluang yang terbaik
kepada pelajar melengkapkan diri dengan pengetahuan dan
kemahiran keusahawanan sebelum memasuki pasaran kerjaya.
Dalam kajian ini, konstruk kompetensi keusahawanan adalah
menggunakan model pendidikan keusahawanan yang dibangunkan
oleh Dam et. al. (2010) dan telah diubahsuai berdasarkan konteks
pendidikan guru di Malaysia. Konstruk yang dikaji ialah
pengetahuan asas keusahawanan, pemikiran kreatif, kebolehsuaian,
kemahiran jaringan dan komunikasi. Kombinasi kompetensi
tersebut diperlukan oleh seseorang guru dalam usaha untuk
membentuk intelektual, emosi, sosial dan semangat pelajar (Ali et
al., 2012). Penyelidik telah membangunkan item-item soal selidik
untuk mengukur setiap konstruk tersebut.
18
TINGKAHLAKU INOVATIF
Tingkahlaku inovatif didefinisikan sebagai aktiviti yang dilakukan
oleh seseorang sepanjang proses inovasi (Messmann et al., 2010).
Menurut Janssen (2000), tingkahlaku inovatif merupakan
perlakuan seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu kreativiti dan
inovasi yang melangkaui jangkaan termasuklah penerimaan,
penghasilan dan pelaksanaan idea-idea baharu. Kanter (1988)
mendakwa bahawa langkah pertama setiap proses inovasi ialah
mengenalpasti peluang dalam konteks yang pelbagai merangkumi
rakan-rakan, penyelia, pelanggan, peraturan, sumber, kemudahan,
peralatan dan kewangan. Oleh itu, ruang lingkup peluang
merangkumi daripada bahagian yang kecil sehinggalah
keseluruhan organisasi. Peluang wujud apabila terdapat keinginan
untuk membangunkan sesuatu perkara.
Dalam konteks pendidikan, Messmann et al. (2010)
menjelaskan bahawa tingkahlaku inovatif merangkumi aktiviti luar
dan dalam bilik darjah yang berkaitan dengan inovasi iaitu
penerokaan peluang, penjanaan idea, promosi idea, dan
merealisasikan idea. Tingkah laku inovatif boleh jadi kaedah
pengajaran baharu, perubahan dalam proses kerja seorang guru dan
pelajar, kolaborasi dalam kalangan guru ataupun tugas baharu
guru. Tingkah laku inovatif tidak hanya berlaku semasa aktiviti
pengajaran dan pembelajaran di dalam bilik darjah sahaja tetapi
merangkumi konteks yang luas iaitu juga di luar bilik darjah
(Tuomi, 2007). Aktiviti-aktiviti tersebut adalah mengenalpasti
idea-idea baru untuk menangani cabaran dan menghadapi masalah
di sekolah sebagai fungsi utama. Interaksi dalam kalangan pelajar
dalam saling menyokong antara satu dengan yang lain sangat
mempengaruhi dalam merealisasikan idea (Jong & Hartog, 2010;
Janssen et al., 2004; Kleysen & Street, 2001; Scott & Bruce,
1994).
19
METODOLOGI
Sampel Kajian
Seramai 413 orang pelajar PISMP semester 6 telah dipilih di enam
IPG di seluruh Malaysia.
Instrumen Kajian
Instrumen soal selidik digunakan untuk mendapatkan maklumbalas
responden terhadap konstruk-konstruk yang dikaji. Instrumen
untuk mengukur konstruk kompetensi keusahawanan telah
dibangunkan sendiri oleh pengkaji, manakala instrumen
tingkahlaku inovatif ubahsuai daripada Messmann & Mulder
(2012).
Analisis Kajian
Analisis pengesahan faktor peringkat kedua (second order
confirmatory factor analysis) digunakan untuk mendapatkan
indeks padanan model hipotesis dengan data kajian. Modifikasi
model dilakukan untuk mendapatkan nilai indeks padanan yang
baik (good fit) dalam menentusahkan model pengukuran konstruk
kompetensi keusahawanan, tingkahlaku inovatif dan seterusnya
membentuk model persamaan struktural (SEM). Semua model
pengukuran digabungkan dalam analisis SEM untuk
menentusahkan padanan model akhir dengan data kajian.
DAPATAN KAJIAN
Analisis diskriptif
Bilangan sampel kajian ialah 413 orang pelajar PISMP semester 7
di enam IPG seluruh Malaysia. Daripada jumlah tersebut, 162
orang (39.2%) lelaki dan 251 orang (60.8%) perempuan. Bilangan
20
pelajar yang mengkhusus dalam bidang Reka Bentuk dan
Teknologi (RBT) ialah 124 orang (30%). Manakala pelajar yang
mengkhusus dalam bidang selain RBT ialah 289 orang ataupun
70%.
Model Pengukuran Konstruk Kompetensi Keusahawanan
*kr – pemikiran kreatif; kp – kerja berpasuka; nt – jaringan; ad – kebolehsuaian;
pn - pengetahuan
Rajah 1 : Model PengukuranKompetensi Keusahawanan
Rajah 1 menunjukkan model pengukuran bagi konstruk
kompetensi keusahawanan setelah melalui modifikasi untuk
mendapatkan nilai padanan. Petunjuk padana ialah Chi Square/df =
2.373, RMSEA = 0.058, CFI = 0.945, TLI = 0.938, dan GFI =
0.904 menunjukkan padanan yang baik model modifikasi dengan
data kajian.
21
Model Pengukuran Konstruk Tingkahlaku Inovatif
*MPeluang – mengenalpasti peluang; MjIdea – menjana idea;MrIdea –
merealisasikan idea
Rajah 2 : Model Pengukuran Tingkahlaku Inovatif
Rajah 2 menunjukkan model pengukuran bagi konstruk tingkahlaku
inovatif setelah melalui modifikasi untuk mendapatkan nilai
padanan. Petunjuk padana ialah Chi Square/df = 1.260, RMSEA =
0.025, CFI = 0.935, TLI = 0.922, dan GFI = 0.965 menunjukkan
padanan yang baik model modifikasi dengan data kajian. Setelah
modifikasi model dilakukan, dimensi mempromosikan idea telah
digugurkan kerana mempunyai nilai multikolineariti yang tinggi
dengan dimensi lain. Dimensi yang dikekalkan untuk analisis
seterusnya ialah mengenalpasti peluang, menjana idea dan
merealisasikan idea.
22
Analisis Persamaan Struktur
Rajah 3 menunjukkan model persamaan struktur setelah melalui
proses modifikasi. Nilai petunjuk padanan model akhir ialah, Chi
Square/df = 2.637, RMSEA = 0.063, CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.978,
dan GFI = 0.982 menunjukkan padanan yang baik model
modifikasi dengan data kajian.
Nilai R2 = 0.67 menunjukkan bahawa 67% varians tingkahlaku
inovatif pelajar PISMP dapat dijelaskan oleh kompetensi
keusahawanan. Nilai β = 0.82 untuk analisis kesan langsung
Kompetensi Keusahawanan terhadap Tingkahlaku Inovatif.
Dimensi (sub-konstruk) tingkahlaku inovatif dalam model asal
terdiri daripada mengenalpasti peluang, menjana idea,
mempromosi idea, dan merealisasikan idea. Dimensi menjana idea
digugurkan setelah modifikasi model untuk mendapatkan nilai
padanan yang baik (good fit). Dimensi untuk konstruk kompetensi
keusahawanan kekal seperti model asal.
Rajah 3: Model Akhir
23
PERBINCANGAN DAN KESIMPULAN
Tujuan kajian ini dilakukan ialah untuk mengenalpasti hubungan
kompetensi keusahawanan dan efikasi kendiri dengan tingkahlaku
inovatif. Secara umumnya, keputusan daripada analisis kajian
menunjukkan bahawa kompetensi keusahawanan dan efikasi
kendiri mempunyai hubungan secara langsung yang positif.
Dapatan daripada analisis ini mengesahkan dapatan kajian
terdahulu iaitu kompetensi keusahawanan yang terdiri daripada
pengetahuan, kemahiran dan sikap keusahawanan (Allen & van der
Velden, 2011; Mitchelmore & Rowley, 2010) akan menyumbang
kepada pembentukan tingkah laku inovatif (Bjornali & Storen,
2012). Individu yang memiliki kompetensi keusahawanan sentiasa
kreatif dalam meneroka dan membangunkan idea inovatif dan
mengenalpasti peluang-peluang keusahawanan (Shook et al., 2003)
mempunyai
potensi untuk
beroleh kejayaan
melalui
pengeksploitasian produk, perkhidmatan dan proses yang baru
(Zahra et al., 1999).
Kajian ini memberi implikasi dalam penyediaan pelajar PISMP
khususnya untuk melahirkan bakal guru yang kompeten dan
inovatif. Elemen pendidikan keusahawanan untuk membentuk
kompetensi keusahawanan perlu diterapkan sama ada secara
formal ataupun tidak formal. Pelajar yang tidak berpeluang
mengkhusus dalam mata pelajaran RBT sebagai major
dicadangkan mengambil kursus keusahawanan sebagai mata
pelajaran elektif. Selain itu, penyertaan dalam aktiviti kokurikulum yang menjurus kepada aktiviti keusahawanan perlu juga
diberi penekanan. Kesimpulannya, pendidikan keusahawanan perlu
diterapkan dalam kurikulum pendidikan guru kerana mempunyai
kesan langsung terhadap pembentukan pelajar yang memiliki
tingkah laku inovatif.
24
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27
A MYOPIC COMPARATIVE
REVIEW BETWEEN FIVEFACTOR MODEL AND HEXACO
MODEL OF HUMAN
PERSONALITY
Mahtab Ghadimi & Mohd Tajudin Ninggal
ABSTRACT
The HEXACO model of personality has been suggested as an
alternative to the Five-Factor Model. Results indicated that
although the sixth factor of HEXACO model, Honesty-Humility
was largely dissimilar to domains of the Big Five, it was
significantly correlated with the Agreeableness factor of the FiveFactor model. However, the advantage of HEXACO model in
predicting the personality traits over the Five-Factor model is still
under the discussion by researchers. Therefore, this comparative
review was aimed to investigate whether the benefits of HEXACO
model are better than the Five-Factor Model? The conclusion
indicates although the Honesty-Humility factor is more correlated
with the normal human personality traits, there are strong
correlations between the factors of both models. There is still the
requirement to further studies which focus more on the FFM and
HEXACO model.
Keywords: FFM, NEO-PI-R, HEXACO model
28
INTRODUCTION
The Five Factor Model (FFM) is based on the classic Big Five in
psychology to study the normal human personality. However, both
the FFM and Big Five are not identical (Weiner et al., 2012).
Classic Big Five and FFM structures are different in the content of
Agreeableness factor (Veselka et al., 2011). There has been some
confusion among researchers that equate the FFM and Big Five in
their studies. Several studies have been carried out to compare the
advantages of new models with the Big Five in relation to
understanding the personality traits. For example, the comparative
studies of HEXACO model with the Big Five found that HEXACO
model has more advantages in predicting personality traits (Lee et
al., 2005). The difference between the Big Five and FFM models
raises the question of whether the achieved results from previous
studies on the HEXACO and the Big Five would be same with the
studies of the HEXACO and FFM?
Furthermore, another reason that makes this issue most unclear
is the Agreeableness factor of the FFM. The Agreeableness factor
of the FFM is more likely to be correlated to the additional factor
of the HEXACO model; “Honesty-Humility.” Accordingly, there
are many unclear issues on the HEXACO advantages over the
FFM specifically on the Honesty-Humility factor that should be
addressed.
FFM and NEO-PI-R
By 1980, when the groundbreaking researches in the area of
personality structure by Tupes and Christal (1961), and also
Warren Norman (1963) were extremely forgotten, Lewis Goldberg
started an English language lexically-based investigation of the
personality factors. Through the study, five dimensions of
personality which are known as the Big five were discovered once
again (Goldberg, 1990). The Big Five factors are as follows:
Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and
29
Openness to Experience. In the meanwhile, Costa and McCrae
(1985) created a theory based on the Big Five and called it Five
Factor Model (FFM). Since the Big Five and FFM were empirical
models and were not the results of a personality theory or clinical
experience, study on the human personality variation and its
structure was continued in the area concerning usefulness of Big
Five as assessing instruments of normal personality traits for
clinical evaluation. Finally, the study of Paul Costa and Robert
McCrae who had strongly emphasized on practicality of the Big
Five and FFM measures in clinical issues gained popularity among
other researches (Costa and McCrae, 1992). In particular when
they introduced both the term and concept of “facet” as a feature
of a broader personality trait for only three traits out of five
including Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness To Experience
(i.e. NEO Personality Inventory; NEO-PI). They expanded the
study on “facet scales” for an additional seven years to elaborate
such facet scales for other two traits, Agreeableness and
Conscientiousness within the Revised NEO-PI that is known as
NEO-PI-R (Costa and McCrae, 1992). The NEO-PI-R is a
measuring instrument comprising five major domains, which are
broken up into six facets that describe each domain as mentioned
in Table 1. Even though the FFM was itself an inventory to predict
the personality traits, it was too difficult to bring them in a single
definition of a specific trait since the factors were too broad. In
addition, since the factors were descriptive, they cannot be
evaluated by a detailed trait. Hence, Costa and McCrae measured
the FFM by NEO-PI-R to facilitate the psychological
understanding of the personality. Consequently, the FFM and
NEO-PI-R are the same measuring instruments as far as the
personality traits are concerned.
It is worth to note that the NEO-PI-R is an international gold
standard for assessing the personality. Costa and McCrae not only
developed the “facet scales” for the Big Five factors, but also
McCrae (1992) expressed three specific and illustrative objects
why such measures are in clinical attention:
i. Three important factors of human behavior; interpersonal,
30
emotional and motivational styles are under the assessing
of personality by the FFM factors that are relevant in
detection of broad range of other disorders.
ii. A comprehensive image of each person can be obtained by
the FFM that cannot be gained by other instruments that are
concern with the clinical issues.
iii. Some supplementary information, which is important in
choosing an appropriate treatment and in predicting the
circulation of therapy, can be delivered by five factors.
Table 1. NEO-PI-R Factors of Personality
Neuroticism
Extraversion
Openness
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Anxiety
Warmth
Fantasy
Trust
Competence
Angry Hostility
Gregariousness
Aesthetics
Straightforwardness
Order
Depression
Assertiveness
Feelings
Altruism
Dutifulness
SelfConsciousness
Activity
Actions
Compliance
Achievement
Striving
Impulsiveness
ExcitementSeeking
Ideas
Modesty
Self-Discipline
Although, the FFM and NEO Personality Inventory became
very popular among psychology researchers in 1990s, the gap of
personality models structure (whether or not the FFM can be
recover within other language communities) was still under
discussion by cross-cultural lexically-based researches through
several language communities. Eventually, some achieved findings
indicated that the domain of the FFM is not expanded as wide as
the space of personality structure (Ashton and Lee, 2005; Ashton
and Lee, 2008). Accordingly, Ashton developed the six-factor
model that was the result of cross-language investigation.
31
HEXACO Model
In 2004, the six dimensional model known as HEXACO model
was emerged to the aim of developing personality models (Ashton
and Lee, 2005). The HEXACO is an acronym name taken from the
basis of the number and names of six factors including HonestyHumility,
Emotionality,
Extraversion,
Agreeableness,
Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience. Each of the
domains includes four subordinate dimensions, which contains
items that measure both trait and opposite of it as shown in Table
2.
Table 2. HEXACO factors of personality
Honesty–
Humility
Emotionality
Extraversion
Agreeable
ness
Conscientiou
sness
Sincerity
Fearfulness
Expressiveness
Forgiveness
Organization
Anxiety
Social
boldness
Gentleness
Fairness
Greed–
Avoidance
Dependence
Sociability
Flexibility
Modesty
Sentimentality
Liveliness
Patience
Diligence
Perfectionism
Prudence
Openness to
Experience
Aesthetic
appreciation
Inquisitiveness
Creativity
Unconventionality
As it can be seen, the three factors of HEXACO model
(Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience)
are very similar to the same three factors of FFM/NEO-PI-R.
Three other factors of the cross-language model have some
complex relations with the FFM dimensions. The HEXACO
Agreeableness includes the element of Gentleness the same facet
of FFM Agreeableness as well as the elements of Anger-related
traits that are facets of FFM Neuroticism. Whereas, the HEXACO
Emotionality shares the common factor of Anxiety with FFM
Neuroticism, it is the lack of Anger-related traits of Neuroticism.
Moreover, it comprises the content related to Sentimentality that
typically defines the FFM Agreeableness. The sixth and additional
factor is Honesty-Humility that contains Modesty and Sincerity the
same facets with the FFM Agreeableness. In general, this factor is
not clearly represented in the FFM/NEO-PI-R (Lee et al., 2005).
32
According to the above mentioned differences between the
FFM/NEO-PI-R and HEXACO model, and also the achieved
results of some comparative studies of the Big Five and HEXACO
models which had concluded the HEXACO model is more
predictive than the Big Five, it is expected that studies on different
variables by HEXACO model deliver more relations with the
normal personality traits than studies of the FFM/NEO-PI-R (Lee
et al., 2005; Ashton and Lee, 2008; Veselka et al., 2011; Lee and
Ashton, 2014). As a result, This review aims to discuss about the
aforementioned expectation.
Honesty-Humility Factor
Honesty-Humility factor is the main reason for the predictive
advantages of the HEXACO as a theoretical interpretation of
human personality variation (Bourdage et al., 2007; de Vries et al.,
2008). The Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model
assesses individual personality differences through four subscale
traits refer to Table 2. This factor has been developed to predict
some traits such as failure to perform a duty in workplace,
creativity, risk-taking behaviour, desire for revenge, and some
other behaviour of life outcomes that are out of the Big Five
prediction. This factor defined by Sincerity (i.e. measuring a
person’s tendency to be honest or dishonest in his/her dealing with
others), Lack of Greed (i.e. measuring a person’s tendency to
obtain wealth), Fairness (i.e. measuring a person’s tendency to use
deceit on somebody or cheating), and Modesty (i.e. measuring a
person’s beliefs about her/his behaviour in communications).
Consequently, however there is a negligible correlation between
Honesty-Humility factor and classic Big Five, the correlation
between the sixth factor of the HEXACO model and the
Agreeableness factor of FFM/NEO-PI-R is higher (Lee et al.,
2013). In fact, the Straightforwardness and the Modesty facets of
NEO-PI-R Agreeableness are the chief reason of this correlation.
Regarding these diverse correlations that are arisen by the
33
effect of Honesty-Humility factor, it is reasonable to expect that the
results of comparative studies on the HEXACO model and Big
Five can be different from studies on the HEXACO model and
FFM/NEO-PI-R. Due to this reason and other the reasons
mentioned in the previous sections, the following review just
focused on the studies that never mentioned the Big Five as the
same model with FFM. Thus, through the present study, only
surveys are reviewed that compared the predictive advantages of
the HEXACO model over the FFM as well as the NEO-PI-R.
RELATED STUDIES
The research summarized above demonstrates the brief explanation
of the similarities and differences of the FFM with two other
models including classic Big Five and HEXACO. The FFM
Agreeableness construct is the much broader scope of the Big Five
Agreeableness domain as well as the NEO-PI-R is strongly
correlated with Honesty-Humility factor of HEXACO model in two
facets including Straightforwardness and Modesty. It represents
the NEO-PI-R is a combination of the classic Big Five
Agreeableness and of the HEXACO Honesty-Humility factor.
Therefor, according to these noteworthy points it is inferred that
the FFM in predicting variables of personality operates identical or
more similar to the HEXACO model. Accordingly, applying the
HEXACO, as a replacement model of the FFM, cannot produce
more advantages over the FFM/NEO-PI-R. Furthermore, the
HEXACO Honesty-Humility factor can be omitted. Consequently,
some few related studies have undertaken.
Ashton and Lee (2005) compared the Agreeableness factor of
FFM/NEO-PI-R and the Honesty-Humility of HEXACO model
with two personality variables including the Self-Monitoring scale
(Snyder, 1974) and the Social Adroitness scale (Jackson, 1970).
The results for both models indicated the correlation number (r)
0.46 and 0.26 for Honesty-Humility and Agreeableness factor,
respectively. On the other hand, the more association with the
34
composite of the Self-Monitoring and Social Adroitness is
obtained by the combination of the Straightforwardness and
Modesty facets of NEO-PI-R Agreeableness (r = 0.44). It indicates
that the Straightforwardness and Modesty facets of the NEO-PI-R
Agreeableness factor might be applied instead of Honesty–
Humility factor of HEXACO model. There is another study that
assessed the Egoism personality trait through three studies by both
of three scales and of three measures including DPQ Egoism, SPI
Egotism, and Egoism Scale, and HEXACO, BIG FIVE, NEO-PIR, respectively (de Vries et al., 2009). The results of the survey
indicate that the Honesty-Humility factor of HEXACO has more
association with prediction of Egoism. Especially, in last study in
which the NEO-PI-R is applied, the HEXACO model shows (41%)
variance in Egoism that is more than variance of NEO-PI-R (32%)
in Egoism. With regard to the results, the Honesty-Humility is
more related to Egoism than other factors of HEXACO and NEOPI-R. Additionally, It is worth to note that this research revealed
strong correlation between the NEO-PI-R and HEXACO factors:
Conscientiousness (r = 0.82), Extraversion (r = 0.80), Openness to
Experience (r = 0.75), and the strong relation between NEO-PI-R
Agreeableness with both the HEXACO Honesty–Humility (r =
0.53) and Agreeableness (r = 0.57). Correspondingly, the strong
correlation is found between Neuroticism of NEO-PI-R with
HEXACO Emotionality (r = 0.64), and Extraversion (r = 0.55) and
Agreeableness (r = 0.36). Ashton and Lee (2008) investigated a
study to find that whether the achieved outcomes of comparative
studies on the Big Five and HEXACO model would be same as
results from study on the HEXACO and FFM? The predictive
advantages for HEXACO model over the Big Five are concluded
by many studies, but it is not too clear yet in the area concerning of
the FFM. Ashton and Lee investigated three samples of
undergraduate students by the FFM and HEXACO personality
variables with various criteria. Generally, the FFM predictors
gained lower multiple correlations with the various criteria than the
HEXACO predictors with values ranging from 0.31 to 0.53 for the
first model and from 0.39 to 0.71 for the second one. The authors
35
claimed that the Honesty-Humility factor is the main reason of the
privilege of HEXACO model. They have also investigated another
study with Bourdage in 2007 to examine the relations of the
sexuality variables with personality dimensions of the FFM and
HEXACO model. The outcomes of the study show similar level of
correlations for both personality models with the sexuality
variables. However, there are some predictive advantages of
HEXACO model in Sexual Attractiveness, Relationship
Exclusivity, and Sociosexuality.
CONCLUSIONS
The purpose of this paper was to compare two common personality
models comprising the Five Factor Model and Six Factor Model
(HEXACO) to clarify some misconceptions regarding Big Five
and FFM. In this area, there are many studies in which the Big
Five and the FFM were assumed identical then they have been
compared with the HEXACO model. Consequently, they assumed
that the results are identical for both the Big Five and FFM. While,
the FFM is a theory of classic Big Five that is measured by NEOPI-R. Since such studies cannot transfer reliable outcomes, further
comparative investigations on the FFM and HEXACO model are
required. Apart from that the advantages of the sixth factor of the
HEXACO over the FFM factors are still unclear. The results of
related studies indicated that all factors of FFM and HEXACO as
well as the Honesty-Humility factor are correlated. So, are there
any predictive advantages of the Honesty-Humility factor over the
five factors of FFM? With regards to the related comparative
studies, results are partially similar in multiple correlations of two
models with variables under the investigation. On the other hand,
some outcomes in the same studies show high advantages for both
the Honesty-Humility factor and the rest factors of HEXACO
model. In conclusion, there is still a need to further studies which
focus more on the FFM and HEXACO model than the Big Five.
36
REFERENCES
Ashton, M. C. and Lee, K. (2005). Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and
the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 73(5): 13211354.
Ashton, M. C. and Lee, K. (2008). The prediction of Honesty–Humilityrelated criteria by the HEXACO and Five-Factor Models of
personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(5): 12161228.
Bourdage, J. S., Lee, K., Ashton, M. C. and Perry, A. (2007). Big Five
and HEXACO model personality correlates of sexuality.
Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6): 1506-1516.
Costa, P. T. and McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality
Inventory.
de Vries, R. E., de Vries, A., de Hoogh, A. and Feij, J. (2009). More than
the Big Five: Egoism and the HEXACO model of personality.
European Journal of Personality, 23(8): 635-654.
de Vries, R. E., Lee, K. and Ashton, M. C. (2008). The Dutch HEXACO
Personality Inventory: Psychometric Properties, Self–Other
Agreement, and Relations With Psychopathy Among Low and
High Acquaintanceship Dyads. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 90(2): 142-151.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An Alternative "Description of Personality": The
Big-Five Factor Structure. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychologs, 59(6): 1216-1229.
Lee, K. and Ashton, M. C. (2014). The Dark Triad, the Big Five, and the
HEXACO model. Personality and Individual Differences, 67(0):
2-5.
Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Wiltshire, J., Bourdage, J. S., Visser, B. A. and
Gallucci, A. (2013). Sex, power, and money: Prediction from the
Dark Triad and Honesty–Humility. European Journal of
Personality, 27(2): 169-184.
Lee, K., Ogunfowora, B. and Ashton, M. C. (2005). Personality Traits
Beyond the Big Five: Are They Within the HEXACO Space?
Journal of Personality, 73(5): 1437-1463.
Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A. and Vernon, P. A. (2011). Beyond the Big
Five: The Dark Triad and the Supernumerary Personality
Inventory. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 14(02): 158168.
37
Weiner, I. B., Tennen, H. A. and Suls, J. M. (2012). Handbook of
Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology. Wiley.
38
HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR
CORRECTIONAL EDUCATION IN
TVET: HATCHING THE HACE IN
PRISON EDUCATION
Muhamad Afzamiman Aripin, Rohana Hamzah, Ros Eliana
Ahmad Zuki & Akhmal Annas Hasmori
ABSTRACT
Our nation efforts towards developed country and maintain the
sustainability of economy requires a very good preparation from
every single aspect. It should be considering every level in our
society including those who have been detained in prison. This
article discuss about Holistic Approach in Correctional Education
(HACE) module that will be developed for Technical and
Vocational Education and Training (TVET) instructors in prison.
The discussion of this paper try to figure out the importance of
improving instructors professionalism in prison education,
suggesting possible solution, proposing elements for improvement,
methodology of evaluation and research expectation. It is a big
hope that HACE module will help instructors to merge the
acquired knowledge and spiritual growth in a single lesson and
thus assist in increasing self-quality among detainees under
Malaysian Prison Department (JPM) supervision.
Keywords:
Holistic Approach, Correctional Education, TVET,
39
Prison Education.
INTRODUCTION
Prison correctional education is an important agenda in our nation
as to ensure our human capitals to be saved, protected, utilised and
not wasted. In the Theory of Development by Ibnu Khaldun,
human capitals were seen as an important resource to guarantee the
sustainability of a nation development. They should be inculcated
with a strong values and high morality in order to create a peace
environment and strong economic growth for a long run (Syed
Omar, 2008). Due to that responsibility, the role of cultivating
values and morality should be done by everyone under correctional
system including the vocational instructors.
In Malaysia, research on prison TVET instructors is relatively
new. Their roles under the correctional program should not be
denied as they are the people that trained the prisoners and
occupied them with vocational knowledge and skills to be applied
once released. However teaching skills are not enough for those
who are dealing with prisoners. Gehring and Puffer (2006) assert
that the instructors need to be occupied with other knowledge as
well, especially on how to develop the self-quality of prisoners and
thus could reduce recidivism cases.
UNDERSTANDING MALAYSIAN CONTEXT
Prison in Malaysia is under management of Malaysia Prison
Department (JPM). Meanwhile, the instructors in JPM were known
as Vocational Training Assistance Officer (PPLV) and assisted by
Trade Warder. In general, the job scope for PPLV is to teach the
detainees with vocational skills based on National Occupational
Skills Standard (NOSS), doing some maintenance and
management works, checking the quality standard of products, and
perform continuous assessment and evaluation (JPM, 2014). It
shows that the existing correctional programme with vocational
40
orientation merely concern on skills, teaching, management,
maintenance and just to support the prison needs. Therefore, this
finding support Gehring and Puffer (2006) concern on lacking of
focus on self-quality development under prison correctional
programme.
Without denying the importance of current PPLV job scope, it
is believe that their professionalism could be increased by adding
them with a proper knowledge based on their context and
challenging nature of work. Preliminary study discovered that,
PPLV and Trade Warder have a qualification and knowledge of
vocational content and provided with standard operational
procedure (SOP) while giving instruction and delivering the skills.
In term of teaching ability, they were trained under CIAST (Centre
for Instructor and Advance Skill Training), a government
institution that trained Vocational Training Officer all over
Malaysia. This is an indicator that the vocational instructors in
prison are having the same knowledge as instructors from other
institutions while they are actually dealing with a more challenging
task of developing skills as well as the self-quality of detainees.
Research by Fauziah et al. (2013) revealed that there is an
urgent call to support the development of self-quality among
prisoners in term of religious knowledge, spiritual wellness,
physical and emotional stability. This is to ensure that the
correctional system is successful in achieving their objectives.
Therefore JPM requires vocational instructors who are exposed
and understand the purpose of correctional education and enable to
connect skills ability, social and religious responsibility in their
teaching.
Current system has put emphasis on spiritual, physical and
emotional development with a lot of improvement from back then.
Unfortunately, there is still a need to improve the self-quality of
detainees in our prison. It is essential to understand that selfquality could be expanded in many ways. However, there is an
opportunity to cover the element by improving vocational
instructors’ ability by exposing them to the holistic approach and
special education needs for prisoners. Therefore this paper will try
41
to figure out the elements of Holistic Approach for Correctional
Education (HACE) in TVET to suit the prison context and thus
help instructors to merge acquired knowledge and the spiritual
growth in a single lesson.
POSSIBLE SOLUTION
Effort on integrating acquired knowledge and revealed knowledge
holistically has been done by many educational researchers from
all over the world. It is often immerged in Muslim scholars’
philosophy in the East. While in Western country, people tend to
see these as integrating the spiritual values into education.
Nevertheless, there is no doubt that human spirituality which is
often found in religion, is a great driven factor to develop one’s
self (Miller, 2008). Integration theories of spiritual values in
modern Western civilisation can be traced in the works of Ken
Wilber and Miller. For example Wilber postulates that religion and
science could be integrated through his proposed AQAL (All
Quadrants All Level) model. However, it is very subjective to
explain how the integration work since science and religion were
seen in different perspectives for every individual (Clayton and
Simpson, 2006).
In correctional education field, Puffer and Gehring (2006) have
re-introduced AQAL model to be applied in the whole prison
correctional system including for the instructors. The proposed
model emphasised on how the internal factors and spirituality of an
instructor could affect external elements in a system such as the
objectives of teaching and learning, the system sociology, and
culturing a professional thinking.
42
Figure 1 AQAL model for prison’s instructors (Gehring and Puffer,
2006)
At the very beginning, an instructor in prison needs to have a
strong motivation to carry out his or her task. It is about managing
the internal part or spirituality which is very abstract like emotions,
feelings, thoughts and thinking. These are often known as selfawareness (Gehring and Puffer, 2006). It is believe that by having
a good self-awareness, one will be able to teach and deliver the
knowledge in any circumstances, able to use appropriate strategies
in teaching activity to meet prison’s correctional objectives, able to
manage resources in the system, and link the correctional themes
in the every single lesson. However, there is no elaborate
discussion on how to ignite the self-awareness. Does religion could
supply this? How will it look like when we put it into Malaysian
context?
HATCHING THE HACE FROM AQAL MODEL
Holistic approach and concern on spirituality from West is to
embrace the morale issues immerged in today’s society. Some
were taken from Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam.
Spirituality and religious practices help a lot in integrating the
body, mind and spirit and benefits the physiology and
43
psychological needs (Idler, 2008). In addition, we cannot deny that
religions play an important role to guide humanity and carry
wisdom since at the early beginning of human civilisation from
Adam (Khalif, 2013). However, sometimes the wisdom became
unguided or deviated from the right path due to certain
circumstances, tend to be very general and even try to escape from
religion.
AQAL model for prison instructors that has been discussed is
one of the examples of a general formula to cure the society. With
a few adjustments, it will be suitable to get align with the objective
of JPM which is; to execute a correctional programme through
vocational activities, spiritual and mental development, becoming
productive citizens and cultivating good values (JPM, 2013). The
adjustment will be called HACE (Holistic Approach for
Correctional Education), an approach or guidelines that could be
used by vocational instructors under JPM while delivering their
knowledge. The concern on how to develop self-awareness or selfquality will be based on local perspectives by Malaysian prominent
scholars like Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Rohana Hamzah,
Ros Eliana, Hamdan, Najmuddin,and many others.
A good education system that contributes to humanity is one
of the essential concepts in holistic approach (Grasso and Burkins,
2010). Therefore, the development of HACE module will be based
on the basic concept of education from Islamic perspectives.
Revealed knowledge from God through his Messenger (pbuh), is
an important source that could assist humankind in worshiping
Him, behaving accordingly and guide them to deal with their
environment. However, the importance of revealed knowledge
does not refute the capacity of human brain (Maimun et al., 2009;
Hamdan and Najmuddin, 2013). Indeed in Islamic traditions, it is
crucial to maximised the brain capacity to know God, perform
good deeds, and differentiate between good and bad, to think of the
creations and their purposes as well as solving the issues and
problems for universal benefits (Hamdan and Najmuddin, 2013).
Learning skills, went to work, serving people and nation are
some examples that could be considered as good deeds in Islam.
44
However these activities should orbit on the right intention and to
achieve redha or pleased God. There are three basic elements in
doing any activities to achieve redha. First is ‘ubudiah which is to
believe and serve Allah. Second is mas’uliyah, or to consider that
every single action will be questioned on the Day of Judgment, so
that one will always watch on their responsibility and
accountability while working. The third is itqan or to do work with
quality, commitment, focus and far from any fraud (Hamdan and
Najmuddin, 2013).
‘Ubudiah, mas’uliyah and itqan will only exist if there is a pure
believes in the existence of God and a strong motivation to carry
out His command (Nor Aisyah et al., 2011 and Rohana et.al,
2013). It is the core that will be guiding the development of HACE
module. A good understanding by practicing and transferring the
same concept to the prisoners will be very useful in helping JPM to
achieve the correctional objective and thus could help in reducing
recidivism cases. Below are the possible elements of HACE
module.
Figure 2 Possible elements of HACE module
45
HACE
MODULE;
EFFECTIVENESS?
HOW
TO
MEASURE
THE
Elements for HACE need to be verified by experts. Once the
process done and the final elements finalised, researcher may
proceed with drafting the module. The evaluations on this module
will be divided into three phases as suggested by Sidek and
Jamaludin (2005).
DRAFT OF
MODULE
FIRST
ASSESSMENT
Validity
Reliability
SECOND
ASSESSMENT
Experimental Research
to test module
effectiveness in
laboratory setting
THIRD
ASSESSMENT
Experimental Research
to test module
effectiveness in real
setting
Figure 3 Phases in evaluating HACE module
In this first assessment, module validity for HACE will be
based on elements suggested by Rusell (1974). There are five
elements involve which are; Module suit the right population,
satisfy with the method of implementation, sufficient time to
deliver the messages, manage to increase achievement and able to
change the attitudes to the better. Using these elements, a Likert
Scale questionnaire based on what have been proposed by Sidek
and Jamaludin (2008) will be implemented and calculated using
46
this formula.
Expert Score (x) x100% = Level of content validity
Maximum Score (25)
Total scores were obtained from an expert will be presented by
(x) and will be divided by maximum score of 25. The results will
be multiplied by 100 to get the percentage of content validity
value. Referring to Abu Bakar (1995) in Jamaludin (2002), value
of 70% would be considered as having a high validity and have
met the criteria of a good module.
The reliability for the module will be done by developing
another questionnaire. According to Sidek and Jamaludin (2005),
there are two ways in measuring reliability for module. It is either
based on the objective of the module or based on every step in the
module activities. A group of instructors from one of JPM
institution will be selected for this purpose. Experimental on the
effectiveness of module by laboratory setting will be done together
with reliability test for module content. Once the positive result
obtained, researcher will proceed with the real experimental test.
EXPECTATIONS AND CONCLUSION
TVET is seen as one of the means of furthering resocialisation and
acquisition of the skills that may help inmates to build a better
future for them after release. Therefore, it is a big hope that HACE
module will help instructors to merge the acquired knowledge and
spiritual growth in a single lesson and thus assist in increasing selfquality among detainees under JPM supervision.
47
Figure 4 Expectation from HACE module
REFERENCES
Alavi, K., Ibrahim, F., Mohamad, M. S., & Wan, W. S. (2013). Tahap
Pengetahuan Agama Dalam Kalangan Banduan Parol: Ke Arah
Pembentukan Akhlak Sejahtera. Journal of Social Sciences and
Humanities, 8(2), 1–10.
Domenico Graso and Melody Brown Burkins (eds.) (2010). Holistic
Engineering Education (Beyond Technology). Springer. USA.
Ellen Idler (2008). The Psychological and Physical Benefits of
Spiritual/Religious Practices. Journal: Spirituality in Higher
Education Newsletter. Volume 4(2), 1-5
Hayati (2009). Self/ (Ego) Consciosness in Muslim Scholars Notability
in Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Journal: Studies in Islam and the
Midle East. Volume 6, no.1
Jamaludin Ahmad (2002). Kesahan, Kebolehpercayaan Dan
Keberkesanan Modul Program Maju Diri Ke Atas Motivasi
Pencapaian Di Kalangan Pelajar-Pelajar Sekolah Menengah
Negeri Selangor. UPM:PhD Thesis
Khalif Muammar (2013). Islam dan Pluralisme Agama. Centre for
Advanced Studies on Islam, Science and Civilisation (CASIS),
48
UTM. Kuala Lumpur
Miller, J.P (2007). The Holistic Curriculum (2nd edition). OISE Press.
London.
Nor Aishah Abdul Aziz, Mohd Zolkifli Abd Hamid, Nur’ain Baharin and
Ismail Saliyan (2011). Profesionalisme Pendidik:Ke Arah
Membentuk Peribadi Pendidik Yang Unggul. Prosiding Seminar
Majlis Dekan-dekan Pendidikan IPTA 2011. Penerbit UTM
Press.
Portal Rasmi Jabatan Penjara Malaysia (2013). Aktiviti Pemulihan di
Jabatan Penjara Malaysia. Retrieved at www.prison.gov.my.
Rohana Hamzah, Tengku Norzaini Tengku Ibrahim, Sarimah Ismail dan
Ros Eliana Mohd Zuki (2013). Pembangunan Jiwa Pendidik
dalam Kalangan Bakal Pendidik. Jurnal Teknologi, 61 (1), 27-31
Rusell, J.D (1974). Modular Instruction: A Guide to the Design,
Selection, Utilization and Evaluation of Modular Materials. New
York Publishing Company. The United States
Sidek Mohd Noh and Jamaludin Ahmad (2005). Pembinaan Modul.
Bagaimana Membina Modul Latihan dan Modul Akademik.
Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia. Serdang
Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas (1990). The Nature of Man and the
Psychological of the Huaman Soul. Abrief outline and a
framework for an Islamic Psychology and Epistimology.
International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilisation. IIUM
Syed Omar (2008), The Muqaddimah of Ibnu Khaldun- Religion, Human
Nature and Economics. Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa
Selangor (KUIS). Selangor.
Thom Gehring and Margaret Puffer (2006). Integral Correctional
Education. AQAL. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice. 1
(1), 183 – 212
49
DESIGNING EDUCATIONAL
SIMULATION FOR IMPACT TEST
MACHINE
Ahmed Hadi Shubber, Amirmudin Bin Udin & Asnul Bin Minghat
ABSTRACT
We report the simulation models for enhanceing the metacognitive
skills. Mechanical Engineering students of Babylon Institute in
Iraq are chosen for case study. The design of model and Impact
Test Simulations (ITS) for Metallurgy subject are addressed. The
silulation software developed using Microsoft Studio 2010
includes tutorials to explain all necessary theoretical background
and formulas. Step-by-step computerized procedures and
numerical examples are rendered in a simple user-friendly, visual
and interactive environment to enhance metacognitive skills and
students' learning. Before starting the design process, objectives
and the salient features of simulation are clearly identified.
Subsequently, real laboratory experiments are conducted for
collecting data and coding them in computer language. Despite the
existence of numerous module embedded graphical simulation, the
developed software package is expected to provide valuable tool
for both students and instructors. Furthermore, the same package in
the form of a bi-product can also be used as a "research tool"
together with the application for engineering education.
Keywords: ITS, Education Simulation, Impact Test, Metallurgy
50
INTRODUCTION
Modelling and simulation go hand in hand. Definitely, model
building is a well recognised way towards the understanding of the
real world. Truly, it is a simplification of some complex structure
or a system. Conversely, it may be for prediction, a substitute for
experiential learning or simply for entertainment. The major
difference between simulation and experimentation must be
mentioned. In simulation, one experiments with a model and not
with a phenomenon. The use of simulations represents the natural
way of “learn by doing”. Alike students’ role playing we use
computer simulations to understand intricate systems, real situation
or dynamic processes. Computer simulations allow us to mimic
situations or processes that would be difficult, impossible,
dangerous, too long or to expensive to perform in reality (Stančić
et al. 2007).
Undoubtedly, the purpose of an educational simulation is to
motivate the learner to engage in problem solving, hypothesis
testing, experiential learning, scheme construction and
development of mental models (Winn 2003; Duffy & Cunningham
1996). Lately, this new information technology tools is changing
the learning environment in engineering education from primarily
teacher-centric to student-centric. Unfettered access to web-based
or computer educational materials are highly useful (Donovan &
Bransford 1999).
In order to meet the growing demand for engineers those wellversed with computer tools for problem solving and metacognitive
skills, engineering educators are increasingly incorporating in
curricula
information
technology-based
learning
tools.
Consequently,
web-based
multimedia
modules,
virtual
collaborative environments, virtual laboratories, software for
simulation and visualization of engineering
phenomena etc.
(Chaturvedi & Akan 2006) are developed. The two-fold objective
of this ongoing transformation is: (i) to improve the quality of
instruction with innovative course materials that cater to the
learning styles of present generation students, and (ii) to provide
51
students exposure to computer problem solving tools so as to
facilitate their transition from academia to industry (Bourne et al.
1996).
In this research we attempt to design a simulation model for
impact test machine to enhance the metacognitive skills of
mtallurgy lesson for mechanical engineering students of Iraq. The
model is tested, implemented, analyzed and the results are
compared and understood.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
In the past, overall education in Iraq has suffered from severe
deterioration due to the decrease in spending, lack of supplies,
collapse of infrastructure and overcrowded schools. These are
compounded by the continuing prevalence of classical teaching
methods that focus on lectures and memorization. The stress
analysis and deductive skills, the spirit of initiative and creativity
are all failed to optimally encourage student engagement. Much
educational necessities such as libraries, laboratories, modern
teaching techniques, smart-boards, roving laboratories, electronic
library, computers and their accessories to a considerable
percentage of schools and institutions of higher education are
already rendered. Despite many efforts since 2003 to develop
courses for all levels of education, there is still a need to develop
study courses and provide additional supports to maintain
international standards (Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific
of Iraq 2012; Ministry of Planning Republic of Iraq 2010; United
Nations Human Settlements -UNHABITAT 2009).
Metallurgy is considered as one of the most important branches
of engineering materials. The emergence of various various metal
industries enforced the students teaching more significant for their
work. Particularly, technicians in factories producing various types
of engineering materials require knowledge of integrated types of
metallic materials. In addition to their knowledge on physical,
thermal, chemical and properties they must be aware of the
52
conditions for the manufacturing process (FTE 2010). Metallurgy
is always considered as one of the hardest lessons taught in the
Department of Mechanics in Iraq because many students fail to
succed in the first attempt (Al-Mosawi 2013). Consequently,
Metallurgy is proven as a difficult subject for many students
(Black & Harrison 2004).
The present research aims to find ways that may transform the
engineering curriculum of Department of Mechanics in Babylon
Technical Institute into simulation enhanced engineering curricula.
It emphasizes on the incorporation of simulation based interactive
modules to enhance student learning. The pedagogy of “learningby-doing in virtual environments” is being employed in the
development of modules. In fact, one of the practical and efficient
ways engineers can learn is through hands-on activities in
computer laboratories. The Impact Test module being a part of the
Metallurgy lesson is expected to complement student learning
achieved through computer laboratories and conventional
classroom instruction. However, our emphasis is not directed
towards distance learning. It is rather focused for on-campus
classes in enhancing the quality of student learning by embedding
computer simulation in conventional mode of teaching and
learning processes.
IMPACT TEST
Impact test: A standardized high strain-rate test which
determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during
fracture. This is used to define the resistance of a material
towards sudden applied loads.
Toughness: In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is
the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform
without fracturing. This is the amount of energy per unit volume
that a material can absorb before rupturing. A property that
determines the capacity of a material to resist fracture, (crack
53
propagation), when subjected to impact. The machine measures
the amount of energy (in Joule) absorbed by the specimen for
the rupture unit. The amount of energy absorbed often indicates
the toughness of the materials and classify them as brittle or
ductile materials.
Pendulum Impact Test: This is a standardized high strain-rate
test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a
material during fracture. In this test the specimen is positioned
across the lowest point in the path of a striker mounted at the
end of a pendulum as shown in Figure 1. The striker, having
been initially lifted to a initial specific height (ho) and then
released, swings against the specimen and breaks it. The striker
continues its swing to the other side of the specimen to a
final height (hf). Clearly, the difference between the two heights
multiplied by the weight of the striker corresponds to the amount
of energy that is absorbed during fracture.
The purpose of the test being the determination of the
amount of energy absorbed by a material during impact/fracture
often results,
1Quantitative (impact energy readings can be used to
obtain toughness and yield strength properties of the materials)
2Qualitative (fracture face can be analyzed to provide
insight on the ductile/brittle properties of materials).
METHODOLOGY
OBJECTIVES
The identification of goals for the construction of lesson is
considered as the important standard to determine their contents,
nature, activities and exercises accompanying the methods.
Furthermore, the modes of using particular teaching methods and
the goals for lessons are categorized into general and specific one.
General goals primarily focus to enhance Engineering Education
54
and improve the metacognitive skills in the metallurgy lesson.
Conversely, special goals intend to administer students having
following perspectives:
a.
Students identify when, where and how to use Impact Test.
b.
Students identify how to tests’ specimen designing.
c.
Students identify the parts and components of an Impact
Test.
d.
Students identify sequence of steps involved in Impact
Test.
e.
Students identify advantages and disadvantages of Impact
Test
f.
They identify how to safely use machines.
g.
They identify how to measure machine toughness correctly.
SIMULATION DEVELOPMENT
The simulation process is developed for ITS models in the
metallurgy lesson as described hereunder.
Simulation Development Process
The development processes of ITS are illustrated in Fig. 1
(Scheinman 2009; Heath et al. 2009). The computer language
Microsoft Studio 2010 is used to design and develop the ITS
model. An evaluation of the proposed model is carred out to
identify their strengths and weaknesses through pilot test. A group
of experts with mechanical engineering and teaching methods
background are chosen to get their consensus and confirm the
content validity.
55
Figure 1 Block diagram for the simulation development processes
ITS development involves the underlined steps:
1.
Identification of general and special goal of the model.
2.
Use of metals group such as stainless steel, mild steel, steel,
brass and aluminum in conducting the real test.
3.
Manufacturing specimens from these metals by machines
turning and milling, wire cutting and polishing suitable for
the apparatus specified in the research.
4.
Conducting the test on real apparatus. In addition to the
registration of the real data and results during the test,
capturing pictures of each step, movement and reading of
apparatus are also considered.
5.
Modification and calibration of pictures for the
measurements are performed with the real equipment and
specimen using a set of computer programs such as
Photoshop and other image processors.
6.
Designing a computer program using Microsoft Studio
2010 to simulate the model and conversion of data and
images to the software codes. Devising the computer
56
interfaces representing the real test steps.
7.
Acquiring data from the program alike a real machine when
running the simulation or executing the program.
The user is responsible for checking the statement true or false
with the possibility of re-trying it several times, data
collection, and storage in specific places to be audited.
Simulation Characteristics
Yilmaz et al. 2008; Stančić et al. 2007 have identified the main
characteristics of simulation which are fit for engineering
education. The following attributes of simulation are considered in
the entire process of designing the model:
1Simulation program offers a series of clear events to the
students allowing them the opportunity to participate
actively in the program.
2It offers the learner many suitable choices.
3It helps the students to learn by using the sound, images
and animation drawing.
4It directs the students by using the proper guidance to the
study depending on their control in the learning
environment.
5It provides a large base of information to the learner useful
in understanding the subject matter under consideration.
6The simulation program assists the learner to understand
the reality, thought, and emotions.
7It allows the learner to commit mistakes without affecting
the results adversely.
8It permits the learner to achieve great freedom in the
learning process.
9It proffers a new style to the learner which is very different
from traditional approaches.
10It grants a chance to the learner to apply some of the
learned skills.
11It generally creates appropriate conditions for learning and
skills training with the computer which are very similar for
57
the real world.
SIMULATION DESIGN
The ITS designed by Chang 2008; Heath et al. 2009; Scheinman
2009 is performed using the following stages:
A.
Design of Screen 1 as depicted in Fig. 2-a is comprised of
the following options:
1.
ABOUT IMPACT TEST: Review the information related
to the Impact Test.
2.
ABOUT SIMULATION: Review the information relating
how can you use the simulation?
3.
TEST STEPS: Review the information related of test step.
4.
SIMULATION TEST: Move to the next screen to use
simulation for Impact Test.
5.
EXIT: End of program.
B.
Design of Screen 2 as shown in Fig. 2-b includes the
following options:
1.
Aluminum Al: Use Aluminum specimen and next screen.
2.
Steel: Use Steel specimen and move to the next screen.
3.
Brass: Use Brass specimen and move to the next screen.
4.
S-Steel: Use Stainless Steel specimen and move to the next
screen.
5.
EXIT: End of program.
6.
Back: Back to the previous screen.
C.
Design of Screen 3 as illustrated in Fig. 2-c to -f contains
the following choices:
1.
Horizontal Scroll Bar: To latch the hammer (Pendulum).
2.
Vertical Scroll Bar: To raise the hammer (Pendulum).
3.
EXIT: End of program.
4.
Back: Back to the previous screen.
5.
Animation Image: To touch friction pointer with hammer
pointer
6.
Image: The test specimen
58
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Image: To show specimen place.
Key (Start Test): to show the test video
Video: To show real test video
Other View: To show real test from other view
Image :To explain the amount of absorbed striking energy
(Joule)
Input Text (amount of absorbed energy ):To Input the
absorbed striking energy value (Joule)
Key (Enter): To show value the absorbed energy and
impact resistance are true or false
Label: To explain the impact resistance equation.
Label: To explain the specimen area on fracture surface in
(mm2).
Label: To explain value of impact resistance.
Label: To explain if true or false answer.
ITS PROCEDURES
1.
2.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
In the screen 1, click on (SIMULATION TEST (4)) to
move to the next screen to use simulation for Tensile Test.
In the screen 2, click on one of options (Aluminum Al(1),
Steel(2), Brass(3), S-Steel(4)) to choose material and move
to the next screen.
In the screen 3, follow the following options:
Use horizontal scrollbar (1) to latch the hammer
(Pendulum).
Use vertical scrollbar (2) to raise the hammer (Pendulum).
Wait few times to show automatically touch friction pointer
with a hammer pointer (5).
Drag and Drop the test specimen (6) from its location to the
anvil location.
Click on (Start Test (8)) to show the real test video (9).
Click on (Other View (10)) to show real test from other
view (9).
Read Friction pointer (amount of absorbed striking energy
59
h.
i.
(Joule) (11)).
Input the reading of absorbed striking energy (Joule) in
textbox (12).
Click on (Enter (13)) to show the absorbed energy and
impact resistance are true or false.
CONCLUSIONS
The influences of Impact Test Machine Simulation in achieving
enhanced metacognitive skills are inspected. The researcher
designed ITS relying on established approaches are clearly able to
identify striking simulation characteristics. Researchers are
expected to employ the simulation design to evaluate the increased
reliability and validity of the study instrument in identifying the
presence of possible deficiencies during actual implementation
(Cooper & Schindler 2000; Hair et al. 2006). The simulation is
executed to determine the effectiveness of metacognitive skills on
mechanical engineering students of Iraq as test sample. Simulation
design suggests that the developed model may serve as a research
tool for both students and instructors in metallurgy lesson to
improve their metacognitive skills. Laboratory experiments are
carried out, data are collected and computer algorithms are
developed using Microsoft Studio 2010. Relevant theoretical
background and formulas related to the ITS are designed via userfriendly approach. The simulation model contains meticulously
executed steps including the generation of metacognitive tasks, its
goals and effective tools that promote overall ability and efficiency
in education. It is hoped that the capability of students’ in
understanding metallurgy lesson will improve via the acquisition
of metacognitive skills. It may also enable learners in controlling
their cognition, emotion, and motivation in addition to solve
complex problems in mechanical engineering. The present model
simulation is highly instructive for successful process of cognition
and learning. This simulation will definitely enhance the
susceptibility of students to understand and solve multifaceted
60
problems in metallurgy. Finally, it may be applied to students of
technical institutes in Iraq to know the influences on the enhanced
metacognitive skills in engineering education.
Figure 2 (a-f) Schematic diagram displaying the design of screens
for simulating Impact Test machine.
REFERENCES
Al-Mosawi, A., 2013. Learning difficulties in metallurgy lesson: a case
study in Technical Institute of Babylon. Educational Research
International, 2(1), pp.116–119.
Black, P. & Harrison, C., 2004. Science inside the black box:
Assessment for learning in the science classroom, London:
NFER Nelson.
Bourne, J.R. et al., 1996. A Model for On-Line Learning Networks in
Engineering Education. Journal of Engineering Education, 85(3),
pp.253–262. Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/j.2168-
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9830.1996.tb00241.x.
Chang, G.C., 2008. Strategic planning in education: some concepts and
methods. In DIRECTIONS IN EDUCATIONAL PLANNING:
SYMPOSIUM TO HONOUR THE WORK OF FRANÇOISE
CAILLODS.
Chaturvedi, S.K. & Akan, O., 2006. Simulation and Visualization
Enhanced Engineering Education. In International Mechanical
Engineering Education. China: ASME and CMES, pp. 1–8.
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S., 2000. Business research method 7th ed.,
New York: McGraw- Hill.
Donovan, M.S. & Bransford, J.D., 1999. How People Learn: Bridging
Research and Practice. National Academy of Sciences, p.88.
Available at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9457.html.
Duffy, T. & Cunningham, D., 1996. Constructivism: Implications for the
Design and Delivery of Instruction. In D. & Jonassen, eds.
Handbook of research on educational communications and
technology. New York: Simon & Schuster.
FTE, 2010. Metallurgy Curriculum, Mechanics Depart Iraq., Foundation
of Technical Education.
Hair, J.F.J. et al., 2006. Multivariate Data Analysis 6th ed., Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Heath, B., Hill, R. & Ciarallo, F., 2009. A survey of agent-based
modeling practices (January 1998 to July 2008). Journal of
Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 12(4), p.9.
Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific of Iraq, 2012. The strategic
framework and the general policies of Technical and Vocational
Education in Iraq. In Third International Congress on Technical
and Vocational Education and Training. China, pp. 2–12.
Available at: www.tvetoman.net/PDF/PDF_AR_7.pdf?
Ministry of Planning Republic of Iraq, 2010. National Development Plan
2010-2014, Baghdad. Available at: http://www.mop.gov.iq/mop.
Scheinman, D.E., 2009. Discrete event simulation and production system
design for Rockwell hardness test blocks. California.
Stančić, H. et al., 2007. Simulation Models in Education. In
Međunarodna znanstvena konferencija The Future of
Information Sciences, (Digital Information and Heritage (1;
2007)).
United Nations Human Settlements -UNHABITAT, 2009. Country
Programme Document 2009-2011 :Iraq, Iraq.
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Winn, W., 2003. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY. In
D. Jonassen, ed. Handbook of research on educational
communications and technology. Routledge/Taylor & Francis
Group, pp. 79–112.
Yilmaz, L. et al., 2008. What Makes Good Research in Modeling and
Simulation (M&S): Sustaining the Growth and Vitality of the
M&S Discipline. In Winter Simulation Conference 2008.
IEEE/ACM, pp. 671–676.
63
Perlaksanaan Amalan Kepimpinan
‘Turnaround’ Dalam Kalangan
Pengetua Sekolah Menengah Di
Negeri Sabah.
Irene Branda Anak Macus & Khadijah Daud
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini dijalankan oleh penyelidik bertujuan untuk
mengenalpasti
perlaksanaan
amalan
kepimpinan
‘turnaround’dalam kalangan pengetua di empat buah sekolah di
pantai Barat Negeri Sabah. Kajian ini adalah berdasarkan model
yang diasaskan oleh Micheal Fullan (2006). Sebanyak sepuluh
elemen yang terdapat dalam kepimpinan ‘turnaround’ iaitu
Merapatkan jurang antara prestasi rendah dan prestasi tinggi,
mengutamkan tiga asas utama, memastikan guru terbaik
melaksanakan tugas,merangka strategi berorientasikan tindakan
dan sosial, membina kapasiti beterusan, mengamalkan kepimpinan
berunsurkan kemanusiaan,memberikan tekanan positif kepada guru
dan membina akautabiliti dalam menjurus kepada akauntabiliti
luar. Seramai 360 responden guru dan empat orang pengetua
daripada empat buah sekolah menengah luar Bandar terlibat dalam
kajian ini. Kajian ini akan mengabungkan kaedah gabungan iaitu
kualitatif dan kuantitatif.
Kata Kunci : Kepimpinan “Turnaraound”, Pengetua
64
PENGENALAN
Kajian tentang kepimpinan pendidikan membuktikan bahawa
kepimpinan memainkan peranan yang amat penting untuk
menjadikan sesebuah sekolah itu berjaya dan mencapai prestasi
tinggi ( Jo et al, 2010; Simone & Uchiyama, 2003). Pemimpin
sekolah adalah pemacu yang amat penting dalam pendidikan bagi
pencapaian murid. Kajian dijalankan di Tennesee, Amerika
Syarikat pada pertengahan tahun 1990-an telah menunjukkan
bahawa secara relatifnya, Pengetua yang berprestasi cemerlang
yang menumpukan kepada kepimpinan instruksional berbanding
pentadbiran dapat meningkatkan pencapaian murid sehingga 20 %.
Oleh itu, Pengetua merupakan fokus kepada reformasi kepada
tranformasi sebuah sekolah yang berpencapain rendah dan sekolah
yang gagal mencapai sasaran berdasarkan SKPM iaitu Standard
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia yang telah ditetapkan oleh
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia Kepentingan peranan pemimpin
berkesan sememangnya tidak dinafikan terutamanya dalam usaha
menghasilkan sekolah-sekolah yang berjaya dan berprestasi
cemerlang. Kebanyakkan pengkaji setuju bahawa dalam jangka
masa proses sekolah ‘turnaround’, ia berlaku dalam jangka masa
yang drastik tetapi tidak berlaku pemulihan yang pantas ( Stoll &
Myers,1998) dan adalah menjadi kefahaman bahawa dengan
mengambil kira tempoh masa perubahan pencapaian sekolah yang
berterusan sekolah tersebut mencapai keputusan yang baik
berdasarkan perubahan yang pantas dan usaha yang beterusan
maka proses ini dikenali sebagai ‘turnaround’.
Secara kesimpulannya, memandangkan kualiti pendidikan
tinggi berkorelasi terus berkait rapat dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi
negara dalam jangka masa yang panjang maka adalah penting
untuk meneruskan usaha untuk melonjakkan standard pendidikan
ke tahap yang lebih tinggi agar Malaysia tidak akan berhadapan
dengan risiko ketinggalan dalam pendidikan pada masa ini dan
kurang berdaya saing pada masa hadapan maka dalam hal ini,
pentadbiran dan pengurusan di peringkat sekolah iaitu pengetua
dan guru besar memainkan peranan penting jatuh bangun sekolah
65
tersebut kerana sesebuah sekolah bertunjangkan kepada pucuk
pimpinan pengetua ( Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid 2000).
PERNYATAAN MASALAH
Dalam usaha merialisasikan hasrat kerajaan untuk melaksanakan
tranformasi yang berani, bersungguh-sungguh dan drastik negara
memerlukan
penjawat awam seperti seperti pengetua atau
pemimpin sekolah yang memiliki memainkan peranan yang lebih
drastik. walau bagaimanapun isu yang berkaitan dengan ketidak
mampuan pengetua serta kelemahan pegetua dalam usaha
menjadikan sekolah yang berpencapaian rendah kepada sekolah
yang berkesan bukanlah satu isu yang baharu Fullan (2001) Kajian
yang dilakukan oleh Deal dan Peterson telah mendedahkan
terdapatnya kelemahan pengetua dalam pengurusan sekolah secara
berfungsi dan berkesan berdasarkan garis panduan seperti yang
ditetapkan . Cabaran untuk mencari dan menemui pemimpin yang
memiliki kemahiran dalam usaha memulih dan ‘turnaround’
sekolah yang berpencapaian rendah di peringkat kebangsaan masih
berada di tahap yang agak jauh, kerana atas beberapa sebab
Kepimpinan ‘turnaround’ merupakan satu konsep yang agak
baharu dalam bidang pendidikan di Malaysia. Walau
bagaimanapun kajian ‘turnaround’ telah berlaku di Negara barat
dan hasil kajian dari sekolah mampu melakukan perubahan dan
berjaya dan kejayaan ini didukung oleh stail kepimpinan dan
kemahiran yang ada . Cabaran ini masih merupakan cabaran untuk
mencari pemimpin yang benar-benar mempunyai ciri kepimpinan
‘turnaround’ dalam usaha menaikkan sekolah berpencapaian
rendah kepada sekolah cemerlang.
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Objektif –objektif yang ingin dicapai melalui kajian ini ialah :
66
1. Mengenal pasti amalan kepimpinan ‘turnaround’yang
paling dominan diamalkan oleh pengetua di sekolah dalam
strateginya untuk meningkatkan pencapaian akademik
sekolah berpencapaian rendah kepada sekolah cemerlang.
2. Mengenal pasti
kepimpinan empat dimensi yang
ditetapkan oleh Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia
paling dominan diamalkan oleh pengetua di sekolah dalam
strateginya untuk menaikkan pencapaian akademik sekolah
berpencapaian rendah kepada sekolah cemerlang.
3. Mengenal pasti ciri sekolah berpencapaian tinggi yang
digariskan oleh KPM yang paling dominan diamalkan oleh
pengetua dari sekolah berpencapaian rendah kepada
sekolah cemerlang.
4. Mengkaji hubungan diantara kepimpinan ‘turnaround’
dengan kepimpinan empat dimensi yang ditetapkan oleh
Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia yang diamalkan oleh
pengetua sekolah berpencapaian rendah kepada sekolah
cemerlang.
5. Mengenal pasti amalan kepimpinan ‘turnaround’ dan empat
dimensi yang ditetapkan oleh Standard Kualiti Pendidikan
Malaysia yang paling menyumbang kepada ciri sekolah
berkesan atau sekolah cemerlang yang ditetapkan oleh
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.
6. Mengenal pasti cabaran yang dihadapi pengetua dalam
usaha mencapai sekolah berkesan atau sekolah cemerlang
menggunakan kepimpinan ‘turnaround’ dan kepimpinan
yang berdasarkan empat dimensi yang ditetapkan oleh
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.
REKABENTUK KAJIAN
Oleh itu kajian ini berbentuk kajian gabungan yang akan
melibatkan kaedah Kuantitatif dan kaedah kualitatitif iaitu Kajian
Kaedah
Campuran
(Mixed
Method Research) merupakan
kombinasi kaedah,
falsafah, dan
haluan
67
rekabentuk penyelidikan (Creswell
and
Clark,
2011),yang
merangkumi mengumpul data kualitatif dan kuantitatif secara lebih
terperinci dan menyakinkan. kaedah gabungan iaitu kaedah
kuantitatif dan kualitatif merupakan satu kaedah yang mempunyai
kekuatan sinergi yang wujud untuk pemahaman sesuatu fenomena
dengan lebih terperinci jika dibandingkan dengan penggunaan
kaedah kuantitatif sahaja atau kualitatif sahaja, .Gay (2006). dan
Mohd Najib , (1999) menyatakan bahawa untuk penyelidikan
secara mendalam adalah disarankan menggabungkan kedua-dua
ciri kaedah kajian tersebut memandangkan memiliki kekuatan
tersendiri.
Kaedah kuantitatif juga digunakan oleh pengkaji dalam kajian.
Menurut Mohd Najib (1999) menyatakan pendekatan kuantitatif
digunakan bagi mendapatkan data melalui pengukuran objektif dan
dapat digeneralisasikan kepada dunia luar. Menurut Cohen dan
Manion (1985) kajian kuantitatif juga disebut sebagai jenis
eksperimen, sainstifik, objektif, reduksi dan preskriptif atau
dikelaskan sebagai normatif yang mampu menyelesaikan masalah
di peringkat makro (besar). Bagi kaedah kuantitatif, kaedah
persampelan rawak mudah kerana persampelan rawak mudah
mengkhendaki setiap individu mempunyai peluang dan ruang yang
sama untuk dijadikan sampel dan persampelan rawak dipilih
kerana populasi yang hendak dikaji mempunyai ciri-ciri yang
seragam, soal selidik akan diedarkan untuk mendapatkan data.
Manakala kaedah kualitatif digunakan dalam kajian ini dengan
menggunakan kaedah temubual dan refleksi peserta yang terlibat.
Menurut Silversetein (2003) kajian kualitatif merupakan kaedah
yang paling baik untuk mendapatkan jawapan daripada persoalan
dan pengetahuan serta pembelajaran secara terperinci selain itu
pendekatan kualitatif akan memberikan maklumat kepada pengkaji
untuk melaporkan pengalaman pengetua setelah amalan
‘turnaround’ dilakukan dan sebelum amalan dilakukan secara
padat berdasarkan suara, pendapat, luahan hati dan pengalaman
pengetua. Malah dalam kajian Bogdan & Bilken (1988), Creswell(
2003), Moustakas (1994) menyatakan bahawa kaedah ini sesuai
untuk mengkaji fenomena kepelbagaian kes iaitu untuk
68
mendapatkan maklumat bagaimana untuk menjalankan proses
kutipan data yang berkaitan dengan pengalaman peserta dan corak
analisis data dan hubungannya. Sementara menurut Mohd Najib
(1999) menyatakan bahawa kaedah kualitatif menerangkan secara
holistik keadaan sebenar sesuatu peristiwa yang berlaku tanpa
sebarang manipulasi oleh pengkaji. Menggunakan kaedah
gabungan adalah lebih menyeluruh, ini disebabkan persoalan
kajian dapat dijawab dengan lebih komprehensif jika
menggabungkan kedua-dua kajian kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Selain
itu, pengkaji mampu mengintepretasi dapatan kajian dari pelbagai
perspektif walaupun kajian ini mengambil masa yang lebih lama
berbanding penggunaan satu kaedah kajian kuantitif sahaja
SAMPEL DAN TEMPAT KAJIAN
Penyelidikan bertujuan untuk mengkaji amalan kepimpinan
‘turnaround’ dalam kalangan pengetua sekolah di negeri Sabah.
Oleh itu penyelidik memilih sekolah yang telah dikenalpasti
mampu melonjakkan prestasi secara drastik dalam tempoh satu
hingga lima tahun. Penyelidik akan memilih guru yang bertugas di
empat buah sekolah tersebut seramai 360 puluh responden iaitu
guru sebagai sampel kajian dan empat orang pengetua dan akan
menilai berkaitan dengan amalan kepimpinan ‘turnaround’ melalui
soal selidik dan kaedah temubual yang akan diedarkan dan akan
dilaksanakan.
Instrumen Kajian
Instrumen kajian adalah alat yang akan digunakan di dalam kajian
untuk menguji sesuatu persoalan. Dalam kajian yang menggunakan
kaedah gabungan iaitu Kajian Kaedah Campuran (Mixed
Method Research) merupakan kombinasi kaedah kerana ia sesuai
untuk kajian yang akan dilaksanakan kaedah gabungan iaitu
69
kaedah kuantitatif dan kualitatif merupakan satu kaedah yang
mempunyai kekuatan sinergi yang wujud untuk pemahaman
sesuatu fenomena dengan lebih terperinci jika dibandingkan
dengan penggunaan kaedah kuantitatif sahaja atau kualitatif sahaja,
.Gay (2006). dan Mohd Najib , (1999) menyatakan bahawa untuk
penyelidikan secara mendalam adalah disarankan menggabungkan
kedua-dua ciri kaedah kajian tersebut memandangkan memiliki
kekuatan tersendiri
Kaedah Kuantitatif akan menggunakan soal selidik kerana ia
bersesuaian dengan kaedah kajian untuk menguji satu persoalan
disamping menjimatkan kos penyelidikan,dapat memperoleh data
dengan tepat , responden dapat memberikan maklum balas dengan
cepat, malah penyelidik dapat berhubung atau bekerjasama dengan
responden dengan lebih mudah. Mengikut Oppenheim (1996) di
dalam Mohamad Najib (1999), soal selidik digunakan untuk
mengukur konsep yang berkaitan dengan sikap,persepsi dan
pandangan selain latar belakang.
Manakala kaedah kualitatif digunakan dalam kajian ini dengan
menggunakan kaedah temubual dan refleksi peserta yang terlibat.
Menurut Silversetein (2003) kajian kualitatif merupakan kaedah
yang paling baik untuk mendapatkan jawapan daripada persoalan
dan pengetahuan serta pembelajaran secara terperinci selain itu
pendekatan kualitatif akan memberikan maklumat kepada pengkaji
untuk melaporkan pengalaman berdasarkan suara, pendapat,
luahan hati responden yang dikaji. Malah dalam kajian Bogdan &
Bilken (1988), Creswell( 2003), Moustakas (1994) menyatakan
bahawa
kaedah ini sesuai
untuk mengkaji fenomena
kepelbagaian kes iaitu untuk mendapatkan maklumat bagaimana
untuk menjalankan proses kutipan data yang berkaitan dengan
pengalaman peserta dan corak analisis data dan hubungannya.
Sementara menurut Mohd Najib (1999) menyatakan bahawa
kaedah kualitatif menerangkan secara holistik keadaan sebenar
sesuatu peristiwa yang berlaku tanpa sebarang manipulasi oleh
pengkaji
Walau bagaimanapun kaedah gabungan
adalah lebih
menyeluruh, ini disebabkan persoalan kajian dapat dijawab dengan
70
lebih komprehensif jika menggabungkan kedua-dua kajian
kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Selain itu, pengkaji mampu
mengintepretasi dapatan kajian dari pelbagai perspektif walaupun
kajian ini mengambil masa yang lebih lama berbanding
penggunaan satu kaedah kajian kuantitif sahaja.
i)
Bahagian A : Terdiri
daripada maklumat latar
belakang responden dan maklumat guru yang perlu diisi
oleh responden tersebut iaitu maklumat jantina,
kaum,kelayakan akademik
dan tempoh bertugas
sebagai guru.
ii)
Bahagian B ( Lampiran 1) Terdiri daripada 60 item
soalan berkaitan persoalan kajian telah ditetapkan itemitem ini terbahagi kepada sepuluh elemen yang terdapat
dalam kepimpinan ‘turnaround’ iaitu Merapatkan
jurang antara prestasi rendah dan prestasi
tinggi,mengutamkan tiga asas utama, memastikan guru
terbaik
melaksanakan
tugas,merangka
strategi
berorientasikan tindakan dan sosial, membina kapasiti
beterusan, mengamalkan kepimpinan berunsurkan
kemanusiaan,memberikan tekanan positif kepada guru
dan membina akautabiliti dalam menjurus kepada
akauntabiliti luar.
( Lampiran 2) Terdiri daripada 68 item soalan
berkaitan dengan persoalan kajian telah ditetapkan
item-item utama yang terdapat dalam instrument
SKPM (standard kualiti pelajaran Malaysia) yang
terbahagi kepada empat dimensi utama iaitu : Dimensi
1 : Kepimpinan dan hala tuju, dimensi 2 : pengurusan
organisasi, dimensi 3:Pengurusan Ko kurikulum, sukan
dan hal ehwal murid dan kemenjadian murid. Bahgaian
ini juga perlu dijawap oleh guru sebagai responden
untuk menilai sejauh m hubungan diantara kepimpinan
‘turnaround’ dengan kepimpinan empat dimensi yang
ditetapkan oleh Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia
yang diamalkan oleh pengetua sekolah berpencapaian
rendah kepada sekolah cemerlang. Pilihan jawapan
71
kepada responden adalah menggunakan skala lima
mata, menurut Mohamad Najib (1999) menyatakan
reponden dikehendaki menandakan jawapan tentang
sesuatu kenyataan berdasarkan satu skala dari satu
extreme yang lain .Contohnya : jadual 1 di bawah
menunjukkan skala lima mata tersebut.
Jadual 1 (a) : Skor bagi skala Likert lima mata ( dipetik dari
Mohd Najib Ghafar , 1999)
Skor
1
2
3
4
Tahap
Sangat
Tidak
Tidak
Setuju
Aplikasi
tidak
setuju
Pasti
5
Sangat
setuju
setuju
Manakala jadual 2 (b) dibawah menunjukkan taburan dan
jumlah item bagi setiap amalan kepimpinan’turnaround’ pada soal
selidik di bahgian B , lampiran 1.
Jadual 2 (a) Taburan dan jumlah item dalam soal selidik
AMALAN
NOMBOR ITEM
KEPIMPINAN
‘TURNAROUND
Merapatkan
jurang
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
prestasi antara prestasi
rendah
dan
prestasi
cemerlang
Mengutamakan
Tiga
16,17,49
asas utama
Mewujudkan
budaya
27,38
menghormati
JUMLAH
ITEM
7
3
72
Memastikan
guru
terbaik
melaksanakan
dasar
19,20,21,22,23,
5
Merangka Strategi yang
Berorientasikan Tindakan dan
Sosial
Membina kapasiti secara
berterusan
28,29,30,31,32,
33,34,35
8
8,13,18,36,37,40,4
1,42,43,47
10
Mengamalkan
kepemimpinan
berunsurkan
kemanusiaan
9,10,15,24,25,26,3
9,4
8
Memberikan tekanan yang
positif kepada guru
14,47,44,45,46,48
6
Jumlah
keseluruhan item
Membina akauntabiliti
dalam menjurus kepada
akauntabiliti luaran
membina
masyarakat
60
11,12,50,51,52,53
keyakinan
54,55,56,57,58
Jumlah
item
keseluruhan
60
Manakala jadual 2 (b) dibawah menunjukkan taburan dan
jumlah item bagi setiap dimensi yang terdapat pada instrumen
SKPM (Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia) pada soal selidik
di bahagian B , lampiran 2.
73
Jadual 2(b) Taburan dan jumlah item dalam soal selidik
DIMENSI
Kepimpinan
dan hala tuju
Pengurusan
organisasi
ITEM SOALAN
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,1
0,11,12,13,14,15
16,17,18,19,20,21,
NO SOALAN
5
24
22,23,24,25,26,
27,28,29,30,31,32,
33,34,35,36,37,
38,39.
40,41,42,43,44,45,
Pengurusan
ko kurikulum
sukan dan hal 46,47,48,49,50
ehwal murid
51,52,53,54,55,56,
57,58,59,60
Kemenjadia
61,62,63,64,65,66,
n murid
67,68
Jumlah
keseluruhan item
21
8
68
Item –item soalan bagi kajian soal selidik dibina dengan
merujuk kepada soal selidik daripada tesis asal daripada tesis iaitu
Angela Antuanette Brown (2012), iaitu’ Turnaround school
practice used by Nationally Recognised Principals to improve
student Achievement In High Proverty SchooL iaitu Leithwood &
Strauss (2009) dan sebagai tambahan dalam kajian ini pengkaji
juga menggunakan instrumen SKPM iaitu standard Kualiti
Pendidikan Malaysia bagi memenuhi persoalan dalam kajian .
Manakala untuk kaedah kualitatif pula, pengkaji menggunakan
soalan temuduga yang dibangunkan oleh Leitwood & Strauss iaitu
dalam kajian Ontario.
74
Namun begitu, item-item di dalam soal selidik tersebut telah
diubahsuai kesesuaian berdasarkan model Micheal Fullan bagi
mengikut kajian dan responden yang terlibat. Soal selidik
mempunyai 128 item dan sebanyak 9 soalan temuduga yang
berkaitan dengan proses dan amalan ‘turnaround’.
RUJUKAN
Angela Antuantte Brown, 2012. Turnaround school : practices Used By
Nationall Recognised Principals to Improve Students
Achievement In High Poverty School
Bill Barker . 2011. Turnaround Leadership How Three successful
Leaders . Turned Around Their Schools TurnaroundPrincipal
Christopher Corallo, Deborah H.McDonald ,2002 What works with Low
Performing school Dana Brinson and Lucy
Steiner, (2012). Building Family and Community Demand for District
Leader.Dramatic change in school.
Glen P. Watkins, 2013. The Federal Turnaround Model : Is There
A Difference When the Principal of School Chang.
Glenda Copeland dan Ann Neeley,2012. Identifying Competencies and
Actions of Effectice Action of Effective Turnaround Principal.
Kathleen M Hickey, 2010. Leadership Practices and Process In
Turnaround Schools A Phenomenological Multi Case.
Kenneth Leitwood, 2010. Turning Around Underperforming School
Systems Guideline For Disctric Leader.
Kennethe Leithwood dan Tiuss Strauss, 2008. Turnaround schools And
Leadership They Required.
Lokman Mohd Tahir dan Aimi Kaman , 2011. Kepimpinan situasi
Dalam Kalangan Guru Besar Di Daerah Johor Bahru.
Mary Lorelei Olsen, 2013. Leadership For School Turnaround for
School Turnarounds.National Center Education Statistics
Program For International Students Assessment ( PISA)
Sharil @ Charii Bin Hj . Marzuki . Pembentukan Kerangka Teori
Sekolah Cemerlang.
Xavier C.Butler, 2012. In What In Ways Do Principal Impact School
Climate inTurnaround Sucessful High PovertyMiddle School
Yassin, Sanitah Mohd Yusof, 2008. Analisis Kepemimpinan Pengetua
Sekolah .
75
LAMPIRAN
AMALAN KEPIMPINAN
‘TURNAROUND’
Merapatkan jurang prestasi antara
prestasi
rendah dan prestasi
cemerlang
Mengutamakan Tiga asas utama
NOMBOR
ITEM
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
Mewujudkan budaya menghormati
27,38
Memastikan
guru
terbaik
melaksanakan dasar
Merangka
Strategi
yang
Berorientasikan Tindakan dan Sosial
Membina kapasiti secara berterusan
19,20,21,22,23,
5
28,29,30,31,32,
33,34,35
8,13,18,36,37,4
0,41,42,43,47
8
Mengamalkan
kepemimpinan
berunsurkan kemanusiaan
9,10,15,24,2
5,26,39,4
8
Memberikan tekanan yang positif
kepada guru
14,47,44,45,
46,48
6
Membina
akauntabiliti
dalam
menjurus kepada akauntabiliti luaran
membina keyakinan masyarakat
11,12,50,51,
52,53,54,55,56,
57,58
16,17,49
Jumlah
keseluruhan
item
JUMLAH
ITEM
7
3
10
60
76
INTERNET USAGE AMONG
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN
A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY IN
MALASIA
Lu Xi & Kee Jiar-Yeo
ABSTRACT
This study aimed to investigate the Internet use among
undergraduate students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A
questionnaire comprised by items of demographic information and
Internet use information was used to collect the data. A total of
1389 students (21.13 ± 1.68 years old) answered the
questionnaire, which found that 97.4% of students owned a
personal computer. The sample of this study spent 6.60 (SD=4.93)
hours per day and had more than seven years of Internet use
experience. Three Internet activities were found to be more
popular including SNS (e.g. Facebook), search/googling and
instant message. The significant gender difference was identified
that male spend much more time on MMORPG, female spent
much more time on email, search/googling, shopping, and instant
message.
Keywords: Internet Use, Undergraduate Students, Internet
Activities
77
INTRODUCTION
Internet as the new technology affects society and people of
different walks of life in various perspectives such as social
interaction, leisure time, and how people communicate, study,
work, doing business, and shopping. It provides a global data
communication system between computers which bring many
advantages such as faster communication, information resources,
entertainment, social networking, and making life convenient and
efficient. There are approximately 2.27 billion Internet users all
over the world in 2011. The growth rate is 528.1% from 2000 to
2011. Asia takes the biggest population, more than one billion,
followed by Europe and North America (Internet World Stats,
2011). The rapid increasing number of Internet use is also found
in Malaysia from 3.70 million in 2000 to 17.72 million in 2010
(International Telecommunication Union, 2010). It has been
widely used in higher education of various fields and permeated
student’s study and life (Edmunds, Thorpe & Conole, 2010; Tella,
2007).
Internet plays a prominent role among young people (Chan
and Fang, 2007), which indicated that the majority of people spent
one to three hours a day on the Internet. The Internet was the
preferred media choice for information-driven activities, listening
to music and for fun. A study in Malaysia reported that the
university students spent 13.31 hours per week online and started
using computers at the age of 14 on average (Guan,Isa, Hashim,
Pillai & Singh, 2012).
Among 11 Internet activities, three of them were selected as
the favorite choice including SNS (e.g. Facebook), downloading,
and instant message (Kim, LaRose, & Peng, 2009). The adverse
effects of long time Internet use were stressed in many previous
researches, such as Internet addiction or pathological Internet use
(PIU) (Gencer and Koc, 2012; Katerelos, Tsekeris, Lavdas &
Dimitriou, 2011; Frangos, Frangos, & Kiohos, 2010). A European
study pointed that PIU was significantly related to the average
hours online. The highest-ranked online activities were watching
78
videos, frequenting chat rooms and social networking (Durkee,
Kaess, Carli, Parzer, Wasserman, Floderus, Apter, Balazs,
Barzilay, Bobes, Brunner, Corcoran,Cosman, Cotter, Despalins,
Graber, Guillemin, Haring, Kahn, Mandelli, Marusic, Mészáros,
Musa, Postuvan, Resch, Saiz, Sisask, Varnik, Sarchiapone, Hoven
& Wasserman, 2012).
METHOD
A total of 1389 undergraduate students in the age of 21.13 ± 1.68
from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) responded on a
pencil-paper questionnaire related to their Internet use. The
sample was randomly selected from each faculty in UTM. Table 1
showed the sample composition, which revealed that the number
of students in each year of programme was equivalent, about 25%,
but the huge discrepancy was found in major field and race. As
there are half of faculties, six out of 12 in UTM related to
engineering field, the engineering respondents contributed almost
half of the research samples (47.7%), followed were science
(32.1%), art, humanity and social science (13.2%), and others
(6.9%). While, the sample composition on race is quite similar
with the ethnic composition of the whole population in Malaysia,
which Malay contributed more than half of the samples (66.4%),
followed by Chinese (26.6%), others (4.8%), Indian (2.2%). .
The questionnaire comprises items of demographic information,
Internet usage (e.g. have a personal computer, time spent on
MMORPG, SNS, email, search, simple game, shopping, browsing
with no specific purpose, media viewing, instant message),
perception of influence from Internet use on study and physical
health.
79
Table 1 Sample comprisal
Major
Gender
Race
Programme
Frequency
(n)
Art, humanity and social science
184
science
446
engineering
663
others
96
male
788
female
601
Malay
922
Chinese
369
Indian
31
others
67
1st year undergraduate
336
2nd year undergraduate
345
3rd year undergraduate
366
4th year undergraduate
342
Percent
(%)
13.2
32.1
47.7
6.9
56.7
43.3
66.4
26.6
2.2
4.8
24.2
24.8
26.3
24.6
RESULT AND FINGDINGS
This simple investigation on Internet usage of undergraduate
students in UTM found that majority of students (97.4%) owned
at least one personal computer and their average Internet use
experiences was 7.60 ±3.10 years with minimum of one year and
maximum of 20 years. They averagely spent 6.60 (SD=4.93)
hours on daily base which was much longer than the medical
students (Guan,Isa, Hashim, Pillai & Singh, 2012).
As shown in Table 2, these undergraduate students spent much
longer time (more than three hours) on three Internet activities,
SNS (e.g. Facebook), search/googling and instant message. The
next activities was online media viewing (2.56 ± 2.37 h). Exactly
as previous research findings, SNS were much more popular than
other activities, which built a virtual social networking with others
and provided various services and functions
(Durkee et al.,
2012; Kim, LaRose, & Peng, 2009).
80
Table 2 Time spent on Internet activities
Mean
(h)
SD
MMORPG
1.26
2.18
SNS
4.34
2.76
email
1.82
1.95
search
3.65
2.57
simple game
1.06
1.79
shopping
1.19
1.93
browsing with no specific purpose
1.90
2.25
media viewing
2.56
2.37
instant message
3.47
3.02
Internet activities
MANOVA was conducted to test the gender difference on
time spend in various Internet activates (Table 3), which indicated
that there was significant difference between male and female
students on some of Internet activities, such as MMORPG,
shopping. Female students were found to spend much more time
on email, search/googling, shopping, and instant message
compared to the male ones, while male students tended to spend
much more time on MMORPG. The finding of these Malaysian
students was quite similar as students in Europe that female
preferred watching video, social networking, and chatting, while
males would like playing massive online multi-user games
(Durkee et al., 2012).
Table 3 Gender difference on Internet activities
Internet
activities
male
female
Between-Subjects
Effects
M
SD
M
SD
F
Sig.
MMORPG
1.78
2.46
0.58
1.50
111.34
0.00
SNS
4.19
2.80
4.55
2.71
5.82
0.16
email
1.66
1.81
2.03
2.12
12.15
0.00
search
3.26
2.47
4.16
2.61
41.74
0.00
81
simple game
1.05
1.74
1.06
1.86
0.02
0.89
shopping
browsing with
no specific
purpose
0.87
1.68
1.61
2.16
52.13
0.00
1.87
2.25
1.93
2.26
0.26
0.61
media viewing
2.51
2.35
2.63
2.40
0.91
0.34
instant message
Multivariate
Test
3.08
2.82
3.98
3.20
30.86
0.00
Pillai's Trace
0.76
Sig.
0.00
CONCLUSION
This study examined the Internet use among undergraduate
students in UTM, found that these students averagely spent a
quarter of a normal day time of 24 hours, which was much longer
than other previous studies. Among nine Internet activities, SNS
was the most popular one, followed by search/googling, instant
message, and online media viewing. The significant gender
distinction was identified on five activities, MMORPG, email,
search/googling, shopping, and instant message.
REFERENCES
Chan, K. & Fang, W. 2007. Use of the internet and traditional media
among young people. Young Consumers 8(4): 244-256.
Durkee, T., Kaess, M., Carli, V., Parzer, P., Wasserman, C., Floderus,
B., Apter, A., Balazs, J., Barzilay, S., Bobes, J., Brunner, R.,
Corcoran, P., Cosman, D., Cotter, P., Despalins, R., Graber, N.,
Guillemin, F., Haring, C., Kahn, J.P., Mandelli, L., Marusic, D.,
Mészáros, G., Musa, G.J., Postuvan, V., Resch, F., Saiz, P.A.,
Sisask, M., Varnik, A., Sarchiapone, M., Hoven, C.W. &
Wasserman, D. 2012. Prevalence of pathological internet use
82
among adolescents in Europe: demographic and social factors.
Addiction.
107(12),
2210–2222.
doi:10.1111/j.13600443.2012.03946.x
Edmunds, R., Thorpe, M., & Conole, G. 2010. Student attitudes towards
and use of ICT in course study, work and social activity: A
technology acceptance model approach, British Journal of
Educational Technology. 43(1), 71-84.
Frangos, C. C., Frangos, C. C., & Kiohos, A. P. 2010. Internet addiction
among Greek university students: Demographic associations
with the phenomenon, using the Greek version of Young’s
internet addiction test. International Journal of Economic
Sciences and Applied Research, 3(1), 49–74.
Gencer, S. L., & Koc, M. 2012. Internet Abuse among Teenagers and Its
Relations to Internet Usage Patterns andDemographics.
Educational Technology & Society, 15 (2), 25–36.
Guan, N. C. Isa, S. M. Hashim, A. H. Pillai, S. K. & Singh, M. K. H.
2012. Validity of the Malay Version of the Internet Addiction
Test: A Study on a Group of Medical Students in Malaysia.
Asia-Pacific
Journal
of
Public
Health.
DOI:
10.1177/1010539512447808
Internet Usage World Stats- The Big Picture- Population Statistics 2011.
Available http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
Katerelos, I. Tsekeris, C., Lavdas, M. & Dimitriou, K. 2011. A
Psychosocial Approach to the Use of the Internet and Massive
Online Role Playing Games. Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology
and History. 10 (1), 73-88.
Kim, J. LaRose, R & Peng, W. 2009. Loneliness as the Cause and the
Effect of Problematic Internet Use: The Relationship between
Internet Use and Psychological Well-being. CyberPsychology &
Behavior. 12(4), 451-455. DOI: 10.1089=cpb.2008.0327
Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. 2010.
Household use of the Internet survey 2009. Cyberjaya:
Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia
Tella, A. 2007. University of Botswana Undergraduates Uses of the
Internet: Implications on Academic Performance. Journal of
Educational Media and Library Sciences, 45(2), 161–185.
83
MEETING SUPERVISORS’
EXPECTATIONS IN
UNDERGRADUATE FINAL YEAR
PROJECT REPORT
Salawati Ahmad & Masputeriah Hamzah
INTRODUCTION
In most tertiary institutions around the world, including Malaysia,
the final milestone for engineering undergraduate programmes is
the final year project (FYP). Typically, the FYP involves design or
research, or both, and runs over two semesters or a full year. While
completing the project, the undergraduates also write a report,
known as final year project report (FYPR). This report, which is
sometimes referred to as ‘thesis writing’, is regarded as an
important genre of academic writing in the engineering
programmes, where students need to apply and integrate their
theoretical knowledge and skills to solve a given task in two
academic semesters. The FYPR is counted as a part of the
fulfilment for graduation, hence, its importance to the
undergraduates (Dahari et al. 2012; Ku & Goh 2010). For the
undergraduate students, both tasks of conducting the project and
writing the report is their new experience which always becomes
challenging to complete (Bitchener et al. 2010). Nonetheless,
students attempt to meet the faculty’s requirement and submit the
project report for assessment and graduation purpose. In order to
84
guide the undergraduates in carrying out the projects as well as
writing the reports, supervisors are assigned for each of them. They
are the academic tutors of the faculty themselves.
The project supervisors who are responsible to guide these
students have their own expectations and beliefs about the way the
report should be written. These expectations are driven from
supervisors’ own experience, faculty’s requirement, and rubric for
the report assessment. Supervisors have had experience in
academic writing, for instance, dissertation or thesis, research
articles, and also project reports. However, a more experienced
supervisor and a rather novice supervisor may have different
expectation and belief toward the undergraduates and the reports
they are writing (Jones 2003). Faculty’s requirement of a certain
academic writing like FYPR is usually reflected in the rubrics of
the assessment. The rubric serves as the guidelines for what a
FYPR must contain. It also tells a certain level of knowledge in
subject matter to which the undergraduate writer must meet and
demonstrate in the report (Dahari et al. 2012; Webster et al. 2000).
It is these expectations and beliefs which are important for students
to know and understand in order to write the report effectively,
thus, meeting their supervisors’ and the other faculty members’
requirement of good report writing.
Despite supervisors’ good intention to ensure that the
undergraduates are successful in writing the FYPR, question
remains as to what exactly they want to see from the report. What,
to them, makes a good report? Since writing FYPR is new to the
undergraduates, what difficulties or challenges that supervisors
think the students are facing? What about students’ use of language
in report writing where they write in English? Therefore, this small
scale study was conducted to unfold the answers to the questions
so that many undergraduates will benefit and understand of what
they are expected to do. To answer these questions, a semistructured interview was administered. The main objectives of the
interviews were first, to explore supervisors’ thought and
expectations of undergraduates FYPR; second, to find out their
perceptions about difficulties students face in writing the report;
85
and third is to identify the language needs for academic writing
among students of engineering programme.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Previous studies on supervisors’ expectation of students’ thesis
writing provide some insights into what students should do in order
to meet the requirement of good writing. For example, research
conducted by Jones (2003) shows that supervisors for final year
project do have some expectations such as students need to be
creative and able to make decision when delivering the project.
However, the supervisors did not provide clear explanation or
checklist for students so that they could follow or try to meet what
is expected of them and their writing. This has led to frustration
among students especially if writing the report is their first time
experience. Other than that, research conducted by Gassman et al.
(2013) reveal that some faculties provide academic writing
workshops for students who are at the stage of thesis writing. This
workshop is a platform for the students to have discussion with
their supervisors. Through discussions, supervisors respond
according to what students need to know, hence, making it less
difficult to write the report.
In addition to the studies mentioned above, a number of
previous studies have also been conducted to investigate perceived
difficulties that students face when writing thesis. For instance,
Bitchener & Basturkmen (2006) study post-graduates’ difficulties
in writing discussion sections of the thesis. In this study, the
perception of difficulties was taken from the point of view of
students instead of the supervisors. Dong (1998) and Hill (2012)
have also investigated graduate students who have difficulties in
writing their thesis.. There are also some research that study
students’ difficulties in writing from the point of view of the
supervisor. For example, Bitchener et al. (2010) report that
supervisors found students have difficulties in two aspects, namely,
the structure and the organisation of the thesis, and the language
86
element at sentence and paragraph levels. From language aspect, it
seems that students whose English is not their first language (L2)
face with much more difficulties then those whose English is their
first language (L1) (Bitchener & Basturkmen 2006; Liming 2009;
Bitchener et al. 2010; Lee & Casal 2014).
In those examples, focus was given to post graduate students
experience in thesis writing rather than undergraduates’ final year
project writing. While it is beneficial for undergraduates to learn
the information given at post graduate level, it is also important for
them to know what is expected of them as new writers who have
no or less experience in writing academic reports. Therefore, this
study is conducted to explore such issues so that it could provide
meaningful insights for undergraduates, thus help them to better
understand the expectations.
RESEARCH SETTING
This study involves participants from the Faculty of Mechanical
and Manufacturing Engineering (FKMP), at one of the technical
universities in Malaysia. The faculty is one of the major
engineering faculties in the university and it is selected because
there is very little information available in the literature about
undergraduate’s final year project report writing for mechanical
engineering field. Five final year project report supervisors were
selected according to purposeful sampling procedure (Patton
2002). They have a minimum of five years teaching experience to
undergraduates. The year of experience is crucial as supervisors
have gone through teaching and supervising different group of
students for many years. This provides important insights into what
they expect from students when writing the final year project
reports. All supervisors who participated in this research have
graduated their doctoral degree from universities in the United
Kingdom and Australia. They have a range of between five to
fifteen years of teaching at university, and have written a number
of research articles throughout their career as academicians.
87
Interview is chosen as the instrument because it intends to
understand the participants’ views about a certain issue and the
experience they live through. It is a ‘professional conversation’
where ‘knowledge is constructed in the inter-action between the
interviewer and interviewee… an inter-change of views between
two persons conversing about a theme of mutual interest’ (Kvale &
Brinkmann 2009:2). A set of questions was prepared that served as
a guide for the interview. Since this was a semi-structured
interview, the session allowed further probing questions for
explanation or elaboration of certain unclear answer. By doing this,
it gives further understanding of the phenomena being
investigated. Each interview session lasted between thirty to fortyfive minutes depending on the participants’ responses and
explanation to the questions presented to them. The session was
audio-recorded for the purpose of transcription and analysis.
The analysis stage involved decision making based on the
purposes of the interview and the topic being investigated outlined
prior to the session. Kvale (2007) presents two modes of interview
analysis which are analysis focusing on meaning and analysis
focusing on language. For this study, analysis that focused on
meaning was adopted because the purposes of the interview were
to investigate the perceptions and expectations, not language
matters. Meaning coding is one of the focuses which involves
‘attaching one or more keywords to a text segment in order to
permit later identification of a statement’ (ibid:105). From this,
participants’ answers were identified and given codes for further
analysis.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
The interview questions from Bitchener & Basturkmen (2006)
were adapted and interview questions were formulated in order to
discover responses that will provide answers to the objectives of
the study. The questions are as the following:
1. What do you think of FYPR writing? Which part do you think
88
is the most difficult, and which part is the most important for
engineering undergraduates to deal with? Why? What do you
emphasise on for the writing of the final year project report?
2. What do you and other members of the academic community
(faculty members/other supervisors/panels of examiners)
expect of the students in their FYPR writing? What do you
think are the main problems for your students to fulfill those
expectations?
3. How do you generally assist the students to address the
problem? What do you think students should do to improvise
the way they write the FYPR?
4. What could be the role of English language teacher to assist
students in writing academic genre in English?
Supervisors’ thought and expectation of FYPR writing
In the interview, supervisors were asked what they think about
final year project report and also what they expect from students’
work of FYPR. All supervisors agreed that FYPR is important to
undergraduates. Final year project is a structured comprehensive
way of doing scientific research because they experience how
research is done, and this is where they apply knowledge they have
gained throughout years of study in the programme. Since FYPR is
compulsory for all undergraduates, they have no option but to
conduct and do it well. It is where all the knowledge comes
together which include how to present things, how to speak, and
how to convince people.
In addition, supervisors believe that students should learn from
references available in the library or resource room. From there,
they should be able to make concise summaries and give ideas and
opinion about what they have read. When students do this, it will
help in their writing because they have seen some samples which
act as a ‘model’ for the FYPR. Besides that, it should be noted that
there are several different types of project that students can do. For
example, the project can be of simulation, experiment, and design
89
types. The way the report is written differs according to type of
project that the student chooses to do.
From the answers given by the supervisors, it could be
understood that they expect students to read a lot from various
sources. By doing so, students will be able to ‘analyse’ different
examples of reports, looking at the structure, the way content is
organized, and identify different types of writing. This way,
students have actually done ‘genre analysis’ as suggested by
Hyland (2004). When the supervisors highlighted that each type of
project has different way of writing the report, they explained that
the design-type-project may contain less wording but consists of
more photos or diagrams. Whereas for experiment and simulation,
the reports consist of lots of explanation. It is therefore important
for students to become aware of the differences so that they will
know what to write in their reports (Johns 2008; Ross 2012).
In terms of the emphasis of the FYPR, all supervisors agreed
that content is the most important element of the report. In Johari
et al. (2002), they claim that the graduates who will become
engineer must possess strong scientific knowledge so they will be
able to function effectively in the global arena. One way to show
this strength is through delivering the project in report writing. In
the report, there is a standard format that needs to be followed. The
standard structure contains Introduction, literature review,
methodology, findings and discussion, and finally, conclusion and
recommendation. Undergraduates are expected to write sufficient
information in each part of the report and they should ensure that
what is written shows some interconnectedness. For example,
review of related literature serves as the basis of the project
whereby students look for area to be improved from previous
research. In methodology, they have to explain in detail how the
project is carried out. This include the setting up of experiment,
instrumentation, and data collection procedure.
However, it must be noted that language use is also important.
Supervisors believe that accurate language use is important in
order to deliver the content of the project, in particular the data and
findings and how to write about it. If the project produces lots of
90
data but the student does not know how to write about it, then it
will be at disadvantage as the important information could not be
explained.
Supervisors’ perceptions of undergraduates’ difficulties in
writing FYPR
After several years of supervising undergraduates doing project
and writing the reports, the supervisors have identified the
challenges and difficulties that students face especially in writing
the report. Among the obvious difficulties that students face are
two aspects. First, they don’t know what and how to write. In
particular, when they obtain findings from the experiment, they
find it difficult to write about it. They also do not know how to
connect the findings with the previous research that they have
reviewed prior to the project writing itself.
The difficulties that the supervisors have mentioned are
concerned with students’ lack of knowledge in writing itself. This
is understandable since FYPR is the first lengthy academic paper
that students have to write in throughout the degree programme.
Specifically, the difficulty is obvious when students face with
uncertainty in writing the discussion of the results for the report.
When supervisors were asked about what content that should be
included in the discussion, they gave various answers. Everyone
agreed that it should begin with the results, then followed by
explanation of the results. Results could be explained by
identifying logical reasons, linking ideas with previous studies, and
comparing with other studies that have different results. From
close supervision, it could be said that some students manage to
write the discussion correctly, however, many are still unsure on
how to write.
Second, students have difficulty in using English language
when writing. Since FYPR is written in English language and most
students at the faculty are L2, some of them find it difficult to
deliver information effectively.
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Language needs for academic writing in engineering programme
While it is important to emphasise on the content of the report, use
of good language is also important in writing the report. However,
this aspect does not receive equal emphasis if compared to the
content of the FYPR. It has been accepted at the faculty that
examiners emphasise on the content of the report rather than
language use. Language serves as a tool to deliver or communicate
the content. Students should show mastery of language or writing
skill. Furthermore, they have learnt English in the first three or
four semesters of the programme. They should be able to make use
of what they have learnt and apply in the report writing. Even so,
the supervisors have identified certain aspects of language that the
students are still lacking in, such as in terms of complex sentence
construction, choice of either active or passive statement, and use
of tenses at appropriate place.
Supervisor also said that undergraduates must know how to
write the report because when they become an engineer, they will
have to write a lot of reports at workplace. When asked about how
supervisors assist students in grammar or language use, their
responses differ. One supervisor was kind enough to correct the
grammar and show the students the acceptable way of sentence
construction for the report. Another supervisor normally asks
students to read a lot of books on basic writing skill or techniques
instead of reading a more advanced writing book. This, to her, is to
give students a wider sense of how writing should be done
effectively, which is appropriate with their level of understanding.
The rest of the supervisors simply ask students to send their
FYPR(s) to language teachers for proofreading. To them,
correcting sentences and paragraphs, and to check for grammatical
accuracy is the task of a language teacher.
CONCLUSION
Responses obtained from this small scale study that involved
92
interviewing five supervisors of final year project report, could be
used to inform the undergraduates in understanding what are
expected of them when writing the report. Supervisors’ perception
of the importance of FYPR implies that students must undertake
the writing task seriously and they must make sure the report
written meets not only supervisors’ but also examiners’
expectations. Furthermore, students with difficulties in writing
must find ways to improve their writing skills. This could be done
by reading and understanding more examples of reports, and
having discussions with project supervisors. In terms of difficulties
in using English language to write the reports, students may also
refer to language teachers for advice. There are certain language
elements that students are particularly weak at, such as sentence
construction and use of active-passive voice. This weakness may
risk the effectiveness of a report.
To sum up, supervisors’ expectations should be made known
clearly to undergraduates so that the latter are aware of the FYPR
genre and understand how it should be written.
REFERENCES
Bitchener, J. & Basturkmen, H., 2006. Perceptions of the difficulties of
postgraduate L2 thesis students writing the discussion section.
Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, pp.4–18.
Bitchener, J., Basturkmen, H. & East, M., 2010. The Focus of Supervisor
Written Feedback to Thesis/Dissertation Students. International
Journal of English Studies, 10(2), pp.79–97.
Dahari, Z., Ngah, U.K. & Mohamad, N., 2012. Continuous Quality
Improvement ( CQI ) Implementation in Electrical & Electronic
Engineering Final Year Projects. In 4th International Congress of
Engineering Education Proceedings.
Dong, Y.R., 1998. Non-native Graduate Students’ Thesis/Dissertation
Writing in Science: Self-reports by Students and Their Advisors
from Two U.S. Institutions. English for Specific Purposes, 17(4),
pp.369–390.
Gassman, S.L., Maher, M.A. & Timmerman, B.E., 2013. Supporting
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Students ’ Disciplinary Writing in Engineering Education.
International Journal of Engineering Education, 29(5), pp.1270–
1280.
Hill, H., 2012. Telling What They Know ; Performing What They Say :
Genre Awareness and the Transferability of Writing. University of
Washington.
Hyland, K., 2004. Genre and Second Language Writing, Michigan: The
University of Michigan Press.
Johari, M.M.N.M. et al., 2002. A New Engineering Education Model for
Malaysia. International Journal of Engineering Education, 18(1),
pp.8–16.
Johns, A.M., 2008. Genre awareness for the novice academic student: An
ongoing quest. Language Teaching, 41(02), pp.237–252.
Jones, T.L., 2003. Instructor Expectations in a Project-based
Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Classroom. The
University of Texas at Austin.
Ku, H. & Goh, S., 2010. Final year engineering projects in Australia and
Europe. European Journal of Engineering, 35(2), pp.161–173.
Kvale, S., 2007. Doing interviews U. Flick, ed., Los Angeles: SAGE
Publications.
Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S., 2009. Interviews: Learning the craft of
qualitative research interviewing 2nd ed., Los Angeles: SAGE
Publications.
Lee, J.J. & Casal, J.E., 2014. Metadiscourse in results and discussion
chapters: A cross-linguistic analysis of English and Spanish thesis
writers in engineering. System, 46, pp.39–54.
Liming, D., 2009. A genre-based investigation of the discussion and
conclusion sections of L2 Chinese Social Science Doctoral Theses.
Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.
Patton, M.Q., 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods 3 rd.,
London: SAGE Publications.
Ross, K.G., 2012. Genre at work: an analysis of first-year writing
assignments. University of Colorado Denver.
Webster, F., Pepper, D. & Jenkins, A., 2000. Assessing the
Undergraduate Dissertation. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher
Education, 25(1), pp.71–80.
94
KEBERKESANAN MODUL NILAI
KELESTARIAN DALAM TOPIK
DAYA TINGKATAN 4
Mohd Fadhli Zakaria & Fatin Aliah Phang
ABSTRAK
Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an initiative done
by UNESCO to increase the awareness about sustainable
development starting from early school education. Nearly most of
the research done in this field mainly focusing on the level of
knowledge and awareness that students and teachers have in
Malaysia regarding sustainable development . Current research
done on the integration of ESD in formal education is still less
compared to those done for environmental education. This research
is done to find out how far ESD can be integrated into formal
education particularly in Physics KBSM and enhance the teaching
of higher order thinking skills (HOTS). In order to answer the
research questions, a teaching and learning module is set up to
integrate ESD and HOTS into the topic Forces. Four schools were
selected to use the module to see how the teachers implement the
ESD values and HOTS questions to their students. A pre-post test
was conducted on the students to know their achievements. The
research findings were analysed using inferential statistics
ANCOVA and MANOVA to find significant difference between
the mean of the pretest and post test. Findings from the ANCOVA
analysis shows that there is no significant difference between the
95
mean scores among the schools for the concept of Forces with
F(3,116) = 1.917, p >.05, eta squared = .047 but a significant
difference between the mean scores among the school for the
mastery of HOTS questions with F(3,116) = 7.337, p <.05, eta
squared = .159. Findings from the MANOVA analysis shows that
there is a significant difference between students answering lower
order thinking skill (LOTS) questions and HOTS questions, F(18,
317.269) = 2.057, p = .007, Wilk’s Lambda = .732, partial eta
squared = .099. Further analysis shows that students were capable
in answering questions involving understanding and analysing a
problem better than the other cognitive levels. This shows that
students with the help of the module were able to increase their
knowledge in Forces and develop their thinking skills more
towards analysing problems and understanding them. These two
qualities are important to develop the skills needed for ESD to be
integrated into formal education.
Keywords:
Physics, HOTS, Sustainable Development
PENGENALAN
Dasar Pendidikan Kebangsaan melalui Pelan Induk Pembangunan
Pendidikan 2001-2010 telah mensasarkan untuk menyediakan
peluang pendidikan kepada rakyat selama 11 tahun untuk
mengembangkan potensi individu secara holistik dan bersepadu
untuk menghasilkan individu yang seimbang dari segi jasmani,
emosi, rohani dan intelek; mampu untuk berfikiran kritis dan
kreatif serta berinovasi tinggi; seterusnya memacu budaya
pembelajaran dan menggalakkan pembelajaran yang berterusan di
kalangan masyarakat (KPM, 2001). Menurut Mariani (2008),
cabaran pada alaf baru adalah untuk mengharung prinsip-prinsip
pembangunan lestari yang sudah direka kepada dasar-dasar yang
boleh dicapai yang akan menghasilkan perubahan-perubahan yang
nyata. Di sini dapat dilihat bahawa pendidikan di Malaysia
memberi peluang kepada perubahan yang positif yang perlu
96
diterapkan kepada generasi muda untuk memastikan pendidikan
yang diperoleh adalah berterusan dan lestari.
Cabang ilmu Fizik secara umumnya telah memberikan
sumbangan yang banyak kepada pembangunan dunia. Ilmu Fizik
yang luas meliputi pelbagai aspek kehidupan seperti kesihatan,
ekonomi, kebajikan masyarakat dan negara. Contohnya, seperti
perkembangan bidang bioteknologi dan nanoteknologi yang
merupakan pintu kepada kemajuan yang dikecapi pada masa kini.
Satu persidangan telah dibuat oleh World Conference on Physics
and Sustainable Development (WCPSD) pada tahun 2005
berkenaan penglibatan ilmu Fizik dalam memberi manfaat yang
terbaik untuk masyarakat yang pelbagai. Kebanyakan negara
membangun kini sedang mencari model pembangunan alternatif
untuk menyaingi negara lain di pasaran ekonomi global (WCPSD,
2005). Jika ilmu Fizik dikatakan memberi manfaat kepada
masyarakat dari pelbagai segi, maka perlunya pendedahan
pengajian ilmu Fizik yang berkualiti kepada masyarakat di
kawasan bandar dan luar bandar supaya dapat melahirkan
masyarakat yang progresif dan berdaya saing serta mempunyai
fikrah pembangunan lestari.
LATAR BELAKANG MASALAH
Menurut Arba’at Hassan (2006), tahap pengetahuan guru
terhadap permasalahan alam sekitar merupakan antara cabaran
utama yang menghalang guru mengintegrasikan pendidikan alam
sekitar dengan matapelajaran yang di ajar. Ini jelas apabila
penyampaian pendidikan alam sekitar di peringkat sekolah rendah
tidak berkesan kerana guru kurang kemahiran untuk menangani
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran tajuk tertentu. Selain itu,
Menurut Lee (2013), guru Fizik lebih cenderung untuk mengajar
berdasarkan pengalaman yang diperoleh sewaktu pembelajaran
mereka dahulu. Ini menunjukkan jika guru tiada pendedahan
berkenaan isu alam sekitar ketika zaman persekolahan mahupun di
universiti dahulu, mereka tidak mampu untuk mengaitkan isu
97
tersebut dengan topik yang akan diajar apatah lagi menerapkan
nilai kelestarian.
Selain tahap pengetahuan, kesedaran guru terhadap isu alam
sekitar juga dapat menunjukkan minat dan sikap guru tersebut
untuk mengintegrasikan isu alam sekitar ke dalam pengajaran.
Kajian Azizi et al. (2011) yang dijalankan terhadap pengetua
sekolah menunjukkan tahap kesedaran untuk memelihara alam
sekitar di kawasan sekolah adalah tinggi walaupun tahap
pengetahuan mereka rendah. Selain itu, faktor kekangan masa dan
keperluan untuk mengejar silibus peperiksaan awam membuatkan
guru lebih cenderung untuk mengajar menggunakan kaedah
konvensional iaitu Chalk and Talk yang dapat menjimatkan masa
dan tidak memerlukan guru melakukan persediaan yang lama dan
rumit berbanding kaedah lain (Hand, 2004).
Huraian sukatan pelajaran untuk matapelajaran Fizik KBSM
telah diterbitkan sejak tahun 1989 dan disemak semula pada tahun
2000 dan sehingga kini tidak mengalami perubahan yang banyak
(Abu Hassan, 2001). Walaupun di dalam Huraian Sukatan
Pelajaran ada menyatakan berkenaan nilai-nilai murni dan saintifik
yang perlu diterapkan kepada pelajar namun guru masih tidak
dapat sepenuhnya mengarap nilai dalam matapelajaran Fizik dan
mempraktikkannya kepada pelajar. Ini adalah kerana bagi
menerapkan nilai tersebut, guru perlu melakukan aktiviti bersama
pelajar bagi memastikan maksud nilai diserap oleh pelajar
(Norazizah et al.,2001). Namun dengan kesibukan mengejar masa
dan silibus, aktiviti penerapan nilai seringkali diabaikan oleh guru
(Abdul Rahim, 2009).
PENYATAAN MASALAH
Penyelidik mendapati bahawa sebuah modul perlu dibangunkan
bagi membantu guru untuk menjelaskan konsep Fizik dengan lebih
mudah dan pada masa yang sama dapat menerapkan unsur
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dalam pengajaran mereka untuk
menggalakkan pemikiran ke arah pembangunan lestari.
98
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Secara khususnya objektif kajian ini ialah untuk:
i.
membangunkan modul pengajaran dan pembelajaran Fizik
KBSM yang dapat membantu guru menerapkan nilai
kelestarian ke dalam pengajarannya untuk topik Daya.
ii.
mengenal pasti keberkesanan modul dalam pengajaran
konsep Daya dalam kalangan pelajar Fizik
iii.
mengenal pasti keberkesanan modul dalam mengamalkan
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi (KBAT) dalam pengajaran
dan pembelajaran Fizik.
iv.
mengenal pasti masalah yang dihadapi oleh guru dalam
menerapkan nilai kelestarian dan KBAT dalam pengajaran
dan pembelajaran.
PERSOALAN KAJIAN
Berdasarkan objektif kajian di atas, soalan-soalan kajian seperti
berikut telah dibentuk:
i.
Apakah tahap penguasaan pelajar terhadap topik Daya
pelajar sebelum menggunakan modul pembelajaran?
ii.
Apakah tahap penguasaan topik Daya pelajar selepas
menggunakan modul pembelajaran?
iii.
Adakah terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dalam tahap
penguasaan pelajar terhadap penguasaan topik Daya pelajar
sebelum dan selepas menggunakan modul pembelajaran?
iv.
Apakah tahap penguasaan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi
(KBAT) untuk topik Daya pelajar sebelum menggunakan
modul pembelajaran?
v.
Apakah tahap penguasaan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi
(KBAT) untuk topik Daya pelajar selepas menggunakan
modul pembelajaran?
vi.
Adakah terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dalam tahap
penguasaan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi (KBAT) untuk
topik Daya pelajar?
99
vii.
Apakah masalah yang dihadapi oleh guru dalam
menerapkan KBAT dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran?
KERANGKA KAJIAN
Persediaan yang rapi akan menyebabkan pengajaran seseorang
menjadi sistematik, teratur dan terarah. Namun, dalam pelaksanaan
pengajaran di makmal, penerapan nilai sebenar kepada pelajar oleh
guru mungkin berubah mengikut keadaan semasa di dalam
makmal. Antara faktor yang dilihat mempengaruhi penerapan nilai
adalah sikap pelajar sewaktu pembelajaran, tindakan dan arahan
dari pentadbir sekolah berkaitan nilai, silibus kurikulum yang perlu
dihabiskan dan penggunaan buku teks oleh guru semasa
penerangan di buat (Zohir et al., 2007). Kajian ini menerapkan
konsep pendidikan nilai kelestarian yang diolah daripada konsep
pendidikan alam sekitar Palmer et al., (1996) di mana guru dapat
memupuk nilai kelestarian dengan lebih terarah dan sistematik.
Konsep ini dijadikan teras kepada pembinaan modul pengajaran
dan pembelajaran bagi membantu guru menerapkan nilai
kelestarian bersama dengan unsur persoalan kemahiran berfikir
aras tinggi (KBAT).
Rajah 1.1: Kerangka Kajian
100
METODOLOGI
REKA BENTUK KAJIAN
Reka bentuk kajian ini adalah berbentuk kuantitatif. Penyelidik
memilih untuk melakukan kajian dengan menggunakan kaedah
reka bentuk kuasi eksperimen bagi mengenal pasti keberkesanan
modul untuk meningkatkan pencapaian pelajar dalam
pemahaman topik Daya dan penguasaan konsep KBAT. Dapatan
maklumat dilakukan dengan melakukan ujian pra dan ujian
pasca bagi mengenal pasti jika terdapatnya perbezaan yang
signifikan antara tahap penguasaan pelajar dalam topik
berkenaan
merentas sekolah sebelum diberikan rawatan
menggunakan modul pengajaran dan pembelajaran topik Daya
dan selepas diberikan rawatan.
INSTRUMEN
Instrumen kajian adalah ujian yang terdiri daripada dua bahagian
di mana Bahagian A mengemukakan soalan yang menguji konsep
dan kefahaman pelajar terhadap topik Daya (Ujian Konsep Daya,
UKD dan Bahagian B adalah soalan esei yang diubahsuai daripada
soalan KBAT yang dikeluarkan oleh pihak Lembaga Peperiksaan
untuk menguji tahap penguasaan KBAT pelajar (Ujian konsep
KBAT).
Selain itu, pemerhatian juga dilakukan untuk mengenalpasti
masalah guru dalam pengajaran nilai kelestarian dan pengamalan
KBAT di dalam kelas dilakukan dengan menggunakan instrumen
senarai semak. Penyelidik akan menggunakan Senarai Semak
Pemerhatian yang dibentuk melalui pengubahsuaian senarai semak
pemerhatian berstruktur dan skedul rakaman peristiwa berdasarkan
blok masa (BPDPP, 2008).
101
ANALISIS KAJIAN
Data ujian pra dan pasca bagi kedua-dua ujian dianalisa dengan
menggunakan analisis statistik inferensi ANCOVA untuk mencari
perbezaan peningkatan skor min yang signifikan merentas sekolah
dengan mengawal skor min ujian pra. Analisis kolerasi Pearson
dilakukan untuk melihat hubungan antara skor min kedua-dua
ujian antara satu sama lain. Seterusnya, analisis statistik inferensi
MANOVA digunakan untuk mencari tahap perbezaan signifikan
antara skor min item KBAR dan KBAT dalam ujian UKD.
Seterusnya, analisis regresi dilakukan ke atas data ujian UKD
untuk mencari item yang paling banyak dijawab oleh pelajar
dengan betul.
ANALISIS DATA
ISI KANDUNGAN MODUL
Menurut temubual yang telah dilakukan dengan guru dan pelajar
yang terlibat dengan kajian, penyelidik mendapati bahawa modul
membantu guru dalam menerangkan konsep serta menaikkan
minat pelajar untuk mempelajari topik. Modul juga membantu
pelajar untuk belajar mengenai topik. Seterusnya apabila ditanya
mengenai bahan yang terdapat dalam modul membantu menjawab
soalan beraras tinggi, tiga daripada empat guru menyatakan modul
masih kurang membincangkan bahan untuk menjawab soalan
beraras tinggi dan tidak menekankan soalan jenis mengaplikasi,
menganalisis, menilai dan mencipta. Namun seorang guru
berpendapat bahawa modul mampu menbantu pelajarnya
menjawab soalan beraras tinggi. Beliau menyatakan bahawa
pelajarnya lebih yakin menjawab soalan setelah menggunakan
modul.
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UJIAN PENGETAHUAN KONSEP DAYA (UKD)
Analisis ANCOVA dijalankan kepada data UKDpos bagi sekolahsekolah responden dengan menjadikan data UKDpra sebagai
kovariat dan diukur sebelum semua sekolah diberikan modul
pengajaran. Setelah mengawal skor UKDpra, maka analisis
statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang tidak signifikan ke
atas skor UKDpos antara sekolah-sekolah, F(3,116) = 1.917, p
>.05, eta squared = .047. Analisis menunjukkan terdapat perkaitan
yang sangat rendah (r = .051) dan signifikan antara skor UKDpra
sebelum modul diberikan kepada pelajar dan skor UKDpos selepas
pengajaran dengan modul.
UJIAN PENGETAHUAN KONSEP DAYA (UKD)
Analisis ANCOVA dijalankan kepada data UKDpos bagi sekolahsekolah responden dengan menjadikan data UKDpra sebagai
kovariat dan diukur sebelum semua sekolah diberikan modul
pengajaran. Setelah mengawal skor UKDpra, maka analisis
statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang tidak signifikan ke
atas skor UKDpos antara sekolah-sekolah, F(3,116) = 1.917, p
>.05, eta squared = .047. Analisis menunjukkan terdapat perkaitan
yang sangat rendah (r = .051) dan signifikan antara skor UKDpra
sebelum modul diberikan kepada pelajar dan skor UKDpos selepas
pengajaran dengan modul.
ANALISIS KOLERASI UKD & KBAT
Analisis kolerasi Pearson dilakukan bagi mencari hubungan antara
skor min UKD dan skor min KBAT merentas sekolah. Terdapat
hubungan yang signifikan p<.01 antara skor min UKDpos dan skor
min KBATpos. Nilai kolerasi antara kedua-dua ujian juga
menunjukkan hubungan yang kuat r = .587
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ANALISIS MANOVA ITEM KBAR & KBAT
Analisis MANOVA dijalankan bagi melihat perbezaan yang
signifikan dalam capaian skor item KBAR dan KBAT dalam ujian
UKD. Enam pemboleh ubah bersandar digunakan iaitu skor
Ingatpos, Fahampos, Aplikasipos, Analisispos, Nilaipos dan
Ciptapos. Pemboleh ubah tidak bersandar adalah sekolah.
Keputusan analisis menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang
signifikan antara item KBAR dan KBAT dalam ujian UKD, F(18,
317.269) = 2.057, p = .007, Wilk’s Lambda = .732, partial eta
squared = .099. Apabila keputusan bagi setiap satu pemboleh ubah
bersandar diasingkan, hanya pemboleh ubah bersandar skor
Fahampos, F(3,117) = 3.540, p = .017, partial eta squared = .083
dan Analisispos, F(3,117) = 3.552, p = .017, partial eta squared =
.083 sahaja yang berbeza secara signifikan antara sekolah pada
tahap signifikan p<.05. Walaupun begitu, apabila item dianalisis
menggunakan Bonferroni adjustment, nilai signifikan adalah pada
tahap p = .008. Analisis menunjukkan tiada item yang signifikan
pada nilai signifikan tersebut.
Analisis ANOVA sehala dijalankan bagi mengenalpasti
sekolah yang mempunyai perbezaan yang signifikan antara satu
sama lain untuk item Fahampos dan Analisispos. Keputusan
analisis post-hoc mendapati skor min item Fahampos bagi pelajar
dari SMK Taman Mount Austin (M = 1.53, SD = 1.082) berbeza
secara signifikan dengan pelajar dari SMK Taman Daya 2 (M =
.90, SD = .799) manakala skor min item Analisispos bagi pelajar
dari SMK Taman Daya (M = 2.33, SD = 1.265) berbeza secara
signifikan dengan pelajar dari SMK Taman Mount Austin (M =
1.44, SD = 1.054).
ANALISIS REGRESI ITEM KBAR DAN KBAT
Keputusan analisis regresi menunjukkan keseluruhan enam item
KBAR dan KBAT mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan
dapatan markah ujian UKD, R Square = .634, F(6,114) = 32.926, p
104
= .000. Analisis kolerasi koefisi pelbagai adalah .796, ini bermakna
63.4% varian ujian UKD dapat diterangkan oleh kombinasi linear
pengukuran dalam skor item KBAR dan KBAT. Item yang paling
signifikan menyumbang kepada peningkatan markah adalah item
Fahampos yang berjaya menyumbang sebanyak 36.5% varian ke
atas markah ujian UKD. Lain-lain item bertindak sebagai
penyumbang tambahan sebanyak 26.9% daripada keseluruhan
peningkatan markah ujian.
MASALAH YANG DIHADAPI GURU
Menurut temubual yang telah dilakukan dengan guru dan pelajar
yang terlibat dengan kajian, guru-guru yang menggunakan modul
menyatakan bahawa mereka tidak mempunyai masalah yang besar
apabila menggunakan modul dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
Masalah yang timbul apabila menggunakan modul adalah lebih
kepada pengurusan masa, kurang soalan aplikasi dan keperluan
kepada guru untuk mengolah soalan kepada aras yang lebih tinggi
bagi menguji pelajar yang bijak.
PERBINCANGAN, CADANGAN DAN RUMUSAN
KANDUNGAN MODUL
Pembetulan yang dilakukan ke atas kelemahan modul dapat
menjadikan modul lebih mesra pengguna dan menerapkan nilai
kelestarian pada masa yang sama memberikan pemahaman kepada
pelajardalam topik Daya dan soalan KBAT. Antara pembetulan
yang dibuat adalah berkenaan peta minda I-think, gambar alam
sekitar, latihan aplikasi nota, hubungkait antara subtopik, informasi
alam sekitar dan nota KBAT. Dapatan juga menunjukkan bahawa
berlakunya peningkatan dalam pemahaman pelajar dalam topik
Daya selari dengan nilai kelestarian dan keyakinan pelajar untuk
menjawab soalan KBAT setelah menggunakan modul yang dibina.
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TAHAP PENGETAHUAN KONSEP DAYA
Analisis ANCOVA yang dilakukan ke atas data ujian UKD
menunjukkan terdapat peningkatan skor min antara UKDpra dan
UKDpos, tetapi tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan ke atas
skor UKDpos antara sekolah-sekolah apabila skor UKDpra
dikawal. Analisis juga menunjukkan ujian UKDpra yang dikawal
menyumbang sebanyak 5.1% sahaja kepada skor UKDpos. Ini
menunjukkan peningkatan skor UKDpos disumbang oleh modul
yang digunakan sebanyak 94.9%. Analisis perbezaan antara min
kumpulan bagi sekolah-sekolah yang terlibat untuk UKDpos
menunjukkan SMK Taman Daya memperoleh skor min sebanyak
45.585 lebih tinggi berbanding dengan skor yang dicapai oleh
SMK Taman Daya 3 iaitu 37.229. Perbezaan ini dilihat signifikan
kerana jumlah skor min berbeza lebih daripada 8 mata skala.
Kajian juga mendapati SMK Taman Daya 3 hanya menggunakan
sebahagian daripada modul yang disediakan berbanding SMK
Taman Daya yang menggunakan modul sepenuhnya.
Kemungkinan ini merupakan faktor penyumbang kepada
peningkatan min markah yang signifikan. Namun, responden dari
kedua-dua sekolah masih tidak dapat menjawab sepenuhnya
dengan betul. Ini juga mungkin kerana mereka masih belum
menguasai sepenuhnya topik Daya. Menurut Nor Aida et al.
(2013), kajian yang dilakukan untuk menguji tahap kefahaman
keseluruhan pelajar tahun akhir program pendidikan Fizik UTM
menunjukkan keputusan ujian berada pada tahap yang lemah dan
terdapat perbezaan min yang signifikan terhadap kefahaman
konsep daya dan gerakan di antara pelajar lelaki dan perempuan.
Penyelidik melihat potensi modul untuk meningkatkan tahap
penguasaan pelajar dalam topik Daya berkesan kepada sesetengah
pelajar dalam meningkatkan pemahaman seterusnya markah ujian
mereka.
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TAHAP PENGUASAAN KBAT
Dapatan kajian konsep KBAT melalui analisi ANCOVA pula
menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan peningkatan yang signifikan ke
atas skor KBATpos antara sekolah apabila skor KBATpra dikawal
(p<.05). Walaupun begitu, pelajar masih kurang berjaya menguasai
soalan esei KBAT yang disediakan. Kemungkinan yang berlaku
ialah pelajar tidak mencuba untuk menjawab soalan esei berkenaan
ataupun pelajar tidak mempunyai idea dan teknik untuk menjawab
soalan seperti ini. Selain pergantungan pelajar kepada nota dan
soalan latihan yang terdapat dalam modul, pelajar juga mendapat
latihan untuk menjawab soalan KBAT melalui soalan yang
dikemukan oleh guru di dalam kelas. Kajian mendapati guru berasa
lebih selesa untuk bertanyakan soalan KBAT apabila mempunyai
panduan seperti yang disediakan dalam modul.
Menurut Wilen (1999), pemikiran yang produktif dapat dijana
melalui penyoalan guru yang berkesan semasa pengajaran dan
pembelajaran di dalam bilik darjah. S.Supramani (2006) mendapati
terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara teknik penyoalan guru
dengan respons pelajar. Jika guru bertanyakan soalan aras tinggi,
respons pelajar juga pada aras yang tinggi. Analisis pemerhatian
berstruktur yang dijalankan dalam kelas Fizik dengan
menggunakan modul mendapati 63% daripada jumlah soalan yang
ditanya merupakan soalan KBAR dan baki 37% adalah soalan
KBAT. Selain itu, menurut analisis rakaman peristiwa
menunjukkan bahawa guru kerap bertanyakan soalan KBAR pada
lima belas minit awal dan akhir sesi kelas. Soalan KBAT pula
dilihat banyak ditanya di pertengahan sesi antara minit ke dua
puluh lima dan minit empat puluh lima pembelajaran dimana guru
menggunakan modul video untuk memberi stimuli kepada pelajar.
Penyelidik mendapati pelajar mampu untuk menguasai soalan
KBAT jika diberikan latihan yang sesuai dan kondisi pembelajaran
yang menggalakkan pemikiran beraras tinggi dilakukan. Pelajar
yang banyak melakukan diskusi dan perbincangan yang terarah
dengan bantuan guru akan lebih yakin untuk menjawab soalan
KBAT.
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HUBUNGAN ANTARA UKD DAN KBAT
Analisis kolerasi Pearson menunjukkan terdapat perkaitan yang
signifikan antara skor UKD dan skor KBAT. Dapat kajian ini
menunjukkan bahawa pelajar yang menguasai konsep Daya dapat
meningkatkan penguasaan mereka untuk menjawab soalan KBAT
dengan betul. Maka pemahaman tentang konsep adalah sangat
penting untuk pelajar menguasai kemahiran menjawab soalan
KBAT. Penyelidik melihat hubungan yang wujud antara
penguasaan konsep Daya dan konsep KBAT adalah berkadar terus
dimana lebih tinggi penguasaan pelajar dalam topik Daya, lebih
berminat untuk pelajar menjawab soalan KBAT.
MASALAH YANG DIHADAPI GURU MENGGUNAKAN
MODUL
Berdasarkan analisis yang telah dibuat, guru tidak menghadapi
masalah yang besar ketika menggunakan modul tetapi beberapa
penambahbaikan perlu dilakukan untuk memurnikan lagi modul.
Kekangan masa untuk menghabiskan silibus merupakan masalah
yang diutarakan oleh semua responden yang terlibat dengan kajian.
Namun, jika silibus dapat diubah untuk memberikan guru lebih
masa untuk mengadakan perbincangan dengan pelajar serta
mendedahkan mereka kepada permasalahan yang dihadapi kini,
penyelidik merasakan aktiviti seperti itu akan lebih menarik minat
pelajar untuk menguasai ilmu sains khususnya Fizik. Kekangan
masa juga merupakan masalah yang sering diutarakan oleh
penyelidik-penyelidik lain contohnya seperti kajian oleh
Tajulashikin et al. (2013), Abdullah et al. (2003), Abdul Rahim
(2002) dan Azizi Yahya et al. (2003). Kebanyakkan kajian lepas
mengaitkan kekangan masa dan bahan mengajar sebagai punca
tekanan kerja kepada guru disekolah.
Namun permasalahan ini boleh diatasi dengan kemahiran guru
mengawal masa dan memberikan tumpuan kepada objektif
pembelajaran yang perlu dilaksanakan pada hari tersebut.
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Kemahiran ini juga diberi penekanan oleh beberapa penyelidik lain
seperti Mohd Yusri et al. (2014), Hasfarina (2012) dan Donald
(2010). Dapatan kajian mendapati masalah penggunaan modul
terletak pada guru yang menggunakannya. Latihan penggunaan
modul juga perlu bagi memastikan guru dapat memaksimumkan
penggunaan modul sehingga pelajar dapat menggarap nilai
kelestarian serta soalan KBAT dalam pembelajaran topik Daya
sepertimana yang dilakukan oleh guru dari SMK Taman Daya dan
hasilnya dapat dilihat apabila pelajar lebih yakin menjawab soalan
KBAT.
IMPLIKASI KAJIAN
Melalui kajian ini, kita dapat lihat salah satu kemungkinan punca
keputusan TIMSS dan PISA yang rendah adalah disebabkan oleh
sikap pelajar terhadap soalan ujian tersebut. Jika pelajar buat tidak
endah untuk menjawab soalan KBAT yang ada di dalam ujian
TIMSS dan PISA, maka keputusan yang diperoleh menjadi yang
paling minima seperti yang berlaku sewaktu kajian dijalankan.
Nilai purata markah yang diperoleh antara sekolah-sekolah adalah
sebanyak 43%. Maka sesuatu perlu dilakukan terhadap silibus dan
nota yang diberikan kepada pelajar untuk meningkatkan semula
minat mereka terhadap sains disamping memantapkan pengetahuan
asas terhadap perkara yang berlaku di sekeliling mereka iaitu pada
alam sekitar.
Selain itu, sikap pelajar juga dilihat punca kepada markah min
yang rendah apabila sesetengah pelajar tidak memberikan
kerjasama yang sepenuhnya untuk menjawab soalan oleh kerana
markah ujian tidak berkait dengan peperiksaan sekolah dan gred
mereka. Kerjasama yang diperlukan daripada pelajar ini dilihat
penting juga dalam ujian TIMSS dan PISA, apabila pelajar tidak
memberikan sepenuh perhatian kepada soalan, maka markah min
untuk keseluruhan sekolah akan menurun. Guru Fizik sebagai
fasilitator juga merupakan implikasi yang dapat dilihat dalam
kajian ini dimana guru bukan lagi mengajar pelajar sepenuhnya
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tetapi lebih kepada memberi panduan dan bimbingan kepada
pelajar untuk mendalami ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka ada. Guru
membantu pelajar pada awalnya untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan
asas pelajar, seterusnya pelajar bersoalan jawab dengan guru dan
akhir sekali guru memfokuskan pengajaran dengan membantu
pelajar mengisi ruang jawapan yang sebenarnya boleh dilakukan
sendiri oleh para pelajar.
Jelas sekali kini, guru perlu memberikan lebih banyak ruang
kepada pelajar untuk mengembangkan idea mereka sendiri supaya
pelajar dapat berdikari untuk mencari jawapan kepada persoalan
yang perlu mereka hadapi dalam peperiksaan. Guru dapat
membimbing pelajar sehingga pelajar terdedah dengan pelbagai
jenis soalan yang pelbagai aras pembelajaran semasa sesi
pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
CADANGAN
Cadangan yang ingin diutarakan oleh penyelidik melalui kajian ini
adalah latihan teknik penyoalan soalan aras tinggi perlu diberikan
kepada guru-guru terutamanya guru novis bagi membolehkan
suasana pembelajaran yang lebih aktif diwujudkan dalam makmal.
Guru yang diberikan pendedahan kepada teknik penyoalan aras
tinggi dilihat mampu untuk terus mengolah sendiri soalan beraras
tinggi walaupun tiada bantuan video atau modul. Namun, teknik
penyoalan serta kaedah pedagogi guru berkembang berdasarkan
pengalaman dan pendedahan yang diperoleh guru dalam tempoh
perkhidamatan mereka. Kajian Khalid Johari (2009) menyatakan
bahawa guru yang lebih berpengalaman mempunyai kelebihan dari
sudut penyoalan berbanding guru novis.
Tuntasnya, guru dan pelajar perlu diberikan ruang untuk
membolehkan mereka mengembangkan idea berkenaan suatu topik
melalui aktiviti yang dapat menjana kreativiti dalam masa yang
sama membina nilai murni dalam diri mereka. Selain itu, guru juga
harus sentiasa memperbaharui kaedah penyoalan mereka supaya
mereka dapat menjana soalan beraras tinggi bagi mewujudkan
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suasana KBAT dalam makmal.
CADANGAN KAJIAN LANJUTAN
Kajian lanjutan yang boleh dilakukan adalah dengan menguji
modul serta ujian UKD di sekolah-sekolah daerah lain bagi
mengenalpasti keberkesanan modul dalam meningkatkan
kefahaman pelajar terhadap konsep Daya dan konsep KBAT.
Seterusnya, kajian mengenai silibus berasaskan tema juga boleh
dilakukan bagi menyokong dapatan kajian ini dimana perlunya
perubahan dalam silibus supaya persoalan KBAT dapat
diperluaskan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran di makmal.
Selain itu, kajian berkenaan Model Integrasi Kurikulum Lestari
boleh dikembangkan dengan mengkaji keberkesanan model kepada
pelajar di sekolah-sekolah lain melalui kaedah pengajaran yang
berbeza. Selain daripada menghasilkan modul yang dapat
digunakan oleh pelajar, penyelidik merasakan kajian ini boleh
dimajukan lagi dengan menghasilkan bahan interaktif secara atas
talian dimana guru dan pelajar dapat mengkaji sesuatu topik
dengan lebih mendalam serta berinteraksi melalui komputer. Akhir
sekali, kajian mengenai kaedah penyoalan guru di dalam kelas
sains juga perlu diberikan perhatian supaya dapat dicari pola
persamaan dari segi pertanyaan guru kepada pelajar terutamanya
soalan-soalan yang beraras tinggi.
RUMUSAN
Hasil dapatan kajian mendapati terdapat beberapa pemurnian yang
perlu dilakukan kepada modul bagi mencapai impak yang lebih
bagus berbanding yang telah diperoleh. Seterusnya, hasil kajian
juga mendapati terdpat hubungan yang berkadar terus antara
penguasaan konsep pelajar dalam topik Daya dengan keyakinan
pelajar untuk menjawab soalan KBAT. Juga terdapat hubungan
yang berkadar terus antara kedah penyoalan guru dengan
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keyakinan pelajar untuk menjawab soalan KBAT.
RUJUKAN
Bahagian Pendidikan Guru (2013). Program Latihan Kemahiran Berfikir
Aras Tinggi (KBAT) dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran Sains
Sekolah Menengah 2013. Putrajaya: Bahagian Pendidikan Guru.
Mariani Hambug (2008). Kesedaran Pembangunan Lestari di Peringkat
Awal Umur Kanak-kanak. Thesis Sarjana tidak diterbitkan.
Skudai : Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Mohammad Zohir Ahmad & Nordin Abdul Razak, (2007). Pendidikan
Alam Sekitar di Sekolah: Komitmen Guru. Jurnal Pendidikan
Lestari, 2(7), 74-81.
Mohd Najib Abdul Ghafar (1999). Penyelidikan Pendidikan. Skudai:
Penerbitan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Rajendran Nagappan, 2002. Bahasa Melayu: Penyumbang Ke Arah
Penguasaan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi. Kertas kerja
Persidangan Antarabangsa Pengajian Melayu Kedua. Beijing.
China.
Samsulkamal Sumiri, (2008). Public Participation on Sustainable
Development: Investigation of the Level of Sustainable
Environmental Deleopment Understanding and Awareness.
Thesis Sarjana tidak diterbitkan. Skudai : Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia.
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CONSTRUCTION ON MOLEE
CAREER INSTRUMENT (MCI)
AS SELECTION TOOL IN ALLIED
HEALTH COURSES
Gooh Mo Lee, Syed Mohamed Shafeq, Yeo Kee Jiar &
Yahya Buntat,
ABSTRACT
This paper is going to discuss about construction on Molee Career
Instrument (MCI) as selection tool in allied health courses.
Students who are interested in allied health courses will use SelfDirected Search - Revised (SDS;Holland,1990) to identify the
three-letter Holland code for the college majors. However, students
are having problem in making their selection in allied health
courses due to incompatible instrument (SDS) which was not
match with the Asian cultures and norms. There are very few
studies on the use of the Self-Directed Search (SDS) among
students who are keen pursuing their studies in allied health
courses. The purpose of the current study is to construct an
instrument based on Malaysia norms and culture, otherwise known
as Molee Career Instrument (MCI) as selection tool in allied health
courses. It is postulated that MCI will be able to enhance students’
awareness about valid and effective criteria for selection their
courses. The allied health courses are pharmacist, dietician and
nutritionist, medical assistant, laboratory technician, nursing,
radiographer and medical imaging, physiotherapy, environmental
113
health and healthcare service. The mixed method study will use a
Exploratory Sequential Design to explore the characteristic in
allied health courses among those who are in their final year at
government and private colleges in Malaysia. Semi-structured
interview will be use as the method of data collection for the
qualitative and the Delphi technique for the quantitative research
design. First pilot test was conducted with 100 items among 30
students in Segi University, Kuala Lumpur. Analysis of pilot data
showed the reliability was .99 >.5. This showed the reliability of
30 respondents with 100 items in these constructs was very high to
measure MCI. Next, second pilot study was conducted among 45
students in Masterskill University, Kuala Lumpur. The value of
person reliability is .95 and item reliability is .73 which is
acceptable (more than .5).
Keywords: Allied Health, Selection, Characteristic, College
INTRODUCTION
In Malaysia, many school counselors are using Self-Directed
Search - Revised (SDS;Holland,1990) to show any number of
occupations consistent with the three-letter code. The instrument
has been modified to Self- Directed Search (SPS-P) by Amla
(1984; 1987) and was back translated as suggested by Brislin
(1980). School counselors also use Occupational Finder (Holland,
1996) or the Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes (DHOC;
Gottfredson & Holland, 1996). For instance, if a client's threeletter code was IRE (Investigate, Realistic, Enterprising), then
counselor would show them specific IRE occupational titles such
as chemist, physicist or dentist (along with other
occupations).However, Holland's three-letter code groups do not
match with Asian cultures and global cultures. Bobye & Fabris
(1992); Khan & Alvi (1991); and Rounds & Tracey (1996)
emphasized that Holland's SDS test is not across cultures other
than North American. According to Stead & Watson (1998),
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Holland's SDS test is more inclined towards U.S. values of
individualism, independent decision making, and immediatefamily structure. In addition, some researchers have criticized the
involvement of Holland’s theory and doubt its applicability to nonmajority U.S. citizens and the 21st century worker in a global
economy (Brown, 2002). In light of these different viewpoints,
there is a need to construct SDS across cultures and settings.
However, there are limited studies on the use of the Self-Directed
Search (SDS) with students who are keen in allied health courses
(America Board of Medical Specialists, 1986). The purpose of the
current study is to construct an instrument based on Malaysia
norms and culture, otherwise known as Molee Career Instrument
(MCI) as selection tool in allied health courses. It is postulated
that MCI will be able to enhance students’ awareness about valid
and effective criteria for selection their courses.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Due to the existence of some instruments deemed as incompatible
(SDS, VPI and career interest test) which is not cross culture and
irrelevant, 'The Occupational Finder' and/or students may probably
enter the wrong program. There have been instances of those keen
on pursuing medicine and allied health courses eventually
dropping out of their course because they were afraid or felt
uncomfortable at the sight of blood (The Star, 20 July 2014). They
may not be able to become accustomed to or to feel comfortable
with their study and eventually leave the program or change their
mind about health career (Simpson and Budd, 1996). Such
decision may be regarded as a good move for the wellbeing of the
students, but on the other hand, withdrawal from a program may
result in losses or wastages in terms of time, work and money to
the college and the students. Against this backdrop, the current
research aims to construct a valid and high reliability instruments
for allied health courses. The allied health courses are pharmacist,
dietician and nutritionist, medical assistant, laboratory technician,
115
nursing
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objectives of this research is to construct a valid
instrument with high reliability for allied heath courses in
Malaysia.
SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
The instrument developed in this study, called as MCI (Molee
Career Instrument) will benefit school counselors and researchers
in Asian countries. It may appear that most of the measures
associated with career development theories were based on the US
cultural, social, and occupational characteristics. Leung (2002) in
his study demonstrated that cross-cultural researchers have to make
a choice between developing their own measures from scratch, or
to adapt existing measures developed in the West. Moreover, the
MCI instrument on allied health diploma courses can be a source
of reference by school counselor and researcher in Asian country
based on Malaysia society and not the Western society.
This research will enable career counselors assist students to
explore, pursue and attain their career goals. Career counseling
basically consists of four elements: (a) helping individuals to gain
greater self-awareness in areas such as interests, values, abilities,
and personality style, (b) connecting students to resources so that
they can become more knowledgeable about jobs and occupations,
(c) engaging students in the decision-making process in order
that they can choose a career path that is well suited to their own
interests, values, abilities and personality style, and (d) assisting
individuals to be active managers of their career paths (including
managing career transitions and balancing various life roles).
The MCI instrument is very important in the field of counseling.
School career counselors played a key role in career development
116
interventions to provide information and guidance to students
regarding personal, academic and career options. Students in
school are greatly in need of early assistance in dealing with career
development task and exposed oneself to career related
information. The findings will enable school career counselors to
implement a intensive personal and career exploration program for
individual student such as individual career map, career related
assignment/project, career poster, career scrap book and workbased learning project.
RELATED THEORY
For the purpose of this study, the researcher utilized a combination
of Holland Theory, Social Cognitive Career Theory and Item
Response Theory (IRT) in order to drive the research questions.
IRT is fundamental of Rasch measurement analysis for
constructing MCI. Thus, by combining these theories, the
researcher will be able to construct a valid and a high reliability
instrument for allied health courses based on Malaysia norms.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The mixed method study will use a Exploratory Sequential
Design to explore the characteristic in allied health courses
among those who are in their final year at government and private
colleges in Malaysia. Semi-structured interview will be use as the
method of data collection for the qualitative and the Delphi
technique for the quantitative research design.
RESEARCH LOCATION
This study will be carried out in four private universities in
Malaysia. These universities are Masha University, Segi
117
University, Masterskill University and Kuala Lumpur
Metropolitan. These universities are chosen randomly among all
private universities in Malaysia. Every university is given a chance
to be chosen. There are many allied health courses are available at
these universities. Therefore, getting access to respondents will be
easy.
QUALITATIVE
INTERVIEW)
METHOD
(SEMI-STRUCTURED
Semi-structured interview was used as the method of data
collection for the qualitative phase of this study. This kind of
interview helped the researcher to gain the list of issues with
reported frankly by participants. The responses were facts,
opinions, and attitudes. The interviews were recorded by the
interviewer. The researcher conducted the interviews and recorded
the nuance of the respondents’ behavior. These gave important
clues about how they feel about the discussed topics (Thomas,
2009). In order to carry out the interview for this research, sample
in field of allied health from four private universiti (Masha
University, Segi University, Masterskill University and Kuala
Lumpur Metropolitan) in Malaysia were selected purposively.
SAMPLING METHOD OF QUALITATIVE STAGE
Participants of interview were employed through purposeful
criterion sampling procedures (Creswell, 2009). The criterion was
that students who were studying in allied health courses at private
colleges in Malaysia.
QUANTITATIVE METHOD (DELPHI METHOD)
The Delphi technique or Expert Opinion Assessment (EOA) is a
group process used to survey and collect the opinions of practiced
118
on a particular subject (Yousuf, 2007). The Delphi technique, by
definition, is a group process involving an interaction between the
researcher and a group of identified experts on a specified topic,
usually in several rounds. Yousuf (2007), identified the Delphi
method as a method for gaining judgments on complex matters
where precise information is unavailable. Therefore, it is an
assessment tool which assesses new or less discussed issues.
Yousuf (2007), suggests this method is a widely approach in
science, technology, and education, but it is not limited to them.
Skulmoski, Hatman, & Krahn (2007) also supported that Delphi
method is flexible in method and sample size. More ever, it has
been used to develop, identify, estimate and to validate information
in diversity of research areas.
DEVELOP QUESTIONNAIRE
First, the items (criteria) were found based on the interview and
then the appropriate items were extracted by using Delphi method.
Pilot test will be conducted before developing the final format of
the questionnaire to find the reliability and validity of the items.
PILOT TESTS
For constructing MCI instrument pilot test was conducted. Pilot
test was conducted among 100 students from Segi University
Table 1 shows summarizing two pilot test conducted in this study
based on item and person reliability, dimensionality, misfit and
misfit person.
Table 1.1 Summarizing of Two Pilot Tests
Pilot
Test
Number
of item
Number
of
person
Item
reliability
Person
reliability
Dimensionality
Misfit
item
Misfit
person
119
First
(Segi)
Second
(Master
skill)
30
.99>.5
1>.5
40%>38%
-
-
45
.73>.5
.95>.5
40%>39%
29
-
100
100
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
First pilot test was conducted with 100 items among 30 students in
Segi University, Kuala Lumpur. Table 1 shows that value of
person reliability was very high (1>.5). Rasch model suggests that
a good reliability should be more than .5 (Fisher, 2007). Analysis
of pilot data showed the reliability was .99>.5. This showed the
reliability of 30 respondents with 100 items in these constructs was
very high to measure MCI.Next, second pilot study was conducted
among 45 students in Masterskill University, Kuala Lumpur. The
value of person reliability is .95 and item reliability is .73 which is
acceptable (more than .5).
CONCLUSION
A valid and high reliability instruments was developed for allied
health courses based on Asian particularly Malaysia cultural,
social, and occupational characteristics .
REFERENCES
America Board of Medical Specialists (1986). Which medical
specialist for you? Evanston, III: Author.
Amla H. M. Salleh (1984). An investigation of the reliability,
validity and translation of Holland’s Self-Directed Search for
utilization by a Malaysian Population.Unpublished master
dissertation, Western Michigan University, USA.
Boyle, G.J., & Fabris, S. (1992). Confirmatory and Congeneric
factor analysis of Holland's Self- directed search Personality and
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Individual Differences 13, 1077-1084.
Brislin, R.W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and
written materials. In H.C. Triandis & J.W. Berry (Eds), Handbook
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Allyn and Bacon.Brown, D. (2002).Status of theories of career
choice and
development. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.),
Career choice and development, (4th ed., pp. 510-515). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Fischer, G. H. (2007). Rasch models. In C. R. Rao & S. Sinharay
(Eds.), Psychometrics: Handbook of statistics (Vol. 26).
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Holland, J. L. (1990). The Self-Directed Search: Professional
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non -western culture. Journal of cross-cultural Psychology, 22,
283-292.
Leung, S. A., & Hou, Z. J. (2005). The structure of vocational
interest among Chinese students. Journal of Career Development,
32, 74–90.
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equivalence of RIASEC models and measures. Journal of
Counseling Psychology, 43, 310-329.
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R,(2010). Research Methods for Buidling
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Simpson KH, Budd K (1996). Medical student attrition: a 10-year
survey in one medical school. Med Educ , 30(3):172–178.
Stead, G. B., & Watson, M. B. (1998). Career research in South
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Yousuf, M. I. (2007). Using Experts’ Opinions through Delphi
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12(4).
121
THE NEED FOR PROBLEMBASED LEARNING IN NIGERIAN
SECONDARY SCHOOL
CHEMISTRY LESSONS
Abbas Babayi Abu bakar & Mohammad Yusof Arshad
ABSTRACT
Education is a vital instrument for human capital development.
Chemistry is one of the basic sciences responsible for development
of any nation. Chemistry students are expected to be equipped with
21 century competences and skills. The purpose of this article is to
stress the need for implementation of PBL in Nigerian secondary
school chemistry lessons. Teaching and learning in Nigeria does
not produce students with the required skills and competencies,
because of traditional instructions by teachers, bad learning
environment and inadequate facilities. PBL is a process in which
students develop problem solving skills and flexible knowledge
through collaborative and self-directed learning under teachers
guide. The process also facilitates the learning of three levels of
chemical representations and the students’ alternative conceptions
in chemistry. PBL was pioneered for medical students in the 60s, to
relate the knowledge acquired in the university to students future
professional practice. It was letter extended to other sciences. PBL
has its theoretical bases from Cognitivists and Constructivists
psychologists. In conclusion, the authors suggested for
122
implementation of PBL in Nigerian secondary schools. Therefore
they will investigate how the process of its implementation in
chemistry lessons with the aim of developing a suitable PBL Model
for Nigeria.
Keywords: Problem-Based Learning; Chemistry; Needs &
Secondary schools.
INTRODUCTION
In a competitive
knowledge based economy society, human
resource development is vital for economic survival. Today
employees are expected to be well equipped with new 21stcentury
competencies and skills, which include: problem solving skills,
communication skills, collaboration skills, critical thinking,
entrepreneurship, creativity and innovativeness (Aminu, 2007).
Nigeria needs quality education to meet the expectations of
employers in the work places. Quality education is one that
satisfies the basic learning needs and enriches the lives of learners
and their overall experience of learning. It is acquired through
creation of good learning environment, production of effective
teachers who can produce motivated and interested students with
the skills required in modern society (Adeyemi, 1990).
Nigeria needs to adapt active learning strategies for students to
have greater accountability toward their learning. Chemistry
teachers should work as facilitators of the learning process and
designers of learning environment rather than purveyor of
knowledge (Tan,Oon Seng 2003). The teachers are required to put
more effort into lesson preparation. They should be trained for
facilitation skills and should have a belief that Problem-based
learning (PBL) is a better strategy and committed to its
implementation for transition from traditional approach to PBL
approach be successful. Pedagogical practices in line with the
challenges / needs of the 21 century education are adapted in most
developed countries, for Nigeria to achieve the status of a
123
developed country in 2020, a change in pedagogical practice is
necessary to create fully equipped manpower to face the challenges
of modern civilization(Tan Pin Yeen and Mohammad Yusof
Arshad,2011). There is a need for problem-based learning in
Nigerian secondary schools education despites current issues in
teaching and learning.
CURRENT ISSUES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN
NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
Teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools does not
develop or produce student with the higher order thinking skills,
problem solving skills and other competencies that are demanded
from 21 century educational institutions (Das, 2009). Chemistry
teachers still practice expository methods where students are not
free to ask questions because of the teachers’ autocracy. Most
teachers perceive their main roles as sole dispenser of knowledge
and the commander in-chief of the class (Abdullahi,1982).
Teachers’ inability to adapt active learning strategies could be
associated with poor learning environment, inadequate learning
facilities, poor teachers’ welfare and lack of recognition for
teachers compared to other professionals such as accountants,
doctors and engineers in the same civil service. These had adverse
effects on the quality of learning and products of secondary schools
in Nigeria (Ibidapo-Obe,2007).
Addition to that, no adequate laboratory practical work for
students, teachers focus only on basic verifications of laws without
emphasize on investigative approaches, students scientific
innovations are not rewarded. Science teachers either discuss
experiments verbally as alternative to practical work or
demonstrate it for student to see without opportunity to manipulate
equipment for skill (Ajaja, 2005). Therefore, there is a need for
science teachers to adapt active learning methodology such as
problem-based learning that requires students to solve authentic
chemistry problems that are related to their experiences and future
124
professional life. The authors will investigate the implementation
process of PBL in Nigerian secondary school chemistry lessons and
try to develop a model of PBL that is suitable for Nigerian
environment.
WHAT IS PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING?
Problem-based learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which
students learn through problem solving. The goals of PBL help
students to develop flexible knowledge, effective Problem solving
skills, intrinsic motivation, collaborative and self-directed learning
(Barrows and Tamblyn,1980a). PBL is an active learning method
in which students work in groups, identify what they already
know, what they need to know, how and where to access new
information about the problem. Students generate hypotheses,
identify learning objectives, seek sources of knowledge / learning
material, evaluate information obtained, reflect, integrate new
knowledge and synthesize solutions to problems. Teacher
facilitates learning by supporting, guiding student to focus on
learning objectives, creating suitable learning environment and
monitoring the learning process. PBL represents a paradigm shift
from traditional teaching, to student-centered approach to learning
in which students experience a problem as the stimulator and
motivator for learning. The differences between the traditional and
the PBL approaches to learning can be represented by the three
loci of preoccupation as shown in figure 2.2 (Tan Oon Seng,2003;
Muhammad-Yusof ;Ahmad ;Hassan, & Tasir, 2009).
Fig.1 Differences between traditional and PBL approaches.
125
PBL is an inductive learning method, a better alternative
strategy in teaching either at secondary schools or higher
educational institutions, hence a major focus for educational
researchers in the 21st century (Johari Surif; Nor Hassan Ibrahim
and Mohani Mokhtar, 2013). Including authors of this article.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF PBL.
PBL was pioneered in the medical School in McMaster University,
Canada in the late 1960s. The main factors that necessitated
introduction of the PBL in the medical education at the University
includes: The dissatisfaction of the learners with the traditional
education, the irrelevance of the content knowledge to the learners
future professional practice and the learners’ inability to reason and
apply what they have learned to solve problems at the work
places(Barrows,1996). Problem-based learning was eventually
expanded to include education in the areas of sciences, engineering
and other disciplines (Barrows and Tamblyn,1980; MacDonald and
Isaacs, 2001; Knowles,1975 and Zimmerman, 1990). Although
research revealed that PBL was practiced in America since 1993
and Asia, particularly in some tertiary institutions in Malaysia (Tan
Pin Yeen and Mohammad Yusof Arshad, 2014) there is no element
of PBL in Nigerian secondary schools (Nwamno and Izuagba,
2010). The authors will investigate the implementation process of
the PBL in Nigerian secondary schools.
Learning is derived from learners’ interactions with real
problems and the learning environment; The process of inquiry
creates cognitive dissonance that stimulates learning; Knowledge
emerged from the collaborative processes of social negotiation and
evaluation of learners point of views (Dewey, 1963). PBL is not
only about introducing problems into the classroom, but it is also
about creating opportunities for learners to construct knowledge
through interactions and inquiry (Norman and Schmidt 1993;
Popper, 1992). Therefore, it is based on the constructivists’ theory
of learning (Schmidt, 1993; Savery &Duffy, 1995; Hendry
126
&Murphy 1995). The goal of education is to help students develop
problem-solving skills and creative thinking. A knowledgeable
person is a problem solver, one who interacts with the environment
in testing hypotheses, developing generalizations and engaging in
learning to arrive at solution to problems (Bruner, 1960).
Understandings, perception, cognitive dissonance, problem solving
and insight are important aspects of learning in cognitive
psychology. It is clear that these developments in cognitive theory
of learning also support the use of problems in learning. In PBL,
learners refine and restructure their prior knowledge and
experiences to construct new knowledge, through collaborative and
self-directed learning to solve real world problems (Wood, 1987).
PBL is also in accordance with Cognitive Psychologists(Mayer,
1983; Chi & Glaser, 1985).
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY CLASSES.
Chemistry is a study of nature, composition and properties of
matter. Therefore it deals with the study of the entire environment
(Ababio, 2005). It is a complex subject with many branches and
abstract concepts. Secondary school students often have difficulty
to conceptualize it. They do not understand the principle underlying
chemistry, because of their inadequate reasoning skills. Hence they
are unable to establish relationship between the learning that occurs
in the classrooms and their real-life situation. Learning chemistry
requires the understanding of three levels of chemical
representations: Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic levels.
Macroscopic level is the phenomena that can be seen with naked
eyes (Boiling of water, heating of sulphur); Microscopic level is the
representation of atomic particles that cannot be seen with naked
eyes (protons, neutrons and electrons); Symbolic level such as
chemical formulae and equations are represented using signs,
symbols, coefficients and formulae (Gabel,1998; Johnstone,
1991:Gkitzia, Salta and Tzougraki, 2011).
Learning chemistry becomes also difficult to secondary students
127
due to alternative conceptions. Alternative conception is the view
and meaning of the world acquired by children before they are
formally introduced to science. This is developed as children
attempt to make sense of the world in terms of their experiences.
The misconceptions held by students are different from scientist
views because children have difficulties with abstract reasoning,
their interest in particular explanation of scientific events and the
use of everyday language of the society. Alternative conception
hinders student learning (Gilbert & Treagust, 2009, Osborne, Bell
& Gilbert, 1983).
The characteristics and processes of the PBL will take care of
these triple levels of chemical representations by explanations of
the microscopic level that is instrumental to the understanding of
the macroscopic and symbolic levels. These allow student to
transfer knowledge from one level to another easily through
collaborative and self-directed learning. Similarly, the students’
alternative conceptions can also be identify and corrected by
teacher facilitation process to foster conceptual understanding of
chemistry without hindrance to learning (Delisle, 1997; Gabel,
1999).
CONCLUSION
PBL is a significant innovation in education, which have real life
problems as focal points, teachers as mediating guides, learners as
active problem solvers through collaborative and self-directed
learning. The learning process produces students with adequate
problem solving skills and flexible knowledge base. Learning
paradigm has shifted towards attainment of the desired goal of a
knowledge-based economy society from the 21st century
education. However, despites the paradigm shift to PBL approach
that produces students with higher-order thinking skills and other
required competences, the traditional lecture method, bad learning
environment, inadequate facilities as mentioned earlier are very
common in Nigerian secondary schools. The situation is different
128
from western countries where PBL originated and fully
implemented. Therefore the authors will investigate the process of
implementation of PBL in Nigerian secondary schools chemistry
lessons that are suitable and appropriate for Nigerian school
context.
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132
CADANGAN PEMBINAAN
MODEL PENGHUJAHAN
SAINTIFIK DALAM KIMIA
Chuzairy Hanri & Muhammad Yusof Arshad
ABSTRAK
Sistem pendidikan pada masa sekarang perlu menerapkan elemen
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi. Namun begitu, sistem pendidikan di
Malaysia masih kurang menerapkannya kerana segelintir guru
masih mengamalkan pengajaran secara tradisional. Kesannya
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi pelajar iaitu kemahiran menaakul
masih rendah berdasarkan kepda penilaian TIMSS. Salah satu
kaedah yang boleh digunakan adalah penghujahan saintifik.
Penghujahan saintifik memberikan banyak kelebihan sekiranya
diamalkan di dalam kelas sains. Oleh itu, banyak kajian telah
dijalankan bagi membangunkan kaedah pengajaran yang
mengamalkan penghujahan saintifik. Namun begitu, masih kurang
kajian yang dijalankan untuk memahami proses penghujahan
saintifik. Bagi memahami proses penghujahan saintifik dengan
mendalam, satu model bagi menilai proses penghujahan saintifik
yang mantap diperlukan. Model penghujahan saintifik Walker &
Sampson merupakan model yang terkini, lengkap, jelas dan mudah
digunakan. Namun model ini digunakan dalam suasana kelas yang
aktif dan bertentangan dengan suasana kelas di Malaysia. Selain
itu, model ini tidak menitik beratkan elemen tiga aras perwakilan
kimia. Oleh itu, model ini perlu diubahsuai agar sesuai dengan
pendidikan kimia dan konteks pendidikan di Malaysia. Satu kajian
133
akan dijalankan untuk menguji keberkesanan model ini.
Kata Kunci: Penghujahan Saintifik, Model Penghujahan Saintifik
Dalam Kimia, Tiga Aras Perwakilan Kimia, Isu Pelaksanaan
Penghujahan Saintifik Di Malaysia
PENGENALAN
Kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi terutama kemahiran menaakul perlu
dikuasai pelajar untuk menempuh alam pekerjaan yang semakin
mencabar. Malangnya, pencapaian pelajar Malaysia dalam
penilaian Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) bagi
item menaakul tidak mencapai penanda aras antarabangsa iaitu
hanya 5% pelajar Malaysia berjaya menjawab soalan tersebut
dengan betul sedangkan penanda aras antarabangsa adalah pada
18% (Martin et al., 2012).
Keadaan ini disebabkan oleh kebanyakan guru masih
mengamalkan pengajaran secara tradisional. Kebanyakan masa
pembelajaran digunakan oleh guru untuk memberi penerangan
kepada pelajar iaitu aktiviti kuliah (Winnie Sim Siew Li &
Mohammad Yusof Arshad, 2014a; Chuzairy Hanri & Mohammad
Yusof Arshad, 2013). Pengajaran secara kuliah tidak menggalakkan
kemahiran menaakul pelajar kerana pelajar hanya bertindak sebagai
pendengar yang pasif di dalam kelas (Kenneth, 2009).
Satu kaedah yang boleh digunakan untuk menggalakkan
kemahiran menaakul pelajar adalah dengan mengamalkan
penghujahan saintifik.
PENGHUJAHAN SAINTIFIK DALAM KELAS SAINS
Penghujahan saintifik didefinisikan sebagai dakwaan atau
kesimpulan yang dibina dan disokong dengan hujah-hujah yang
rasional (Sampson & Clark, 2009; Erduran, Simon, & Osborne,
2004). Hujah yang menyokong kesimpulan tersebut termasuk
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bukti-bukti yang diperolehi daripada eksperimen atau daripada
sumber rujukan yang lain dan dikukuhkan lagi dengan justifikasi
hubungan antara kesimpulan dan bukti yang dikemukakan.
Banyak kelebihan yang diperolehi sekiranya penghujahan
saintifik diamalkan di dalam kelas kimia. Antara kelebihan
menjalankan penghujahan saintifik adalah melahirkan pelajar yang
berliterasi saintifik (Braaten & Windschitl, 2011; Cavagnetto,
2010), memupuk perubahan konsep pelajar dan mengukuhkan
kefahaman pelajar (Cetin, 2014; Nussbaum, 2011; Sadler, 20004),
menggalakkan pemikiran aras tinggi pelajar (Eskin & Berkiroglu,
2008; Yalcinoglu, 2007) dan meningkatkan kemahiran komunikasi
pelajar (Nussbaum, 2011).
Malangnya, penghujahan saintifik masih kurang diamalkan di
dalam kelas sains. Keadaan ini bukan hanya berlaku di luar negara
(Newton, Driver & Osborne, 1999) malah turut berlaku di dalam
Malaysia (Lee Ling Heng & Johari Surif, 2013a; Martin et. al.,
2004). Ini mungkin disebabkan oleh guru yang kurang mahir dalam
menilai dan menggalakkan penghujahan saintifik. Satu kaedah
pengajaran berasaskan kepada model yang mantap perlu
dibangunkan bagi membantu guru mengamalkan penghujahan
saintifik yang berkualiti.
Menyedari akan hakikat tersebut, pelbagai kaedah telah
dibangunkan dalam kajian lepas bagi membantu guru
menggalakkan penghujahan santifik di dalam kelas. Tiga kaedah
utama yang dibangunkan adalah melalui teknologi (lihat Clark &
Sampson, 2007; Sandoval & Reiser, 2004) penyoalan (Nussbaum,
2011; Chin, 2010) dan inkuiri (Walker & Sampson, 2013).
Kesemua kaedah yang telah dibangunkan ternyata memberikan
kesan positif kepada kualiti penghujahan saintifik pelajar. Namun
begitu, kajian yang mengkaji proses penghujahan saintifik secara
terperinci masih kurang dijalankan.
Bagi mengkaji proses penghujahan saintifik dengan terperinci,
satu model penghujahan saintifik diperlukan untuk dijadikan
sebagai panduan dalam menilai proses penghujahan saintifik yang
berlaku. Apakah model penghujahan saintifik yang paling sesuai
digunakan? Adakah model tersebut sesuai digunakan dalam
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konteks pendidikan di Malaysia?
MODEL PENGHUJAHAN SAINTIFIK
Antara model penghujahan saintifik yang terawal adalah model
Toulmin. Terdapat lima elemen dalam penghujahan saintifik iaitu
dakwaan, data, pengwajaran, sokongan dan percanggahan
(Toulmin, 1958). Model ini banyak digunapakai dalam kajiankajian lepas seperti dalam kajian Chin (2010) memandangkan ia
mudah digunakan. Namun begitu, model ini sukar digunakan untuk
menilai kualiti hujah kerana model tersebut tidak begitu jelas
(Erduran, Simon & Osborne, 2004; Zohar & Nemet, 2002).
Disebabkan oleh kekaburan ini, Model Toulmin telah
dipermudahkan oleh Erduran, Simon & Osborne (2004) dan juga
Stegmann, Weinberger & Fischer (2007). Model Toulmin telah
diringkaskan kepada hanya tiga komponen iaitu (a) dakwaan atau
kesimpulan yang diperolehi hasil daripada penghujahan (b) data
yang berkaitan dan menyokong dakwaan yang dibuat (c)
pengwajaran yang menghubungkan antara data dengan dakwaan
yang dibuat. Bagi McNeil & Krajcik (2009), mereka
mengkonsepkan ketiga-tiga komponen ini sebagai dakwaan, bukti
dan perwajaran kepada sesuatu dakwaan. Namun begitu, masih
terdapat kekeliruan dalam menilai kualiti hujah pelajar terutama
dalam menilai sama ada hujah mengandungi elemen data atau bukti
(Walker & Sampson, 2013, Nussbaum, 2011).
Kekeliruan ini dirungkai dengan model penghujahan saintifik
yang terkini daripada Walker & Sampson (2013) seperti dalam
Rajah 1. Terdapat tiga elemen dalam model ini iaitu (a)
dakwaan/kesimpulan meliputi tekaan, kesimpulan, penerangan atau
jawapan kepada persoalan kajian; (b) bukti termasuklah data
(daripada eksperimen atau kajian lain), analisis data dan interpretasi
analisis data (c) justifikasi yang memerlukan pelajar membuat
penerangan mengenai bukti yang dikemukakan berdasarkan kepada
konsep dan teori saintifik. Selain itu, model ini juga menerangkan
mengenai penilaian kualiti hujah melalui dua aspek iaitu kriteria
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empirikal dan teoritikal. Kriteria empirikal adalah penilaian
bagaimana data dikumpul dan dianalisis serta adakah bukti yang
dikemukakan sesuai dengan dakwaan yang dibuat. Kriteria
teoritikal pula menilai sama ada dakwaan yang dibuat selari dengan
pengetahuan saintifik dan adakah interpretasi data dilakukan
dengan betul.
Model Walker & Sampson berkesan dalam membantu pelajar
membina hujah memandangkan ia dijalankan dalam suasana kelas
yang aktif. Namun begitu, wujud persoalan adakah ianya sesuai
digunakan dalam subjek kimia memandangkan pembelajaran kimia
memerlukan pelajar menguasai tiga aras perwakilan kimia dan
adakah ia sesuai digunakan dalam konteks pendidikan di Malaysia
kerana didapati proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran di Malaysia
dijalankan dalam keadaan yang pasif. Kedua-dua isu ini
dibincangkan dalam subtopik seterusnya.
ISU PELAKSANAAN PENGHUJAHAN SAINTIFIK
MALAYSIA
DI
Pendidikan secara global telah beralih arah kepada aktiviti
penggalakkan penghujahan saintifik di dalam kelas. Keadaan ini
telah berlaku di Amerika Syarikat, United Kingdom, Afrika Selatan
dan negara-negara lain (Next Generation Science Standard, NGSS,
2013; Qualification and Curriculum Authority, 2007; JimenezAleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Pendidikan Malaysia juga perlu
mengubah arah pendidikan sains agar kita mampu berdiri sama
tinggi dan duduk sama rendah dengan negara maju yang lain.
137
Dakwaan
Tekaan, kesimpulan,
penerangan,
pernyataan deskriptif,
jawapan persoalan
kajian
Sesuai
dengan
Menyokonn
g
Bukti
Data (numerik,
pemerhatian, dapat
kajian lain), analisis
data, interpretasi data
Disokong
dengan
Menerangka
n
Justifikasi
Pembinaan dan penilaian
hujah berdasarkan kepada:

Teori saintifik yang
telah dibina oleh
saintis

Kaedah kajian yang
diterima oleh saintis

Bukti yang
dikemukakan sama
standard dengan
saintis

Kaedah komunikasi
sama dengan saintis
Penerangan tekaan,
konsep atau teori
yang mendokong
analisis data,
interpretasi data
Kualiti hujah dinilai berdasarkan kepada:
Kriteria Empirikal
Dakwaan sesuai dengan bukti
Bukti yang dikemukakan mencukupi
Kaedah kajian yang sesuai
Kaedah analisis data sesuai
Kritteria Teoritikal
Dakwaan menyumbang kepada kefahaman dunia
sains
Dakwaan selari dengan teori saintifik
analisis
data selari dengansaintifik
teori
RajahIntrepretasi
1: Model
penghujahan
saintifik
Bagi mengamalkan penghujahan saintifik sebagai salah satu
kaedah pengajaran terbaru di dalam kelas kimia di Malaysia,
beberapa isu perlu diberi perhatian. Dua isu utama yang perlu
diberi perhatian adalah kewujudan pelbagai aras dalam kimia dan
aktiviti pengajaran secara tradisional dan fungsi guru dan pelajar di
dalam kelas kimia. Isu ini perlu diberi perhatian agar model
penghujahan yang akan dibina sesuai untuk digunakan dalam
konteks pendidikan kimia di Malaysia.
138
KEWUJUDAN PELBAGAI ARAS DALAM KIMIA
Dalam memahami subjek kimia pelajar perlu menguasai ketiga-tiga
aras perwakilan kimia yang wujud iaitu aras makroskopik,
mikroskopik dan simbolik. Disebabkan oleh aras perwakilan ini,
subjek kimia dianggap sebagai mata pelajaran yangsukar oleh
pelajar (Johnstone, 2000; Tsaparlis, Koliulis & Pappa, 2010).
Seringkali miskonsepsi berlaku dan pelajar tidak memahami
konsep kimia secara menyeluruh disebabkan oleh kegagalan pelajar
untuk menguasai ketiga-tiga aras perwakilan kimia ini (Jaber &
Bou Jaoude, 2012). Pelajar tidak memahami konsep kimia secara
menyeluruh juga disebabkan oleh kelemahan pelajar dalam
mengintegrasikan ketiga-tiga aras ini (Treagust, Chittleborough &
Mamaila, 2003).
Kebanyakan pelajar boleh menguasai dengan baik pada aras
makroskopik seperti menerangkan proses pencairan ais dimana
perubahan keadaan fizikal daripada pepejal kepada cecair. Namun
begitu, pelajar mengalami kesukaran dalam menerangkan konsep
tersebut pada aras mikroskopik dan simbolik iaitu susunan zarah
semasa proses pencairan berlaku (aras mikroskopik) dan persamaan
kimia yang berlaku (aras simbolik). Ini disebabkan oleh pada aras
tersebut ianya berbentuk abstrak (Barke, Al-Hazari & Yitbarek,
2009).
Kesukaran ini wujud disebabkan oleh guru kurang peka dan
tidak mengambil berat aras mikroskopik dan simbolik semasa
mengajar di dalam kelas. Guru kurang menghubungkait antara
ketiga-tiga aras tersebut (deJong & Taber, 2007). Ini terbukti
seperti dalam kajian Winnie Sim Siew Li & Mohammad Yusof
Arshad (2014b) yang mendapati guru hanya memfokuskan kepada
aras makroskopik dan mengabaikan aras simbolik dan mikroskopik.
Oleh itu ketiga-tiga aras ini perlu disertakan sekali di dalam
penghujahan saintifik mereka. Pengintegrasian ini akan membantu
pelajar memahami konsep kimia dengan lebih mendalam serta
menghasilkan hujah yang lebih berkualiti.
139
AKTIVITI PENGAJARAN SECARA TRADISIONAL DAN
FUNGSI GURU DAN PELAJAR DI DALAM KELAS
Pusat perkembangan kurikulum telah mencadangkan agar
pengajaran secara inkuiri dijalankan di dalam kelas sains. Namun
begitu, kajian lepas membuktikan bahawa guru masih menjalankan
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran secara tradisional (Chuzairy
Hanri & Muhammad Yusof Arshad, 2013; Lim, 2007; Abu Hassan,
2003). Pengajaran masih dijalankan secara berpusatkan guru.
Aktiviti utama di dalam bilik darjah adalah kuliah/penerangan guru
(Chuzairy Hanri & Mohammad Yusof Arshad, 2013; Martin et. al.,
2004). Terdapat guru yang menjalankan pengajaran secara inkuiri
namun tidak dijalankan dengan baik dan berbeza dengan teori
pengajaran inkuiri (Winnie Sim Siew Li & Mohammad Yusof
Arshad, 2014a; Tay, 2010). Berdasarkan kajian Winnie Sim Siew
Li & Mohammad Yusof Arshad (2014a) guru yang mendakwa
mereka menjalankan pengajaran secara inkuiri tidak menjalankan
inkuiri dengan betul. Guru lebih banyak bercakap dan memberi
penerangan berbanding bertanya soalan dan pelajar bercakap. Guru
beranggapan bahawa fungsi mereka di dalam kelas adalah
penyampai maklumat dan memberi arahan (Abu Hassan, 2003).
Guru juga beranggapan bahawa dia yang mengawal pembelajaran
pelajar. Pelajar hanya bertindak sebagai pendengar yang pasif dan
menyalin nota sekiranya perlu (Chuzairy, 2013).
Bagi mengubah pengajaran secara tradisional kepada
penghujahan saintifik, guru perlu memahami tugas mereka hanya
sebagai fasilitator yang membimbing murid dan bukan sebagai
pemberi maklumat. Pelajar sepatutnya bertindak sebagai penghasil
maklumat dan bukan pendengar yang pasif (Jiminez-Aleixandre &
Erduran, 2007). Oleh itu, model penghujahan saintifik yang baru
perlu dibina dengan mengambil kira konteks pendidikan Malaysia
yang bersifat pasif dan tradisional. Pengajaran secara tradisional ini
perlu diadaptasikan agar penghujahan saintifik dapat dijalankan di
dalam kelas sains di Malaysia.
140
CADANGAN
PENGUBAHSUAIAN
PENGHUJAHAN SAINTIFIK DALAM KIMIA
MODEL
Bagi memahami penghujahan saintifik di Malaysia, model
penghujahan saintifik sedia ada yang dijalankan dalam suasana
kelas yang aktif perlu diubahsuai agar ianya sesuai dengan konteks
pendidikan kimia di Malaysia. Dua elemen pengubahsuaian yang
dicadangkan adalah memasukkan elemen tiga aras perwakilan
kimia dan adaptasi aktiviti pengajaran sedia ada di Malaysia seperti
dalam Rajah 2.
Elemen tiga aras perwakilan kimia dimasukkan ke dalam model
penghujahan saintifik dalam kimia bagi meningkatkan lagi kualiti
hujah pelajar. Pengintegrasian ini perlu dimasukkan ke dalam
elemen penghujahan pada bukti (aras makroskopik) dan justifikasi
(aras mikroskopik dan simbolik). Selain itu, penambahan pada
penilaian kualiti hujah yang dibina perlu dibuat terutama pada
kriteria teoritikal dimana dakwaan yang dibuat perlu selari dengan
teori saintifik yang terkini pada aras mikroskopik dan simbolik.
Ketepatan interpretasi data juga dinilai pada aras mikroskopik dan
simbolik. Akhir sekali ubahsuai perlu dilakukan pada panduan
dalam membina penghujahan saintifik dimana hujah yang dibina
patut mengintegrasikan tiga aras perwakilan kimia.
Selain itu, keadaan kelas sains di Malaysia pada masa sekarang
juga perlu diambil kira dalam membina model. Ini untuk
memastikan penghujahan saintifik boleh dijalankan dalam konteks
pendidikan di Malaysia. Fungsi guru dan ciri aktiviti yang sesuai
perlu dimasukkan ke dalam model untuk dijadikan panduan oleh
guru.
141
Dakwaan
Tekaan, kesimpulan,
penerangan, pernyataan
deskriptif, jawapan
persoalan kajian
Sesuai dengan
Panduan
pembinaan dan
penilaian hujah
Menyokong
Bukti
Panduan menilai
kualiti hujah
berdasarkan
kepada kriteria
empirical dan
teoritikal
Data (numerik,
pemerhatian, dapat
kajian lain), analisis
data, interpretasi data
Disokong pada
aras
mikroskopik dan
simbolik dengan
Makroskopik
Mikroskopik
Simbolik
Menerangkan
pada aras
mikroskopik
dan simbolik
Cadangan kriteria
aktiviti dalam
konteks
pendidikan di
Malaysia
Justifikasi
Penerangan tekaan,
konsep atau teori yang
mendokong analisis
data, interpretasi data
Fungsi gurupelajar dalam
konteks
pendidikan di
Malaysia
Rajah 2: Cadangan ubahsuai model penghujahan saintifik kimia
KESIMPULAN
Banyak kelebihan yang dapat diperolehi sekiranya penghujahan
saintifik diamalakan di dalam kelas. Banyak kajian lepas yang telah
dijalankan untuk membina model penghujahan saintifik dalam
suasana pembelajaran yang aktif dan digunakan dalam subjek sains
secara umum. Model ini tidak sesuai digunakan di Malaysia
memandangkan di Malaysia pembelajaran masih dijalankan secara
142
pasif. Selain itu, kewujudan tiga aras perwakilan kimia juga perlu
diberi perhatian. Oleh itu, model sedia ada perlu diubahsuai agar ia
sesuai digunakan dalam konteks pendidikan kimia di Malaysia.
Satu kajian akan dijalankan bagi mengkaji keberkesanan model
yang dicadangkan dalam konteks pendidikan di Malaysia
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146
ESL LEARNERS’ ENGLISH
LEARNING ATTITUDES IN
CHINESE INDEPENDENT HIGH
SCHOOLS
Khei Yok Man @ Khei Yok Lee
ABSTRACT
This study examines the language attitudes of English as a Second
Language learners in five Chinese independent high schools
located in three southern states of peninsular Malaysia, namely
Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Johor. A total of 150 Form Four
(Senior One) students who had sat for PMR the previous year
(2013) were administered in this investigation. Quantitative and
qualitative data were collected for analysis in this study via
questionnaire, classroom observations and interviews. Findings
show that there is significant difference between learners’ English
Attitude and Subscription of English Magazine at Home as well as
English Speaking Family. In addition, significant difference is also
identified between learners’ PMR English Score and Subscription
of English Magazine at Home including English Proficiency.
Findings further confirm that there is no significant difference
between learners’ Gender and Language Attitude including
Anxiety which corroborated with research done elsewhere. 91.33
percent of the students (N=137) show interest and perceive
learning English as a joy and pride. Only 19.33 percent of the
147
students (N=29) believe good language learners are more
intelligent and a meager 8 percent (N=12) will give up learning
English while 92 percent (N=138) will try other means, such as
going for tuition or surfing online for assistance when their English
teacher is not a good one. Pearson Chi-square analysis also
concludes that there is no correlation between learners’ PMR
English Score and Gender as well as School.
Keywords: English as a Second Language; Language Attitudes,
Belief in Learning, Physical Environment of the Classroom,
Anxiety; Chinese Independent High School, Dong Zong
INTRODUCTION
Previous findings pointed out that a learner’s attitudes play a
significant role in language learning, viz., towards the target
language and the teacher. Rodriguez-Brown et al. (1987) further
found that a learner’s attitudes towards the target language play a
more important role in second language learning than previously
described.
Inspired by this, this paper investigates the English learning
attitudes of students in the Malaysian context in general and
Chinese independent high school in particular, hoping to see the
relevance between attitudes and the respondents’ learning process
revealed by variables such as Gender, English Speaking Family,
Subscription of English Magazine, English Proficiency, Belief in
Learning, Anxiety and Physical Environment of the Classroom.
It is anticipated that by closely examining learner’s attitudes in
English learning as this investigation attempts might inform
learners and teachers how the findings could be adapted to develop
a more effective model. It is also believed that by understanding
the complexities of English language learners and background
knowledge of the language acquisition process can be beneficial
for educators, parents, and learners in educational reform efforts
for English.
148
Rationale of the Study
In Malaysia, English made an entry in the mid-18th century. When
Malaysia declared independence in 1957 after 150 years of British
colonization, Bahasa Malaysia became her national language. In
1970, year one students in schools across Malaysia underwent the
new English as a Second Language programme where English was
taught as a subject with the introduction of the Education Bill
which officially accorded English the status of a second language
(Asmah Omar, 1979:23).
Since English is the second language of Malaysia, it is widely
used by many people everywhere and one cannot deny the need to
command it to fulfill the demands of the challenging world ahead
in various aspects.
It is further thought that there are some gaps which point to the
need of a context dependent and qualitative study. These gaps are
(1) As a high school teacher, to the researcher’s knowledge, not
much research on English learning attitudes had been done in
Chinese independent high schools, (2) Respondents are scarcely
asked to make comments on their English learning attitudes, and
(3) The existence of Chinese independent high schools is in itself
unique and they emphasized English learning though employing
Chinese Mandarin as medium of instruction for most subjects,
hence a probe into their learners’ attitudes towards English in
learning will be insightful to all concerned.
The purpose of this research is to identify the English language
attitudes of learners in Chinese independent high schools and their
relevance with variables since English learning is prioritised in
their syllabuses, as seven periods (280 minutes) of English is
taught on a weekly basis for both junior and senior levels (Dong
Zong, 2010).
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are to identify the attitudes of Chinese
149
high schools’ learners towards English and their correlation with
PMR English Score, Gender, School, Family Background, English
Proficiency, Subscription of English Magazine, Teacher-fronted
Time, Student-student Interaction and the Physical Environment of
the Classroom.
LITERATURE REVIEW
The conclusions from the research done worldwide which are
documented below point out that researchers, ESL teachers and
administrators need to consider the fact that they need to have keys
for knowing their students' attitudes and preferences towards
learning English for motivation purposes.
Findings were as follows: Hong Kong Chinese respondents
show a strong bias against English speakers and regarded it as the
language of power (Lyczak et al.,1976); high school students hold
a negative attitude towards the use of English though they
expressed a positive value towards English at the same time
(Pierson et al.,1980); university students of Hong Kong adopted
positive affective, pragmatic and socio-political attitudes towards
the English language (Littlewood and Liu, 1996); English was the
target language needed for students at secondary and tertiary level
in their career and personal growth in Hong Kong (Yan and Lau,
2003); Singapore Chinese and Indian children’s attitudes towards
English on both attitudinal dimensions were found to be lower than
their attitudes towards their mother tongue and code-switching,
while the Malay children expressed no significant difference
(Bokhorst-Heng et al., 2009).
METHODOLOGY
This study focuses on the English learning attitudes of learners in
Chinese independent high schools. Five Chinese independent high
schools’ students from three states in the southern region of
Malaysia (Two in Negeri Sembilan, one in Melaka and Two in
Johore) were chosen using Cluster Sampling for the purpose of
150
data collection.
It was administered among Senior One (Form Four) students in
five Chinese independent high schools. 150 respondents (88 boys
and 62 girls) were involved in the investigation. Quantitative as
well as qualitative data were collected via questionnaires,
interviews, observations, oral reports and stimulated reflection, if
any, for not only interpretations and analysis but also triangulation.
The significant difference and correlation between the
respondents’ attitudes identified to be important in language
learning was sought after from questionnaires and classroom
observations.
For measurement of reliability and validity of the data
collected, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Two Sample T-test and
Pearson Chi-square packages were utilized to identify the
significant difference and correlation between the variables.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
According to the descriptive statistics for learners derived from the
questionnaire data, the variables Anxiety and Belief in Learning
top the highest scores which translate all the learners’ anxiety scale
is the highest (67.033) among other variables in English learning
but they have strong positive belief in English learning (58.560).
Analysis suggests that there is no significant difference
between learners’ Gender and Language Attitude as well as
Anxiety as can be seen from Table 1 and 2 below:
Table 1: T-test for Gender versus Language Attitude
Gender
N Mean StDev SE Mean
Boy
88 46.83 5.18 0.55
Girl
62 46.79 4.92 0.62
P-Value = 0.963 P < 0.05
The table above indicates that of the 150 respondents, 88 are
boys and 62 are girls. Their average score (Mean) in Language
151
Attitude are 46.83 and 46.79 respectively. The standard deviations
(StDev) are 5.18 and 4.92. Since the P-Value is above 0.05,
meaning, there is no significant difference found between the
variables Gender and Language Attitude. Likewise, the table below
also indicates that there is no significant difference between
Gender and Anxiety figuratively:
Table 2: T-test for Gender versus Anxiety
Gender N
Mean
StDev
SE Mean
Boy
88
66.91
8.34
0.89
Girl
62
67.21
8.22
1.0
P-Value = 0.8 P < 0.05
But there is significant difference found between learners’
English Attitude and Subscription of English Magazine at Home
including English Speaking Family as indicated in Table 3 and 4
and between PMR English Score and Subscription of English
Magazine at Home as well as English Proficiency as evidenced in
Table 5 and 6:
Table 3: T-test for English attitude and Subscription of English
Magazine at Home
EngSubs N Mean StDev SE Mean
Yes
18 49.33 4.19
0.99
No
132 46.47 5.08
0.44
P-Value = 0.024 P < 0.05
As clearly shown in Table 3 above, only 18 students subscribed
English magazine at home and the average scores (Mean) are
49.33 for subscribers and 46.47 for non subscribers. The standard
deviations are 4.19 and 5.08 respectively. The P-Value obtained
from T-test is 0.024, which shows there is significant difference
between the variables. In other words, students who subscribed
English magazine will score differently in their PMR English
subject. Similar indication is also evidenced between English
Attitude and English Speaking Family below (Table 4) though the
152
P-Value is 0.08. It shows the obtained P-Value has only a
difference of 0.03 compared to 0.05 and there is possibility of
errors in the process of data collection and thus it is considered as
significant difference.
Table 4: T-test for English Attitude and English Speaking Family
EngFami N
Mean StDev SE Mean
Boy
28 48.32 4.70 0.89
Girl
122 46.47 5.09 0.46
P-Value = 0.080 (weak difference depends on errors) P < 0.05
The P-Value of Table 5 and 6 below confirm the significant
difference and correlation between the variables as well since they
are below 0.05:
Table 5: T-test for PMR English Score versus Subscription of
English Magazine at Home
EngSubs N
Mean
StDev
SE Mean
Yes
18
1.83
1.15
0.27
No
132 2.89
1.31
0.11
P-Value = 0.001 P < 0.05
Table 6: ANOVA for PMR, using adjusted Students on PMR
Score
Source DF
Seq SS
Adj SS
Adj MS
F
P
EngPro 2
116.322 116.322
58.161
57.37 0.000
Error
147
149.038 149.038
1.014
Total 149
265.360
P-Value = 0.000 P < 0.05
In addition, Pearson Chi-square analysis also concludes that
there is no correlation between learners’ PMR English Score and
Gender as well as School.
On the other hand, of all the 150 students from five schools,
91.33 percent of them (N=137) showed interest and perceived
learning English as a joy and pride from personal interview as they
153
were convinced English as an international language is a must for
communication and possibly will secure a well paid job. There are
17.33 percent of the students (N=16) who do not think that by
mastering English will secure well paid and good job though. Only
19.33 percent of the students (N=29) believe good language
learners are more intelligent and a meager 8 percent (N=12) will
give up learning English while 92 percent (N=138) will try other
means when their English teacher is not a good one. Data also
suggests that as high as 48.67 percent (N=73) of the 150 students
feel panic when asked to answer questions in English class.
Notwithstanding this outstanding figure, in personal interviews,
these students (89.33 percent, N=134) are not afraid of being
corrected in terms of English errors made in public by their teacher
though they are mostly reluctant to answer English questions
posted by teacher voluntarily.
Finally, Students believe that in English teaching, teaching aids
employed by teachers such as eye-catching and interesting
textbooks, records, videos play central role.
From classroom observations, which were recorded on an
Observation Guide Form, chalk (marker) and talk was noted for
nine out of ten teachers while doing grammar translation. Hardly
any interactions between students and teachers were spotted the
same went with student to student interactions. Students answered
questions only when they were called upon to. The size of the
classes ranged from 30 and above but below 50. As for the
physical environment of the classroom, computers and projectors
were found installed in the classrooms. The classroom settings
were identical: desks and chairs arranged in straight rows facing
the board where the teacher usually stood in teaching practices.
CONCLUSION
In a nutshell, data suggests that there is significant difference
between learners’ English Attitude and Subscription of English
Magazine at Home as well as English Speaking Family. Likewise,
154
significant difference is also identified between learners’ PMR
English Score and Subscription of English Magazine at Home as
well as English Proficiency. Pearson Chi-square confirms that
there is no correlation between learners’ PMR English Score and
Gender as well as School. Findings further confirm that there is no
significant difference between learners’ Gender and Language
Attitude including Anxiety which corroborated with research done
elsewhere. 91.33 percent of the students (N=137) show interest and
perceive learning English as a joy and pride. Only 19.33 percent of
the students (N=29) believe good language learners are more
intelligent and a meager 8 percent (N=12) will give up learning
English while 92 percent (N=138) will try other means, such as
going for tuition or surfing online for assistance when their English
teacher is not a good one.
REFERENCES
Agheyisi, R. & Fishman, J. A. (1970). Language attitude studies: A brief
survey of methodological approaches. Anthropological
Linguistics, 12, 137-157.
Asmah Omar. 1979. Language for Unity and Efficiency. Kuala Lumpur:
University Malaya Press.
Bokhorst-Heng, W. D. et al. 2009. The language attitudes of bilingual
youth in multilingual Singapore. Journal of Multilingual and
Multicultural Development, 30 (3): 235-251.
Dong Zong Internal Document. 2009. Kajang: Dong Zong.
Dong Zong Official Website. http://www.dongzong.my.
Littlewood, W. & Liu, N. 1996. Hong Kong students and their English.
English Centre: The University of Hong Kong.
Lyczak, R., Fu, G. S. & Ho, A. 1976. Attitudes of Hong Kong bilinguals
towards English and Chinese speakers. Journal of Cross-Cultural
Psychology, 7(4): 425-438.
Pierson, H. D., Fu, G. S. & Lee S. 1980. An analysis of the relationship
between language attitudes and English attainment of secondary
students in Hong Kong. Language Learning, 30: 289-316.
Rodriguez-Brown, F. V. and Ruesta, M. B. 1987. Attitudes and
motivational factors in second language learning. Online ERIC
155
Digest.
Yan, A. & Lau, L. 2003. Student attitudes to the learning of English at
secondary and tertiary levels. System, 31(1): 107-123.
156
INVESTIGATING THE EXISTING
TEXT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL:
STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION
ABOUT THE NEED OF CRITERIA
IN TEXT SELECTION
Aryanti Ishak
ABSTRACT
Thishis paper is looking at the importance of the criteria in literary
text selection in order to achieve the aims of teaching and learning
literature. The key to have a success program depends on text
selection because the right reading material will provide the
enlightenment that the students need and motivate the students to
achieve the objectives of learning in the target language.
Keywords: Literature, Criteria, Text selection
INTRODUCTION
Literature in Malaysia has been incorporated in schools in year
2000 and the inclusion of literature component according to Soraya
(1994), in the first place is to” develop in students a deeper level
of understanding and an awareness, and sensitivity to human
values and issues” (Centre of Development of Education, 1987).
157
However, according to Vethamani (2009) the decision to have the
literature component was also due to the drastic measure to
enhance literacy among the students.
Therefore, literature
component is aimed to empower reading at large by introducing
the learners with different genres namely, poem, short stories,
novel and drama. It is hoped that the reading of such genres will
broaden their cultural outlook and infuse the reading appreciation
toward the literary works and self-development Vethamani, 2007,
Curriculum Development Centre). Literature is believed is
accordance to the National Philosophy of Education in equipping
the learners with the survival skills which later prepare the students
to become contributing citizens to the nations’ growth.
THE OBJECTIVES OF LITERATURE COMPONENT IN
THE EDUCATION
The move to the literature inclusion was driven by several factors.
The major factor was driven by literacy problem faced by the
students. The declining standard in the English Language was a
big concern to the nation. The previous reading program such as
the Class Reader Program (CRP) which aimed at developing
reading skills and introducing the elements of literature into
language teaching is considered as failed to produce a significant
impact due to the text difficulty and was neglected by both
teachers and students (Gunakumaran, 2007). Thus, literature
component took place with enforcement in reading and taught as
part of the English language syllabus and had to be assessed in the
centralised examinations.
The objective of being tested in the examination is to ensure
that reading need to be taken seriously by teachers and especially
students. Thus, the objectives of literature component are to help
students improve their language skills and gaining experience as
well as educational goals through pleasure reading. By doing so,
students were expected to show their literary competence in the
form of giving their personal responses, understand the
158
relationship of the characters and infer the messages as well as
themes.
The implementation of the literature component also
encourages the students to show their aesthetic appreciation toward
the literary work and relate them to one’s life. In general, the aims
of literature component reflects the reasons for teaching and using
literature in classroom and it is in accordance to what has been
mentioned by literature prominent and a continuity from a
previous reading program.
Other factor that drives the literature component to be
integrated in school is to enhance the appreciation values through
the understanding of themselves and others. Malaysia known as
multiracial and multicultural country, maintain the harmonious in
the country through using a book as a unity tool (Melody, 2011).
The literary text chosen will encompass moral values which
relevant to our lives and it confirms one of the reasons for using
literature as a means for cultural enrichment where students will be
exposed to certain aspects of target culture.
BENEFIT OF LITERARY TEXT
Past studies show that literary texts are useful in integrating
language skills and it is effective due to the motivational embedded
such as cultural, literary and higher-higher order thinking benefits
(Erkaya, 2005). On top of that, literary text also benefits the
students in terms of the authenticity where students were exposed
to language awareness and offer more comprehensible and greater
communicative value (Crossley and Louwerse, 2007). Literary
texts allow readers to have both, close and pleasure reading. Close
reading heightened the attentiveness while pleasure reading
contributes to enlightenment. Result from Mar, Oatley and
Peterson (2009) show that exposure to literary text confirms
positive correlation to social support, empathy and tendency to
understand others. In other word, it confirms the means of
literature as personal growth (Collie and Slater, 1991).
159
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The option of selecting just the right material is perceived as an
important initial step and very essential in reading literature when
it is regarded as a resource or a subject. The materials or texts
chosen should be within the range of student’s content knowledge
and at the same time help them to improve and acquire the
attended lesson with impact. Rosenblatt (1995) indicates that text
chosen should be done in prudent way to ensure the benefits
gained from the text chosen are achieved or else the impact is in
vain.
Friese, Alvermann, Parkes and Rezak (2008) report that the
most common literary texts found in schools are based on three
aspects, namely narrative, award-winning and fictional. The
selection is normally made on the basis of what they consider as a
fit between their students’ needs and their involvement. However
at times, the selection is formed based on curriculum and state
necessity. When the choice of text is done based on curriculum and
state necessity, it is feared that a mismatch may occur between the
learners and the texts selected, which in the long run will result in
reading resentment. According to Fauziah, Marziah and Tina
(2008), text selection should correspond with the goals and aims of
the program and better selection will motivate the students to read.
According to Bushman and Bushman (1997), texts that do not
fit the students’ level will widen the gap of the students’
understanding. Unfit texts in this context mean texts that do not
meet the students’ needs and interest. The mismatch will minimize
the students’ involvement and interaction with texts. As a result,
the involvements only occur at surface level and due to that the
goal of teaching and learning literature is in vain. Bushman also
warns that any failure to grasp the plot or meaning making strongly
indicates that the text is uninteresting. The students’ plea to make
their own selection (Tina et al, 2007) indicates that the text
selected may not satisfy their interest and demands.
Too (2004) and Gurnam (2003) note that among the students’
drawback in literature learning is the mismatched texts prescribed
160
by the Ministry of Education. More than half of the students felt
that the texts were boring. Among the reasons given to describe
their boredom include uninteresting texts, slow paced plots,
irrelevant themes and that they felt that they were forced to read.
Norliana et al. (2008) also report that students feel less enthusiastic
in learning literature largely because the language used in the text
does not correspond with their language level,hence, they
encountered difficulty in comprehending the text. Apparently,
they did not enjoy reading lessons because reading was more to
prepare for the examination. Due to that, most students preferred to
be spoon fed about the text information by their teachers through
information-based approach in instruction and language learning
(Razuan et al., 2010).
Past reports (Hashimah and Che Ton, 2011,; Hashimah, 2012,
; Vethamani and Nair, 2011, ; Tseng, 2010) indicate that selection
of textbook is done based on the education policy and requirement
determined by the national curriculum. Therefore, conflict arises
when students’ needs and preferences were neglected where most
students feel that the literary text suggested for them is difficult
and demanding ( Hoslt, 1981; Carter, Walker and Brumfit, 1989;
Jamaluddin 2009). Nor Hashimah Isa (2012) reveals that despite
the benefits gained from learning literature, the students perceived
that the reading activity is resulted from school curriculum
requirement, and therefore reading is done for the assessment
purpose within an exam oriented system. From Thirumalai’s
(2002) point of view as cited in Fauziah, Marzilah and Tina
(2008), cautious process in text selection is needed if reading skill
is emphasized and it is important to choose literary work that is
relevant to learner’s life experiences, emotions or dreams because
the appropriateness will benefit upon learner’s linguistic and
cultural development as stipulated by McKay (1997).
161
CRITERIA FOR
SELECTION
LITERARY
TEXT
OR
NOVEL
The most common criteria to be considered in choosing the text are
language, content and length (Chen, 2006). However, since the
main aim in teaching literature is to develop the intellectuality in
natural understanding, the emphasis is on reasoning and thinking
(Langer, 1989). Henceforth, Rosenblatt (1978) sees that the
relationship between the text and reader should be reinforced by
allowing the personal involvement and growth. The access to text
is the key to the success of the literature teaching, and therefore,
the text chosen should match with their general background,
language level, interest, maturity and age as their reading interest is
varied and maybe influenced by their background which can
change over time. Hişmanoğlu (2005) mentions that students’
needs and motivation are factors that also need to be considered
whilst some believe that factors such as choice, length, culture,
emotion, illustration are also important in text selection .
The criteria mentioned should be given a great consideration
because it allows the connection and engagement which are
essential in understanding literature. Many believe (Rosenblatt,
1995; Collie and Slater, 1994; Hadaway, Vardell and Young,
2002,2006; Temple et al., 2006) that texts that are well matched to
students’ ability will build up the confidence and promote
independent and pleasure reading as well as autonomous learning.
On the contrary, the ill- chosen book will impede the reading
interest and draw readers to lay off their reading. Since, reading is
one of the emphases in the literature curriculum, it is vital for us to
find the appropriate and workable text that works and matches
cognitively and emotively with the students.
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the existing text
that used in school. The intention of this study is find out the
162
students perception about the current text by highlighting the
importance of text selection with regards to reading materials.
Donelson (1989) agrees that a good literature program will invite
the readers to respond, provide the information, develop skills and
prepare them to the real world.
Text selection is fundamental in developing learners’ growth
either in academic and or in personal, hence, this study is also
aimed at identifying the criteria that currently practised by the
Ministry of Education in selecting the text.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
In order to answer the purpose of the study, several research
objectives have been outlined. The objectives are as follows:
1. To find out the students’ perception about the text read.
2. To investigate whether the text chosen are based on the
certain criteria and contains the criteria as highlighted by
practitioners.
3. To investigate whether the text chosen encourage the
students read in terms of aesthetic appreciation of literary
works and relate to learners.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions for this study are as follows:
1. What are the criteria that need to be taken into
consideration in literary text selection for secondary
schools?
2. What are the criteria that are currently used in choosing
literary texts for secondary schools?
3. What type of reading stances do learners exhibit when
reading literary text?
4. To what extend does literature make a significant
163
contribution to promote/fulfil the intended objectives?
PILOT STUDY
The pilot study was based on a survey research. A set of
questionnaire was distributed in one of the secondary schools in
Kuantan. The respondents are form five students. A total of 40
students responded to the questionnaires. The students have
already been exposed to the novel entitled “The Curse” by Lee Su
Ann. This novel has been selected by the Ministry of Education for
form five students who reside within the zone 3 region, covering
Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and Johor.
The questionnaire was divided into two different sections
which catered for students’ background and opinion. The
questionnaire contains close- ended, open- ended and likert scale
questions. It was designed to seek the opinion of the respondents
about the literary text chosen and criteria for text selection in
schools. Descriptive analysis using percentage and factor analysis
are used to describe the finding.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of data was conducted. The following tables demonstrate
the findings.
Table 1: The importance of Criteria in Selection of Text
Criteria
N
Yes
%
1. Needs
40
26
65%
2. Theme
40
28
70%
3. Interest
40
30
75 %
4. Cultural background
40
23
57.5 %
5. Motivation
40
29
72.5 %
164
6. Emotion
40
29
72.5 %
7. Ambition and dreams
40
24
60 %
8. Maturity
40
33
82.5%
9.Age
40
35
87.5 %
10. Related to life
40
15
37.5 &
11. Text length
40
23
57.5 &
12. Content
40
30
75 %
Table 1shows the result of the survey on the perception of the
criteria needed in fulfilling the objectives in teaching and learning
literature. Majority of the respondents ( 65%) agreed that needs is
important while 75% of them agreed on interest as the criterion for
text selection. Motivation and emotion share the same percentage
which is 72.5 %. For cultural background, 57.5 % agreed that it is
an important criterion. Majority of respondents (70%) agreed that
interesting themes is important criterion in text selection while
more than half of the respondents, (60%) claimed that text that
matches with their ambition and dreams will be important to be
considered when choosing text. 87.5 % respondents claimed that
age factor plays a role in choosing the right text. Similarly, 82.5
% also claimed maturity as important factor to be included as one
of the criteria. Surprisingly, only 37.5 % agreed that text related to
their life is important. About 57.5 % of respondents said that text
length should be considered for text selection and 75 % of
respondents agreed that content of the story is important in reading
selected text.
The results above show that the objective in literature teaching
is achieved if the text selected is parallel to the students’ needs and
interest. To achieve the goals of literacy instruction such as to
expand their ability to think broadly, deeply and critically
alongside to promote personal responses and satisfy personal needs
and interest, the criteria in text selection will help us to make better
selection in future that resulted in greater understanding and
engagement alongside with reading. In short, most of the students
165
agreed that criteria in text selection is a determinant factor in
relation to text selection, hence, the criteria mentioned should be
given an emphasis before the decision is made.
Result from factor analysis shows that KMO value indicates
8.27 and Bartlett’ test of sphericity with an associated p value of
<0.001 indicates that we can proceed. Four components have
eigenvalues over 1.00 and these explain over 73.86 % of the total
variability in the data. This leads us to the conclusion that a four
factor solution would be adequate. The four factors are defined as
interesting text, language proficiency, motivation and emotion.
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.
Approx. Chi-Square
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
.827
545.939
Df
171
Sig.
.000
Communalities
Initial
Extraction
i think novel is interesting
1.000
.748
i like to read this novel
1.000
.841
i feel very engaged
1.000
.507
plot is easy
1.000
.792
theme is well understood
1.000
.845
the language is easy
1.000
.632
the novel is suitable with target' age
1.000
.832
1.000
.673
novel instils my reading habit
1.000
.812
novel enhances my language skill
1.000
.733
novel expands my vocabulary
1.000
.682
novel caters my needs and reading
preference
166
novel helps me to understand the culture
1.000
.689
1.000
.688
1.000
.723
1.000
.828
novel relevant to my life
1.000
.788
novel relevant to my dreams
1.000
.847
1.000
.742
1.000
.623
portrayed
novel gives me the ide about literature
studies
novel enhances my language acquisition
novel motivates me to read other english
novel
novel offers insights about past an present
1.8culture
novel's length is suitable
Rotated Component Matrixa
Component
1
2
i think novel is interesting
.742
i like to read this novel
.781
i feel very engaged
.597
3
plot is easy
.701
theme is well understood
.786
the language is easy
.580
the novel is suitable with target' age
novel caters my needs and reading
preference
.
.715
.655
.
novel instils my reading habit
.842
novel enhances my language skill
.507
novel expands my vocabulary
novel helps me to understand the
culture portrayed
4
.
.
.
.
.517
.785
167
novel gives me the idea about literature
.790
studies
novel enhances my language
.625
acquisition
novel motivates me to read other
english novel
.730
novel relevant to my life
.878
novel relevant to my dreams
.897
novel offers insights about past an
.621
present culture
novel's length is suitable
.727
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a. Rotation converged in 7 iterations.
REFERENCES
Ahmad, F., & Aziz, J. (2009). Students' Perception of the Teachers'
Teaching of Literature Communicating and Understanding
Through the Eyes of the Audience. European Journal of Social
Sciences, 7(3), 17-26.
Beaumont, R. (2012). An introduction to Principal Component Analysis
& Factor Analysis Using SPSS 19 and R (psych package).
Chen, Y.-M. (Dec 2006). Using Children's Literature for Reading and
Writing Stories. [Journal]. Asian EFL Journal, 8(4), 23.
Fauziah Ismail, Marzilah Abdul Aziz, & Abdullah, T. (2008). Research
in English Language: A Revisit in the Malaysian Context:
Penerbitan UTM.
FRIESE, E. E. G., ALVERMANN, D. E., PARKES, A., & REZAK, A.
T. (2008). Selecting texts for English Language Arts classrooms:
When assessment is not enough. English Teaching: Practice and
Critique .7(3), 74-99.
Ghazali, S. N. (2008). Learner background and their attitudes towards
Studying Literature. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 4, 17.
168
Hişmanoğlu, M. (April 2005). Teaching English Through Literature.
[Journal]. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1(No.1),
14.
Ismail, F., Aziz, M. A., & Abdullah, T. (2008). Literature in English
Language Teaching: A revisit in the Malaysian Context
Penerbitan UTM (pp. 53-67): Univision Press.
Mukundan, J. (2006). Readings on ELT Materials II: Pearson Longman
Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.
Rashid, R. A., Vethamani, M. E., & Rahman, S. B. A. (2010).
Approaches Employed by Teachers in Teaching Literature to
Less Proficient Students in Form 1 and Form 2. [Journal].
English Language Teaching, Canadian Center of Science and
Education, 3(4), 13.
Rosenblatt, L. M. (1995). Literature as exploration (5th ed.). New York:
Modern Language Association of America.
Sage, H. (1987). Incorporating Literature in ESL Instructions. New
Jersey: Prentice hall.
Sidhu, G. K. (2003). Literature in the language classroom: Seeing
through the eyes of learners in Gunakumaran Subramaniam
(ed). Teaching literature in ESL/EFL contexs. Petaling Jaya:
Sasbadi.
Sukatan Pelajaran Bahasa Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah,
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (2000).
Tina Abdullah, Mohammad Hassan Zakaria, Mansor, W. F. A. W., &
Aziz, M. A. (2007). A New Teaching Model To Teach
Literature for the TESL Pre-training Service Programme in
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Vethamani, M. E., & Nair, P. (2009). Literacy Development Through the
Incorporation of Literature in Language Education for Malaysia
Secondary School Students. Indonesian Journal of English
Language Teaching, 5(2), 153-167.
169
THE CORELATION BETWEEN
PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AND
SOCIAL NETWORK ACTIVITIES
Shima Mashayekhi & Mohd Tajudin Md. Ningal
ABSTRACT
The Internet has introduced major changes in our social and daily
life. One type of online application that has grown rapidly in
prevalence and popularity in recent years is ―social networking‖
on the Internet. Along with increasing daily problems related to
use social networks in current world and negative impacts on
mental health of users, it is necessary to study more. Some people
spend most of their time in social networks specially Facebook
which is involved in some negative relationship or communication
in order to fulfill their psychological needs, so we can make people
aware how they can choose a better way to satisfy their needs
without involving in problems. This study suggest to identify the
correlation between Five Basic Needs included (Love and
Belonging, Survival, Freedom, Power, and Fun) and Facebook
activities.
Keywords: About Internet, Social networks, Facebook, Reality
therapy, The five basic needs.
170
INTRODUCTION
Social Network Activities
The growth and popularity of online social networks has created a
new world of collaboration and communication. “Communication”
is one of the concepts that appear while human beings were
existed. It is also the most important activities that can convey
information between users and deliver information or data. It is
often referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media,
but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data
for any purpose.
By developing the technology and increasing the population it
was switches into several ways. In communications, ―media‖ are
the storage and transmission channels or tools now allow for
intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people
(many-to-many communication via e-mail, Internet forums, and
teleportation). On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media
and mass media favor (one-to-many communication via television,
cinema, radio, newspaper, magazines, and also Facebook).
The “internet” is arguably one of the most effective tools in
media for communication. It is a worldwide decentralized network
of computers that today has a far-reaching influence and may
affect almost all aspects of our existence. In fact, the Internet has
integrated so well into people’s lives that, for many, it is very
difficult to imagine how they lived without it.
One type of online application that has grown rapidly in
prevalence and popularity in recent years is ―social networking‖
on the Internet. Social networking websites, such as Facebook,
MySpace, Fraudster, Live Journal, and Bebo, are member-based
Internet communities that allow users to post profile information,
such as a username and photograph, and to communicate with
others in innovative ways such as sending public or private online
messages or sharing photos online.
The popularity of the social networking site ―Facebook‖ is
171
unprecedented: It is currently the second most frequently visited
website on the Internet and attracts a global audience of over 606
million people. For instance, a number of studies have found that
Facebook use is associated with gains in social capital.
Furthermore, a recent qualitative study suggests that Facebook
may be changing the way individuals communicate and associate
with one another.
Psychological Needs
There are several theories regarding the psychological needs and
the theories involved in this study are Human Motivation of
Abraham Maslow (1943) and Reality Therapy of William Glasser
(1976). In this reviewing we focus more on Reality Therapy that
includes Choice Theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of
a pyramid, with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at
the bottom, and the need for self-actualization at the top. Maslow
believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major
role in motivating behavior. All these needs are Physiological
needs, Security needs, Social needs, Esteem needs, and Selfactualizing needs.
Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency
needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due
to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in
order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. Maslow
termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth needs (also
known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from
a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.
One of the other psychological theories that point to our
genetically driven needs is ―choice theory‖ which explains that all
we ever do from birth to death is behaved and, with rare
exceptions, everything we do is chosen. Every total behavior is our
best attempt to get what we want to satisfy our needs. Although we
may not be aware of our needs, we know that we want to feel
172
better.
According to choice theory all human have five basic needs.
The five basic needs are Survival, Love and Belonging, Freedom,
Fun, and Power. These needs are innate and have genetic
instructions. These needs are universal, and people have the needs
in varying degrees. In other words, though all human being have
all five basic needs, each of us does not experience the same
amount of drive for each need.
Choice theory teaches that we do not satisfy our needs directly.
What we do, beginning shortly after birth and continuing all our
lives, is to keep close track of anything we do that feels very good.
We store information inside our minds and build a file of wants,
called our quality world, which is at the core of our lives. It is our
personal world that we would like to live in if we could. It is
completely based on our wants and needs, but unlike the needs,
which are general, it is very specific. The quality world consists of
specific images of people, activities, events, beliefs, possessions,
and situations that fulfill our needs (Wobbolding, 2000).
Every person can identify unmet needs and try to satisfy them
and Socializing with people is an effective way to meet our need
for belonging, and of course social network is an example suitable
way to reach this purpose.
On the other hand, relationship is one of the most important
factors affecting people's life and well-being. Some people spend
most of their time in social networks specially Facebook which is
involved in some negative relationship or communication in order
to fulfill their needs such as love & belonging, so we can make
people aware how they can choose a better way to satisfy their
needs without involving in problems.
REVIEWING PREVIOUS RESEARCH
Hamburger and Ben-Artzi (2000) suggested that Internet use is
related to personality. They demonstrated that on the Internet ―the
poor can get richer,‖ namely, that introverts can compensate
173
themselves for the difficulties they experience in offline social
interactions (Amichai-Hamburger et al., 2002). According to
Amichai-Hamburger (2002), personality is a leading factor in
understanding why people behave the way they do on the Internet.
Since the net, by its very nature, is powered by human interaction,
it follows that we cannot understand the workings of the Internet
without understanding the personalities of those who surf it
(Amichai-Hamburger, 2005).
According to Amichai-Hamburger (2002), this kind of research
is crucial as ―personality is a highly relevant factor in determining
behavior on the Internet‖. For example Ross et al. (2009) studied
the connection between the personality of the individual users and
their behavior on a social network. They based their study on the
self-reports of users of Facebook, one of the most popular social
networks, and measured five personality factors using the NEO-PIR (Costa & McCrae, 1992) questionnaire. They found that while
there was a connection between the personalities of surfers and
their behavior on Facebook, it was strong.
Ross et al. (2009) and Amichai-Hamburger and Vinitzky
(2010) looked specifically at the relationship between the Big Five
factors and usage of Facebook. Their results showed that a number
of these factors are associated with particular patterns of Facebook
use. For example, extraverted individuals generally have more
Facebook Friends (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010), and
belong to more Facebook Groups1(Ross et al., 2009), than
introverted individuals. Furthermore, individuals who are high in
neuroticism are more likely than emotionally stable individuals to
prefer using the Wall2 (Ross et al., 2009). As Ross et al. (2009)
explain, a possible reason for the latter result is that the Wall offers
people with neurotic tendencies the opportunity to take their time
formulating messages and responses. As a consequence, the
potential for unintentionally revealing personal information to
others is reduced.
Ross et al. (2009) suggested that Facebook use is related to
personality. Using a Five-Factor Model personality questionnaire,
they examined behavior on Facebook as reported by users. Their
174
first five predictions pertained to the relationship between behavior
and the user’s personality. The results reported by Ross et al.
(2009) gave partial support to the link between individual
personality and Facebook behavior. The researchers did not find
any significant connection between Facebook behavior and the
personality factors of agreeableness and openness. However, they
did find a partial link between behavior on Facebook and the traits
of extroversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness.
Studies have shown a connection between the individual
personality of the user and the way he or she behaves on line.
Today many millions of people around the world are connected by
being members of various Internet social networks. Ross et al.
(2009) studied the connection between the personality of the
individual users and their behavior on a social network. They
based their study on the self-reports of users of Facebook, one of
the most popular social networks, and measured five personality
factors using the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992)
questionnaire.
One of the other useful contents that can be related to
psychological need is uses and gratifications. It is a media use
paradigm from mass communications research that focuses on
individual use and choice of media (Katz, 1959). The main purpose
of this paradigm is to explain the reasons that people choose a
specific medium over alternative communication media and to
elucidate the psychological needs that motivate people to use a
particular medium. This paradigm assumes that users are goaldirected in their behavior and are aware of their needs. Purposive
value, self-discovery, entertainment value, social enhancement,
and maintaining interpersonal connectivity are the key values (or
needs) that are widely adopted to determine the use of virtual
communities (Cheung & Lee, 2009).
As you can see, the majority of research in this area has been
based on broad models of personality. But it seems clear that other
factors, besides the personality, have an influence on Facebook
use. For example, psychological needs can be a category of these
factors.
175
CONCLUSION
Along with increasing daily problems related to use social
networks in current world and its negative impacts on mental
health of users, sometimes it can affect on some aspects such as
their academic performance or relationship quality. So it has
caused the counselors and therapist (especially those who work on
families) to provide theories and plans for users who have
problems and may be under any negative impacts related to use
social networks.
Socializing with people is an effective way to meet our need
for belonging. So if life is unsatisfactory or we are distressed or in
trouble, this approach advocates that one basic thing is to check
carefully, whether we are succeeding in meeting our basic
psychological needs for power, belonging, freedom and fun. And
social networks have a main role to meet our needs, but also can
have some negative impact if our needs won’t be satisfied.
However it’s clear that any one is a part of many relationships, but
just needs a relationship with a more consistently positive
emphasis and since Facebook is a unique opportunities to have a
lots of relationship, but in many cases, the social network user's
problem is the result of a negative relationship with someone and it
will be influence to users’ behavior with so many tension or
anxiety or stress. As studies show, there is no more research about
the relationship between users’ psychological needs and their
activities or behaving in Facebook and it’s a academic gap in this
area. So it’s not clear why they behave on this way.
In spite of the potential implication of Facebook use, there is a
distinct lack of empirically derived theory in psychological
domains. Since Facebook is a relatively recent social phenomenon,
there has been limited opportunity for exploratory research.
However, in the last two years, a growing number of researchers
have recognized the importance of such research, and are working
towards identifying the types of people who use Facebook or why
and how users interact on social networking sites. In order to
effectively achieve this goal, some researchers have focused on the
176
relationship between Facebook use and various aspects of
personality.
According to Choice Theory of Reality Therapy, every total
behavior is our best attempt to get what we want to satisfy our
needs. Although we may not be aware of our needs, we know that
we want to feel better. Every person can identify unmet needs and
try to satisfy them.
These assumption seem to be reasonable because Love and
Belonging is the only need that requires more than one person to
fulfillment of it, and in the other side online social networking
sites, social interaction and connection is the most important
objective for users, so the findings of this study maybe show the
need of Love and Belonging has an effective role to behave online.
In conclusion, we can identify the big gap about the relevance
of psychological human needs to Facebook behavior. It may help
to explain why some people are heavy users of specific
components of Facebook than others are not. It is suggested that
different five basic needs degrees may be influential in the decision
to use tools such as Facebook. Facebook will be studied more,
because we believe that Facebook is appropriate for the current
study as it is the most popular online social networking site.
REFERENCES
Corey, G. (March 10, 2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and
Psychotherapy (Sixth ed.). Texas: Wadsworth Publishing.
Craig Ross , Emily S. Orr , Mia Sisic , Jaime M. Arseneault ,Mary G.
Simmering ,R. Robert Orr “Personality and motivations
associated with Facebook use” Computers in Human Behavior
,Elsevier ,Volume 25, Issue 2, March 2009, Pages 578–586.
Yair Amichai-Hamburger , Gideon Vinitzky “Social network use and
personality” Computers in Human Behavior , Elsevier ,
Volume 26, Issue 6, November 2010, Pages 1289–1295.
Tiffany A. Pempek,Yevdokiya A. Yermolayeva, Sandra L. Calvert
“College students' social networking experiences on
Facebook” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,
177
Elsevier , Volume 30, Issue 3, May–June 2009, Pages 227–
238.
Tracii Ryan, Sophia Xenos “Who uses Facebook? An investigation
into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness,
narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage” 2009 Fifth
International Conference on Intelligent Computing — ICIC
2009 , Elsevier,Volume 27, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages
1658–1664.
Khe Foon Hew “Students’ and teachers’ use of Facebook” Computers
in Human Behavior, Elsevier ,Volume 27, Issue 2, March
2011, Pages 662–676.
Shanyang Zhao , Sherri Grasmuck , Jason Martin “Identity
construction on Facebook: Digital empowerment in anchored
relationships” Computers in Human Behavior , Elsevier,
Volume 24, Issue 5, September 2008, Pages 1816–1836.
Paul A. Kirschner, Aryn C. Karpinski “Facebook® and academic
performance” Computers in Human Behavior , Elsevier,
Volume 26, Issue 6, November 2010, Pages 1237–1245.
Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Stephanie M. Reich, Natalia Waechter,
Guadalupe Espinoza “Online and offline social networks: Use
of social networking sites by emerging adults” Journal of
Applied Developmental Psychology , Elsevier , Volume 29,
Issue 6, November–December 2008, Pages 420–433.
Christy M.K. Cheung, Pui-Yee Chiu, Matthew K.O. Lee “Online
social networks: Why do students use facebook?” Computers
in Human Behavior , Elsevier, Volume 27, Issue 4, July 2011,
Pages 1337–1343.
178
PENGETAHUAN TEKNOLOGI
GURU CEMERLANG FIZIK
Zarirah Abdul Hamid & Fatin Aliah Phang
ABSTRACT
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) is a new
teaching model that emphasis on the importance of integration of
technology, pedagogy and content knowledge to become seven
domains. This research focuses on knowing the Technological
Knowledge (TK) of Expert Physics Teacher. Three Expert Physics
Teachers from Pasir Gudang and Johor Bahru district were
selected. The research was done by entering classroom to observe
teaching and learning lessons and carrying out interviews with the
respondents. The research findings were analysed using thematic
analysis for qualitative research. The findings show that the
Technological Knowledge of Expert Physics Teacher is on
moderate level.
Keywords: TPCK, PTPK, Tecnological Knowledge, Expert
Teacher
PENGENALAN
Menjelang abad ke-21 ini, kebanyakan negara maju dan
membangun mula mengorak langkah melakukan perubahan dalam
sistem pendidikan negara masing-masing untuk memenuhi
179
tuntutan keperluan abad ke-21. Keperluan abad ke-21 ini
merangkumi penguasaan kemahiran abad ke-21 oleh para pelajar
sebelum mereka melangkah ke alam pekerjaan. Kemahiran abad
ke-21 yang dimaksudkan merangkumi kemahiran 3M (membaca,
mengira dan menulis), kemahiran sains dan teknologi, kemahiran
interpersonal dan intrapersonal dan kemahiran berkomunikasi.
Malaysia tidak ketinggalan untuk bersama-sama melakukan
tranformasi dalam bidang pendidikan. Misalannya, Kurikulum
Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah (KBSR) telah diganti kepada
Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) di mana KSSR
memberi penekanan bukan setakat kemahiran 3M tetapi kemahiran
4M (membaca, mengira, menulis dan menaakul) sejajar dengan
hasrat menghasilkan individu yang mempunyai aras kemahiran
berfikir yang tinggi.
Bagi mencapai hasrat negara untuk membangunkan generasi
yang berkemahiran abad ke-21, para pendidik mesti menjadi pakar
dalam bidangnya supaya tiada miskonsepsi berlaku, mahir dalam
pedagogi dan komunikasi supaya PdP berkesan dapat dilaksanakan
dan sentiasa mengikuti perkembangan teknologi terkini serta
menggunakannya untuk memperkenalkan kepada pelajar tentang
kebaikan bidang sains, teknologi dan inovasi. Konsep mengenai
penguasaan isi kandungan, pedagogi dan teknologi ini dikenali
sebagai Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi dan Kandungan (PTPK).
PTPK merupakan satu model yang diperkenalkan oleh Mishra dan
Koehler pada tahun 2006 apabila ICT mula memainkan peranan
yang besar sebagai alat yang membantu meningkatkan mutu dan
kualiti sistem pendidikan dunia.
LATAR BELAKANG MASALAH
Kebanyakan kursus pendidikan ICT yang ditawarkan kepada
golongan guru lebih menumpukan kepada penguasaan kemahiran
teknologi secara am dan tidak dikaitkan dengan pedagogi atau
kandungan secara langsung (Graham et al., 2004; Hangrave dan
Hsu, 2004; Willis dan Mehlinger, 1996). Kemahiran teknologi
180
yang diberi penekanan termasuklah cara mengendalikan perisisan
komputer khususnya pemprosesan kata, hamparan data,
penyimpanan data dan penggunaan internet. Ini menyebabkan
timbulnya masalah di mana guru tidak tahu bagaimana untuk
menggunakan teknologi dalam PdP mereka seperti yang
direkodkan dalam kajian Morton (1996) dan Graham et al. (2006)
Di Malaysia, masalah yang sama turut timbul di kalangan guru.
Dalam satu kajian yang dijalankan oleh Mohd. Izham Mohd
Hamzah dan Noraini Attan (2007) terhadap 223 orang guru Sains
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan di daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor
telah mendapati bahawa hanya 7.6% iaitu seramai 17 orang guru
sahaja yang telah menggunakan teknologi sepenuhnya di dalam
bilik darjah manakala 176 orang guru lain tidak yakin dengan
kebolehan mereka untuk menggunakan ICT dalam proses PdP
walaupun guru-guru tersebut sering menggunakan komputer atas
urusan pengurusan seharian sahaja. Preston et al. (2000)
menjelaskan bahawa masalah ini berlaku akibat kekurangan
kemahiran guru dalam mengintegrasikan ICT dalam PdP.
PENYATAAN MASALAH
Secara umumnya, kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji tahap
penguasaan Pengetahuan Teknologi dalam kalangan Guru
Cemerlang Fizik.
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Secara khususnya objektif kajian ini ialah untuk:
i)
Mengenalpasti pemilihan penggunaan teknologi yang
digunakan oleh Guru Cemerlang Fizik bagi menyampaikan
topik 3.1:Kesan magnet bagi konduktor pembawa arus.
ii)
Mengenalpasti sejauh mana Guru Cemerlang Fizik
menguasai Pengetahuan Teknologi.
181
PERSOALAN KAJIAN
Berdasarkan objektif kajian di atas, soalan-soalan kajian seperti
berikut telah dibentuk:
i)
Apakah jenis teknologi yang dipilih oleh Guru Cemerlang
Fizik bagi menyampaikan topik 3.1:Kesan magnet bagi
konduktor pembawa arus dengan berkesan?
ii)
Apakah tahap Pengetahuan Teknologi Guru Cemerlang
Fizik?
KERANGKA KAJIAN
Dalam kajian ini, model PTPK merupakan konsep utama yang
mendukung kepada pelaksanaan objektif kajian manakala Guru
Cemerlang Fizik menjadi responden dalam kajian ini. Walau
bagaimanapun, penyelidik memfokuskan kepada 1 daripada 7
domain PTPK iaitu Pengetahuan Teknologi Guru Cemerlang Fizik.
Rajah 1.1: Kerangka konsep kajian
182
METODOLOGI
REKA BENTUK KAJIAN
Dalam kajian ini, penyelidik memilih untuk menjalankan kajian
menggunakan pendekatan kualititatif berbentuk kajian kes. Kajian
kes dijalankan untuk mengenalpasti secara intensif tentang tren
atau status semasa amalan PTPK dalam kalangan 3 orang
responden yang terdiri daripada Guru Cemerlang Fizik. Dalam
kajian ini penyelidik memilih pendekatan triangulasi iaitu
menggunakan tiga
alat pengumpulan data iaitu temubual,
pemerhatian dan analisis dokumen. Dengan menggunakan
pendekatan triangulasi ini, penyelidik dapat memastikan
pengumpulan data daripada teknik pemerhatian dapat diterangkan
dengan lebih jelas dalam sesi temubual tanpa membuat kesimpulan
awal dan disokong oleh teknik analisis dokumen. Menurut
Merriam (2001), penggunaan teknik pemerhatian, temubual dan
analisis dokumen akan dapat memantapkan kebolehpercayaan dan
kesahihan data dalam satu kajian di samping mengurangkan aspek
bias semasa menganalisis data (Gall et al., 1996). Empat jenis
instrumen telah dibina iaitu borang nota lapangan, senarai semak
untuk pemerhatian berstruktur, protokol temubual dan borang
penelitian dokumen dan artifak. Kaedah analisis kajian
menggunakan analisis data kualitatif yang dicadangkan oleh
Creswel (2009).
Jadual 1.1 : Rekod lawatan kajian
Responden
Tempoh pemerhatian dan / temubual
R1
PdP (Pemerhatian/rakaman audio)
80 min (2 masa) x 6 kali = 480 minit
Temubual
10 minit x 4 kali = 40 minit
Tarikh lawatan
sekolah
Mac 2014 : 30*, 3
April 2014: 2, 7*
183
R2
PdP (Pemerhatian/rakaman audio)
120 min (2 masa) x 2 kali = 240 minit
80 min (2 masa) x 4 kali = 320 minit
Temubual
30 minit x 1 kali = 30 minit
5 minit x 2 kali = 10 minit
R3
PdP (Pemerhatian/rakaman audio)
80 min (2 masa) x 6 kali = 480 minit
Temubual
20 minit (2 masa) x 2 kali = 40 minit
April 2014: 6, 10
17*,20, 24*
April 2014 : 21*,
29*
*tarikh temubual diadakan
DAPATAN DAN PERBINCANGAN
Sebanyak 5 sesi pemerhatian telah dijalankan ke atas R1, R2 dan
R3 untuk topik 3.1: Kesan magnet bagi konduktor pembawa arus
dan 1 sesi pemerhatian untuk topik 3.2 : Daya saling tindak antara
konduktor pembawa arus dengan medan magnet. Analisis
dilakukan ke atas catatan nota lapangan, transkrip temubual,
senarai semak pemerhatian dan dokumen dan artifak yang
digunakan dalam PdP. Tujuan analisis ini dilakukan adalah untuk
melihat peranan teknologi dalam PdP Guru Cemerlang Fizik bagi
topik 3.1 serta tahap penguasaan Pengetahuan Teknologi oleh
Guru Cemerlang Fizik.
PERANAN TEKNOLOGI DALAM PENGAJARAN DAN
PEMBELAJARAN
Penggunaan ICT dalam proses pengajaran bermaksud guru
menggunakan ICT ketika proses PdP untuk menyampaikan
maklumat kepada pelajar samada dalam bentuk persembahan atau
demonstrasi manakala penggunaan ICT dalam proses pembelajaran
bermaksud pelajar menggunakan ICT ketika proses PdP samada
untuk mendapatkan maklumat, memproses maklumat yang telah
184
diterima atau menjalani latihan pengayaan.
Teknologi dalam proses pengajaran.
Penggunaan teknologi seperti ICT merupakan salah satu inovasi
dalam pendidikan. Hasil kajian mendapati R1 tidak mengamalkan
penggunaan teknologi secara langsung ketika mengajar topik 3.1.
Teknologi hanya digunakan sebagai alat aplikasi iaitu untuk
mereka bentuk modul pelajar dan mencetak modul tersebut. R2
dan R3 pula lebih aktif menggunakan teknologi dalam proses
pengajaran mereka berbanding R1. Selain sebagai alat aplikasi, R2
dan R3 menggunakan teknologi sebagai alat persembahan dan alat
demonstrasi. R2 menggunakan komputer riba dan interactive
whiteboard(IW) dalam setiap sesi pengajaran beliau untuk
memaparkan modul, nota dan latihan manakala R3 menggunakan
komputer riba dan LCD projektor untuk tujuan yang sama. Semasa
membuat demonstrasi cara melukis medan magnet dengan betul,
R2 menggunakan pen IW dan melukis corak medan magnet
menggunakan warna yang berbeza-beza untuk menunjukkan cara
melukis yang betul dan kesilapan yang sering dilakukan pelajar.
R3 pula menggunakan pad lakaran bersama pen pad lakaran untuk
menunjukkan cara melukis corak medan magnet. Pad lakaran ini
disambungkan kepada komputer riba dan dipancarkan ke layar
putih di hadapan kelas. Penggunaan pad lakaran ini juga
membolehkan R3 mempelbagaikan warna untuk melukis corak
medan magnet. Selain itu, R2 dan R3 menggunakan animasi untuk
menunjukkan aplikasi electromagnet dalam loceng elektrik. R2 dan
R3 menunjukkan video ‘scrapmetal’ kepada pelajar dalam
pengenalan topik 3.1. Walau bagaimanapun, R2 tidak
memperdengarkan audio dalam video tersebut kepada pelajar
kerana beliau sendiri yang memberi penerangan tentang video
tersebut dalam Bahasa Melayu. R3 pula memperdengarkan audio
yang merupakan penerangan kepada video tersebut dalam Bahasa
Inggeris kepada pelajar dengan menggunakan speaker yang
disambungkan kepada komputer riba beliau.
185
Teknologi dalam proses pembelajaran.
Untuk proses pembelajaran, R1 tiada menggunakan apa-apa
teknologi dalam membantu proses ini manakala R2 menggunakan
teknologi untuk pembelajaran tutorial di mana pelajar dibenarkan
mencuba soalan tutorial dalam modul Fizik yang dibekalkan oleh
KPM dan menjawabnya pada IW. R2 turut menggunakan
teknologi untuk membantu pembelajaran penerokaan iaitu dengan
menggunakan IW, pelajar dibenarkan untuk melayari internet dan
mencari bahan yang mereka mahukan untuk meningkatkan
pemahaman dalam topik yang sedang dipelajari. Kebiasaannya,
pelajar beliau lebih gemar mencari video-video di Youtube.
R3 turut menggunakan teknologi untuk proses pembelajaran
sebagai alat pemudah komunikasi. R3 sangat aktif membina laman
web VLE-FROG. Pelajar boleh mengakses laman web ini untuk
memuat turun nota untuk bab 3 secara softcopy, bertanyakan
soalan melalui ruangan discussion board, menggunakan e-mail
untuk berkomunikasi dengan R3 secara tertutup dan mencuba
soalan kuiz yang telah disediakan oleh R3. Untuk lebih
memudahkan pelajar, R3 menyediakan sekeping kad yang
mempunyai kod bar. Pelajar hanya perlu mengimbas kod bar
tersebut menggunakan telefon pintar masing-masing untuk terus
akses ke laman web beliau tanpa perlu memasukkan nama laman
web atau mencari di Google. R3 mengakui telah menjalankan
Ujian Penilaian 1 (UP1) sekitar bulan Mac 2014 bagi mata
pelajaran Fizik secara atas talian di mana pelajar diberikan tempoh
masa untuk log in dalam laman web VLE-FROG dan menjawab
soalan UP1. Pelajar menjawab UP1 ini di luar waktu sekolah dan
menjawab soalan di bawah pengawasan ibu bapa di rumah.
Menurut R3, kesemua pelajar beliau telah menduduki UP1 dengan
jayanya dan beliau sangat optimistik untuk menggunakan
pembelajaran atas talian ini lagi pada masa akan datang.
186
TAHAP PENGUASAAN PENGETAHUAN TEKNOLOGI
(PT) GURU CEMERLANG FIZIK
R1 didapati mempunyai tahap penguasaan Pengetahuan Teknologi
(PT) yang rendah kerana beliau lebih gemar menggunakan bahan
bantuan mengajar (BBM) yang berbentuk maujud berbanding
penggunaan bahan multimedia atau teknologi. Sementara itu, R2
dan R3 mempunyai tahap penguasaan PT yang sangat baik
lantaran teknologi digunakan secara optimum di dalam kelas
masing-masing. Melalui temubual, penyelidik mendapati ketigatiga responden mengetahui kewujudan virtual learning
environment (VLE) – FROG yang diperkenalkan oleh KPM dan
penggunaan blog untuk berkongsi ilmu dan menjalankan
perbincangan. Selain itu, ketiga-tiga responden turut menggunakan
komputer menyiapkan tugas-tugas pengurusan guru di luar bilik
darjah serta memasukkan markah peperiksaan secara atas talian
(SAPS).
CADANGAN
Di akhir kajian, penyelidik telah mencadangkan satu model PTPK
guru cemerlang yang diolah daripada model PTPK yang sedia ada
dengan penambahan elemen peranan teknologi dalam PdP sebagai
rujukan KPM, BPG, EPRD, JPN, PPD dan guru-guru.
RUMUSAN
Kajian ini merupakan satu penerokaan dalam bidang PTPK yang
masih baru terutamanya dalam mata pelajaran Fizik. Keseluruhan
kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mencungkil amalan penggunaan
teknologi dalam proses PdP yang dikelolakan oleh guru cemerlang
Fizik. Kajian ini menggunakan rekabentuk kajian kualitatif iaitu
kajian kes di mana penyelidik membuat pemerhatian, temubual
dan menganalisis artifak yang digunakan oleh guru cemerlang
187
Fizik dalam PdP mereka. Dapatan kajian menemukan beberapa
kekuatan dalam amalan guru cemerlang Fizik yang perlu diberi
perhatian dan dicontohi untuk meningkatkan profesionalisme
profesion perguruan. Keseluruhannya, tahap pengetahuan PT Guru
Cemerlang Fizik berada pada tahap sederhana.
RUJUKAN
Abd. Ghaffar Md. Din (2003) Prinsip amalan Pengajaran, Kuala Lumpur.
Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn Bhd.
Agyei, D. D. & Voogt, J. (2011). Exploring the potential of the will,
skill, tool model in Ghana: Predicting prospective and practicing
teachers' use of technology.Computers & Education, 56(1), 91100.
Chai, C.S., Koh, J.H.L., Tsai,C.C. & Tan, L.W.L. (2011). Modelling
primary school pre-service teachers’ Technological Pedagogical
Content Knowledge (TPACK) for meaningful learning with
information communication technology (ICT). Computers &
Education, 57(1), 1184-1193.
Cox, S., & Graham, C. R. (2009). Diagramming TPACK in Practice:
Using an laborated model of the TPACK framework to analyze
and depict teacher knowledge. TechTrends, 53(5), 60-69.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design:
Choosing among five approaches. (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA
: Sage
Muhammad Abd Hadi (2011). Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi
Kandungan Bakal Guru Fizik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Tesis Sarjana, UTM.
Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Application
in Education, Revised and Expanded from Case Study Research
in Education. California: Jossey- Bass Publisher.
Mohd. Izham Mohd Hamzah & Noraini Attan (2007). Tahap Kesediaan
Guru Sains Dalam Penggunaan Teknologi Maklumat Berasaskan
Komputer Dalam Proses Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran. Jurnal
Teknologi. 46, 45-60.
Mok Soon Sang. (2008). Ilmu Pendidikan untuk KPLI (Edisi Ketiga).
Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd.
Lilia Halim, T. Subahan, M. Meerah & Zolkepeli Haron (2002). Strategi
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Pengajaran Fizik Untuk G uru Sains, Selangor: Prentice Hall.
Siti Hidayana Nassiri (2012). Kajian Kes Terhadap Amalan Pengetahuan
Teknologi Pedagogi dan Kandungan (PTPK) Guru Fizik Johor
Bahru. Tesis Sarjana, UTM.
Trautmann, N., & MaKinster, J. (2010). Flexibly adaptive professional
development in support of teaching science with geospatial
technology. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 21(3), 351–
370.
Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: learning for life in
our
times.
San
Francisco,
CA:
Jossey-Bass.
http://www.21stcenturyskillsbook.com/index.php
Tsui, A. B. (2005). Expertise in teaching: Perspectives and issues. In
K.Johnson (Ed.). Expertise in second language learning and
teaching, (pp 167-189). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
189
PERSEPSI MAJIKAN TERHADAP
PEKERJA BAGI INDUSTRI
PEMBUATAN
Chua Siew Lian & Yusri Kamin
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini memberi tumpuan kepada majikan dalam melihat
komitmen pekerja pada abad ke 21 ini. Kajian yang dijalankan ini
adalah untuk melihat persepsi majikan terhadap kriteria-kriteria
komitmen pekerja dari segi tanggungjawab, kepuasan kerja, dan
persekitaran tempat kerja. Kajian telah dijalankan ke atas syarikat
industri perusahaan kecil dan sederhana yang melibatkan 40 orang
majikan. Hasil analisis soal selidik ke atas majikan telah dapat
mengenal pasti kriteria komitmen kerja yang diutamakan oleh
majikan. Pemeringkatan (ranking) kriteria menerusi hasil dapatan
kajian mendapati majikan yang muda dan berumur mempunyai
persepsi yang berlainan terhadap kriteria komitmen kerja. Hasil
dapatan kajian menunjukkan kebanyakan majikan masih tidak
berpuas hati dengan komitmen pekerja. Kriteria yang dilihat oleh
majikan boleh dijadikan panduan kepada pekerja yang akan
memasuki alam pekerjaan.
Kata Kunci: Majikan, Kriteria Komitmen Kerja, Industri Perusahaan
Kecil Dan Sederhana.
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PENGENALAN
Pertumbuhan industri yang pesat membawa kepada keperluan dan
permintaan terhadap pekerja. Industri hari ini telah beralih dari
pengeluaran bahan-bahan mentah kepada industri pembuatan.
Peralihan industri menjadi cabaran yang besar kepada pihak majikan
dan pekerja. Majikan memerlukan pekerja yang profesional dan
pakar bagi membina keupayaan industri. Adalah amat sukar untuk
mengurus sumber manusia supaya menepati kehendak industri.
Hubungan majikan dan pekerja mudah terjejas jika kedua-dua pihak
tidak dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan dan keperluan baru.
Dalam dunia yang semakin sempit dan perniagaan tanpa sempadan
yang semakin meluas, keadaan ini menjadikan dunia industri dan
pekerja semakin komplek. Kertas kerja ini akan membincangkan isu
majikan dan pekerja dalam era globalisasi dan cadangan
penyelesaiannya.
PERNYATAAN MASALAH
Pekerja merupakan aset yang penting terhadap sesebuah organisasi.
Majikan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam pengekalan atau
pelucutan pekerjanya. Bagi memastikan industri berada di landasan
yang betul, majikan akan mengekalkan pekerja yang memenuhi
jangkaan mereka. Di antara faktor yang memberi cabaran bagi
industri termasuklah pengambilan dan pemilihan pekerja yang
bersesuaian bagi menjamin industri di negara kita lebih kreatif serta
berkemampuan bersaing di peringkat antarabangsa. Ini dijelaskan
oleh pengkaji terdahulu bahawa amalan pengambilan dan pemilihan
pekerja yang baik akan memberi kesan positif ke atas prestasi
organisasi (Huselid, 2005, Stewart dan Knowles, 2000). Menurut
Armstrong (2000), mengekalkan pekerja dapat memberikan satu
anjakan paradigma kepada modal insan yang terdiri daripada
pengetahuan, kemahiran dan kebolehan bagi para pekerja yang
bekerja dalam organisasi. Kajian daripada Society for Human
Resources Management (2006) mendapati amalan pengurusan
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sumber manusia boleh mempengaruhi pekerja untuk meninggalkan
organisasi, hilang kepuasan kerja serta komitmen kepada organisasi.
Kajian daripada Neo (2008) mendapati bahawa pengurusan sumber
manusia ialah satu sistem yang boleh mempengaruhi sikap, kelakuan
dan juga prestasi pekerja. Oleh yang demikian, adalah wajar satu
kajian dijalankan untuk mengenal pasti apakah jangkaan industri
terhadap pekerja di sektor pembuatan. Ini kerana pekerja kita gagal
memenuhi kehendak industri pembuatan dan industri pula
mengalami masalah mendapat pekerja yang bersepadanan. Kajian ini
bertujuan untuk mengkaji persepsi majikan terhadap komitmen
pekerja di dalam organisasi.
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
Objektif kajian ini adalah:
Mengenal pasti persepsi majikan terhadap komitmen kerja
mengikut demografi.
Mengenal pasti persepsi majikan terhadap kriteria
tanggungjawab pekerja.
Mengenal pasti persepsi majikan terhadap kriteria kepuasan
kerja dengan komitmen pekerja.
Mengenal pasti persepsi majikan terhadap kriteria persekitaran
kerja dengan komitmen kerja.
PERSOALAN KAJIAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
Persoalan kajian yang dibina bagi kajian ini adalah:
Bagaimanakah persepsi majikan terhadap komitmen kerja
pekerja mengikut demografi?
Bagaimanakah
persepsi
majikan
terhadap
kriteria
tanggungjawab pekerja?
Bagaimanakah persepsi majikan terhadap kriteria kepuasan
kerja dengan komitmen pekerja?
Bagaimanakah persepsi majikan terhadap kriteria persekitaran
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kerja dengan komitmen kerja?
KAJIAN LITERATUR
Kajian literatur ini membincangkan perkara-perkara berkaitan
dengan keperluan organisasi bagi sektor pembuatan, jangkaan
majikan dan pekerja terhadap organisasi.
Menurut Hewitt (2004), keinginan pekerja untuk terus kekal
dalam organisasi boleh diukur, untuk terus kekal adalah suatu
cerminan yang dapat menggambarkan setiap komitmen yang
diberikan oleh pekerja terhadap organisasi. Niat untuk terus kekal
dapat memberikan suatu impak yang positif. Menurut Gan Siok Hoy
(2011), keinginan untuk terus kekal lebih memberikan kelebihan
kepada organisasi berbanding keinginan untuk meninggalkan
organisasi. Majikan kurang pelaburan dari segi latihan terhadap
pekerja akan membuatkan pekerja cepat berasa bosan lantas
meninggalkan organisasi. Menurut Mohamad Nassruddin (2011),
pembangunan kerjaya mempunyai hubungan signifikan yang positif
terhadap niat pekerja untuk terus kekal. Menurut Site Nora (2011),
ganjaran dari segi monetari adalah seperti imbuhan wang yang
diberikan kepada pekerja manakala ganjaran bukan monetori
merupakan ganjaran dalam bentuk faedah, contohnya kemudahan
ataupun kepuasan kerja bagi setiap individu. Manakala Silverman
(2004), menyatakan tujuan imbuhan dan ganjaran diberikan adalah
untuk meningkatkan motivasi pekerja, mewujudkan suasana kerja
yang efektif serta mengekalkan pekerja dalam organisasi. Abd.
Rahim et. al (2006) pula mengatakan majikan memilih pekerja yang
dapat menyahut cabaran globalisasi serta dapat membawa organisasi
ke tahap penghasilan yang tinggi.
Pernyataan ini menunjukkan bahawa penyeimbangan jangkaan
majikan dan pekerja dari segi ganjaran dan imbuhan dapat
memberikan hubungan yang positif kepada niat pekerja untuk kekal
di organisasi. Mohd Yusuf (2011) menyatakan pekerja akan lebih
memberikan komitmen terhadap kerja mereka sekiranya ganjaran
yang diterima sesuai dengan sumbangan mereka. Imbuhan dan
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ganjaran merupakan amalan yang terpenting dalam pengurusan
sumber manusia kerana ia adalah faktor penentu dalam keinginan
pekerja untuk terus kekal dalam organisasi ataupun meninggalkan
organisasi (Arnolds and Boshoff, 2001).
Namun, terdapat perbezaan ketara di antara pekerja yang
dilahirkan pada tahun 1970 dengan generasi Y. Generasi Y adalah
sifat yang dilabelkan kepada orang-orang yang lahir pada tahun1980an dan awal 1990-an. Menurut Fairhurst dan Shaw (2008), pekerja
yang terdiri dari generasi Y sangat sukakan persekitaran yang
mencabar, berkembang dengan teknologi dan bergantung kepadanya
untuk menjalankan tugas-tugas mereka dengan lebih baik. Generasi
Y lebih suka jadual yang fleksibel tetapi untuk generasi-generasi
yang lebih tua ramai yang melihat sikap ini sebagai sikap kurang
komitmen (Fairhurst & Shaw, 2008). Menurut Martin (2005),
generasi Y kurang memberi respons kepada arahan berbentuk
tradisional atau arahan berbentuk wujudnya kawalan dari
pengurusan. Golemen (1998) menyatakan jurang akan berlaku
antara golongan muda dan tua apabila tiada keserasian dari segi
keperluan dan kemahuan dua golong ini. Ini sepadan dengan
pendapat Devaney dan Chen (2003) yang mengatakan faktor
demografi mempunyai kesan ke atas kepuasan kerja, pekerja yang
lebih tua lebih cenderung untuk berpuas hati daripada pekerja yang
lebih muda.
Dole et. al. (2001) mengatakan kepuasan kerja sebagai perasaan
dan reaksi individu terhadap lingkungan pekerjaannya. Pekerja
memilih persekitaran tempat kerja yang selesa. Menurut Shikdar dan
Sawaqed (2003), faktor persekitaran seperti kepanasan, kebisingan,
berdebu, dan pencahayaan yang lemah dalam organisasi boleh
menyebabkan kelesuan badan dan ketidakpuasan kerja. Pejabat yang
inovatif mementingkan aspek akustik dan ransangan visual untuk
meminimumkan masalah kesihatan yang berkaitan dengan tubuh
badan (DeCroon et. al. , 2005). Leaman (1995) turut memberikan
panduan bahawa pereka pejabat perlu meletakkan keutamaan
terhadap suhu dan pencahayaan organisasi bagi memastikan
kepuasan kerja dan meminimumkan masalah kesihatan pekerjaan.
Menurut Coetzer (2006), majikan yang menyediakan persekitaran
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pembelajaran yang kondusif dapat menyumbang kepada komitmen
dan kepuasan pekerja, semakin positif dan kondusif persekitaran
pembelajaran di tempat kerja, semakin komited pekerja kepada
organisasi. Pembelajaran di tempat kerja merupakan faktor utama
yang menyumbang kepada persaingan kompetitif organisasi
(Reynolds et al., 2002).
METODOLOGI KAJIAN
Reka Bentuk Kajian
Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kajian deskriptif kuantitatif yang
menggunakan kaedah tinjauan.
Instrumen Kajian
Menurut Mohamad Najib (1999), instrumen menentukan jenis data
yang diperolehi dan mempengaruhi jenis analisis data. Kajian ini
menggunakan soal selidik. Soalan-soalan dibahagikan kepada dua
bahagian iaitu Bahagian A berkaitan demografi responden, manakala
Bahagian B mengandungi 22 soalan soal selidik yang mengandungi 4
item berkaitan dengan objektif kajian.
Populasi Dan Sample Kajian
Responden kajian merupakan majikan dari perusahaan kecil dan
sederhana (PKS) pembuatan yang berdaftar dengan SME
Corporation Malaysia (SME Corp) di Johor Bahru. Penentuan jumlah
sampel adalah berdasarkan penentuan saiz dan sampel Krejcie dan
Morgan. Sebanyak 40 majikan dipilih secara rawak sebagai
responden.
Analisis Data
Analisis data menggunakan peratus dan frekuensi. Perubahan
195
peratusan digunakan untuk membandingkan frekuensi dalam
peratusan bagi aktiviti yang berlaku dalam satu masa yang tertentu
dengan satu masa lain.
DAPATAN DAN PERBINCANGAN
Dapatan kajian ini merupakan hasil analisis yang telah dibuat ke atas
enam jenis industri pembuatan yang terletak di sekitar Johor Bahru.
Hasil kajian yang diperolehi akan dibincangkan berdasarkan
persoalan kajian yang dibina dengan mengambil kira aspek
demografi responden.
Jadual 1: Taburan Dapatan dan Perbincangan Demografi
Majikan
Umur
Jumlah
Lelaki
Perempuan
30 Tahun Ke bawah
7 orang
5 orang
12 orang
30 Tahun Ke atas
20 orang
8 orang
28 orang
Jumlah
27 orang
13 orang
40 orang
Berdasarkan jadual 1, pengkaji membuat analisa umur dan
jantina majikan yang dikaji. Seramai 40 orang majikan yang
memberi respons, di antaranya terdapat 12 orang majikan berumur di
bawah 30 tahun, dan 28 orang majikan berumur 30 tahun dan ke atas.
Data ini menunjukkan majoriti majikan adalah terdiri daripada
mereka yang berpengalaman.
Jadual 2: Taburan Persepsi Majikan Terhadap Komitmen Pekerja
Majikan
Tiada
Komitmen
Bil
%
(orang)
Tidak Pasti
Ada Komitmen
Bil
(orang)
%
Bil
(orang)
%
30 Tahun Ke bawah
9
22.5
2 orang
5.0
1 orang
2.5
30 Tahun Ke atas
8
20.0
0 orang
0
20 orang
50.0
17
42.5
2
5
21
52.5
Jumlah
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Jadual 2 menunjukkan majikan berumur 30 tahun ke bawah
mempunyai pandangan kriteria komitmen kerja yang berbeza dengan
majikan yang berumur 30 tahun ke atas. Separuh daripada majikan
yang berumur 30 tahun ke atas berpendapat pekerja mereka komited
dalam kerja sementara hanya lebih kurang tiga (3%) majikan yang
berumur 30 tahun ke bawah mengatakan pekerja mereka ada
komitmen kerja.
Keadaan ini berlaku kerana majikan yang berumur 30 tahun ke
atas, mempunyai pengalaman yang lama di industri tersebut bersama
pekerja mereka, komitmen pekerja adalah tinggi berdasarkan kerja
yang dijalankan mengikut arahan. Majoriti majikan muda (bawah 30
tahun) menganggap pekerja mereka kurang komitmen. Kemungkinan
ini disebabkan oleh sikap majikan generasi Y yang kekurangan
intelektual dan emosi. Ini selaras dengan pendapat Golemen (1998)
yang menyatakan mengenai jurang tersebut. Jurang akan berlaku
antara golongan muda dan tua apabila tiada keserasian dari segi
keperluan dan kemahuan dua golong ini. Ini sepadan dengan
pendapat Devaney dan Chen (2003) yang mengatakan faktor
demografi mempunyai kesan ke atas kepuasan kerja, pekerja yang
lebih tua lebih cenderung untuk berpuas hati daripada pekerja yang
lebih muda.
Jadual 3: Taburan Persepsi Majikan Terhadap Tanggungjawab Pekerja
Jadual 3 di atas menunjukkan 67.5 peratus majikan bersetuju
bahawa pekerja mereka mencapai piawaian kerja, 57.5 peratus setuju
pekerja mereka sedia menerima kerja diluar jangkaan dan dapat
menyiapkan tugas dalam masa yang ditetapkan. Kurang separuh
majikan (42.5%) menyatakan bahawa pekerja-pekerja menjalankan
197
kerja dengan penuh dedikasi. Ini selaras dengan pendapat Abd.
Rahim et. al. (2006), iaitu majikan memilih pekerja yang dapat
menyahut cabaran globalisasi serta dapat membawa organisasi ke
tahap penghasilan yang tinggi.
Walaupun terdapat 42.5 peratus majikan berpendapat pekerja
mereka masih tidak dapat menyiapkan tugas dalam masa yang
ditetapkan, dan 32.5 peratus daripada majikan masih mendapati
pekerja mereka tidak menepati masa bekerja, namun secara
keseluruhannya majoriti majikan masih berpuas hati dengan kriteria
ketanggungjawaban pekerja mereka.
Jadual 4: Taburan Persepsi Majikan Terhadap Kepuasan Kerja
Jadual 4 menunjukkan 67.5 peratus daripada majikan bersetuju
bahawa pekerja mereka bersemangat melaksanakan tugasan yang
diberi, dan 65 peratus pekerja boleh menjalankan tugas mengikut
kehendak industri. 57.5 peratus daripada majikan berpendapat
pekerja berkebolehan mencapai prestasi yang melebihi jangkaan,
mereka boleh menghadapi tekanan kerja, berpuas hati dan gembira
dengan pekerjaannya. Ini selaras dengan pendapat Dole et. al. (2001)
yang mengatakan kepuasan kerja sebagai perasaan dan reaksi
individu terhadap lingkungan pekerjaannya. Walaupun masih
terdapat 47.5 peratus pekerja yang tidak berkeyakinan menjalankan
tugas yang diberi, pihak majikan tidak menganggap keadaan ini akan
mengganggu perjalanan industri mereka kerana kumpulan pekerja ini
merupakan pekerja baru. Namun begitu, kebanyakan majikan masih
berpuas hati dengan kriteria kepuasan kerja pekerja mereka.
198
Jadual 5: Taburan Persepsi Majikan Terhadap Persekitaran Kerja
Berdasarkan Jadual 5 di atas, majoriti majikan bersetuju
bahawa faktor seperti persekitaran kerja, kemudahan pejabat yang
lengkap, tempat kerja yang dekat dan kemudahan pengangkutan yang
disediakan menjadi pilihan pekerja bekerja dengan industri terbabit.
Ini selari dengan kajian yang dijalankan oleh Shikdar dan Sawaqed
(2003) menunjukkan faktor persekitaran seperti kepanasan dan
kebisingan, berdebu, pencahayaan menjadi faktor ketidakpuasan
kerja di sektor industri pembuatan. Ini mengukuhkan bahawa faktor
dapatan kajian ini menepati apa yang dijelaskan oleh Shikdar dan
Sawaqed.
Terdapat 92.5 peratus daripada majikan mempunyai kefahaman
yang jelas tentang kebolehan pekerjanya di tempat kerja, lebih
daripada 77 peratus majikan tahu bahawa pekerja mereka suka
tempat kerja yang bersih. Sebanyak 55 peratus daripada majikan
memberi pekerja peluang belajar sambil bekerja, ini sejajar dengan
pendapat Reynolds et al. (2002) bahawa pembelajaran di tempat
kerja merupakan faktor utama yang menyumbang kepada persaingan
kompetitif organisasi. Oleh itu daripada analisis yang telah
dijalankan jelas menunjukkan majikan memberi perhatian tentang
persekitaran tempat kerja. Mereka tahu persekitaran tempat kerja
akan mempengaruhi komitmen pekerja dan pembelajaran di tempat
kerja merupakan satu modal pelaburan pekerja.
199
KESIMPULAN
Secara kesimpulan, didapati bahawa kriteria tanggungjawab,
kepuasan kerja, dan persekitaran tempat kerja amat perlu kepada
pekerja. Kepuasan kerja akan mendorong pekerja lebih bermotivasi,
meningkatkan produktiviti serta mengelakkan perkara-perkara yang
negatif seperti malas, ponteng dan sebagainya.
Keadaan kerja fizikal seperti kecerahan, suhu, kebisingan boleh
mempengaruhi gelagat pekerja. Semakin efektif dan kondusif aspek
persekitaran pembelajaran yang disediakan oleh organisasi untuk
pembelajaran, semakin tinggi komitmen pekerja kepada organisasi.
Ini dijelaskan oleh Coetzer (2006) yang mendapati bahawa
persekitaran pembelajaran yang kondusif dapat menyumbang kepada
komitmen dan kepuasan pekerja, semakin positif dan kondusif
persekitaran pembelajaran di tempat kerja, semakin komited pekerja
kepada organisasi.
Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa pekerja yang diambil
untuk bekerja semuanya memenuhi kriteria-kriteria permintaan
majikan. Sekiranya pekerja yang bekerja tidak dapat memenuhi
permintaan majikan, maka sudah tentu pekerja itu akan bertukar
kerja. Menurut Gan Siok Hoy (2011), keinginan untuk terus kekal
lebih memberikan kelebihan kepada organisasi berbanding keinginan
untuk meninggalkan organisasi. Biasanya majikan akan memberi
peluang kepada pekerjanya untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan budaya
industri.
Kajian ini juga menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan pendapat bagi
majikan yang berumur lebih 30 tahun dan kurang. Majikan yang
berumur di bawah 30 tahun memerlukan pengalaman yang lebih
lama dalam industri untuk mencapai kematangan dalam mengurus
tadbir pekerja di industri.
Oleh yang demikian perkaitan yang kuat di dalam organisasi ini
diperlukan dengan mengambil kira semua pandangan yang
melibatkan majikan dan pekerja. Dengan memelihara hubungan yang
harmoni di antara majikan dan pekerja dalam sesebuah organisasi
akan membawa organisasi tersebut ke arah kejayaan.
200
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Armstrong, M. (2000). Strategic Human Resources Management. A guide
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Arnolds, C. A., & Boshoff, C. (2001). The Challenge of Motivating Top
Management: A need Satisfaction Perspective. Journal of Industrial
Psychology, 27 (1), 39-42.
Coetzer, A. (2006). Employee learning in New Zealand small
manufacturing firms, Employee Relations, 28 (4), 311-325.
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Resources Practices and Employee Engagement: A case study in
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occupational health and safety issues in selected industries.
Computers and Industrial Engineering, 45(4), 563-572.
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Retention Poll Finding. Alexandria, VA: Sage Publications.
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202
PEMBENTUKAN ITEM
INSTRUMEN SISTEM
KEPERCAYAAN YANG SALAH:
SUATU KAJIAN KUALITATIF
Mohd Nur Al Sufi Romele & Syed Mohammed Shafeq Syed
Mansor
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini bertujuan membina item instrumen sistem kepercayaan
yang salah. Kajian ini adalah berbentuk kualitatif dengan reka
bentuk kajian yang digunakan adalah teori dibumikan "Grounded
Theory" melalui analisis kandungan "Content Analysis"
berdasarkan protokol temubual semi formal. Perisian Nvivo 7
digunakan bagi memudahkan menganalisis data kualitatif. Populasi
bagi kajian ini kesemuanya adalah terdapat seramai 24 orang
mahasiswa yang berada di tiga institusi pengajian tinggi di
Malaysia dan hanya 62 orang menjadi sampel kajian. Hasil bagi
kajian ini adalah item-item sistem kepercayaan yang salah yang
disahkan oleh pakar.
Kata Kunci: Sistem kepercayaan yang salah, Kualitatif
PENGENALAN
Dalam proses kaunseling, kaedah diagnosis yang terbaik adalah
mengenalpasti sistem kepercayaan salah yang menyebabkan pelajar
203
tersebut menjadi tekanan akademik (Beck, 1995). Kaunselor perlu
menilai sistem kepercayaan salah dengan tepat dalam membantu
pelajar tersebut mendapat kesedaran terhadap sistem kepercayaan
tersebut dan seterusnya mengubah sistem kepercayaan tersebut
menjadi rasional dan dapat mengurangkan tekanan akademik yang
dihadapi oleh pelajar tesebut (Kuyken, Kurzer, Derubeis, Beck, &
Brown, 2001; Ellis, 1994). Namun begitu, jika seseorang kaunselor
itu mempunyai sistem kepercayaan yang tidak tepat dan tidak
rasional. Perkara ini menyebabkan kaunselor lebih cenderung
mendiagnosis dan memberi saranan kepada klien berdasarkan
sistem kepercayaan kaunselor itu sendiri (Blackburn & Davidson,
1995, 1996). Proses kaunseling tidak dapat dijalankan dengan
lancar dan mungkin akan menyebabkan masalah klien menjadi
semakin teruk dan membarah (Marof, 2001).
Sistem kepercayaan merupakan suatu elemen kognitif yang
wujud dalam diri manusia (Robinson & Clore, 2002). Sistem
kepercayaan merupakan medium tengah bagi penyebab kecelaruan
emosi khususnya masalah tekanan akademik (Eriksen, Murison,
Pensgaard, & Ursin, 2005; Ursin & Eriksen, 2004, 2010). Sistem
kepercayaan yang salah merupakan asas utama yang menyebabkan
tekanan akademik (Chan, 2002; Mcdermut & Waga, 2003; Cook &
Peterson, 2000). Asas konseptual bagi sistem kepercayaan ini
adalah melalui dua teori yang amat terkenal iaitu Teori Kognitif
Beck dan Teori Rasional Emotif Tingkahlaku Ellis. Kedua-dua teori
ini membahaskan sistem kepercayaan dengan menggunakan istilah
yang berbeza iaitu Teori Kognitif Beck menggunakan istilah “teras
kepercayaan bermasalah” manakala
Teori Rasional Emotif
Tingkahlaku Ellis menggunakan istilah
“kepercayaan tidak
rasional”. Namun definisi yang diberikan oleh kedua-dua teori ini
adalah hampir sama iaitu suatu perkara yang melibatkan komponen
kognitif yang mempengaruhi kehidupan individu. Bagi
memudahkan kefahaman, pengkaji menggunakan istilah sistem
kepercayaan yang salah dalam kajian ini. Sistem kepercayaan ini
dipecahkan kepada empat konstruk iaitu nilai, pendidikan,
pengalaman dan sosioekonomi status (Brockman, 2003).
Mahasiswa merupakan tunjang masa depan negara.
204
mahasiswa perlu kompeten dan mempu mengawal kehidupannya
dengan cemerlang. Mahasiswa yang mempunyai masalah
khususnya masalah tekanan akademik akan memberi kesan
terhadap kehidupannya seterusnya menjejaskan perkembangan
positif generasi yang akan datang. Kebanyakan masalah tekanan
akademik ini berpunca daripada sistem kepercayaan yang wujud
dalam diri mahasiswa itu sendiri. Kebanyakan instrument tekanan
akademik sebelum ini diukur melalui faktor-faktor tekanan
akademik dan simptom-simptom tekanan akademik, namun berbeza
dengan instrument yang mampu mengukur tekanan akademik
melalui pengesanan sistem kepercayaan yang bertindak sebagai
pengukuran tekanan akademik secara mendalam terhadap diri
individu berdasarkan komponen kognitif (Beck et al., 2001; Bhar et
al., 2012; Canel-Cinarbas et al., 2011; Alzaeem, Azhar, Sulaiman,
& Gillani, 2010; Willem Kuyken et al., 2001; Wenzel et al., 2006).
Ini membuktikan bahawa suatu bentuk instrument pengesanan
sistem kepercayaan perlu dibangunkan bagi memenuhi kehendak
semasa yang menjadi salah satu kaedah yang efektif dalam
menyelesaikan masalah tekanan akademik dalam kalangan
mahasiswa di IPTA.
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Objektif kualitatif kajian bagi kajian ini adalah:
i.
Menengenalpasti konstruk-konstruk sistem kepercayaan
salah dalam kalangan mahasiswa universiti yang mengalami
tekanan akademik berdasarkan temubual dan sorotan kajian.
ii.
Mengenalpasti item-item yang
mengukur
sistem
kepercayaan salah dalam kalangan mahasiswa universiti
yang mengalami tekanan akademik berdasarkan temubual
dan sorotan kajian.
205
PERSOALAN KAJIAN
Persoalan kualitatif kajian bagi kajian ini adalah:
i.
Apakah konstruk-konstruk sistem kepercayaan salah dalam
kalangan mahasiswa universiti yang mengalami tekanan
akademik berdasarkan temubual dan sorotan kajian?
ii.
Apakah item-item yang mengukur sistem kepercayaan salah
dalam kalangan mahasiswa universiti yang mengalami
tekanan akademik berdasarkan temubual dan sorotan
kajian?
KEPENTINGAN KAJIAN
Kajian ini adalah suatu kajian yang melibatkan elemen kognitif
yang akan menjuruskan kepada masalah emosi dan tingkahlaku:
1. Kajian ini akan mendedahkan kepada masyarakat bahawa
perlunya pengawalan kognitif yang positif dan rasional bagi
memastikan kehidupan sentiasa dalam keadaan yang bahagia.
2. Kajian ini juga dapat membantu kaunselor atau ahli psikologi
bagi mendiagnosis masalah klien dengan melihat kepada elemen
kognitif klien yang boleh membawa kepada masalah emosi dan
tingkah laku.
3. Pihak universiti juga boleh menggunakan hasil kajian ini untuk
membentuk dan mendidik pelajar dengan mengenalpasti sistem
kepercayaan yang salah dan seterusnya mengubah sistem
kepercayaan tersebut kepada yang lebih rasional.
4. Para pengkaji juga boleh menjadikan kajian ini sebagai asas
mengenalpasti sistem kepercayaan yang salah dalam diri manusia.
METODOLOGI KAJIAN
Kajian ini adalah berbentuk kualitatif dengan reka bentuk kajian
yang digunakan adalah teori dibumikan "Grounded Theory" melalui
analisis kandungan "Content Analysis" berdasarkan protokol
206
temubual semi formal. Perisian Nvivo 7 digunakan bagi
memudahkan menganalisis data kualitatif. Sebanyak 24 responden
yang dipilih sebagai sampel daripada 3 kumpulan fokus yang mana
setiap kumpulan fokus mempunyai 8 orang mahasiswa. Selepas
maklumat kualitatif telah dikumpulkan melalui temubual
berdasarkan kumpulan fokus dan jadual spesifikasi telah
dilengkapkan bagi menilai item-item yang sepatutnya dikumpulkan
menjadi konstruk dalam pembentukan instrumen. Item yang
dibentuk oleh pengkaji berdasarkan rujukan sorotan kajian yang
bersesuaian dengan dimensi konstruk yang mengalami sedikit
pengubahsuaian daripada instrumen yang sedia ada. Item-item ini
diperkuatkan melalui temubual kumpulan fokus dan kupasan idea
yang terhasil semasa kajian berteraskan teori dan model yang telah
dipersetujuan oleh pakar- pakar yang dipilih.
Kesahan Kandungan dan Muka dipastikan dengan
menyemak isi kandungan item kajian yang dibentuk bersesuaian
dan menepati matlamat penyelidikan yang ingin dikaji. Semakan
pakar digunakan bagi memastikan ketepatan konstruk dan kejelasan
isi kandungan (Kline, 2005; Hulse, 2006; Babbie, 2008). Selepas
item dibina, pengkaji membuat semakan semula item melalui nilai
pekali Indeks Fleiss Kappa (Cohen, 1960; Fleiss, 1971, 1981;
Stemler, 1998) bagi mendapatkan nilai keboleh kepercayaan item.
Pengkaji telah memilih empat orang pakar untuk menilai tahap
persetujuan bagi setiap item-item yang dibina berdasarkan senarai
dimensi konstruk dan item dijelaskan melalui definisi operasi.
Kaedah ini merupakan kaedah menentukan kesahan dan
kebolehpercayaan (Miles & Hubberman, 1994). Melalui peraturan
umum yang digunapakai pada bidang sosial, nilai menunjukkan
keakuran yang baik jika Kappa>0.75, manakala keakuran yang
lemah adalah <0.40. Namun begitu, tafsiran nilai k juga dijelaskan
seperti dibawah oleh (Landis & Koch,1977).
Jadual 1: Skala Persetujuan Kappa
Nilai Kappa, k
Tahap Persetujuan
Bawah 0.00
Sangat Lemah
0.00 - 0.20
Lemah
0.21 - 0.40
Sederhana Lemah
207
0.41 - 0.60
0.61 - 0.80
0.81 - 1.00
Sederhana
Baik
Sangat Baik
Setelah
instrumen
telah
disemak
dari
sudut
kebolehpercayaan dan kesahannya, pengkaji akan membetulkan dan
memperbaiki item yang tidak sesuai daripada pandangan pakar bagi
dijadikan sebagai item bagi kajian seterusnya (Lodico, Spauldingn
& Voegtle, 2006). Pengkaji menggunakan pandangan pakar dan
nilai pekali Fleis Kappa sebagai rujukan dalam proses memperbaiki
item (Yin, 2003).
HASIL DAPATAN
Bahagian ini membincangkan prosedur yang dilakukan bagi
mengumpulkan data daripada sasaran instrumen ini digunakan iaitu
mahasiswa universiti dan disahkan oleh pakar-pakar dalam bidang
psikologi dan pengukuran instrumen. Peringkat pertama dalam
mengumpulkan data ini, pengkaji telah membuat 3 kumpulan fokus
yang mempunyai masalah tekanan akademik bagi menggumpulkan
maklumat yang terkini dalam membina konstruk dan item serta
dibantu oleh teori-teori dan konsep-konsep berdasarkan kajian
keperluan yang telah dilakukan. Temu bual adalah salah satu kajian
utama dalam kajian ini bagi mengumpulkan data.
Secara keseluruhannya responden yang digunakan bagi
mengumpulkan data temubual adalah sebanyak 24 orang. Pengkaji
memastikan latar belakang responden adalah pelbagai dari sudut
jantina, bangsa dan status kewangan keluarga. Setelah data
diproses, pengkaji menyediakan set konstruk beserta item yang
telah dibina berdasarkan temubual. Konstruk tersebut ialah Nilai,
Pengalaman, Pendidikan dan Sosioekonomi Status. Pengkaji akan
membentangkan secara terperinci bagi setiap konstruk dan item
yang didapati bagi membentuk instrumen dalam kajian ini. Berikut
merupakan dapatan bagi Konstruk Nilai, iaitu 10 item
208
Bil
1
2
3
4
Jadual 2: Dapatan Bagi Konstruk Nilai Melalui Temubual
Item Asal
Hasil Temubual
Semua orang "mmm... saya rasa orang lain tak sayang saya"
seharusnya
(R1,K1,N Baris 10)
menyayangi
"sepatutnya
semua
orang
mesti
sayang
saya
saya"(R9,K2,N, Baris 11)
"saya rasa sedih semua orang tak sayang
saya"(R4,K3,N,Baris 9)
Semua orang "bila
saya
nak
sesuatu
mesti
tak
mesti
dapat"(R3,K1,N,Baris 20)
memahami
"saya rasa ibu bapa saya tak memahami apa yang
kehendak saya saya nak"(R1,K1,N Baris 25)
"semua orang tak faham saya"(R10,K3,N,Baris 23)
Semua orang "ibu bapa saya selalu marah-marah kat saya, saya nak
perlu sentiasa ibubapa saya cakaplah baik-baik"(R5,K1,N,Baris 17)
bercakap
"saya rasa tertekan bila orang meninggikan suara kat
lembut
saya"(R2,K2,N,Baris 16)
dengan saya
Semua orang "saya tidak disayangi oleh mak saya kerana lebihkan
perlu
perhatian kepada adik saya je"(R17,K2,N,Baris 30)
memberikan
"Kawan-kawan saya macam tak hiraukan saya
perhatian
je"(R20,K1,N,Baris 58)
kepada saya
"Saya nak boyfriend saya sentiasa beri perhatian pada
saya"(R12,K3,N,Baris 31)
5
Orang
lain
seharusnya
perlu sentiasa
menjaga hati
saya
6
Orang
lain
mesti
mengikut apa
yang
saya
inginkan
7
Saya
mesti
dapatkan apa
yang
saya
"saya je jaga hati orang, orang lain tak jaga pun hati
saya"(R14,K1,N,Baris 47)
"kalu nak saya dengar kata, jagalah hati saya sikit,
bukan cakap sembur je"(R11,K3,N,Baris 63)
"keluarga saya lebihkan adik beradik lain berbanding
saya,
seolah-olah
mereka
tak jaga hati
saya"(R19,K1,N,Baris 46)
"saya nak semua orang ikut apa yang saya
nak"(R21,K2,N,Baris 27)
"mak ayah saya nak saya ikut dia je, kehendak saya
langsung tak nak dengar"(R11,K3,N,Baris 69)
"susah sangat ke nak ikut kehendak saya, saya bukan
buat ape pun saya gunakan kereta ni untuk belajar
gak"(R13,K2,N,Baris 19)
"Apa
yang
saya
nak,
selalu
tak
dapat"(R23,K1,N,Baris 28)
"saya tertekan dengan hidup ini, saya selalu tak dapat
209
inginkan
8
Saya berasa
sedih
jika
orang
tidak
menghiraukan
saya
9
Saya
perlu
mengelakkan
situasi yang
saya
tidak
mahukan
walau
apa
cara sekalipun
Jika ada orang
saya tak suka
saya
bermakna
saya
ada
masalah
10
apa yang saya nak(R12,K2,N,Baris 76)
"saya dah usaha sungguh-sungguh dah tapi kenapa
dak dapat result yang baik gak.(R15,K1N,Baris 41)
"saya sedih sangat, saya rasa seolah-olah saya tidak
dihiraukan dalam keluarga saya"(R22,K3,N,Baris 6)
"saya rasa kawan-kawan saya dah tak hiraukan saya
lagi, tu yang buat saya tertekan"(R13,K2,N,Baris 14)
"boyfriend saya macam tak nak layan saya je, tu yang
saya
tak
dapat
fokus
dalam
belajar
ni."(R16,K1,N,Baris 89)
"kalu boleh saya nak keadaan yang berlaku mesti
mengikut kehendak saya"(R24,K3,N,Baris 90)
"Saya lebih suka tak buat apa-apa daripada buat letihletih tapi tak dapat apa-apa"(R18,K2,N,Baris 75)
"Saya suka play safe dalam hidup saya, sebab kalu
berlaku perkara yang saya tak nak saya akan cepat
tertekan."(R16,K2,N,Baris 39)
"saya tak tahulah kenapa orang tak suka saya, saya
dah
sentiasa
ikut
apa
yang
mereka
nak"(R1,K2,N,Baris 16)
"ramai orang tak nak kawan dengan saya sebab saya
ni pendiam, tak pandai cakap dengan orang, saya rasa
saya ni teruk lah"(R8,K3,N,Baris 5)
Berikut merupakan dapatan bagi Konstruk Pengalaman sebanyak 9 item:
Bil
15
16
Jadual 3: Dapatan Bagi Konstruk Pengalaman Melalui Temubual
Item Asal
Hasil Temubual
Saya
tidak “saya tidak suka jika saya dibandingkan dengan adik
boleh
beradik yang lain”(R1,K2,P,Baris 54)
dibandingkan “ibu suka membandingkan keputusan ujian saya
dengan adik dengan abang yang jauh lebih pandai dari
beradik lain
saya”(R2,K2,P,Baris 127)
“saya tak suka dia tu selalu cerita tentang orang
lain”(R1,K1,P,Baris 173)
“mengapa ibu dan ayah suka membandingkan
keputusan peperiksaan saya dengan akak saya yang
pandai tu, saya bencilah”(R21,K2,P,Baris 179)
Saya
mesti “tidak kira apa yang jadi saya mesti menjadi pandai
pandai seperti seperti abang saya”(R24,K1,P,Baris 162)
adik beradik “ayah bangga dengan pencapaian saya apabila saya
saya
mendapat
keputusan
sebaik
keputusan
210
17
18
19
Jika
saya
dalam
kesusahan
mesti
ada
orang
membantu
saya
Saya
memerlukan
orang
yang
sayang pada
saya
untuk
membantu
saya
setiap
masa
Saya lemah
jika
saya
berseorangan
20
Orang
lain
tidak
mempunyai
hak
untuk
kritik saya
21
Jika ada orang
kritik
saya,
kritikan
tersebut
adalah betul
22
Saya
memerlukan
orang
lain
untuk
abang”(R20,K3,P,Baris 55)
“saya mesti mendapat keputusan yang baik seperti
abang dalam peperiksaan saya”(R23,K3,P,Baris 73)
“bila dia susah saya selalu bantu dia, tapi bila saya
susah di buat tak tahu je”(R22,K2,P,Baris 29)
“saya selalu bantu orang, mesti orang lain juga akan
bantu saya”(R23,K1,P,Baris 76)
“saya tertekan kerana tiada orang bantu saya bila
saya susah”(R24,K1,P,Baris 97)
“saya perlukan teman wanita saya untuk memberi
semangat pada saya”(R5,K1,P,Baris 126)
“ibu saya selalu menjadi penaik semangat saya untuk
mendapatkan keputusan yang terbaik dalam
peperiksaan”(R10,K2,P,Baris 68)
“kawan kawan saya perlu sentiasa bantu saya sebab
saya kawan."(R6,K2,P,Baris 71)
“hidup saya akan jadi tak tentu hala jika orang yang
saya
sayangi
tidak
ada
disamping
saya”(R4,K1,P,Baris 125)
“saya tidak kuat untuk meneruskan hidup jika saya
berseorangan”(R12,K2,P,Baris 173)
“saya ada cara saya sendiri untuk
menyelesaikan
masalah saya”(R13,K2,P,Baris 148)
“mereka tidak ada hak untuk mengkritik
saya”(R15,K2,P,Baris 83)
“saya
adalah
saya,
saya
ada
cara
tersendiri”(R8,K2,P,Baris 137)
"saya memang tak pandai macam abang
saya"(R11,K3,P,Baris 168)
"mungkin betul mereka kata saya ni tak boleh buat
kerja berkumpulan"(R5,K1,P,Baris 195)
"saya terima seadanya apa yang mereka
cakap"(R9,K2,P,Baris 27)
“kadangkala saya tidak boleh untuk membuat
keputusan sendiri jadi saya akan bertanyakan
pendapat
orang
yang
rapat
dengan
saya”(R11,K2,P,Baris 74)
211
membuat
keputusan
terbaik untuk
saya
23
Lebih
baik
saya
tidak
melakukan
apa-apa
daripada
melakukan
sesuatu yang
pasti
akan
gagal
24
Sesuatu yang
berlaku mesti
mengikut
kehendak
saya
“saya selalu meminta pendapat ibu untuk membuat
segala apa keputusan penting”(R14,K2,P,Baris 37)
“saya tidak cukup matang untuk membuat keputusan
dalam soal cinta jadi saya menanyakan kepada ibu
yang lebih makan garam”(R16,K1,P,Baris 28)
“saya memang tak pandai buat assignment
tu"(R17,K3,P,Baris 159)
“kalau awak tak yakin yang awak boleh lakukannya
lebih baik awak jangan cuba kerana mungkin akan
mendatangkan bahaya”(R3,K1,P,Baris 64)
“saya tidak yakin dengan kemampuan diri saya yang
saya mampu lakukannya jadi saya ambil keputusan
untuk menangguhkannya”(R2,K2,P,Baris 139)
"Saya tak pasti saya boleh buat atau tak, baik tak
payah buat"(R10,K1,P,Baris 151)
“saya akan berasa sedih jika apa yang berlaku dalam
diri
saya
tidak
mengikut
kehendak
saya”(R4,K3,P,Baris 78)
“kenapa
saya
selalu
gagal
dalam
percintaan”(R18,K1,P,Baris 80)
Berikut merupakan dapatan bagi Konstruk Pendidikan sebanyak 9 item:
Jadual 4: Dapatan Bagi Konstruk Pendidikan Melalui Temubual
Bil
Item Asal
Hasil Temubual
27
Saya
mesti “saya berpesan kepada diri saya bahawa saya akan
mendapat
mendapat keputusan yang membanggakan sama
pencapaian
seperti adik beradik yang lain”(R12,K2,PE,Baris
yang
bagus 132)
seperti adik “saya
tak
pandai
macam
abang
beradik saya
saya”(R3,K3,PE,Baris 146)
"saya usaha sungguh-sungguh untuk dapat result
yang baik macam kakak saya.(R8,K1,PE,Baris 125)
28
Pensyarah
“pensyarah saya macam tak pandai mengajar
perlu
je”(R16,K3,PE,Baris 43)
mengajar
“ramai
orang
gagal
dalam
kelas
dengan baik dia”(R20,K2,PE,Baris 127)
untuk
saya “stres sangat dalam kelas tu, macam mana nak faham
mendapat
apa yang diajar”(R13,K1,PE,Baris 36)
keputusan
yang baik
29
Pensyarah
“pensyarah saya suka marah-marah dalam
perlu
kelas”(R14,K3,PE,Baris 168)
212
30
31
32
33
34
35
mengajar
dengan
menggunakan
perkataan
yang lembut
Saya
tidak
boleh belajar
dengan
individu yang
garang
Keputusan
akademik
yang lemah
adalah punca
daripada
pengajaran
pensyarah
yang
tidak
bagus
Pengajaran
pensyarah
yang
tidak
bagus
menyebabkan
keputusan
akademik
saya rendah
Saya
tidak
boleh
keseorangan
semasa belajar
jika tidak saya
tidak
dapat
belajar dengan
baik
Saya
cemerlang
jika sentiasa
mendapat
keputusan
yang
cemerlang
Pencapaian
“pensyarah saya suka bercakap kasar, macam mana
nak belajar kalu macam tu”(R22,K1,PE,Baris 35)
“saya tak dapat fokus kalu pensyarah cakap macam
tu"(R18,K2,PE,Baris 193)
“saya tak leh masuk dengan orang yang suka marahmarah ni”(R24,K2,PE,Baris 146)
“macam mana nak belajar pensyarah saya garang
sangat"(R3,K3,PE,Baris 33)
“pensyarah tu ajar tak berapa baguslah sebab tu
keputusan saya teruk”(R13,K3,PE,Baris 14)
“cara pengajaran pensyarah tu yang kurang bagus
menyebabkan keputusan kawan-kawan saya semua
dapat keputusan rendah”(R7,K1,PE,Baris 73)
“pensyarah tak pandai mengajar, sebab tu susah nak
faham tu”(R15,K2,PE,Baris 54)
“keputusan akademik saya semakin teruk disebabkan
cara pensyarah yang mengajar dengan sambil
lewa”(R9,K1,PE,Baris 124)
“saya sedih dengan keputusan akademik saya yang
semakin menurun, sebab saya rasa pensyarah tak
pandai mengajar”(R16,K3,PE,Baris 164)
“belajar keseorangan bukan cara saya kerana saya tak
boleh
tumpukan
perhatian
jika
berseorangan”(R10,K1,PE,Baris 64)
" saya selalu study group, kalu belajar seorang tak leh
masuk lah"(R21,K2,PE,Baris 87)
“saya tidak dapat fokus masa belajar saya
sorang"(R8,K1,PE,Baris 32)
“saya dah usaha sungguh-sungguh dah, tapi result
teruk gak”(R2,K2,PE,Baris 154)
“macamman nak dapat kerja kalu result rendah
macam ni”(R5,K3,PE,Baris 63)
"Saya ni memang tak pandai, sebab tu result rendah
je"(R19,K1,PE,Baris 145)
“saya
dapat
masuk
ke
universiti
ni
nasib
213
akademik
yang rendah
membuktikan
saya
tidak
layak belajar
di universiti
je”(R1,K3,PE,Baris 179)
“sebenarnya saya tak layak masuk universiti ni, saya
sebenarnya tak pandai”(R4,K1,PE,Baris 162)
Berikut merupakan dapatan bagi Konstruk Sosioekonomi Status sebanyak 7 item:
Jadual 5: Dapatan Bagi Konstruk Sosioekonomi Status Melalui Temubual
Bil
Item Asal
Hasil Temubual
38
Saya
perlu “jika ada wang saya akan dapat belajar dengan
mempunyai
baik”(R13,K3,SES,Baris 155)
wang untuk “kalu
tak
de
duit
susah
lah
nak
belajar dengan belajar”(R5,K2,SES,Baris 74)
baik
"kalu takde duit nak beli buku pun susah,
macammana nak belajar"(R8,K1,SES,Baris 31)
39
Saya
mesti “ibubapa saya nak saya belajar kat sini saya ikut je,
memenuhi
sebenarnya saya tak minat pun”(R3,K3,SES,Baris
segala
65)
perintah ibu “saya perlu belajar dengan baik kerana ibubapa
bapa
bagi saya”(R4,K1,SES,Baris 54)
menunjukkan
“saya rasa bersalah dengan ibubapa jika tidak
saya
anak mendapatkan
keputusan
yang baik
cemerlang”(R9,K2,SES,Baris 141)
40
Saya
mesti
berkawan
dengan orang
yang setaraf
dengan saya
41
Keputusan
cemerlang
bukti
saya
seorang anak
berjasa pada
keluarga
Saya
mesti
dapat
keputusan
yang
cemerlang
42
“saya rasa macam tak best je kawan dengan dia”
(R10,K1,SES,Baris 67)
“saya kena cari kawan sekepala dengan
saya”(R12,K3,SES,Baris 137)
“saya nak belajar kena cari kawan yang betul-betul
sesuai dengan saya”(R6,K2,SES,Baris 127)
“saya
perlu
buktikan
pada
ibubapa
saya”(R18,K3,SES,Baris 24)
“saya nak balas jasa ibubapa saya, tu saya belajar
sungguh-sungguh tu”(R11,K2,SES,Baris 129)
“saya nak ubah nasib keluarga saya dengan belajar
sungguh-sungguh”(R1,K1,SES,Baris 61)
“untuk dapat kerjaya yang baik saya perlu mendapat
keputusan yang cemerlang”(R7,K3,SES,Baris 65)
“saya perlu dapat keputusan yang cemerlang untuk
dapatkan kerjaya impian saya”(R20,K2,SES,Baris
146)
214
43
44
bagi mendapat
kerjaya yang
baik
Pencapaian
akademik
yang rendah
menunjukkan
saya seorang
pelajar yang
teruk
Saya bersalah
dengan
ibubapa saya
kerana tidak
mendapat
keputusan
yang
cemerlang
“saya mempunyai akademik yang rendahn dan ia
menunjukkan
saya
seorang
pelajar
yang
teruk”(R16,K2,SES,Baris 52)
“seorang pelajar yang teruk mempunyai pencapaian
akademik yang rendah”(R17,K3,SES,Baris 173)
“mengapa seorang pelajar yang teruk mempuntai
akademik yang rendah ya”(R2,K3,SES,Baris 90
“saya perlu dapat keputusan cemerlang untuk
membahagiakan ibubapa saya”(R4,K2,SES,Baris
139)
“saya malu dengan ibu bapa saya kerana tak dapat
keputusan yang cemerlang”(R21,K2,SES,Baris 15)
‘saya seorang anak tak berguna sebab tak dapat
keputusan yang cemerlang”(R23,K2,SES,Baris 5)
Setelah data diproses dengan membentuk konstruk dan item,
pengkaji telah menyediakan set borang persetujuan pakar terhadap
konstruk dan item yang dibina. Empat pakar yang terdiri daripada
psikologi dan kaunseling serta pengukuran dan penilaian telah
dilantik unruk menjadi interater. Tujuan penilaian ini dilakukan
adalah untuk mendapatkan persetujuan dan komentar terhadap
konstruk dan item yang telah dibina. Dapatan borang persetujuan
pakar telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis Fleiss Kappa
bagi menentukan tahap indeks persetujuan (Strauss & Corbin,
1990). Hasilnya ditunjukkan dalam jadual 4 dimana tahap
persetujuan Fleiss Kappa terhadap konstruk-konstruk adalah lebihi
nilaian 9.0.
Jadual 6: Nilai Fleiss Kappa berdasarkan Konstruk
Konstruk
Nilai
Persetujuan
Keseluruhan
Nilai
0.91
Pengalaman
0.94
Pendidikan
0.97
Sosioekonomi Status
0.92
215
RUMUSAN
Berdasarkan hasil dapatan yang dijalankan, pengkaji merumuskan
bahawa sistem kepercayaan yang salah sentiasa wujud dalam diri
seseorang yang tekanan akademik. Terdapat 35 item melalui empat
konstrak dapat dihasilkan melalui kajian ini. Kontruk tersebut
mempunyai kesahan kandungan yang tinggi. Konstruk tersebut
ialah nilai, pengalaman, pendidikan dan sosioekonomi status.
Konstruk ini merupakan hasil sistem kepercayaan yang salah.
Sistem kepercayaan yang salah ini dizahirkan dengan perkataanperkataan yang umum diketahui oleh masyarakat. Kajian ini
mendedahkan kepada semua bahawa sistem kepercayaan ini perlu
dibetulkan dan dikenalpasti bagi membantu pelajar yang
mempunyai tekanan akademik dapat diubati dan seterusnya langkah
pencegahan boleh dilakukan.
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PENERAPAN NILAI MURNI
DALAM MENGATASI MASALAH
DISIPLIN DI INSTITUSI
PENDIDIKAN BERASASKAN
KEMAHIRAN
Nor Aishah Abdul Aziz & Mohd Zolkifli Abd Hamid
ABSTRACT
Disciplinary problems among teenagers is not something strange in
the world of education, particularly at the school level. However,
these problems will be a major problem to the country in general
when it extends to the tertiary level. Attitudes and family
background are among the factors that contributed to the
disciplinary problems. Moreover, this problem might persist in the
working environment which will give negative impact to
employers and company as well. Therefore, it is important for
educators to take initiatives in implementing good values
especially during Teaching and Learning process to students in
order to reduce disciplinary problems. What matters is that,
students should equip themselves with good values and are able to
serve well wherever they are. This paper discusses the disciplinary
problems in skill-based educational institutions. A few case studies
will be presented to see the real problems that occur in these
institutions. Models of inculcation of values will be presented as a
guideline for educators to educate students to adopt a better way of
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life, therefore became citizens who can practise good manners and
well disciplined to serve the country and also to make their lives
even better in all aspects of field.
Keywords : Disciplinary Problems, Good Values
PENGENALAN
Menurut Hashim et al (2008) keruntuhan akhlak dalam kalangan
remaja pada hari ini akan memberikan kesan dan impak yang
begitu besar dalam masyarakat. Remaja merupakan aset utama
negara pada masa akan datang serta memainkan peranan yang
sangat penting dalam pembangunan negara. Kesan jangka panjang
dan jangka pendek pasti akan berlaku seandainya remaja pada hari
ini tidak tahu bagaimana untuk membentuk dan memuliakan
akhlak mereka.
Akhlak merupakan peribadi dan cermin diri bagi seseorang
individu. Kiranya individu itu mempunyai akhlak yang buruk,
maka secara automatiknya peribadi individu itu juga akan menjadi
buruk. Remaja yang mempunyai akhlak yang buruk boleh
memberi kesan kepada diri sendiri, keluarga, masyarakat dan
negara. Keruntuhan akhlak berlarutan hingga menyebabkan
berlakunya banyak masalah disiplin di pusat-pusat pengajian tinggi
seperti ponteng kuliah, tidak menyiapkan tugasan yang diberi,
sambil lewa dalam pembelajaran, berhibur sehingga mengabaikan
tanggung jawab mereka terhadap pelajaran .
DILEMA MASALAH DISIPLIN DI IPT
Zainuddin, Zuria dan Salleh (2008) menyatakan ,kehidupan di
Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (IPT) dan kolej memberikan peluang
kepada pelajar untuk menjadi individu yang berdikari. Pelajarpelajar kolej atau mahasiswa universiti yang berada dalam posisi
awal dewasa ini mendapat kebebasan bertindak dan perlu
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bertanggung jawab dalam banyak aspek kehidupan. Antara
tanggung jawab ini termasuklah membuat keputusan kerjaya,
memilih rakan, membina hubungan intim dengan berlainan jantina,
menjaga keselamatan dan kesihatan diri, mengurus masa dan
kewangan, serta melakukan inisiatif-inisiatif yang menentukan
kejayaan masa depan mereka Zuria, Noria
Menurut Zainuddin, Zuria dan Salleh (2008) lagi, kebebasan
yang mereka perolehi telah di salah gunakan. Kesibukan melayan
pasangan berlainan jantina dan juga perasaan sendiri menyebabkan
mereka membuang masa, leka dan tidak menjalankan
tanggungjawab sebagai pelajar seperti menumpu perhatian semasa
belajar, mengambil bahagian dalam kelas, menyiapkan tugasan,
bersedia untuk peperiksaan mahupun berinteraksi dengan
pensyarah. Seterusnya menurut Zainal & Mohd. Sharani (2004),
selain daripada itu, cinta yang tidak terurus mengakibatkan
kebanyakan pelajar mengalami kegagalan dalam pelajaran.
Apabila percintaan putus di tengah jalan, mereka akan mengalami
gangguan emosi yang hebat sehingga berlaku kemurungan dan
merosot pelajaran
Seterusnya Zainuddin, Zuria dan Salleh (2008) menyatakan,
media tempatan juga sering melaporkan
masalah yang
ditimbulkan oleh pelajar-pelajar IPT (Berita Harian 18 Ogos 2003;
Utusan Malaysia 3 Jun 2002; Utusan Malaysia 18 Januari 2003).
Laporan media mengenai peningkatan masalah sosial pelajar IPT
seperti kes khalwat sedikit sebanyak telah memberi gambaran
buruk kepada institusi berkenaan. Berita Harian (18 Ogos 2003)
telah melaporkan Jabatan Agama Islam Selangor (JAIS) telah
menangkap pelajar-pelajar IPT seramai 341 orang sepanjang 2002
dan 178 orang sepanjang 2003 kerana kesalahan perbuatan tidak
bermoral. Kesalahan-kesalahan ini termasuklah berkhalwat dan
berkelakuan tidak sopan di tempat awam.
Menurut penulis
lagi, pelajar-pelajar yang terlibat ialah dari beberapa institusi
pengajian tinggi awam dan swasta. Masalah sosial pelajar IPT
yang berkaitan dengan khalwat dan perlakuan tidak sopan di
tempat awam merupakan masalah yang dihadapi oleh semua
institusi pengajian tinggi awam (IPTA) seluruh negara.
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AKTA MENANGANI SALAH-LAKU PELAJAR
Menurut Zaharah (2006), setiap institusi pengajian tinggi
dipercayai mempunyai definisi tersendiri mengenai masalah
disiplin atau salah laku. Beberapa tingkahlaku tertentu turut
dimuatkan dalam AUKU seperti dalam:
Kaedah 15: Judi dalam kampus, kaedah 16: mabuk, kaedah17:
bahan-bahan lucah, dan kaedah 18:dadah dan racun)
Tambahnya lagi, secara umumnya, salah laku (seperti yang
dikategorikan oleh Western Michigan University Code of Honour)
boleh dibahagikan kepada dua jenis:(i) salah laku akademik (academic misconduct), yang bermaksud
pelanggaran peraturan yang membabitkan integriti, polisi, dan
prosedur akademik.
(ii) salah laku bukan akademik, ialah pelanggaran peraturan yang
boleh mengancam kesihatan, keselamatan, dan harta warga
universiti.
Sesetengah perlakuan adalah salah di dalam kawasan universiti
tetapi tidak salah jika dilakukan di luar kampus. Contohnya,
kebanyakan IPTA telah mewartakan bahawa kampus adalah
kawasan larangan merokok. Perbuatan tersebut walau
bagaimanapun tidak salah dilakukan di luar kampus. Sesetengah
perlakuan pula berada di luar bidang kuasa kolej/universiti untuk
mengambil tindakan seperti kes pelajar terlibat dalam kegiatan
haram. Hanya pihak berkuasa yang boleh menahan pelajar terbabit
dan bidang kuasa kolej/universiti kebiasaannya terhad kepada
mengenakan tindakan tata tertib.
Terdapat pula salah laku yang mungkin sukar ditentukan oleh
Akta tentang salah dan betulnya tetapi agama dan norma
masyarakat telah menentukan salah atau betulnya sesuatu
perbuatan tersebut. Contohnya, mahasiswa mengunjugi kelabkelab malam dan berpeleseran mungkin diterima oleh sesetengah
golongan tetapi ajaran agama dan majority masyarakat
menganggapnya sebagai bertentangan dengan nilai-nilai akhlak
dan norma sosial yang boleh mengundang kepada gejala yang
lebih tidak sihat, seterusnya meruntuhkan akhlak pelajar terbabit.
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Walau apa sekali akta yang diguna pakai di kolej dan juga
universiti, apa yang penting adalah perlaksanaan untuk mendidik
pelajar ke arah kebaikan yang perlu diberi perhatian serius oleh
para pendidik. Aspek ini sangat penting dalam menentukan hala
tuju sebenar hidup pelajar khususnya, serta masyarakat dan Negara
amnya, seterusnya dapat melahirkan warga Negara yang
bertanggung jawab dalam setiap apa yang mereka lakukan .
SENARAI INSTITUSI PENGAJIAN TINGGI BERASASKAN
KEMAHIRAN
Malaysia yang sedang menuju ke arah negara maju menjelang
tahun 2020 tidak dapat mengelak daripada memberikan tumpuan
kepada aspek-aspek membekalkan kemahiran fizikal kepada warga
negaranya. Antara usaha dinamik yang dilakukan adalah
mengadakan pusat-pusat dan institusi-institusi berasaskan
kemahiran bagi tujan mendapatkan kemahiran yang lebih
sistematik dalam bentuk pendidikan formal. Sehubungan dengan
itu, maka wujudlah beberapa institusi yang berkaitan bagi
menampung keperluan Negara ini. Antara institusi kemahiran yang
terkenal adalah:
1.
Pusat Giat MARA
2.
Pusat Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP)
3.
Institut Kemahiran Belia Negara (IKBN)
4.
Institut Kemahiran MARA (IKM)
5.
Kolej Komuniti
Institusi pendidikan berasaskan kemahiran di atas
kebanyakannya menawarkan kursus-kursus berbentuk “hands-on”
untuk membekalkan kemahiran terutamanya kepada remaja yang
tidak dapat melanjutkan pengajian ke IPTA samada di peringkat
sijil mahu pun diploma. Walau bagaimana pun,peranan institusi
berkenaan haruslah juga selaras dengan matlamat pendidikan
Negara iaitu untuk melahirkan warga Negara yang seimbang
daripada segi pembangunan jasmani, emosi, ruh, intelek dan social
(JERIS). Para pelajar seharusnya dididik bukan sahaja daripada
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segi kemahiran fizikal bahkan mestilah stabil emosi dan rohaninya.
Mereka boleh bekerja dalam bidang kemahiran tetapi dalam masa
yang sama mengamalkan sifat-sifat terpuji seperti jujur, amanah,
rajin, sopan-santun, bersyukur serta menghormati orang lain.
Walau bagaimana pun amat besar cabarannya dalam mendidik
para remaja yang baru melepasi alam persekolahan. Sikap negatif
di sekolah masih terbawa-bawa hingga ke peringkat pengajian
yang lebih tinggi.
KAJIAN KES MASALAH DISIPLIN DI IPT
Sejauh mana pun kita mengejar kemajuan, permasalahan disiplin
remaja dan penyelesaiannya tetap menjadi isu-isu yang perlu
ditangani oleh pihak-pihak yang terbabit khususnya dalam bidang
pendidikan. Berikut adalah beberapa kes yang dikenal pasti
melalui kajian-kajian yang dilakukan oleh penyeldidik untuk
menghayati masalah disiplin pelajar di isnstitusi-institusi
pendidikan berasaskan kemahiran.
Kajian berkenaan Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Masalah
Ponteng Kelas Dalam Kalangan Pelajar Di Kolej Kemahiran Belia
Nasional, Pontian oleh Yahya B. Buntat dan Norainiza Bt Saini,
Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Dalam kajian 1.3.1, keputusan menunjukkan bahawa sikap
pelajar merupakan faktor utama dalam mempengaruhi masalah
ponteng iaitu sebanyak 76.8%, Ini menunjukkan bahawa terdapat
sikap negatif yang ada pada diri pelatih tersebut telah mendorong
mereka untuk melakukan ponteng. Punca pelajar ini sering lewat
ke kelas kerana sikap mereka yang tidak pandai menguruskan
masa. Mereka sering lewat bangun pagi dan mengambil masa
untuk menyiapkan diri untuk pergi ke kelas. Oleh yang demikian
mereka gagal untuk menghadirkan diri pada waktu
pertama sesi pembelajaran. Sikap ini adalah tidak wajar bagi
pelajar yang menjalankan latihan di pusat kemahiran ini kerana
mereka tidak menitikberatkan disiplin dalam diri mereka.
Secara keseluruhanya aspek rakan sebaya turut mempengaruhi
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pelajar untuk melakukan peratus yang paling tinggi iaitu sebanyak
89.2% di mana pelajar tidak akan hadir ke kelas kerana sering
dibuli oleh pelajar yang lain.Tenaga pengajar yang tidak kreatif
dan tanpa bantuan penggunaan bahan yang menarik
mengakibatkan pelajar kurang menumpukan perhatian dan
sekaligus mengelak untuk menghadiri kelas tersebut. Melalui
kajian ini juga, pengkaji mendapati bahawa responden tidak
membuat persediaan awal sebelum kelas berlangsung sehingga
mereka tidak tahu apa yang perlu dilakukan semasa berada di kelas
ataupun di bengkel. Jika mereka tidak dapat menyiapkan tugas
yang terdahulu mereka mengambil langkah mudah dengan tidak
menghadirkan diri ke kelas tersebut.
Pelajar-pelajar di pusat kemahiran ini juga melakukan ponteng
apabila dipengaruhi oleh rakan sebaya. Hasil dapatan kajian
menunjukkan purata peratus keseluruhan adalah sebanyak 74.3%.
Di dapati bahawa terdapat rakan yang selalu mempengaruhi pelajar
untuk tidak menghadirkan diri ke dalam kelas dengan alasan ianya
tidak menyeronokkan.
Kajian Punca, Risiko dan Sumbangan Tabiat Merokok
Terhadap Penagihan Bahan-Kajian di Pusat Giat MARA,
Terengganu oleh Roslee Ahmad dan Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa,
Jabatan Asas Pendidikan, Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, Skudai
Responden terdiri daripada 73 orang pelatih dalam kajian ini.
Pengkaji menganalisis data dengan menggunakan kaedah
deskriptif iaitu peratusan. Dapatan turut menunjukkan 53.43%
responden menyatakan punca merokok di sebabkan oleh hubungan
sosial.
Kajian rintis melalui temu bual ke atas dua orang tenaga
penajar di Institut Kemahiran MARA, Johor Bahru oleh Nor
Aishah Abdul Aziz, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Pengajar 1:
Beliau mengatakan terdapat banyak contengan di tanggatangga bangunan, tandas sehingga terpaksa dicat semula.
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Walaupun telah beberapa kali diberi amaran tetapi insiden tersebut
masih berlaku. Terdapat juga satu kes penyeludupan dadah ke
kolej. Pihak kolej berjaya menangkap pelajar terbabit. Ibubapa
pelajar dipanggil dan mereka merayu supaya anak mereka tidak
dibuang kolej. Walau bagaimanapun, kolej tetap bertindak tegas
membuang pelajar tersebut sebagai pengajaran dan peringatan
kepada pelajar-pelajar lain. Hampir 50 peratus pelajar mempunyai
masalah kedatangan kelas yang lambat membuatkan pengajar
sering terpaksa memarahi pelajar.
Pengajar 2:
Beliau mengatakan masalah menghisap rokok telah menjadi
amalan biasa di kolej, di belakang tandas, belakang bilik kuliah, di
luar pagar kolej dan seumpamanya. Beliau menasihati pelajar
mengikut pengalaman peribadi sahaja tanpa sebarang panduan
yang jelas namun ianya kurang berkesan. Berkenaan dengan nilai
murni pula, beliau kurang jelas dengan isi kandungannya kerana
tiada kursus tertentu berkenaan perkara tersebut. Beliau juga tidak
tahu secara spesifik tentang elemen nilai murni serta tidak pernah
mendengar berkenaan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan. Beliau
amat mengharapkan agar kursus-kursus tertentu dilaksanakan
sebagai garis panduan menangani masalah pelajar.
Berdasarkan kepada sesi-sesi temubual yang telah dijalankan oleh
penyelidik ke atas responden dalam kajian rintis, jelas sekali krisis
nilai sememangnya wujud dalam kalangan pelajar-pelajar yang
mengikuti kursus-kursus kemahiran. Kedua-dua responden
menyatakan kesukaran mereka untuk mengatasi masalah disiplin
pelajar tersebut. Semua responden menyatakan mereka perlu
kepada satu kaedah yang berkesan untuk mengubah tingkah-laku
pelajar agar lebih bertanggungjawab dan berdisiplin ketika
menjalani kursus. Responden juga tidak mengetahui apa maknanya
nilai murni dalam pengajaran.
Melalui ketiga-tiga kes yang diutarakan, jelas bahawa memang
terdapat masalah disiplin yang agak serius di peringkat pengajian
tinggi atau lepasan sekolah. Para pendidik menghadapi zaman
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yang serba mencabar untuk menangani pelbagai jenis masalah
remaja yang pelbagai ragam.
MODEL PENERAPAN NILAI MURNI
Model-model serta pendekatan penerapan nilai di Malaysia telah
dibangunkan serta disebar luas agar para pendidik mempunyai
pelbagai pilihan yang bersesuaian dengan suasana proses
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
Model Edaran Semula-Konsep Pendidikan Bersepadu
Rajah 1 Model Edaran Semula – Konsep Pendidikan Bersepadu
(Sumber: Tajul Arifin, 1988)
Antara model lain yang juga menekankan aspek pendidikan
bersepadu adalah Model Edaran Semula oleh Tajul Ariffin (1988).
Model tersebut adalah Model Edaran Semula – Konsep Pendidikan
Bersepadu oleh Tajul Ariffin (1988) berasaskan keimanan kepada
Allah SWT (Rajah 2). Model ini menjadikan pembinaan insan
mulia melalui keimanan kepada Allah SWT sebagai teras
pembentukan individu berakhlak mulia sehingga terhasilnya
masyarakat yang cemerlang melalui pendidikan holistik. Ketigatiga aspek tersebut iaitu pembinaan diri, kesyukuran kepada Allah
dan pembinaan tamadun ummah yang gemilang perlulah dihayati
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serta dijadikan satu proses yang berterusan dalam system
pendidikan Negara. Selanjutnya, aspek tersebut juga menjadi
bahan untuk diterapkan oleh pendidik ke dalam proses pengajaran
dan pembelajaran samada di peringkat pendidikan awal
sehinggalah ke pendidikan tinggi.
Model Kurikulum paradigm Bersepadu
Rajah 2:
Kurikulum
mengikut
paradigma
bersepadu
termasuk unsur spiritual- kesepaduan ilmu agama
(teras) dengan ilmu sains kemanusiaan dan sains
tabii (Sumber: Tajul Ariffin dan Noraini, 2002)
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228
Model Konseptual Pendidikan Guru DPM-Kementerian
Pelajaran
Rajah 3:
Model Pendidikan Guru UTM
Bakar, et al, 2001).
(Sumber: Abu
Rajah 3 pula menunjukkan Model Konseptual Pendidikan Guru
DPM-Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia yang menekankan
dimensi Ketuhanan dalam pendidikan guru adalah usaha
membentuk guru dengan akhlak dan budi pekerti mulia, sentiasa
mencari ilmu, menghayati tanggungjawab dan akauntabiliti guru.
Guru-guru yang ingin dilahirkan adalah mereka yang memiliki dan
menguasai aspek rohani dan jasmani yang seimbang serta mampu
memikul tanggungjawab untuk melahirkan masyarakat yang
bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif serta memiliki akhlak
KESIMPULAN
Matlamat akhir pendidikan adalah membina insan. Ini bermaksud
pendidik haruslah memainkan peranan menerapkan nilai murni
berasaskan akhlak mulia kepada pelajar untuk mencapai matlamat
tersebut. Para ilmuan barat juga mengakui kepentingan nilai dalam
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pendidikan dan kehidupan. Cuma cara pendekatan mereka adalah
berbeza berbanding dengan pendekatan pendidikan Malaysia. Ini
kerana pendidikan di Malaysia menekankan falsafah pendidikan
berasaskan kepada kepercayaan dan keyakinan kepada Tuhan dan
pembangunan insan secara seimbang. Falsafah tersebut perlu
difahami dan dipraktikkan oleh seluruh pendidik supaya
pendidikan di Malaysia Berjaya menjadi alat perubahan kepada
masyarakat yang lebih sejahtera kepada dunia secara global.
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Mat-.htm Dimuat turun pada 26 Oktober 2014
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GENERIC EMPLOYABILITY
SKILLS INTEGRATION IN
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION CURRICULUM: A
REQUIREMENT FOR THE
PREPARATION 21ST CENTURY
WORKFORCE
Azlan Abdul Latib & Muhammad Muhammad Inti
ABSTRACT
Traditionally, Technical and Vocational Education is geared
towards the development of technical content knowledge and skills.
However, due to globalization, emergence of new technologies and
shift to knowledge based economy, employers of labour are
demanding for graduates that possesses generic employability skills
in addition to their traditional content knowledge and skills in order
to meet up with the changing needs of the 21st century workplace
environment. Today, Technical and Vocational Education is
expected to equip graduates with a combination of not only
technical content knowledge and skills but also with generic
employability skills which are increasingly important in preparing
them for employment and work advancement. The paper also
highlighted on the effect of skills mismatch (absence or shortage of
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generic employability skills in TVET curricula) on employment of
graduates in Nigeria among other developing nations, which justify
the need for integrating generic employability skills in Technical
and vocational Education curriculum.
Keywords: Technical and Vocational Education, Curriculum,
Generic Employability Skills, Integration, 21st Century
Workforce.Nama Penulis/Authors (Times New Roman, 12pt)
INTRODUCTION
Technical and vocational education (TVE) graduates require an
increasing range of skills to maintain relevance in the 21st century
workplace environment (Riemer, 2007). Traditionally, most TVE
curricula in both secondary and higher institutions of learning in
both developed and developing nations are targeted towards the
development of technical knowledge and skills.
However, as a result of globalization, emergence of new
technologies and the shift to knowledge based economy, employers
are currently demanding graduate to possess not only technical
skills, but also non-technical skills, which is also referred to as core
skills, key skills, generic skills, generic employability skills,
employability skills, essential skills, basic skills workplace no how
and many more (Naanda, 2010, World Bank, 2010). Recent
literature on TVE are increasingly demanding for the
reconsideration and review of the traditional curricula
(Lappalainen, 2009; Lilliesköld and Östlund, 2008; ABET, 2006;
and Platt, 2010). Highlighting the mismatch between the skills
emphasized in the tradition curriculum and those related to
professional practice, several researchers and organizations are
mounting pressure on the need for integrating generic employability
skills such as oral and written communication, interpersonal and
team working, Problem solving and critical thinking skills, ICT,
initiatives and enterprise skills, managerial and leadership as well
as other personal quality skills into the existing curriculum (Audu,
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et.al, 2013). For instance, it is advocated that the communicative
competencies of TVE students need to be improved, as such
competencies have become very crucial in the TVE and other
engineering related professions (Jennings and Ferguson, 1995;
Sageev, and Romanowski, 2001; Ravesteijn, De Graaff and
Kroesen, 2006).
Technical and Vocational Education
Oni (2007) defined TVE as the type of education that trains
individual into different recognized fields of occupation that will fit
into gainful employment as technicians, semi-skilled, professionals
or sub- professionals. It could be regarded as the type of training
that aims at providing the participants with the basic knowledge and
psychomotor skills for them to be admitted into the world of work
or become self-reliant or self-employed. Dike (2009), described
TVE as the type of education designed for the development of
occupational skills in order to give individuals the necessary
knowledge and skills to learn and live as well as become productive
members of the society. However, Olaitan (2007) defines TVE as a
form of training which is aimed at acquisition of practical skills
through the application of mathematics and scientific knowledge
for national development and self-actualization. The present type of
education system practiced in Nigeria is 6-3-3-4 system of
education which is designed to be job oriented to all graduates of
post-primary schools. The program gives more emphasis on the use
of tools as well as training individuals to create jobs and also
generate wealth.
TVE in Nigeria is provided at secondary and tertiary education
levels i.e. at the Vocational training centers & Technical colleges
(Secondary Education), Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and
Universities of Technology (Tertiary Education) (NBTE, 2010).
The courses are geared towards preparing technician, semi-skilled,
sub-professionals and professional in various occupational trades.
The curricula of the courses are geared towards the acquisition of
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technical knowledge and skills in particular areas of specializations.
The courses are aimed at preparing youth to further education,
gainful employment, or self-employment and a prospective future
of good livelihood (NBTE, 2004). However, employers of labour
are demanding more than the technical knowledge and skills from
the graduates in the 21st century and beyond, they are demanding
for generic employability skills in addition to the technical skills
provided by the institutions of learning from their prospective
employees in order to meet up with the global challenges. Changes
in the industrial sector require technical and vocational institutions
to provide graduates with employability skills (Maclean and
Ordonez, 2007; Khaled Nordin, 2011). Mohd Yusof et.al, (2012)
are of the opinion that technical education systems need to plan
strategies to improve the qualities of graduates in order to meet the
current needs of employers.
GENERIC EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
Generic employability skill (GES) are the non-technical skills and
knowledge necessary for effective participation in the workforce
(DEEWR, 2012). These skills and knowledge can be acquired
throughout a person’s lifetime including: paid employment,
volunteer work, self-employment, community activities and
education. Skills USA (2004) define these skills as essential skills
for effective job performance. While Rothwell and Arnold (2007)
defined employability skills as the ability to survive in a job,
Generic employability skills are the non-technical skills that every
prospective employee is expected to possess in order to succeed in
the labour market by securing and retaining job as well as for other
future endeavours. Employability skills are a set of attributes, skills
and knowledge all participants in the labour market should possess
to gain employment in their chosen occupation and to be effective
and successful in the workplace.
The skills are not specific to any particular job or career, but are
related to all professions and organizations. It is required from all
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categories of employees from the most junior up to the chief
executive (Hamza and Abdullah, 2009). Generic skills contributes
to individual’s overall Job readiness by enhancing their capacity to
adapt, learn and work independently. The extent to which
individuals possess generic skills determines how they
communicate, solve problems, and work as members of a team.
According to Zakaria Kasa (Rajan, 2010) generic employability
skills are:
“Those skills which can be used across large numbers of different
occupations they include what are defined as key skillscommunication, problem solving, team working, IT skills,
application of number and ability to improve personal learning and
performance. They also include reasoning skills, scheduling work
and diagnosing work problems, work process management skills,
visualizing output, working backward for forward planning
purposes and sequencing operations”.
Generic employability skill is defined as having the skills and
abilities to find employment, remain in employment or obtain new
employment as, and when, required (Crossman & Clarke, 2010, p.
602). Generic employability skills are skills necessary for the
acquisition, keeping and performing well on the job. Robinson
(Audu, et. al, 2013). Such skills include; managing resources,
communication and interpersonal skills, teamwork and problem
solving, and acquiring and maintaining a job. Generic skills are
required by every prospective graduate to prepare them to meet up
with the requirement and needs of various occupations after
graduation.
NEED FOR INTEGRATING GENERIC EMPLOYABILITY
SKILLS IN TVE
The emphasis on integrating generic employability skills in TVE
curriculum comes as a result of youth unemployment, which is an
issue that affects both developed and developing
nations
like
Nigeria. The global youth unemployment rate stood at 12.6 per
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cent, which is equivalent to 73 million youths in 2013 (ILO, 2013).
The result of a study carried out on graduate turnout, skills and
graduate unemployment in Nigeria by Akinyemi, and Ofem (2011)
shows that Nigerian graduates largely, lack basic employability
skills that are needed in the modern workplace. Adeyemo, et al
(2010), observed from a survey they carried out on graduate
employability in Nigeria, that there was a mismatch between the
skills students acquire from higher education and the skills demands
in the labor market.
Akanmu (2011) noted that high unemployment rate in Nigeria
was as result of declining employability among graduates of higher
institutions and declining trust by industry in the quality of
graduates. The Nigerian Institute of Personnel Management, NIPM
(2000) noted that the quality of graduates in Nigeria is on a rapid
decline especially in respect of valuable skills including;
communication, technical abilities, human interaction, social,
conceptual and analytical capacity. To collaborate this, the Nigerian
Employers Consultative Associative, NECA (2000) asserted that
companies were not recruiting but adopting employment protection
strategies due to the very poor quality of graduates that do not meet
the demands of industry.
It has also been observed that employers in organizations and
industries like oil companies, banks, telecommunications, etc., send
their newly employed graduates for re-training before utilizing
them. Akamu (2011) noted that anyone who sets up a factory or a
construction project in Nigeria, imports a group foreign technicians
to run the project. Hence, this phenomenon of unemployable
graduates contributes immensely to the high rate of graduate
unemployment in the country.
Students should acquire generic employability skills while they
are at TVE institutions. The skills can be learned through classroom
instruction, in the field or outside the classroom. These skills are
abstract in nature and a long time is required to train students to
fully acquire generic employability skills.
According to Knight & Yorke (Omar, eta’l., 2012).
“Generic employability skills are therefore very essential, and a
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necessity in the preparation of 21st century workforce, in both
developed and developing nations across the globe”. Stressing the
importance of generic employability skills, a study on the Protocol
School of Washington, D.C conducted by Harvard University,
the Carnegie Foundation and the Stanford Research Institute has
indicated that technical skills and knowledge account for about
15 percent of the reasons an individual gets job, keep jobs and
advance in the job (Crosbie, 2005). The remaining 85 percent
of individual’s job success is based on individual’s generic
employability skills. Therefore, the acquisition of both technical
(hard) and
generic
skills
together constitute professional
competence
of an employee/ graduate (Kauffeld, Grote, &
Frieling, 2003). It has therefore become necessary for vocational
education and training institutions to equip students with a
combination of job specific skills and generic skills required
for the future (Espostor and Meagher,2007). Altinson, (1997).
Suggest that Technical and vocational Education institutions should
equip students with the necessary skills in order to succeed in the
workplace environment. Supporting that, Bacino and Zevalkink
(2007) also believed that instructors and educators can assist
their students develop generic employability skills in addition to
their hard core skills by integrating it in course curriculum.
Also, Cotton (2001) revealed that out of the
42 studies she
reviewed suggest that “Generic employability skills are best learned
when they are included among instructional goals and explicitly
taught” (2001:7).
CONCLUSIONS
In the 21st century workplace environment graduates are expected
to come to the job with a combination of Job specific knowledge
and skills and generic employability skills. To be able realize that,
Technical and Vocational Education institution should maximize
the time learners spent with class instruction by identifying the
essential generic employability skills required in the workplace
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environment and integrating it into the course learning outcomes of
the traditional courses, Identify and utilized learning activities,
teaching approaches that will promote the acquisition of both
technical content knowledge and skills and generic employability
skills; and identifying assessment methods/strategies that will
assess the generic employability skills . The integration process
does not require a new curriculum but largely is a process of taking
an existing set of academic competencies and giving them a
workplace context.
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KOMITMEN KERJA PENGETUA
DALAM MELAKSANAKAN
TUGAS PADA SEKOLAH
MENENGAH PERTAMA NEGERI
DI BANDAR PADANG
Syahril & Khadijah Daud
ABSTRAK
Komitmen merupakan faktor penentu kejayaan pengetua dalam
memimpin suatu sekolah. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal
pasti corak komitmen kerja Pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah
Pertama Negeri di Bandar Padang dalam melaksanakan tugas.
Kajian ini berbentuk deskriptif. Populasi pada kajian ini adalah
Pengetua pada Sekolah Negeri di Bandar Padang yang berjumlah
sebanyak 37 orang, kerana populasi kecil atau sedikit, maka semua
populasi dijadikan responden pada kajian ini. Instrumen kajian
menggunakan Soal Selidik skala lima mata. Keboleh percayaan
soal selidik Alfa Cronbanch 0,96. Manakala pengolahan data
hanya dilakukan dengan mencari purata. Dapatan pengolahan data
pada kajian ini memperolehi bahawa komitmen afektif pengetua
sekolah dalam melaksanakan tugas cukup tinggi iaitu 3,83 dari
skala 5, ertinya pengetua telah memiliki komitmen afektif dalam
melaksanakan tugas. Komitmen berketerusan dengan purata 4,12
ertinya dalam melaksanakan tugas di sekolah pengetua sudah
memiliki komitmen berketerusan. Manakala purata komitmen
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normatif pengetua dalam melaksanakan tugas adalah 4,02 ini juga
mempunyai erti bahawa pengetua juga sudah memiliki komitmen
normatif dalam melaksanakan tugas. Secara amnya boleh
disimpulkan bahawa Pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama
Negeri di Bandar Padang telah memiliki komitmen yang cukup
tinggi dengan purata 3,99 dalam melaksanakan tugas pada sekolah
yang dipimpinnya, namun masih perlu penyempurnaan dan
diperingkatkan lagi.
Kata Kunci: Komitmen; afektif, Berketerusan, Normatif; pengetua
PENGENALAN
Banyak hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa pendidikan merupakan
faktor penentu kemajuan suatu bangsa, jika suatu bangsa berjaya
membina dasar-dasar pendidikan kebangsaan dengan baik, maka
akan memberi kesan kepada kemajuan di bidang lain. Kejayaan di
bidang pendidikan ditentukan oleh banyak faktor, salah satunya
adalah faktor pengetua. Yukl, 2006 dan Kouzes Posner, 2003
mengemukakan pengetua sebagai pemimpin di sekolah merupakan
unsur utama yang amat menentukan kejayaan sekolah. Kualiti
sekolah amat bergantung kepada kualiti pengetua pada sekolah
tersebut. Hussien, 2007, mengemukakan pengetua merupakan
pemangkin kepada kecermelangan sekolah. Hal ini juga disokong
oleh Levin dan Lockheed (2001), yang mengatakan bahwa maju
dan cemerlangnya sebuah sekolah adalah diterajuni oleh pengetua
yang berkesan. Oleh kerana itu, tidak ada sekolah yang menjadi
maju dan cemerlang sekiranya kepemimpinan pengetua pada
sekolah tersebut adalah lemah (Dessler, 2005). Sebaliknya sekolah
yang lemah boleh bertukar menjadi sekolah yang berkesan dan
berjaya dengan adanya kepemimpinan pengetua yang berkualiti,
(Hussien, 2007).
Sebagai pimpinan di sekolah pengetua memiliki beberapa
peran dalam melaksanakan tugas iaitu sebagai educator, maneger,
administrator, supervisor, lieder, inovator dan motivator (Mulyasa,
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245
2013). Kejayaan pengetua untuk melaksanakan tugas dan peran
tersebut dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor, satu dari faktor tersebut
adalah komitmen kerja pengetua dalam melaksanakan tugas.
Komitmen kerja merupakan faktor penentu kejayaan pengetua
dalam memimpin sekolah. Newstrom (2007) mentakrifkan
komitmen kerja boleh diertikan, sebagai kesetiaan pegawai
terhadap sejauh mana fasa atau darjah pengenalan diri pegawai
pada pekerjaan dan keinginan-keinginannya untuk meneruskan
penyertaan aktifitinya dalam organisasi dimana dia berada.
Sedangkan Feldman (2000) menyatakan, bahawa komitmen kerja
adalah kecenderungan seseorang untuk melibatkan diri ke dalam
apa yang dikerjakan dengan keyakinan bahawa aktiviti yang
dikerjakan penting dan bermakna. Kedua-dua pendapat di atas
pada asasnya mempunyai pandangan yang sama tentang komitmen
yaitu fasa keterikatan pegawai terhadap tugasnya. Sementara itu,
Greenberg dan Baron (2009) berpendapat bahawa komitmen
organisasi adalah sikap konsisten individu terhadap organisasi di
mana mereka bekerja. Sikap tersebut adalah sikap konsisten
individu terhadap mana mereka terlibat dengan pekerjaan mereka
dan tertarik untuk mempertahankan pekerjaannya. Selari dengan
itu Anthony (2009) mengemukakan komitmen kerja adalah adalah
penerimaan seseorang terhadap nilai pekerjaan atau bidang
pekerjaan yang dipilihnya, dan keinginan nutuk mempertahankan
kedudukan dalam tugas tersebut. Komitmen ada ketika manusia
mempunyai peluang untuk menentukan apa yang akan dilakukan.
Komitmen terhadap pekerjaan dikonseptualisasikan sebagai
hubungan psikologi antara orang dan pekerjaan yang terlibat
berasaskan pada reaksi afektif terhadap pekerjaan itu. Robbins
(2003) mengemukakan orang yang mempunyai komitmen terhadap
pekerjaan, akan bekerja secara total dalam organisasi dengan
memberikan segenap perhatian, fikiran, tenaga dan masa yang
dimilikinya untuk bekerja sehingga mencapai hasil yang optimum.
Sebaliknya orang yang tidak mempunyai komitmen, meskipun dia
mempunyai kompetensi yang bagus, dia akan bekerja setengah
hati. Komitmen mempunyai hubungan dengan kesetiaan, ketaatan
dan kepuasan kerja dalam organisasi. Orang yang berkomitmen
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tinggi lebih mementingkan pekerjaan dan tugas dalam memenuhi
kemahuan organisasi berbanding keperluan sendiri.
Orang yang memiliki komitmen kerja menurut Goleman
(1999) mempunyai ciri-ciri sebagai berikut (a) mempunyai inisiatif
untuk mengatasi masalah yang muncul, semada yang berhubungan
secara langsung dengan dirinya mahupun kumpulannya, (b)
bernuansa emosional, iaitu membuat sasaran individu dan sasaran
organisasi menjadi satu atau sama sehingga mereka merasakan
keterikatan yang kuat terhadap organisasi atau pekerjaan, (c)
bersedia melakukan pengorbanan atau berkorban apabila
diperlukan, (d) mempunyai visi strategik yang tidak mementingkan
diri sendiri, (e) bekerja secara sungguh-sungguh walaupun tanpa
ganjaran secara langsung, (f) merasa sebagai pemilik atau
memandang diri sebagai pemilik sehingga setiap tugas diselesaikan
secepat dan sebaik mungkin, (g) mempunyai rumusan misi dan visi
yang jelas sebagai gambaran terhadap apa yang akan dicapai, dan
(h) mempunyai kesedaran diri dengan perasaan yang jernih bahawa
pekerjaan bukanlah suatu beban, tetapi merupakan kesenangan
hobi yang dilakukan. Ciri-ciri di atas merupakan penentu bahawa
pada diri seseorang terdapat komitmen dalam melaksanakan
pekerjaan. Sementara itu Joseph (2002) mengemukakan beberapa
ciri-ciri orang yang mempunyai komitmen kerja dalam organisasi
iaitu, (a) mempunyai kepercayaan dan sokongan yang tinggi
terhadap nilai dan pekerjaan, (b) mempunyai keinginan berusaha
yang sungguh-sungguh untuk melaksanakan pekerjaan dalam
organisasi, (c) mempunyai keinginan untuk melaksanakan kerja
dengan baik dan memelihara keahlian organisasi, (d) mempunyai
keinginan kuat untuk tetap jadi ahli organisasi, (e) kesediaan untuk
tetap berusaha sebaik mungkin demi kepentingan organisasi, dan
(f) kepercayaan dan penerimaan yang kuat terhadap nilai dan
tujuan organisasi.
Hasilan kajian Nurliana (2011), mendapati bahawa komitmen
kerja pengetua di lingkungan Kementerian Pendidikan dalam
melaksanakan tugas masih dalam katagori rendah. Sedangkan
Imam Subandi (2012), menyatakan bahawa komitmen kerja
pengetua dalam melaksanakan tugas masih jauh dari yang
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diharapkan. Rendahnya komitmen kerja pengatua dalam
melaksanakan tugas terlihat dari kurangnya kerjasama pada
sekolah yang dipimpinnya, rendahnya tanggungjawab dan
kurangnya disiplin pengetua dalam melaksanakan tugas. Seperti
kerapnya pengetua meninggalkan sekolah untuk melakukan
pekerjaan yang kurang terkait dengan tugasnya di sekolah,
kurangnya pengawasan dan pembinaan yang mereka lakukan
semada terhadap pelajar mahupun terhadap cikgu sehingga kerap
terjadi konflik di sekolah, rendahnya disiplin di sekolah, hasilan
belajar siswa masih belum mencapai standard yang diharapkan.
Akibat dari permasalahan tersebut (rendahnya komitmen kerja
pengetua sekolah) kerap terjadi unjuk perasaan yang dilakukan
cikgu dan pelajar, mereka menuntut agar pengetua mundur dari
kedudukannya atau berhenti daripada pengetua, (Wahjosumidjo
2013). Hal tersebut jelas akan mengganggu kenyaman kegiatan
pembelajaran dan keberhasilan penyelenggaraan pendidikan di
sekolah untuk itu komitmen kerja pengetua dalam pengurusan
sekolah harus dipertingkatkan.
METODOLOGI
Kajian ini hanya berbentuk deskriptif, dengan populasi kajian
adalah Pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) Negeri
di Bandar Padang yang berjumlah sebanyak 37 orang. Kerana
populasi tidak begitu banyak atau besar (hanya 37 orang), maka
pada kajian ini tidak dilakukan pengambilan sampel, dengan lain
kata semua populasi dijadikan responden pada kajian ini.
Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan instrumen
dalam bentuk soal selidik yang disusun berdasarkan skala lima
mata. Jumlah soal selidik untuk mengukur komitmen afektif
sebanyak 11 item, soal selidik untuk mengukur komitmen
berketerusan sebanyak 11 item dan soal selidik untuk mengukur
komitmen normatif sebanyaak 10 item.
Hasil kajian rintis terhadap soal selidik didapatkan data bahawa
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soal selidik yang digunakan pada kajian ini memiliki keboleh
percayaan yang cukup tinggi dengan Alfa Cronbanch 0,96.
Manakala pengolahan data hanya dilakukan dengan mencari purata
dari masing-masing aspek yang dikaji (komitmen afektif,
komitmen berketerusan dan komitmen normatif).
DAPATAN KAJIAN DAN PERBINCANGAN
Kajian yang telah dilakukan tentang komitmen kerja Pengetua
pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) Negeri di Bandar Padang,
menunjukkan bahawa komitmen kerja pengetua sekolah sudah
cukup tinggi, semada komitmen afektif, komitmen berketerusan,
mahupun komitmen normatif. Untuk lebih jelasnya boleh dilihat
pada tabel berikut.
Jadual 1. Dapatan Kajian tentang Komitmen Kerja Pengetua
No
Bentuk Komitmen Kerja
Purata skor
1
Komitmen afektif
3,83
2
Komitmen berketerusan
4,12
3
Komitmen normatif
4,02
Purata
3,99
Data pada jadual di atas, menunjukkan bahawa komitmen
afektif pengetua yang terkait dengan keterikatan emosional,
identifikasi dan keterlibatannya untuk melaksanakan pekerjaan
dalam organisasi cukup tinggi iaitu 3,83 ertinya pengetua telah
memiliki komitmen afektif dalam melaksanakan tugas. Pengetua
yang memiliki komitmen afektif yang tinggi dalam melaksanakan
pekerjaan akan terus bekerja dalam organisasi, hal ini disebabkan
kerana mereka memang ingin (want to) untuk melaksanakan
melakukan pekerjaan tersebut, Greenberg dan Baron (2009).
Komitmen berketerusan dengan purata 4,12. Hal ini bererti
Pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama Negeri Bandar Padang
sudah memiliki komitmen berketerusan dalam melaksanakan
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tugas. Komitmen berketerusan berkaitan dengan pertimbangan
untung rugi yang dirasakan atau didapatkan pengetua untuk tetap
bekerja atau meninggalkan pekerjaan. Pengetua yang bekerja
berasaskan komitmen berketerusan bertahan (kekal) dalam
organisasi untuk melaksanakan pekerjaan sebab mereka ingin
(need to) untuk melakukan hal tersebut kerana tidak ada pilihan
lain.
Manakala purata komitmen normatif pengetua dalam
melaksanakan tugas adalah 4,02 ini juga mempunyai erti bahawa
pengetua juga sudah memiliki komitmen normatif dalam
melaksanakan tugas. Komitmen normatif berkaitan dengan
perasaan nilai ataupun norma yang ada pada diri pengetua untuk
tetap (kekal) menjadi sebahagian daripada pekerjaan kerana kerana
bekerja merupakan kewajiban yang harus dilakukan pegawai.
Berasaskan dapatan kajian ini boleh disimpulkan bahawa pada
amnya Pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama Negeri di
Bandar Padang telah memiliki komitmen yang cukup tinggi dalam
melaksanakan pekerjaan.
Walaupun pada amnya hasil kajian ini manunjukkan bahawa
pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) Negeri Bandar
Padang sudah cukup tinggi, namun masih perlu disempurnakan
atau dipertingkatkan agar kejayaan pada sekolah yang dipimpinnya
boleh dicapai, baik pada aspek komponen komitmen afektif,
berketerusan mahupun pada aspek komitmen normatif.
KESIMPULAN
Berasaskan dapatan pada kajian ini dapat disimpulkan bahawa
komitmen kerja pengetua pada Sekolah Menengah Pertama Bandar
Padang masih belum memuaskan dan masih perlu diperingkatkan,
baik komitmen afektif, berketerusan dan komitmen normatif. Hal
ini dilakukan untuk mencapai kejayaan pada sekolah yang
dipimpin oleh pengetua.
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Feldman, Robert S. (2000). Adjustment Applying Psychology in a
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Greenberg, Jerald and Robert A. Baron. (2009). Behavior in
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Motivasi Kerja terhadap Kinerja Pengawas Sekolah. (disertasi).
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Power and Influence in Organizations: Research in Management.
Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
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ASSESSMENT PRACTICES AND
PHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGICAL
BELIEFS
Lee Ween Shin, Fatin Aliah Phang
ABSTRAK
Studies have been conducted to compare epistemological beliefs
between learners and professionals with the assumption that
learners should develop their epistemological beliefs as
professionals as an outcome of instructional and assessment
practices. However, unaligned assessment practices within
instructional practices and learning outcomes had resulted in
epistemological beliefs and learning distortion. This study aim to
investigate learners’ epistemological beliefs and assessment
practices. Questionnaire was used and 55 undergraduates were
participated. As a result, learners hold mixed epistemological
beliefs towards assessment practices. Although learners hold high
epistemological beliefs towards the importance of conceptual
understanding in physics learning, problem solving, and the
denotation of effort in improving own physics understanding,
learners do not believed that assessment practices provide
necessary information in helping their conceptual understanding.
Furthermore, learners hold high dependency beliefs on course
material in order to score better in examination instead of their
own ability in knowledge construction.
Keywords: Epistemological beliefs, Assessment practices, Physics
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undergraduates
INTRODUCTION
Notably, promoting learners’ epistemological beliefs development
has been a common objective among educational institutions. In
order to produce professional graduates, it is essential to prepare
students with the epistemological beliefs of professionals (Biggs &
Tang, 2007). Various studies have been conducted to compare
epistemological beliefs between learners and professionals with the
assumption that learners should develop their epistemological
beliefs as professionals as an outcome of instructional and
assessment practices (Brewe et al., 2009; Elby, 2001; Lindsey et
al., 2012; Otero & Gray, 2008; Redish et al, 1998). However, the
fact that assessment practices are often not aligned with
instructional practices and learning outcomes distorts learning
(Biggs, 1996; Elby, 1999). The examination-oriented teaching and
learning practices have, sadly, shifted the learning objective from
conceptual understanding to merely passing examinations with
flying colours (Sharifah Maimunah, 2003). Tests that emphasize
on speed, efficiency, persistence, and memory retention are,
frankly speaking, not recommended for science learning (Confrey,
2006) because it hinders learners’ critical and reflective thinking
and gives a false impression that the ability to conquer test items is
all that required to master science knowledge.
According to Shay (2008), assessment is essential in
supporting teaching and learning, such as provide support for
future learning, information about performance, qualification
selective information, and information for stakeholders in judging
the effectiveness of teaching and learning system (Hornby, 2003).
However, Knight (2002) has highlighted 25 reasons of the
insufficient use of summative assessment in higher education. One
of his concerns is the epistemological assumption behind the
measurement. Learners who are exposed to instruction practices
that emphasize on sophisticated science epistemological beliefs
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development but are required to answer multiple choice
examination with a particular true answer or examination that
assess the retrieval of information and/or purely mathematics
calculation will cause conflicts between the nature of science
knowledge and knowing (Palmer & Marra, 2008). It is expected
that the learners’ cognitive level will be negatively influenced as
well to fit in the expected mode of assessment (Frederiksen &
Collins, 1989). Learners learn what they think will be assessed,
which means the kind of assessment drives how they learn (Brown
& Knight, 1994). If they were only required to recall, apply,
describe, and compare, then they will not unable to effectively
engage themselves in learning. Over concentration or dependence
on assessment and guidance does not warrant beneficial learning
experience. Hence, the purpose of this study is to understand how
assessment practices in university influences learners’
epistemological beliefs on knowledge and knowing.
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES AND EPISTEMOLOGICAL
BELIEFS
According to research, good grades often only require rote learning
and more time spent on using formula to solve exercises, not deep
conceptual understanding (Elby, 1999). Reward for rote learning
has been a factor that has contributed to learners’ different physics
epistemological beliefs on getting good grades and understanding
what is being learnt. Although solving physics problems is better
done by adopting deeper learning approach to understand the
question first, it can also be done by obtaining, plugging, and
chugging relevant solutions obtained from textbooks. Regardless
of the effort, the results may be the same. As such, examination
problems that can be solved by rote learning only are also
debatable because those assessments tasks may lead learners to
develop high certainty (absolute truth) and simplicity
(accumulation of facts) beliefs towards knowledge, and high
authority dependency beliefs towards knowing without own
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justification (knowledge is receiving rather than own construction).
Subsequently, Elby (2001) found out that effort based assignment
grading and test questions that demand explanations were
succeeded in improving learners’ physics epistemological beliefs.
Minimum grade was given to learners who had answered their
assignment and test questions using the solutions given by the
instructor. No plug-and-chug question was included in the test as it
would further reinforce the use of rote learning. As a result, learner
believed physics learning is more about conceptual understanding
than factual accumulation and memorization. Though it was also
believed that the improvement was not solely caused by the
assessment practices, it has proven that assessment practices do
exert sufficient influence on learners’ beliefs about learning.
In Hofer’s (2004) case study, although the study was not
focused on assessment practices solely, it has also been found that
learners’ epistemological beliefs about simplicity of knowledge are
related to assessment practices. The case study involved 25 first
year chemistry learners; 13 of them were from a conventional
general chemistry course while the rest were students of a
constructivist organic chemistry course. Both courses had openended questions for tests, but not for the final exam. The final
exam for general chemistry course consisted of multiple choice
questions while the organic chemistry course maintained its openended questions. The case study was done to elicit learners’
perception about the assessment practices and their perception on
their instructor’s choice of assessment. Results indicated that
learners with the perception of simple knowledge found openended questions problematic; they preferred replication of facts
and adopted memorization as their main learning strategy. On the
other hand, learners who perceived knowledge as an interrelation
of concepts valued open-ended exam questions since such
encouraged them to think creatively and learn more. Therefore, the
case study concluded that open-ended assessment practices help
learners to develop a more complex view of knowledge.
In addition, Hofer (2004) has also discovered that learners’
epistemological beliefs on the simplicity of knowledge worsens
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with instruction practices that emphasize on simple and formulaic
view of knowledge and at the same time involve assessment
practices that focus on open-ended questions only (Hofer, 2004).
The author opined that instruction practices which accentuate on
the development of learners’ epistemological beliefs may be
backwashed by un-aligned assessment practices.
Although it has been hypothesized that assessment practices exert
influences on learners’ beliefs about knowledge and knowing
(Hofer & Pintrich, 1997, Muis et al., 2006; Palmar & Marra,
2008), there are limited empirical research that solely investigate
the impact of assessment practices on learners’ epistemological
beliefs, which suggest the need for a study to explore learners’
perspectives on assessment practices in influencing their
epistemological beliefs.
PHYSICS EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS
As one of the science subject, physics was perceived as the
toughest subject by learners (Sands, 2004) because of the
numerous theories, laws, and formulae (Ornek et al., 2008).
According to research, there are learners who believe that physics
consists of symbols, purely algorithm, absolute truth, and unrelated
pieces of information. This type of learners also sees the learning
and justification of physics as highly depended on authorities such
as lecturers and books. Therefore, they often neglect themselves as
the knower or learner who have the abilities to construct physics
knowledge (Hammer, 1994; Redish et al., 1998; Elby, 1999; Elby,
2001; Lising & Elby, 2005; Adam et al., 2006; Gray et al., 2008).
On the other hand, learners tend to adopt different learning
strategies in physics learning, though these learning strategies are
attached from the beliefs a learner holds about knowledge and
knowing (Lising & Elby, 2005; Richter & Schmid, 2009). For
learners who believe that physics knowledge is about symbols and
is purely algorithms, they tend to learn and solve physics problems
by manipulating mathematics equations as well as plug and chug
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algorithm to appropriate formula. As for learners who believe that
physics knowledge is made up of concepts which are represented
by symbols and algorithms, they prefer learning and solving
physics problems through conceptual understanding (Hammer,
1994). In addition, for those who believe that physics is about
absolute truth and unrelated pieces of information, they see physics
as a subject that requires intense memorization instead of a deep
understanding on key basic ideas (Elby, 2001).
METHOD
Since assessment practices hold the backwash effect on instruction
practices and were served as an important aspect in influencing
learners’ beliefs and their subsequent learning strategy, this survey
study focused on learners’ perspective on assessment practices in
influencing their physics epistemological beliefs.
A total of 55 physics undergraduates were asked to complete a
Likert scale questionnaire, namely Maryland Physics Expectations
(MPEX) after a semester of study in university. The questionnaire
was developed by Redish et al., (1998) to probe learners’ physics
epistemological beliefs about physics courses. Since the
questionnaire is focused on learners’ physics epistemological
beliefs, item related to assessment had been included. Descriptive
statistic was used to analyzed and illustrate the result of this study
since ordinal scale was defined. The results obtained were
compared to expert scores as provided by the original
questionnaire. Learners showed higher physics epistemological
beliefs if their responses are similar to expert score, and lower
physics epistemological beliefs if their responses are different from
expert score.
However, the purpose of this study focused on assessment
practices, thus, only items related to assessment were analyzed.
Table 1 indicates the items from MPEX which reflect the effect of
assessment on learners’ physics epistemological beliefs. For
example, item 3, 24, and 31, more expert-like responses indicated
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that the learners had made the effort to use information available
and tried to make sense of the information. On the other hand, item
13 measures the independent dimension of learners’
epistemological beliefs, i.e., whether the learners have been
independent and responsible in their learning and construction of
their own understanding. If the learner felt that physics and
mathematics were unrelated and isolated knowledge, then they
would state in item 20 that they could not derive mathematics
equations from physics concept in examinations. Furthermore,
item 26 measures the learners’ tendency to rely on memorization
and usage of formula in solving questions rather than explicitly
ponder on the physics concepts. Item 11 and 33 are unstated to any
epistemological belief dimension by Redish et al., (1998); they
measure learners’ perception on their grades. These items have
been included may due to the possibility that the learners do not
see getting grade A as the same as understanding physics, and
therefore may have used different strategies for both cases (Elby,
1999). Table 1 also summarized the items regarding assessment
practices in MPEX based on responses of expert.
Table 1: Item MPEX on assessment practices
Item
Questions
3
I go over my class note carefully
to prepare for tests in this course.
A good understanding of physics
is necessary for me to achieve my
career goals. A good grade in this
course is not enough.
My grade in this course is
primarily determined by how
familiar I am with the material.
Insight or creativity has little to do
with it.
If I don’t remember a particular
equation needed for a problem in
an exam there’s nothing much I
can do (legally!) to come up with
it.
The results of an exam don’t give
11
13
20
24
Expert
Responses
Agree
or
Strongly Agree
Agree
or
Strongly Agree
Dimension
Effort
-
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
or
Independence
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
or
Math Link
Disagree
or
Effort
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259
26
31
33
me any useful guidance to
improve my understanding of the
course material. All the learning
associated with an exam is in the
studying I do before it takes place.
When I solve most exam or
homework problems, I explicitly
think about the concepts that
underlie the problem.
I use the mistakes I make on
homework and on exam problems
as clues to what I need to do to
understand the material better.
It is possible to pass this course
(get a “C” or better) without
understanding physics very well.
Strongly
Disagree
Agree
or
Strongly Agree
Concepts
Agree
or
Strongly Agree
Effort
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
or
-
RESULT
The data collected from respondents were compared to expert
responses. Similarity percentage was calculated where
respondents’ responses were similar to expert responses.
Respondents’ responses showed high percentage of similarity
score on item 3 (83.64%), item 11 (80.00%), item 26 (80.00%),
and item 31 (87.27%) compared to expert responses. On the other
hand, respondents showed low percentage of similarity core on
item 13 (14.55%), item 20 (27.27%), item 24 (12.73%), and item
33 (38.18%).
Table 2: Respondents’ similarity score percentage at beginning
and end of semester
Item
Questions
Expert
Responses
Similarity percentage
compared to expert
responses
3
I go over my class note carefully to
prepare for tests in this course.
Agree or
Strongly Agree
83.64%
11
A good understanding of physics is
necessary for me to achieve my
career goals. A good grade in this
course is not enough.
Agree or
Strongly Agree
80.00%
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13
20
24
26
31
33
My grade in this course is primarily
determined by how familiar I am
with the material. Insight or
creativity has little to do with it.
If I don’t remember a particular
equation needed for a problem in an
exam there’s nothing much I can do
(legally!) to come up with it.
The results of an exam don’t give
me any useful guidance to improve
my understanding of the course
material. All the learning associated
with an exam is in the studying I do
before it takes place.
When I solve most exam or
homework problems, I explicitly
think about the concepts that
underlie the problem.
I use the mistakes I make on
homework and on exam problems as
clues to what I need to do to
understand the material better.
It is possible to pass this course (get
a
“C”
or
better)
without
understanding physics very well.
Disagree or
Strongly
Disagree
14.55%
Disagree or
Strongly
Disagree
27.27%
Disagree or
Strongly
Disagree
12.73%
Agree or
Strongly Agree
80.00%
Agree or
Strongly Agree
87.27%
Disagree or
Strongly
Disagree
38.18%
DISCUSSION
The overall result of this study indicated that learners hold mixed
physics epistemological beliefs towards physics assessment
practices. Although learners hold high physics epistemological
beliefs regarding their ability in make use of physics assessment
practices in providing information on their misconception and
improving their conceptual understanding (item 31- 87.27%),
learners does not believed that the result from physics assessment
practices in the course was able to provide the said information
(item 24 – 12.73%). Learners believed that learning associated
with physics examination is regarding the study process conducted
before the examination (item 24), where the effort devoted in the
studying of course material is necessary in preparing for
examination (item 3 – 83.64%), but the circumstances were
suggested to lead them to hold high dependence beliefs on the
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course material instead of their own ability and creative thinking in
learning (item 13 – 14.55%). A possible explanation for this might
be that learners learn what they think will be assessed in the
examination (Brown & Knight, 1994). Learners may perceive that
the more familiar with the course material is necessary for getting
better result in the examination. Besides that, although learners
believed that problem solving is in need with the use of concepts
(item 26 – 80.00%); they were not believed that they hold the
ability to relate or to derive mathematics formula from physics
concepts (item 20 – 27.27%). Lastly, learners believed that grade
in a course are not necessary to help them in achieving career goal
(item 11 – 80.00%). However, they believed that without
conceptual understanding, they are still able to pass the assessment
needed in the particular course (item 33 – 38.18%). This finding is
in agreement with Elby’s (1999) finding which showed that
understanding physics and scoring better result in physics course
were two significant different activities from learners’ perspective.
CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, although learners hold high epistemological
beliefs towards the importance of conceptual understanding in
physics learning, problem solving, and the denotation of effort in
improving own physics understanding, learners do not believed
that assessment practices provide necessary information in helping
their conceptual understanding. Furthermore, learners hold high
dependency beliefs on course material in order to score better in
examination instead of their own ability in knowledge
construction. It is therefore that backwash effect of assessment
practices are likely to occur. However, these quantitative data must
be interpreted with caution because it provides limited alternative
explanation to the circumstances. Hence, further study is needed to
understand how and why assessment practices influence learners’
epistemological beliefs and their subsequent learning strategy.
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PENERAPAN STRATEGI
PENGUTARAAN MASALAH
UNTUK MENINGKATKAN
KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR ARAS
TINGGI
Vinogharri Muniandy
ABSTRAK
Kajian tinjauan ini dijalankan bertujuan mengenalpasti tahap
Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT), strategi pengutaraan
masalah dalam kalangan pelajar kimia, dan jenis-jenis pengutaraan
masalah yang diaplikasikan oleh pelajar kimia. Kajian ini
menentukan hubung kait di antara strategi pengutaraan masalah
dan meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi, mengenalpasti
proses pengutaraan masalah dalam kalangan pelajar kimia. Oleh
itu kajian ini mengkaji penerapan strategi pengutaraan masalah
bagi meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi. Sampel kajian
terdiri daripada 370 pelajar tingkatan empat aliran sains yang
mengambil mata pelajaran kimia di tiga buah sekolah sekitar
Bandar Kajang. Data diperoleh melalui Ujian Kemahiran Berfikir
Aras Tinggi dan Temubual Seapara Berstruktur Kemahiran
Berfikir Aras Tinggi. Data kajian ini, dianalisis dengan
menggunakan Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)
version 17 dan ditunjukkan dalam frekuensi, peratus dan min.
Aspek lain yang masih mefokuskan bagi penerapan startegi
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pengutaraan masalah dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran agar
meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi seperti dalam PPPM.
Kata Kunci: Penerapan Strategi Pengutraan Masalah Untuk
Meningkatkan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi
PENGENALAN
Malaysia adalah sebuah negara yang sedang membangun dan
berhasrat untuk menjadi negara maju dalam semua sektor seperti
sektor perindustrian, pertanian dan sebagainya. Bagi mencapai
hasrat ini, negara kita memerlukan masyarakat saintifik yang
dilahirkan melalui sebuah sistem pendidikan sains yang berkualiti
yang menekankan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi. Penekanan
Kurikulum Sains adalah pada penguasaan kemahiran saintifik dan
kemahiran berfikir. Sekiranya pada masa dahulu, Kurikulum
Kebangsaan lebih mementingkan pelajar mengulangi fakta yang
telah dipelajari, kini salah satu objektif utama dalam kurikulum
sains adalah untuk membolehkan pelajar memilih, menganalisis
dan menilai maklumat dengan bijak dan berkesan (Bahagian
Pembangunan Kurikulum, 2013). Dalam merealisasikan hasrat ini,
pendidikan sains dalam Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah
(KBSR) dan Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM)
diwacanakan agar berupaya membentuk rakyat Malaysia yang
bersikap saintifik dan nilai murni termasuk perasaan ingin tahu,
berfikiran terbuka, tabah dan prihatin.
Sehubungan itu, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia telah
menyediakan tambahan sebanyak
500 juta ringgit bagi
melaksanakan Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (PPPM),
2013-2025. Hasrat PPPM adalah membangun transformasi
kurikulum pendidikan bagi memastikan masyarakat Malaysia
mencapai kesan yang positif dan melahirkan generasi yang mampu
bersaing. Kualiti pendidikan sebuah negara ditetapkan dalam
indikator pencapaian Trends in International Mathematics and
Science Study (TIMSS) dan Programme For International Student
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Assessment (PISA). Pelaksanan PPPM bagi tahun 2013, telah
memberi kecemerlangan dalam sistem pendidikan dan
mengariskan 25 inisiatif agar agenda progam transformasi
memberi impak yang positif dan kepuasan kepada rakyat serta
melahirkan masyarakat berfikrah. Antaranya, inisiatif peningkatan
kemahiran guru dan murid dalam TIMSS dan PISA serta inisiatif
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi.
PENCAPAIAN MALAYSIA DALAM TIMSS DAN PISA
Usaha Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia yang meletakkan elemen
kemahiran berfikir seperti kritis dan kreatif dalam satu set
pengajaran dan pembelajaran bagi membolehkan para pelajar
mampu melaksanakan pertimbangan penyelesaian yang wajar.
Secara langsung dan tidak langsung, kerajaan telah mengambil
langkah awal dengan menyertai bahagian dalam pentaksiran
antarabangsa bagi menguji tahap pencapaian berkaitan bidang
sains dan matematik agar meningkatkan kualiti pendidikan negara
di mana duduk sama rendah dan bertinggi sama tinggi dengan
negara maju.
Rajah 1.1 Kedudukan sains – Malaysia dalam PISA
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Walaupun pelbagai insiatif telah dilaksanakan, namun
kebanyakkan pelajar Malaysia tidak menunjukkan pencapaian
PISA dan TIMSS yang memuaskan kerana cepat berputus harapan
selepas melihat soalan yang berteks panjang dan berasa bosan
ketika membaca soalan sepertinya. Selain itu, pelajar menjawab
soalan sewenang sahaja akhirnya menjejaskan imej pendidikan
Malaysia di pentas dunia. (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia,
2013). PISA yang mengukur kefahaman mengenai real-life skills
yang berkaitan bacaan, matematik dan sains yang menfokuskan
kepada kehidupan harian seperti kesihatan, muka bumi,
persekitaran dan sebagaian. Kandungan penilaian bagi
meningkatkan maklumat mengenai sikap pelajar dan pendekatan
kepada pembelajaran, suasana pembelajaran dan organisasi
persekolahan. Rajah 1.1 dan 1.2 menunjukkan tahap kecekapan
pelajar dalam sains di dalam PISA. Pencapaian ini amat
membimbangkan dan mengejutkan maka kerajaan mengambil
langkah yang manfaat menetapkan sasaran di bawah PPPM bagi
pencapaian kedudukan Malaysia skor purata 500 di TIMSS pada
tahun 2015 dan menjelang tahun 2025 pencapaian Malaysia satu
pertiga teratas dalam TIMSS dan PISA.
Rajah 1.2 Tahap kecekapan Dalam Sains
Rajah 1.3 juga menunjukkan data kajian daripada Trends in
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International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) pada tahun
2011 kurang memberangsangkan dan pencapaian sains semakin
merosot iaitu kedudukan Malaysia berada di tangga ke-32
daripada 45 negara peserta berbanding dengan kedudukan ke-21
pada tahun 2007. TIMSS merupakan indikator keberkesanan
dalam pendidikan sains dan matematik di peringkat antarabangsa.
Oleh itu, inisiatif ke arah meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras
tinggi dalam kalangan pelajar amat diperlukan. Maka, dua
daripada 25 inisiatif PPPM bagi tahun 2013 berkaitan kemahiran
berfikir aras tinggi berkaitan pendidikan sains dan matematik dan
memberi kesedaran kepada masyarakat untuk perubahan set minda
serta amalan pendekatan seluruh sekolah.
Rajah 1.3 Purata Skor TIMSS 1999, 2003, 2007 dan 2011
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
(TIMSS) dibangunkan oleh IEA bagi mengukur keupayaan dan
kebolehan pelajar dalam bidang sains dan matematik. Pentaskiran
global ini berfokus kepada kuantiti, kualiti dan kandungan
pembelajaran dan pengajaran. TIMSS membantu mengesan tahap
pelajar dalam kategori dan setiap empat tahun sekali pengukuran
prestasi antarabangsa dijalankan oleh IEA. Objektif utama
indikator adalah penambahbaikan trend pencapaian pelajar dalam
mata pelajaran sains dan matematik serta penekanan kepada isi
kandungan kurikulum untuk menganalisa faktor-faktor yang
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mendorong pencapaian pelajar di peringkat pentas dunia. Justeru
itu, kelemahan yang ditunjukkan oleh pencapaian pelajar dalam
kedua-dua PISA dan TIMSS ini terutamanya menujukkan pretasi
yang membimbangkan dan memerlukan usaha penambahbaikan
dilakukan.
PENEKANAN KURIKULUM PEMBELAJARAN
Pendidikan sains merangkumi dua kemahiran penting iaitu
kemahiran proses sains dan kemahiran berfikir di mana kemahiran
berfikir dibahagi kepada kategori seperti pemikiran kritis dan
kreatif (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah, 2012).
Pemikiran kritis dan kreatif penting untuk menekankan
pembelajaran berfikrah dan meningkatkan daya berkifir dalam
kalangan pelajar. Kurikulum sains Malaysia telah membahagi
mata pelajaran sains elektif di peringkat menengah atas dan terdiri
daripada fizik, kimia, biologi dan sains tambahan. Pada tahun
1972, mata pelajaran kimia telah diperkenalkan di sekolah
menengah di negara ini dengan bertujuan untuk membentuk minat
pelajar dalam kimia serta menambah pengetahuan dalam mata
pelajaran kimia bagi memenuhi prasyarat untuk menceburi bidang
kimia dan teknologi di peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Pembelajaran
kimia memerlukan gabungan pelbagai elemen penting seperti
kemahiran berfikir, kemahiran belajar cara belajar, kemahiran
teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi, kajian masa depan,
kecerdasan pelbagai, pembelajaran konstruktivisme dan
kontekstual (Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, 2001).
Kajian juga mendapati, kemerosotan kedudukan Malaysia
dalam PISA dan TIMSS juga berkaitan dengan peranan guru yang
kurang memberi penekanan dan hanya bergiat menghabiskan
silibus mata pelajaran sahaja. Guru memberi keutamaan bagi
mengejar sukatan pelajaran untuk menyediakan pelajar
menghadapi peperiksaan awam. Secara tidak langsung, guru
menggunakan laluan pintas untuk proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran dengan melompat terus ke konsep mengaplikasi
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tanpa memahami sesuatu konsep. Pelajar dilatih oleh guru untuk
membuat latih tubi dan soalan-soalan tahun lepas dengan membuat
persedian untuk menjawab soalan peperiksaan. Sasaran yang
ditetapkan di bawah PPPM 2013-2015 akan meningkatkan
kedudukan Malaysia ke tangga satu pertiga atas dalam TIMSS dan
PISA. Penerapan kemahiran berfikir dalam kurikulum
pembelajaran akan memudahkan pelajar membiasakan diri untuk
menjawab soalan yang pentakisran antarabangsa dan
penambahbaikan kurikulum selaras era dunia akan membantu
meningkatkan kualiti pendidikan negara.
Terdapat banyak elemen yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi iaitu penggubalan Kurikulum
Standard Sekolah Rendah, Kurikulum Standard Sekolah
Menengah, pelaksanaan Program i-Think, dan strategi pengutaraan
masalah. Tambahan pula, strategi pengutaraan masalah adalah satu
strategi yang dicipta oleh pendidik Brazil Paulo Freire pada tahun
1970 dalam buku Pedagogy of the Oppressed Problem untuk
memperkenalkan satu keadah mengajar yang menekankan
pemikiran kritis dan sebagai alternatif kepada pengajaran
tradisional. Strategi ini amat berguna untuk meningkatkan
kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi kerana secara tidak langsung ia
merangsang pemikiran kreatif dan kritis seseorang pelajar.
Pendidikan sains merangkumi dua kemahiran penting iaitu
kemahiran proses sains dan kemahiran berfikir di mana kemahiran
berfikir dibahagi kepada kategori seperti pemikiran kritis dan
kreatif (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah, 2012).
Pemikiran kritis dan kreatif penting untuk menekankan
pembelajaran berfikrah dan meningkatkan daya berfikir dalam
kalangan pelajar. Kurikulum sains Malaysia telah membahagi
mata pelajaran sains elektif di peringkat menengah atas dan terdiri
daripada fizik, kimia, biologi dan sains tambahan. Pada tahun
1972, mata pelajaran kimia telah diperkenalkan di sekolah
menengah di negara ini dengan bertujuan untuk membentuk minat
pelajar dalam kimia serta menambah pengetahuan dalam mata
pelajaran kimia bagi memenuhi prasyarat untuk menceburi bidang
kimia dan teknologi di peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Pembelajaran
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kimia memerlukan gabungan pelbagai elemen penting seperti
kemahiran berfikir, kemahiran belajar cara belajar, kemahiran
teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi, kajian masa depan,
kecerdasan pelbagai, pembelajaran konstruktivisme dan
kontekstual (Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, 2001). Tanpa
mengetahui konsep, semua pembelajaran adalah menjadi
pembelajaran hafalan dan bukan lagi pempelajaran bermakna
(Alias, 1998). Pelajar yang hanya mampu memahami dan
menghafal tetapi tidak dapat mengaplikasikan pengetahuan mereka
akan merendah tahap pencapaian dengan lebih cemerlang.
LATAR BELAKANG MASALAH
Sistem pendidikan Malaysia dengan jelas menggariskan elemen
aspirasi pelajar untuk mencapai alam persekolahan iaitu kemahiran
berfikir, pengetahuan, etika, kerohanian, identiti
nasional,
dwibahasa dan kepimpinan. Ia bertujuan sistem persekolahan
bukan sahaja mampu melahirkan murid yang cemerlang tetapi juga
berfikir aras tinggi dan mampu mencipta. Oleh itu, transformasi
kurikulum pendidikan penting bagi sebuah negara untuk
melahirkan generasi yang mampu berfikir aras tinggi selaras
dengan negara maju lain. Ia sejajar denga pendapat Rajendran
(1998) bahawa kemajuan sebuah negara bergantung kepada tahap
ilmu dan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi yang telah dikuasai oleh
rakyat sesebuah negara.
Konsep KBAT diperkenalkan dalam Pelan Pembangunan
Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025 bagi memupuk kemahiran
berfikir dan menjana daya cipta dalam kalangan pelajar.
Transformasi kurikulum pendidikan akan mengubah pengajaran
dan pembelajaran supaya pelajar tidak lagi hanya memahami dan
menghafal sahaja. Pembelajaran kimia yang berkesan dan efektif
memerlukan pelajar menengah atas mefokuskan kepada KBAT
(Anderson & Krathwoht, 2001) iaitu mengalpikasi, menganalisa,
menilai dan mencipta semasa pembelajaran dan pengajaran.
KBAT ini juga sesuai untuk semua jenis tahap pelajar di mana
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bukan tertumpu kepada pelajar pintar dan harus ditingkatkan agar
melahirkan insan yang mampu berfikir saintifik. Secara langsung
dan tidak lansung ia amat berkait rapat dengan kepentingan KBAT
dalam pendidikan kimia.
Kepentingan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) dalam
Pendidikan Sains
Cabaran mentakrifkan kemahiran berfikir, taakulan, kritikal dan
penyelesaian masalah telah dikenali sebagai sebuah konsep dalam
kajian. Dalam abad ke-21, pemikiran kritikal amat diititikberatkan
yang melibatkan kreatif, kommunikasi, pengetahuan, penyelesaian
masalah, bertanggungjawab dan bekerja secara kumpulan.
Kemahiran berfikir ini mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting
bagi menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas, kreatif dan inovatif
agar kita dapat memenuhi cabaran hidup dalam era yang canggih
ini serta mampu bersaing di pentas antarabangsa. Malangnya
negara kita, penguasaan kemahiran berfikir aras rendah (KBAR) di
tangga teratas dan kebanyakkan pelajar hanya mampu memahami
dan menghafal sesuatu fakta dan tidak mencuba aras yang
seterusnya ( Selvaratnam, 1983).
Ia menimbulkan persolan kenapa pelajar mudah mencapai
kemahiran berfikir aras rendah (KBAR)? Ia disebabkan pelajar
tidak perlu memberi penjelasan terhadap soalan yang berunsur
definisi semata-mata, tidak memerlukan bukti yang munasabah,
tiada perbandingan dan pelajar perlu menjawab satu jawapan
sahaja. Oleh itu, pelajar tidak perlu untuk mencari jawapanjawapan alternatif dan bergantung kepada satu jawapan tetap.
Maka, kita telah mengikat kebolehan pelajar untuk mengajukan
soalan atau jawapan yang berasa logik dengan penetapan setiap
soalan hanya menperuntukkan satu jawapan. ( Kementerian
Pelajaran Malaysia, 2013).
Sebenarnya KBAT berorentasikan penyelesaian masalah
mencabar dan merangsang penggunaan pengetahuan sedia ada,
mampu mencabar masalah yang tidak pernah dialami, dan sentiasa
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berfikir penyelesaian bukan satu sahaja. Justeru KBAT amat
diperlukan dalam pendidikan negara agar sistem pendidikan dapat
duduk sama rendah, berdiri sama tinggi di persada dunia. Walau
bagaimanapun, banyak kajian-kajian didapati wujud pelbagai
kelemahan dalam penerapan KBAT di sekolah dan tidak seperti
yang dihajatkan.
Kelemahan Penerapan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi
(KBAT) di sekolah
Kajian menunjukkan pelajar Malaysia dalam ujian Trend
Pendidikan Sains dan Matematik (TIMSS) dan Program Penilain
Murid Antarabangsa (PISA) pada tahap yang kurang memuaskan.
Mengikut Taksonomi Bloom, soalan-soalan di dalam TIMMS dan
PISA adalah pada aras tinggi tetapi pelajar Malaysia hanya
memahami dan mengingat sesuatu fakta serta tidak mampu
mengaitkan dengan kehidupan atau mengaplikasikan fakta yang
dipelajari sebelum ini. Pelajar mengalami kesukaran
mengakodomasikan penbelajara Menurut Gabel (1998), pdp kimia
lebih berfokus kepada fakta dan pengetahuan iaitu pelajar hanya
berfokus kepada teknik menghafal dan mengingat sahaja. Pelajar
hanya bersifat reproduction iaitu menghafal konsep penting dan
meluahkan jawapan yang betul dalam peperiksaan (Wenning,
2002).
Mageswari, Zurida & Norita (2007) telah menerangkan bahawa
kemerosotan kurikulum kimia kerana pelajar kimia kurang
memberi penekanan kepada KBAT dan hanya menghafal dan
mengingat sahaja. Ia turut disokong oleh Lawson (2002) yang
menjelaskan pelajar hanya mefokuskan kepada peperiksaan dan
hanya perlu mengetahui jawapan yang betul tetapi pelajar tidak
mahu berfikir. Di sekolah, mata pelajaran elektif seperti (biologi,
kimia dan fizik) lebih menekankan pembelajaran tradisional iaitu
pembelajaran berpusat guru dan pelajar akan menyalin nota
ringkas atau latihan (Rajendran, 2001; Yoong Suan & Aminah,
2005). Guru juga salah anggap bahawa KBAT adalah proses
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pembelajaran yang boleh diguna pakai oleh pelajar yang pintar dan
tidak sesuai untuk semua jenis pelajar. Maka, guru kurang
memberi penekanan kepada KBAT dalam PdP dan kurang
mengalakkan pelajar untuk menyoal (Philip, 1992).
Selain itu, penglibatan pelajar dalam aktiviti makmal seperi
menjalankan eksperimen, menulis laporan, membuat hipotesis
adalah amat lemah kerana penggunaan kemahiran berfikir aras
rendah (KBAR) berbanding KBAT sebagaimana yang
dikemukakan oleh Domain (1999). Menurut Zohar (2004), guru
sebagai agen menghantar maklumat atau fakta dan pelajar tidak
membina fakta daripada sumber lain unruk meningkatkan KBAT.
Shariha (2005) menyatakan kemahiran proses sains adalah pada
tahap yang lemah dan penglibatkan dalam KBAT kurang
digalakkan. KBAT juga memerlukkan guru mengajar untuk
merangsang pelajar berfikir secara eksplisit ketika menjalankan
pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang kurang dilaksanakan oleh guruguru. (Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, 2012). Ia menimbulkan
persoalan apakah tahap KBAT di kalangan pelajar di Malaysia
sebenarnya? Justeru itu, masalah ini perlu diatasi melalui strategi
pengutaraan masalah.
Membangunkan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT)
melalui Strategi Pengutaraan Masalah
Strategi pengutaraan masalah adalah menjana masalah baru atau
mencipta semula satu masalah yang sedia ada (Duncker, 1945).
Strategi ini memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menemui
masalah baru dan menyelesaikan dengan yakin. English (1997)
menjelaskan bahawa pendekatan strategi pengutaraan masalah
dapat membantu pelajar meningkatkan keyakinan dan kesukaan
terhadap mata pelajaran matematik. Proses yang mengarahkan
pelajar untuk membina soalan daripada kehidupan harian, situasi
dan sebagainya. Ia adalah pertukaran tanggungjawab pengutaraan
masalah daripada guru kepada pelajar di mana mendorong pelajar
untuk pembelajaran kendiri tanpa berpusat guru dan memberi
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peluang kepada pelajar untuk berfikir aras tinggi.
Transformasi pendidikan bukan suatu perkara yang mudah
dilakukan oleh guru mahupun pelajar sendiri. Namun demikian,
kepentingan PPPM 2013 menjadi aspirasi kementerian untuk
berupaya bersaing pada peringkat global dan membuat perubahan
yang diperlukan harus difahami oleh guru. Guru hendak
menyediakan suasana yang mampu merangsang pelajar untuk turut
berfikir aras tinggi dengan mendorong pelajar memikirkan tentang
aoa yang mereka belajar jauh lebih lama dari masa di kelas. Di
sekolah, guru harus giat dan memiliki ilmu pengetahuan agar
menyebatikan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dalam proses
penbelajaran dan pengajaran.
Dalam Taksonomi Bloom, kemahiran berfikir atas tinggi
dirujuk kepada empat aras teratas iaitu mengaplikasi, menganalisa,
menilai dan mencipta (Bloom, 1956). Fenomena sekolah kini, guru
hanya mengikat daya pemikiran pelajar dalam aras terbawah iaitu
memahami dan menghafal. Apabila pelajar mampu menghafal
maka tiada peluang untuk daya pemikiran kritikal dan guru
mengejar silibus matapelajaran. Sesiapa sahaja boleh menghafal
tanpa memahami sesuatu konsep. Selain itu, kebanyakan pihak
masih kurang arif dan keliru dengan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi
apatah dan cara mempraktikkan kemahiran ini dalam pengajaran
dan pembelajaran di sekolah. Pengajaran dan pembelajaran kimia
di dalam bilik darjah dimonopoli oleh guru dengan memberi segala
fakta dan menjadi pelajar menjadi pasif. Guru harus dilatih untuk
menwujudkan suasana di bilik darjah untuk penerapan pemikiran
yang meluas dan mendalam semasa pembelajaran dan pengajaran.
Soalan yang memerlukan kemahiran yang tinggi bagi
membolehkan pelajar mengaplikasi, menganalisa, mensintesis dan
menilai suatu maklumat daripada sekadar menyatakan semula
fakta.
Menurut English (1997) strategi pengutaraan masalah dalam
mata pelajaran matematik telah mula diterapkan dapat membantu
pelajar mengembangkan keyakinan dan kesukaan terhadap mata
pelajaran matematik. Strategi ini meningkatkan pemikiran pelajar
ke tahap yang tinggi dan dikembangkan pada mata pelajaran yang
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lain. Pelajar giat mengutarakan soalan mengikut pengetahuan dan
menyelesaikan masalah dengan kemampuan pelajar. Dengan ini,
pelajar akan mampu berfikir dengan kritikal dan kreatif serta
mencari jawapan sendiri tanpa bertanya kepada guru sahaja. Salah
satu faktor yang mendorong mencapai KBAT dan mampu
menyelesaikan soalan yang memcabar dalam TIMSS dan PISA
adalah mengunakan strategi yang tetap untuk mengukur tahap
pelajar iaitu strategi pengutaraan masalah.
Strategi dalam Pengutaraan Masalah
Strategi pengutaraan masalah merupakan pembelajaran dan
banyak digunakan dalam bidang matematik. Ia berfungsi untuk
mendorong keefektifan belajar secara kendiri dalam kalangan
pelajar bukan sekadar menerima namun berusaha dengan gigih
untuk mencari dan meningkatkan ilmu pengetahuan. Strategi ini
menguji kemampuan pelajar untuk membuat pelbagai jenis soalan
mengikut tahap di dalam Taksonomi Bloom secara optimum. Hasil
kajian Silver dan Cai (1996) menunjukkan bahawa pengutaraan
masalah adalah suatu strategi yang berkolerasi positif dengan
kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah dan pengembangan
kemampuan pelajar. Strategi pengutaraan masalah dan
pengetahuan prosedur adalah suatu pengukuran yang baik untuk
mengenal pasti kebolehpercayaan KBAT. Secara tidak langsung,
mengembangkan suatu masalah melalui pengubalan soalan,
menambahkan data-data baru, menghilangkan beberapa data,
mengubah pembolehubah atau membentuk masalah baru
berdasarkan pada idea-idea yang sudah ada (NCTM, 2000)
Chistou et. al (2005) menyatakan pengutaraan masalah
dikategorikan kepada menyunting, memilih, memahami dan
menterjemahkan manakala Cruz Ramirez (2006) mencadangkan
pengutaraan masalah dalam matematik kepada enam cara iaitu
memilih, mengelaskan, mengumpul, mencari, mengubah dan
menimbulkan masalah. Pelajar akan membina soalan sendiri
dengan menggunakan perkataan, ayat, dan bahasa secara sendiri
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berkaitan masalah yang diberikan (Dickerson, 1999). Strategi
pengutaraan masalah akan merangsang pelajar untuk berfikir aras
tinggi dan memudahkan proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran.
Md. Nor and Ilfi (2012) menjelaskan bahawa pelajar menengah
atas mempunyai kebolehan pengutaraan masalah dengan menjana
pelbagai soalan. Menyedari potensi kekuatan strategi pengutaraan
masalah dalam membangunkan KBAT ini, kajian terhadap strategi
pengutaraan masalah pelajar perlu dilakukan. Ia juga dapat
menwujudkan hubungan dengan KBAT dalam kalangan pelajar
dan akan difokuskan dalam kajian ini.
Jenis-jenis pengutaraan masalah
Pengutaraan masalah ialah satu bahagian yang penting dalam
proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran serta cara memulakan
pengutaraan soal dengan pengetahuan sedia ada yang
memperkembangkan idea-idea yang baru. Dalam kajian Clasen
dan Bonk (1990), ,menjelaskan bagi menransangkan pemikiran
pelajar dengan banyak strategi wujud yang boleh memberi impak
kepada pelajar dan soalan uang diutarakan oleh guru mempunyai
kesan impak yang terbesar. Secara langung dan tidak langsung,
tahap pemikiran pelajar akan berkadar langsung dengan tahap
persoalan yang diajukan oleh guru. In disebabkan guru harus
merancang strategi yang membangunkan setiap tahap dengan
pelbagai jenis-jenis pengutaraan soalan. Biasanya, pelajar
memerlukan pengalaman yang peringkat tinggi untuk menjawab
soalan aras tinggi. Chin, C. (2002) menyiasat sesuatu mesti
terlebih dahulu mengemukakan masalah melalui pertanyaan soalan
atau pengutaraan masalah tetapi ia menjadi sukar bagi ramai
pelajar telah biasa dengan masalah yang diberikan.
Kajian Limbach & Waugh (2010), memfokuskan pembelajaran
melalui pengutaraan masalah dan teknik ini akan menggalakkan
pembangunan pemikiran pelajar daripada satu tahap ke tahap yang
lebih tinggi. Salah satu kategori pengutaraan masalah yang
ringkas terbahagi kepada dua jenis soalan iaitu soalan tertumpu
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(convergent) dan soalan tercapah (divergent). Soalan-soalan
tertumpu bersifat lebih berkhusus dan mengikut Taksonomi Bloom
(Benjamin Bloom, 1956) serta semakannya semula oleh Anderson
dan Krathwohl (2001), tahap pemikiran pelajar hanya menguji
kemahiran berfikir aras rendah iaitu memahami, mengingat dan
aplikasi sahaja di mana hanya jawapan yang munasabah ialah satu
atau dua jawapan. Ilnu pengetahuan pelajar akan ada pada tahap
yang terbatas dan soalan seperti ini gagal untuk mencabar minda
yang hanya akan meletakkan pelajar dalam keadan terkurung
dalam tempurung.
Manakala soalan tercapah (divergent), memerlukan jawapan
yang meluas yang merangkumi kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi iaitu
analisis, menilai dan mencipta termasuk soalan terbuka yang
menggalakan pembelajaran yang berpusat kepada pelajar.
(Theijsmeijet, 2009). Seterusnya. Silver (1997) menyatakan
pengutaraan masalah terbahagi kepada tiga cara yang berbeza iaitu
sebelum penyelesaian, semasa penyelesaian masalah dan akhirnya
selepas penyelesaian masalah. Kesemua cara ini mengandungi
pelbagai aktiviti misalnya menghasil semula masalah, masalah
yang berbeza atau menghasilkan masalah asal daripada masalah
yang sedia ada dan membuat taksiran yang baru dengan mengubah
matlamat bagi menwujudkan masalah baru. (Silver dan Cai, 1997).
Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kejayaan strategi pengutaraan
masalah terletak di tangan pelajar dan guru semata-mata kerana
strategi merupakan proses yang meluas yang meliputi penyelesaian
masalah. Kedua-dua pihak harus berkerjasama dan mencapai
maltamat unruk menjayakan meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras
tinggi.
Keberkesaan Strategi Pengutaraan Masalah
Strategi perubahan konsep membantu mengenalpasti pengutaraan
masalah melalui Rajah 2.3 yang dijelaskan oleh Akay’s (2006).
Kajian dengan mefokuskan kepada Situasi Bebas Pengutaraan
Masalah (Free Problem Posing Situation), Situasi Semi-Konstruk
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Pengutaraan masalah dan Konstruk Pengutaraan Masalah. Yuan &
Sriraman (2010) membincangkan telah situasi bebas pengutaraan
masalah bermaskud jika pelajar diminta mereka masalah baru
daripada keadaan semuala jadi atau tiruan dan pertanyaan soalan
melalui strategi ini tanpa seberapa sekatan. Contohnya, guru
sentiasa mengaitkan topik pembelajaran dengan situasi yang sama
setiap hari akan memudahkan pelajar pengutaraan masalah atau
pengajuan soalan dan strategi ini lebih berkesan. (Akay, 2006).
Rajah 2.3 : Skema Pengutaraan masalah
Adalah penting, strategi kedua iaitu situasi semi-konstruk
pengutaraan masalah yang mendorong pelajar menyatakan
pengetahuan sedia ada bagi menyiapkan sesuatu situasi dan
struktur situasi berikut. Pelajar membuat pertanyaan yang meliputi
berdasarkan gambar atau grafik serta masalah yang serupa.
(Pittalis et al, 2004). Manakala situasi konstruk pengutaraan
masalah, aktiviti yang bersama beberapa masalah di mana pelajar
boleh pengutaraan soalan melalui pengubahan formula telah
diselesaikan atau pertukaran keadaan soalan yang diajukan oleh
pelajar. Strategi pengutaraan masalah dalam bidang pembelajaran
akan mendorong pergerakan kurikulum dan beberapa perubahan
dalam kurikulum akan membuahkan hasik yang berkesan (Akay,
2006).
Kebanyakan kajian sebelum ini membuktikan keberkesanan
strategi pengutaraan masalah bergantung kepada bilangan solan
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yang ditanya oleh pelajar dan menjawab soalan (Dori dan
Herscovitz, 1999). Strategi pengutaraan masalah akan membantu
pelajar menjana masalah dan mencari jawab yang wajar serta
sekaligus meningkatkan daya pemikiran. Kaberman dan Dori
(2009) menerangkan bahawa pengelasan soalan mengikut
Taksonomi Bloom akan memudahkan pelajar untuk meningkatkan
strategi pengutaraan masalah dan penyoal soalan yang cabar serta
proses pengutaraan masalah tidak berlaku secara automatik dan
pertanyaan soalan. Terdapat pergerakan yang baru berkaitan
dengan mengajar serta perubahan tertentu dalam kurikulum
pembelajaran. (Yuan & Sriraman, 2010).
PERNYATAAN MASALAH
Malaysia terlibat dalam TIMSS dan PISA bagi membuktikan tahap
pencapaian pelajar dan mutu kurikulum pendidikan dalam
beberapa mata pelajaran sa matematik dan sains di peringkat
antarabangsa. Merujuk keputusan pentaksiran antarabangsa ini,
bilangan skor ’A’ dalam peperiksaan umum Malaysia tidak pasti
pelajar tersebut mempunyai pemikiran yang kritis dan kreatif.
Pencapaian dalam TIMSS dan PISA yang kurang memuaskan
telah membuka mata semua pihak untuk mengkaji kurikulum
pendidikan Malaysia dan penekanan terhadap KBAT. Kajian ini
menfokuskan kepada empat proses kognitif dalam Taksonomi
Bloom iaitu aplikasi, analisis, penilaian dan mencipta dikenali
sebagai kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi. Cabaran dalam kemahiran
berfikir aras tinggi (KBAT) tidak boleh diketepikan dan pihak
yang tidak memahami konsep dengan baik akan keliru. Bagi
menjana KBAT secara meluas di seluruh dunia, pelbagai strategi
dilaksanakan seperti strategi pengutaraan masalah yang akan
membangun KBAT agar melahirkan modal insan berkaliber.
Kemahiran ini akan memberi kesan yang baik dalam jangka
masa yang panjang dan penerapan strategi pengutaraan masalah
akan mengukur kebolehan dan pencapaian pelajar. Namun,
kebanyakan kajian yang dijalankan kurang memberi penekanaan
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dalam KBAT. Menurut, Dillon (1990) bahawa soalan-soalan yang
harus dituju dalam dua hala iaitu di antara pelajar dan guru. Tetapi
fenomena di sekolah pula, guru masih lebih cenderung
mengamalkan pembelajaran tradisional iaitu proses sehala di mana
guru berada di depan kelas mengajar dan pelajar akan hanya
menyalin nota dan menghafal. Penyampian ilmu sehala akan
menyebabkan pelajar menjadi pasif dan jika tidak berlaku
perubahan yang ketara maka akan gagal hasrat PPPM, 2013.
Dapatan analisis kajian menunjukkan, kajian mengenai KBAT
tidak mefokuskan kepada penyelesaian yang munasabah seperti
strategi pengutaraan masalah dan bersifat umum. Malah
kewujudan KBAT menjadi tidak penting kerana tidak dikaitan
dengan strategi pengutaraan masalah dan tiada kajian yang dapat
melihat dalam Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia Tingkatan Empat.
Justeru itu, kajian ini wajarkan penyelidikan terhadap strategi
pengutaraan masalah bagi meningkatkan KBAT dalam mata
pelajaran Kimia. Ini kerana strategi pengutaraan masalah
diterapkan ke dalam KBAT akan membuka peluang yang baik
untuk membangunkan suasana pembelajaran dan pengajaran
secara efektif. Persekitaran dan aktiviti di dalam kelas yang
berkesan akan merangsang pelajar bagi mempunyai KBAT.
Pelajar akan berfikir aras tinggi apabila diberi peluang untuk
pengutaraan masalah secara sendiri dan pembelajaran dan
pengajaran akan terancang dan sistematik (Anderson &
Krathwohl, 2001)
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Objektif kajian merangkumi :
i.
Mengenalpasti tahap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi
(KBAT) dalam kalangan pelajar kimia.
ii.
Mengenal pasti strategi pengutaraan masalah dalam
kalangan pelajar kimia.
iii.
Menentukan jenis-jenis pengutaraan masalah yang
diaplikasikan oleh pelajar kimia.
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iv.
v.
Menentukan hubung kait di antara startegi pengutaraan
masalah dan meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi.
Mengenalpasti proses pengutaraan masalah dalam kalangan
pelajar kimia.
PERSOALAN KAJIAN
Persoalan kajian ini adalah yang ingin dikaji ialah
i.
Apakah tahap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dalam
kalangan pelajar kimia?
ii.
Apakah strategi pengutaraan masalah dalam kalangan
pelajar kimia?
iii.
Apakah jenis-jenis pengutaraan masalah yang diaplikasikan
oleh pelajar kimia?
iv.
Bagaimanakah hubungkait di antara strategi pengutaraan
masalah dan meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi?
v.
Apakah proses pengutaraan masalah dalam kalangan
pelajar kimia?
KERANGKA TEORI KAJIAN
Kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dan strategi pengutaraan masalah
merupakan teras asas kepada kajian ini. Kerangka teori ini
merangkumi penerapan strategi pengutaraan masalah untuk
meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi (KBAT) dalam mata
pelajaran kimia. Berdasarkan KBAT oleh Bahagian Pembangunan
Kurikulum (2013), konsep utama item KBAT merupakan item
yang menguji keupayaan murid untuk mengaplikasi pengetahuan,
kemahiran, dan menilai dalam membuat penaakulan dan refleksi
agar menyelesaikan masalah, membuat keputusan, inovasi dan
berupaya mencipta sesuatu. Kajian ini berteraskan teori
konstruktivisme yang percaya pelajar mempunyai idea daripada
pengetahuan terdahulu sebelum memasuki bilik darjah (Martin,
2006). Pelajar akan membuat kesinambungan di antara
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pengetahuan sebelum dan pembelajaran yang terbaru bagi
mengubahsuai konsep dan mereka menjadi lebih kompleks dan
berfikir pada tahap yang lrbih tinggi. Ia juga sejajar dengan
pendapat Piaget bahawa skema berkembang menjadi lebih
kompleks dalam beradaptasi dengan persekitaraan pelajar.
Mengikut pendekatan teori konstruktivisme, guru akan berperanan
sebagai fasilitator yang mendorong pelajar untuk mengaktifkan
diri ketika menjalankan pembelajaran dan pengajaran seperti sesi
soal jawab dan mengalakkan pelajar mencipta dengan merangsang
persoalan kepada pelajar.
Dalam Taksonomi Bloom, terbahagi kepada dua kategori
penting iaitu KBAT dan KBAR seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah
1.1 (Bloom, 1956). Newmann (1990) menyatakan bahawa
pemikiran aras tinggi mencabar pelajar untuk menginterpretasi,
menganalisis atau memanipulasikan maklumat. KBAT adalah
kemahiran yang aras paling tinggi dalam hierarki proses kognitif
dan pencetusan idea. Pemikiran aras tinggi memerlukan ciri-ciri
seperti kreatif, kritis, logik dan metakognitif manakala pemikiran
aras rendah hanya kefahaman dan pengetahuan.
Rajah 1.4 : Proses kognitif dalam Taksonomi Bloom
English (1997) telah memgembangkan model penbelajaran
strategi pengutaraan masalah bagi membantu pelajar
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meningkatkan keyakinan dan kesukaan terhadap matematik, sebab
idea-idea matematik pelajar akan dicubakan untuk memahami
masalah yang sedang diselesaikan serta dapat mencapai
penyelesaian masalah. Peringkat awal , strategi pengutaraan
masalah hanya diterapkan dalam mata pelajaran matematik dan
mula dikembang mata pelajaran lain seperti sains, kimia, fizik, dan
biologi. Pembelajaran sains yang baik adalah bergantung kepada
bertanya soalan yang betul dan mencari jawapan yang betul dan
pertanyaan soalan yang baik adalah elemen penting dalam
pembelajaran efektif (Orr, 1999). Silver dan Cai menunjukkan
bahawa pengutaraan masalah akan dapat diaplikasi kepada
peringkat tiga seperti
i.
Peringkat awal pengutaraan masalah
Pelajar akan hanya membuat pertanyaan asas berdasarkan
situasi yang diberikan.
ii.
Peringkat pertengahan pengutaraan masalah
Pelajar mampu merumuskan pelbagai sub persoalan baru
dari persoalan yang belum diselesaikan .
iii.
Peringkat akhir pengutaraan masalah
Pelajar akan memodifikasikan persoalan yang telah
diselesaikan dan mencipta soalan yang terbaru berdasarkan
situasi
KERANGKA KONSEP KAJIAN
Kerangka konsep kajian ini dibina mengikut beberapa konsep iaitu
menggabungkan KBAT dan strategi pengutaraan masalah yang
selaras dengan objektif kajian. Pada awal kajian, pengkaji
mengenalpasti KBAT dalam kalangan pelajar kimia dengan pelajar
berjaya menjawab soalan aras tinggi dan mampu menyelesaikan
masalah, mengenalpasti strategi pengutaraan masalah dengan
pelajar berjaya boleh menyoal berdasarkan situasi yang diberikan,
menentukan jenis-jenis pengutaraan masalah dengan persoalan
pelajar yang dijawab mengikut skala Taksonomi Bloom dan
akhirnya menentukan hubung kait di antara strategi pengutaraan
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masalah dan KBAT serta proses pengutaraan masalah. Cai (1997)
mencadang bahawa alat pengukuran yang paling sesuai untuk
menguji tahap kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dan kebolehan
pembelajaran adalah strategi pengutaraan masalah.
Rajah 1.5 merujuk kepada perhubungan antara KBAT dan
strategi pengutaraan masalah serta penggabungan menjadi satu
konsep yang akan membuka pemikiran yang meluas dan
mendalam. Secara keseluruhan, kajian ini akan memberi harapan
yang baru kepada guru bagi meningkatkan dan mengenalpasti
pelajar KBAT dengan mudah. Pelajar bukan lagi akan dilatih
untuk menghafal dan memahami sesuatu fakta kimia malah
membimbang pelajar untuk mengemukakan soalan-soalan yang
mengikut situasi yang diberikan. Secara tidak langsung, proses
pengutaraan masalah ini menjadi panduan kepada para guru dan
pelajar dan mengalakkan pelajar untuk berfikir dan pengutaraan
soalan tanpa mendesak serta menyelesaikan soalan dengan
pemikiran yang luas.
Rajah 1.5 : Kerangka konsep kajian berdasarkan KBAT dan
strategi pengutaraan masalah
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291
PATTERNS OF TEACHING
APPROACH ADOPTED BY
PRESERVICE TEACHERS IN
TEACHING WRITING
Sarala @ Thulasi Palpanadan, Fauziah Ismail & Abdul Rahim
Salam
ABSTRACT
Product and process writing approaches are widely used around the
world by teachers and students in language learning. The existing
literature favours process writing approach due to its practicality
and robustness. However, it has been observed that Malaysian
schools have a culture where teachers prefer to use product
approach in teaching writing. This paper investigates on two
different writing approaches: product approach and process
approach used by teachers at primary school level in Johor Bahru,
Johor, Malaysia. The study aimed to find out the preservice
teachers’ preferred writing approaches used for teaching writing at
primary level and the effects towards students’ writing orientation.
A case study method was chosen to investigate the practices.
Classroom observations and students’ written texts provided data
for the study. The findings revealed that majority of the preservice
teachers used product approach in their teaching and majority of
the students were found to follow the product writing approach.
The paper suggests that teachers should be encouraged to adopt
292
process approach in teaching writing because it is not widely
practiced in the writing classroom. This is because literature has
highlighted that process approach can promote students to be
independent writers which is one of the aims of the contemporary
education.
Keywords: Product approach, Process approach, Primary schools,
Writing skills
INTRODUCTION
English is taught as a second language in all national schools at
primary and secondary levels in Malaysia. The fact that English
acts as one of the most powerful languages in the world is also
acknowledged in Malaysia (Akinwamide, 2012). English is
categorized as a compulsory subject in Malaysian schools.
However, the government is also very concerned about the present
low standard of English among Malaysian students (Normazidah,
Koo, and Hazita, 2012). Many actions are taken mainly by schools
to enhance the command of English.
One of the most difficult areas in mastering the language is the
writing skills (Nesamalar, Saratha, and Teh, (2001). In addition,
writing is also perceived as a more difficult skill to teach compared
to its counterparts (Akinwamide, 2012). Product and process
approaches are two prevailing approaches that are widely
employed in teaching writing in the ESL writing instructions
(Badger and White, 2000). However, these writing approaches
practised by English as a Second Language (ESL) writing teachers
in Malaysian classrooms have gone through several paradigm
shifts due to the changes in the practicability of the writing
instruction as set by the Ministry of Education (MOE). Teaching
writing approaches and the strategies used by the teachers in
teaching writing and the way the students comprehend the lesson
needs further investigation. This paper reports a part of the full
research carried out on writing instructions. It presents the patterns
293
of teaching approaches adopted by preservice teachers in teaching
writing during their teaching practicum and how the writing
instruction affects the students’ writing.
APPROACHES TO TEACHING WRITING
THE PRODUCT APPROACH
Researchers claim that product approach encourages students to
produce an end product which may be identical to a model essay or
the essay provided by the teachers. The main focus is on linguistic
knowledge (Pincas, 1982a). Students imitate some simple
sentences to get familiarized with the content, copy and finally
transform the models into a new essay to be as perfect as the one
that they have imitated by focusing on the correct language. Then,
students submit their essays to the teachers to be marked. After
doing the necessary corrections students resubmit their essays.
According to Steele (2004:1), product approach comprises four
stages (familiarisation, controlled writing, guided writing, and free
writing.
Before the 1970s, product approach which focuses on the text
features of model texts was commonly used as the writing
instruction. Rules of grammar governed the nature of this
traditional notion of writing instructional discourse (Nystrand,
2006). However, due to abundant critique about this approach
which is very model based, the language and education specialists
began to take note of individual learning and processes of the mind
which are crucial in developing the writing skills. Thus, an
alternative teaching approach to product approach is viewed as
necessary.
THE PROCESS APPROACH
In 1970s and 1980s, a concern in the writing process surfaced. The
294
process writing approaches were employed in classroom with the
attention to content prior to form (Raimes, 1991). Process
approach is cyclical, where students need to move back and forth
from one stage to another while participating in the writing
activities. The focal point is the writer and the writing process. The
emphasis is on the linguistic skills such as planning and drafting
prior to linguistic knowledge such as grammar and text structure
(Badger and White 2000). The writing development is expected to
take place unconsciously as teachers facilitate the activities in
various stages. Although there are many models in process writing
generally, Steele (2004:1) highlighted “eight stages in the process
writing (Brainstorming, planning, mind mapping, first draft, peer
feedback, editing, final draft, and evaluation and feedback)”.
The central issue about this approach is that it involves several
drafts before students produce the final draft. The process approach
seems to be time-consuming. Generally, teachers are unable to
complete the writing activities within the time allocated to teach
writing in a week. In addition, teachers need ample time to read
and mark all the drafts prepared by the students which increases
their workload. Consequently, teachers give it up at the expense of
finishing the syllabus on time as set by their institutions. Research
has found that teachers gradually regressed to the product approach
in the ESL writing instruction in the 1990s (Foo, 2007). Hence,
teachers started practicing the product approach as a way to ease
their task in introducing essays of many genres that could help
them to cover the syllabus on time.
However, some research conducted on teaching writing shows
that process approach helps students to do well in improving their
writing tasks (Majid, Mohamad Jafre, Cheong, 2012. Hossein and
Nasrin, (2012) stated that their study proved a significant
differences among learners’ writing ability in terms of product
approach and process approach where students who were exposed
to process writing approach obtained a better score in the final
writing assignments compared to those who were taught writing
using the product approach. Tangkiengsirin, (2006) argued that
product approach is insufficient to be practiced as a writing
295
instruction due to its constraints and supported process approach as
it helped students to develop students’ writing proficiency. Majid,
Mohamad Jafre, Cheong, (2012) highlighted that their study on
three Form One Students revealed that process writing helped
students to improve their pace of writing and quality of writing in
terms of ideas, organization, sentence fluency and score. Their
study also highlighted the importance of writing instructions in the
classroom, where teachers need to guide students to practice
process writing while teaching writing. In an earlier study,
Tangkiensirin (2006) has already suggested to carry out further
research to deeply apprehend about students’ way of approaching
writing tasks as well as in knowing the way they learn to write.
This paper intends to study the preservice teachers’ teaching
patterns of teaching writing and investigates the effects of the
approach used by them on students’ writing. This paper hopes to
highlight the current practices in writing instruction at primary
level and suggests some strategies to be incorporated in writing
instruction as a way to improve students’ writing.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The aim of the study is to answer the following research questions
below:
1.
What teaching approaches are practiced by preservice
teachers to teach writing at primary school level in Johor
Bahru, Johor, Malaysia?
2.
What is the effect of using a process or product approach
on students’ writing at primary level in Johor Bahru, Johor,
Malaysia
METHODOLOGY
This study used a case study method. Case study is a useful
method in investigating in depth a specific phenomenon. Case is a
296
popularly used qualitative research method (Gay, Mills & Airasian,
2009). For this purpose, five (n=5) out of thirty two preservice
teachers (N=32) from a Teacher Training Institute in Johor Bahru,
Johor, Malaysia, were selected as participants using purposive
sampling method. The participants were Semester Seven
preservice teachers who went for their teaching practicum in the
national primary schools in a particular district of Johor, Malaysia.
It is believed that these preservice teachers can provide the best
information on the issue under study (Creswell & Clark, 2007).The
preservice teachers were selected based on homogenous factor of
those who were teaching English to the same level of Year Three
students under the Primary School Standard Curriculum or
Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) system.
PROCEDURE
Classroom observations and students’ written texts provided data
for the study. First, the participants were observed when they were
teaching writing in their respective classes and field notes were
taken. Five preservice teachers were observed three times each,
which made a total of fifteen observations with fifteen sets of field
notes. This was done to quantify the teaching approaches
employed by the participants and to note their preferences on the
approach used as writing instruction in the classrooms. The
participants were observed when they were teaching writing and
field notes were taken to note the features of writing strategies
practiced by the participants. The strategies used by the
participants based on the teaching strategies of a particular
approach were identified and listed. Then, they were quantified to
note the preferred approach that is usually used by the preservice
teachers in the writing lessons.
Second, five students’ written texts were randomly collected at
the end of each observation which made a total of 75 written texts.
The written work was analyzed according to the features of the
approach that students used in preparing the tasks assigned by their
297
respective teachers. The aspects of students’ writing that were
studied included vocabularies, phrases and sentences.
The
students’ writing was quantified based on the product and process
approaches. The quantity of sentences recorded in students’
writing was considered as an indicator of the approach selected by
students in accomplishing the written tasks. The result was hoped
to provide information about the effect of preservice teachers’
pattern of teaching approach in teaching writing.
ANALYSIS OF DATA
To begin with, the first research question is reviewed: Which
teaching approaches are practiced by preservice teachers to teach
writing at primary school level in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia?
The findings based on the field notes taken during the classroom
observations would be discussed based the features of product
approach and process approach used by the participants. The
strategies applied are identified to suit the approach to teach
writing lessons to the students.
Five preservice teachers were observed as they conducted their
writing lessons. Each lesson lasted approximately for one hour.
Most of the teacher trainees assigned almost similar writing tasks
to their students as they were following the same syllabus provided
by Ministry of Education (MOE). Since the data were collected in
the same week and month, most of them were teaching almost the
same topics at that time.
The strategies used by the participants to teach writing
throughout the lessons were noted in the field notes. All
participants were noted to follow a similar pattern where they
conducted all the writing activities in three stages – presentation,
practice and production. They introduced a new teaching item or
topic to the students during the presentation stage. This strategy
was a feature highlighted in the product approach (the
familiarization stage) where a sample is modeled to students. Then,
the participants assisted students to carry out some writing
298
activities during the practice stage. Students were given some
group, pair or individual activities to work on a writing task mainly
to get them to be acquainted with the sentence structures or
vocabularies that the teacher trainees intended to teach. This
strategy suited the controlled writing stage in the product approach
where students are given exercises to practise a certain component
of the writing lesson. The final writing activity was done during
the production stage. Students were given individual writing tasks
which were similar to the activity done during the practice stage.
These exercises were collected to be marked at the end of the
lesson. All the strategies used by the participants could be
categorized as features of the product approach.
The next section is the review of the second research question:
What is the effect of using a process or product approach on
students writing at primary level in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
A total of 75 written texts were randomly collected from students
and were analyzed. Generally, filling in the blanks, matching,
answering questions and writing sentences were part of the writing
activities. Students’ written work were analyzed whether they were
done based on the input provided prior to the writing activity
(which portrayed product approach) or students’ own ability to
write (which portrayed process approach). The input could be the
information that the teachers provided, the exercise that the
students did during the practice stage or even some referred texts
including their textbooks or the worksheet provided by the
teachers. Then, students’ writing was quantified based on the way
they produced their written work either by using product approach
or process approach. The total number of words (vocabularies),
phrases and sentences produced by five students from each
observation were analyzed and totaled up. Most of the students
wrote their tasks based on the teachers’ instructions. The total
number of the written tasks produced by students per observation
was converted into percentage to obtain the overall scheming of
writing produced using the product and process approach. This is
shown in Table 1.
299
Table 1: Percentage of Students’ Writing Based on Approach
OBSERVATION
/
PARTICIPANT
PD(%)
1
PC(%)
PD(%)
2
PC(%)
PD(%)
3
PC(%)
1
2
3
4
5
68
100
91
100
100
32
0
9
0
0
100
100
100
100
100
0
0
0
0
0
100
100
100
100
100
0
0
0
0
0
(PD: Product Approach) (PC: Process Approach)
The results showed that students usually repeated the writing
that they practised earlier or substituted the new tasks by replacing
some information from the earlier tasks or the input provided by
the participants to students prior to the final writing activity. All
these activities resemble the guided writing stage in product
approach. Table 1 shows that most of the written work produced
by the students was based on product approach. However, there are
a small number of students who employed the process approach by
producing their own ideas or sentences in their written work which
is a feature of process approach where they did not replicate any
example from the previous input prior to the final written work.
Thus, majority of the students employed product approach in
producing their written work as instructed by the teachers.
DISCUSSION
As mentioned earlier all five preservice teachers observed
employed product approach in conducting writing lessons in their
respective classes. The analysis showed that using product
approach to teach writing is prominent in the primary classes. The
participants were confident in delivering the lessons and the
lessons flowed smoothly from stage to stage. The first research
question was answered where the preservice teachers used product
approach as the preferred teaching practice to teach writing.
300
Subsequently, most of the students’ written texts proved that
product approach was employed in executing the writing activities.
This evidence provides answer to the second research question.
Since, teachers’ practices in their writing instructions may
influence students’ way of writing (Sahin, Bullock, & Stables,
2002), the preservice teachers’ way of using product approach in
teaching writing had influenced their students’ way of writing,
which also indicated the product oriented approach. It was evident
from the classroom observation that the preservice teachers had
construed their lesson plan towards getting their students to
reproduce their input in the final writing activity as a way to show
the apprehension of the lesson taught on that day which indicated a
product oriented writing. The reason behind this was that it
enabled them to conduct the lessons that they intended to teach
according to the syllabus without any delay in the teaching plan.
The participants took it as part of their teaching objectives to
enable the students to reproduce the writing component on their
own using all the guidance provided by them prior to the writing
activity.
Meanwhile, a small percentage of process approach was also
evident from the study. Based on the text analysis, there was 32
percent of process oriented written work done by the students of
participant 1 (preservice teacher 1) during the first observation.
Likewise, nine percent of process oriented approach was evident in
the written work prepared by the students of participant 3
(preservice teacher 3) during the first observation. These students
did not receive any appraisal or extra score from the teachers who
marked the written work. The students who tried writing using
process approach did all by themselves out of their own interests.
The preservice teachers neither encouraged nor discouraged the
use of own ideas to their students. Hence, the production of new
ideas or independent writing is least focused. Moreover, the
subsequent observations carried out on those participants showed
that their students prepared the written work fully based on product
oriented writing. This study proved that participants did not
emphasis process oriented approach in their writing instruction and
301
their students were not exposed to process approach sufficiently.
CONCLUSION
The study has uncovered that the preservice teachers preferred to
employ product approach in teaching writing and they
conveniently practised teaching writing in this way. Meanwhile
most of the students also employed product approach to do their
written work. This is a common scenario in Malaysia especially, in
primary classrooms. There are very few students who want to write
more than what is required perhaps by the teacher, or for the fear
of making mistakes. This scenario indicates that students would
develop a dependent habit where they might practice it throughout
their lives and will never try to write independently. The study
further concludes that in contrast, the preservice teachers do not
seem to favour using the process approach which is favored by the
literature in the discipline of teaching writing. Even though
teachers are able to conduct writing lessons according to the
syllabus, the effects on students’ writing is obvious where they
prefer to use product approach in their writing and become
dependent writers.
The paper suggests that process oriented writing that helps
students to become independent writers in future should be
considered by teachers as their writing instruction in the classroom.
Hence, the paper provides an insight into what teachers should try
in the classroom in order to enhance students’ ability to write and
produce more than what they have provided. This can inculcate the
habit of independent writing so that Malaysian students can be
independent writers.
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304
STAIL PEMBELAJARAN GURU
PELATIH DALAM PRAKTIKUM
LATIHAN MENGAJAR
Nur’Ain Baharin, Mohd Zolkifl Abd
Hamid & Dayana Farzeeha Ali
ABSTRAK
Latihan Mengajar merupakan program yang bertujuan memberikan
pendedahan, pengalaman dan kemahiran mengajar di dalam situasi
sebenar. Selain berperanan sebagai fasilitator, pensyarah dan guru
pembimbing juga berperanan penting dalam usaha membentuk dan
membimbing Guru Pelatih (GP) untuk menjadi seorang guru yang
berkebolehan (versatile). Transformasi ini merupakan satu proses
dimana mereka harus belajar untuk mengajar (learning to teach)
berdasarkan situasi dan pengalaman di sekolah . Proses belajar
untuk mengajar ini dilihat sebagai stail pembelajaran dan pola
perkembangan guru pelatih sepanjang tempoh praktikum latihan
mengajar.Untuk itu, adalah penting untuk melihat pola
perkembangan dan stail pembelajaran guru pelatih ini dalam
konteks ‘learning to teach’ sepanjang tempoh praktikum latihan
mengajar. Oleh itu, kertas ini membincangkan Stail Pembelajaran
Situated Learning, Experiential Learning, Blended learning dan
Stail Pembelajaran Vermunt dalam konteks pembelajaran untuk
mengajar (learning to teach) guru pelatih Jabatan Pendidikan
Teknikal dan Vokasional yang dilihat berbeza daripada guru
pelatih dari jurusan lain. Setiap stail pembelajaran dikupas
305
mengikut kesesuaian belajar untuk mengajar (learning to teach) GP
sepanjang tempoh praktikum. Perbezaan yang dikenalpasti dalam
orientasi pembelajaran ini dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan
suatu pola perkembangan GP Pendidikan Teknik dan Vokasional
khususnya untuk membantu proses kepenyeliaan dan penilaian
diantara guru pelatih, pensyarah dan guru pembimbing bagi
melahirkan bakal guru novis yang berkualiti.
Kata Kunci: Latihan mengajar, Stail pembelajaran, Guru pelatih,
Pensyarah pembimbing
PENGENALAN
Secara umumnya, stail pembelajaran bagi setiap Guru Pelatih (GP)
adalah berbeza. Analisis terhadap kajian yang telah dijalankan
oleh Mohd Nor dan Hazwani (2007) mendapati taburan stail
pembelajaran yang diamalkan oleh pelajar-pelajar yang sedang
mengikuti program pengajian Sarjana Muda Pendidikan Teknik
Dan Vokasional di UTHM mengamalkan keempat-empat stail
pembelajaran yang dinyatakan oleh Honey dan Mumford (1992)
iaitu stail pembelajaran Aktivis, Reflektif, Teoris dan Pragmatis.
Dapatan ini selari dengan Kolb (1984) yang menyatakan bahawa
setiap manusia mempunyai stail pembelajaran yang tersendiri
di mana dalam setiap satu stail pembelajaran tersebut ada
kekuatannya yang tersendiri terhadap individu tersebut.
Kesedaran pensyarah pembimbing dan guru pembimbing
mengenai kewujudan perbezaan stail pembelajaran di kalangan GP
adalah sangat penting. Di samping pengamalan stail pembelajaran
di kalangan GP, stail pengajaran pensyarah pembimbing dan guru
pembimbing juga memainkan peranan yang penting di dalam
membantu meningkatkan pencapaian profesionalisma perguruan
GP. Oleh yang demikian, dengan adanya kepelbagaian dan
persamaan di antara pengajaran pensyarah pembimbing dan
pembelajaran GP, maka penyampaian sesuatu ilmu itu
dikatakan berkesan dan seterusnya dapat
meningkatkan
306
pemahaman GP terhadap apa yang dipelajari.
SITUATED LEARNING
Lave (1988) berpendapat bahawa pembelajaran biasanya berlaku
mengikut fungsi aktiviti, kandungan dan budaya yang terhasil
(persekitaran). Interaksi sosial merupakan satu komponen penting
dalam situated learning di mana pelajar terlibat dalam ‘community
of practice’ yang merangkumi kepercayaan dan tingkah laku
tertentu. Lave dan Wanger (1991) menyatakan konteks
pembelajaran merangkumi faktor seperti persekitaran belajar
secara fizikal dan virtual dengan orang-orang yang terlibat dalam
proses pembelajaran seperti pensyarah, penyelia, rakan sekerja,
pelajar dan sebagainya.
Dalam pendekatan situated learning ini, pengetahuan dan
kemahiran yang dipelajari dalam konteks yang menggambarkan
bagaimana pengetahuan yang diperolehi dan digunakan dalam
situasi harian. Kirshner dan Whitson (1997) menyatakan Situated
cognition theory memikirkan pembelajaran sebagai suatu
fenomena sosiobudaya daripada tindakan seseorang individu yang
memperolehi maklumat umum daripada pengetahuan. Mereka
juga mengemukakan satu pandangan menyeluruh mengenai konsep
ini yang mengaplikasikan kognitif persekitaran dalam
pembelajaran orang dewasa.
Pembelajaran pada asasnya merupakan suatu perkara yang
memberikan makna dari aktiviti sebenar kehidupan harian. Dengan
menerapkan beberapa perkara dalam pengalaman yang berterusan
daripada pelajar dan mewujudkan peluang bagi pelajar untuk hidup
dalam konteks cabaran dunia sebenar, pengetahuan diperoleh dan
pembelajaran di pindahkan daripada bilik darjah ke amalan
sebenar. Pembelajaran persekitaran meletakkan pemikiran dan
tindakan mengikut tempat dan masa yang tertentu. Persekitaran
bermakna penglibatan orang di sekeliling, alam sekitar, dan
aktiviti-aktiviti untuk mewujudkan makna.
Persekitaran juga merupakan cara untuk mencari suasana yang
tertentu bagi proses pemikiran dan digunakan oleh pakar untuk
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mencapai pengetahuan dan kemahiran (Lave & Wanger,1991). Di
dalam pembelajaran orang dewasa, situated learning bermakna
mewujudkan keadaan-keadaan di mana partisipan akan mengalami
kerumitan dan kekaburan pembelajaran dalam dunia sebenar.
Partisipan akan mewujudkan pengetahuan mereka sendiri daripada
pengalaman asal, iaitu hubungan dengan peserta lain, aktivitiaktiviti, isyarat alam sekitar, dan organisasi sosial masyarakat
tersebut.
‘Situated learning places the learner in the center of an
instructional process consisting of content--the facts and processes
of the task; context--the situations, values, beliefs, and
environmental cues by which the learner gains and masters
content; community--the group with which the learner will create
and negotiate meaning of the situation; and participation--the
process by which learners working together and with experts in a
social organization solve problems related to everyday life
circumstances’
(Lave,1988)
GP terpaksa berdepan dengan berbagai-bagai situasi yang
mencabar terutamanya disiplin pelajar dan bebanan kerja. Ini
memerlukan GP membuat keputusan dan bertindak mengikut
kesesuaian persekitaran dan adakalanya tidak menggunakan secara
langsung teori-teori yang dipelajari mereka sewaktu di universiti.
Pembelajaran yang diperolehi GP ini merangkumi keseluruhan
persekitaran pembelajaran iaitu persekitaran bilik darjah atau
bengkel, bilik guru dan kawasan sekolah. Pembelajaran diperolehi
hasil interaksi sosial GP dengan orang di sekelilingnya. Situated
learning di guna pakai dalam kajian ini kerana ianya bersesuaian
dengan kaedah belajar untuk mengajar yang di amalkan GP
sepanjang tempoh praktikum latihan mengajar. Allen (2007)
mengatakan pembelajaran adalah merangkumi faktor seperti
persekitaran belajar dan orang-orang yang terlibat secara langsung
dalam proses pembelajaran. Ini bermaksud, proses pembelajaran
guru pelatih melibatkan individu seperti pensyarah pembimbing,
guru pembimbing, rakan sekerja, pelajar dan orang yang berada di
dalam persekitaran pembelajaran GP tersebut.
308
Situated learning mempunyai empat aspek utama dalam
bimbingan pembangunan aktiviti bilik darjah (Anderson et al.,
1996, 1993):
(1) pembelajaran berasaskan tindakan situasi harian
(2) pengetahuan yang diperolehi berdasarkan situasi dan
dipindahkan hanya kepada situasi yang sama
(3) pembelajaran adalah hasil daripada satu proses sosial iaitu
cara pemikiran, melihat masalah, penyelesaian, dan
berinteraksi di samping pengetahuan dan prosedur
(4) pembelajaran tidak dipisahkan dari tindakan (world of
action) tetapi wujud teguh, kompleks, persekitaran sosial
yang dibuat oleh partisipan, tindakan, dan situasi.
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
Teori ini banyak diguna pakai bagi pembelajaran orang dewasa. Ini
adalah kerana orang dewasa lebih cenderung untuk menggunakan
‘learned-centered’. Pendidikan vokasional juga menekankan aspek
pengalaman kerja dalam pendidikan orang dewasa. Pembelajaran
Kolb (1984) melalui empat peringkat menunjukkan bagaimana
pengalaman diterjemahkan melalui cerminan kepada konsep, yang
kemudiannya digunakan sebagai panduan untuk uji kaji aktif dan
pilihan pengalaman baru.
Peringkat pertama, pengalaman konkrit (Concrete Experience,
CE), di mana pelajar aktif mengalami satu aktiviti seperti sesi
makmal atau kerja lapangan. Peringkat kedua, pemerhatian
reflektif (Reflexive Observation, RO), apabila pelajar sedar
mencerminkan kembali kepada pengalaman itu. Peringkat ketiga,
konseptualisasi abstrak (Abstract Conceptualising, AC), di mana
pelajar cuba pengkonsepan teori atau model terhadap apa yang
diperhatikan. Peringkat keempat, eksperimen aktif (Active
Experimenting, AE), di mana pelajar cuba untuk merancang
bagaimana untuk menguji model atau teori atau pelan bagi
pengalaman yang akan datang.
Persekitaran pembelajaran merujuk kepada keseluruhan
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pengalaman mengajar yang diperolehi oleh GP. Bengtsson (1995)
menekankan penggunaan refleksi dalam pedagogi pengajaran.
Beliau menekankan refleksi merupakan kunci konsep dalam
latihan dan profession perguruan. Dalam program latihan
mengajar, GP di wajibkan membuat catatan reflektif berdasarkan
pengalaman konkrit yang diperolehi sepanjang tempoh praktikum
latihan mengajar. Refleksi ini diguna pakai untuk membuat
penilaian dan membina konsep bagi pembelajaran seterusnya
memperbaiki kelemahan mereka.
Pengalaman
Konkrit (CE)
Percubaan
dalam situasi
yang baru
(AE)
Kitaran Experiential
Learning Kolb’s
Pemerhatian
dan reflektif
(RO)
Pembentukan
konsep abstrak
(AC)
Rajah 1: Kitaran Experiential Learning oleh Kolb’s (1984)
Pengalaman Konkrit (CE) – pelajar merupakan partisipan aktif
Pemerhatian dan reflektif (RO) – pelajar memberikan tindak balas reflex
terhadap pengalaman
Pembentukan konsep abstrak (AC) - pelajar cuba membuat perkaitan teori
atau model berdasarkan pemerhatian.
Percubaan dalam situasi yang baru (AE) – pelajar merancang untuk menguji
implikasi model dan teori dalam situasi baru.
310
Feiman-Nemser (1983) melaporkan latihan akademik tidak
relevan untuk menjadi seorang guru tetapi pengalaman
pembelajaran dan pengajaran sebenar di dalam bilik darjah itulah
yang merupakan sumber utama dalam kemenjadian seorang guru.
Kepercayaan ini dibina berdasarkan pengalaman pendidikan yang
diperolehi GP dan pemerhatian mereka terhadap guru mereka yang
terdahulu. Pengalaman yang sedia ada ini diguna pakai semasa
tempoh praktikum latihan mengajar.
BLENDED LEARNING
Mengikut Graham (2005), Blended learning merupakan sistem
pembelajaran yang
menggabungkan pengajaran seperti
penggunaan media berasaskan komputer. Pembelajaran campuran
merujuk kepada kepelbagaian aktiviti pembelajaran dalam satu
persekitaran yang berbeza, melibatkan interaksi dua hala yang
lebih efektif.
Blended learning dapat menggabungkan pembelajaran face-toface dengan pembelajaran berpaksikan komputer. Pembelajaran
dengan pendekatan teknologi pembelajaran dengan kombinasi
sumber-sumber belajar face-to-face dengan pengajar seperti yang
dimuat dalam media komputer, telefon seperti iPhone, saluran
televisi satelit, konferensi video, dan media elektronik yang lain.
Pelajar dan pengajar/fasilitator bekerja sama untuk meningkatkan
kualiti pembelajaran. Tujuan utama blended learning adalah
memberikan kesempatan bagi berbagai konsep pembelajaran agar
terjadi pembelajaran kendiri, berterusan dan berkembang
sepanjang hayat, sehingga pembelajaran akan menjadi lebih
efektif, lebih efisien dan lebih menarik.
311
Face to Face
Learning
Self Paced
Learning
Online
Collaborative
Learning
Rajah 2 : Blended Learning (Graham, 2005)
Antara ciri-ciri blended learning ialah:
1) Pembelajaran yang menggabungkan berbagai cara
penyampaian, model pengajaran, gaya pembelajaran, serta
berbagai media berpaksikan teknologi.
2) Sebagai sebuah kombinasi pengajaran langsung (face to
face) dan pembelajaran kendiri (self paced learning)
3) Pembelajaran yang disokong oleh kombinasi efektif dari
cara penyampaian, cara mengajar dan gaya pembelajaran.
4) Guru dan orang tua pelajar memiliki peranan yang sama
penting, guru sebagai fasilitator, dan orang tua sebagai
pembimbing.
GP mengamalkan blended learning dalam konteks belajar
untuk mengajar. Mereka menggunakan berbagai-bagai jenis
pembelajaran termasuklah pembelajaran berasaskan pengalaman
dan persekitaran. Pelbagai jenis sumber yang di guna pakai bagi
mewujudkan pengajaran dan pembelajaran dengan berkesan.
Kepelbagaian pembelajaran yang di amalkan dapat memberikan
pembelajaran yang bermakna kepada mereka sekaligus
meningkatkan tahap keyakinan diri mereka untuk mengurus bilik
darjah dengan berkesan.
312
STAIL PEMBELAJARAN VERMUNT (1996,1998)
Stail pembelajaran masih tidak mempunyai satu definisi yang tepat
lantaran maksudnya yang meluas. Setiap pengkaji mempunyai
definisi yang tersendiri mengenai stail pembelajaran. Mengikut
Vermunt (1996) stail pembelajaran merupakan satu orientasi,
melibatkan satu proses yang strategik, corak aktiviti pembelajaran
yang konsisten dan sistematik terhadap kepercayaan pembelajaran
dan orientasi motivasi. Stail pembelajaran merupakan satu cara
yang tersendiri dalam memperolehi pengetahuan, melibatkan
kemahiran dan sikap melalui kajian atau pengalaman seseorang
individu. Sebarang teori atau model mengenai stail pembelajaran
adalah satu kemudahan dalam memahami kerumitan terhadap
bagaimana seseorang itu belajar. Stail pembelajaran adalah
merupakan satu faktor untuk menentukan bagaimana pelajarpelajar memahami persekitaran, budaya (diantara pelajar dan
institusi), kaedah mengajar dan keperluan kurikulum. Kesedaran
mengenai teori-teori stail pembelajaran mungkin membantu GP
bagi membangunkan metakognitif dan keupayaan untuk mereka
belajar untuk mengajar. Sekurang-kurangnya beberapa aspek
mengenai stail pembelajaran dapat dijadikan sebagai bahan
rujukan GP.
Banyak kajian telah dijalankan mengenai stail pembelajaran
(Riding, 1996, 1997 &1998; Kolb, 1999; Honey and Mumford,
1992; Entwistle, 1998; Vermunt, 1996 &1998; Gregorc, 1984).
Coffield et. al. (2004) telah menyenaraikan tiga stail pembelajaran
teratas yang boleh dipercayai iaitu stail pembelajaran Allinson dan
Hayes (1996), Apter’s (2001) dan Vermunt (1996, 1998). Walau
bagaimanapun, stail pembelajaran Vermunt lebih menekankan
aspek perubahan pelajar dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran. Stail
pembelajaran Vermunt juga sesuai dan selamat digunakan untuk
pelajar di institusi pengajian tinggi (Coffield et. al., 2004). Berings
dan Poell (2008) di dalam kajiannya mengenai dimensi stail
pembelajaran di tempat kerja (on-the-job learning style),
berpendapat stail pembelajaran Vermunt lebih sesuai didalam
penyediaan kepada pekerjaan dan mengandungi pelbagai aspek
313
yang berbeza justeru itu dikenali sebagai stail pembelajaran multidimensi. Oleh itu, stail pembelajaran Vermunt sangat sesuai bagi
GP didalam konteks penyediaan kepada bidang profesionalisma
keguruan.
Dalam kajian Vermunt (1996, 1998) beliau telah menjumpai
empat pendekatan stail pembelajaran iaitu tidak-direktif
(undirected), direktif-reproduksi (reproduction-directed), direktifbermakna (meaning-directed) dan direktif-aplikasi (applicationdirected learning). Setiap stail pembelajaran merangkumi lima
dimensi iaitu
pemprosesan kognitif, orientasi pembelajaran
(motivasi), proses afektif (perasaan terhadap pembelajaran), model
pembelajaran mental dan peraturan pembelajaran. Kajian beliau
melibatkan aspek perubahan dalam pembelajaran dan pengajaran
(learning and teaching). GP yang mempunyai stail pembelajaran
tidak-direktif menggunakan strategi pembelajaran yang ambivalent
manakala direktif-reproduksi lebih kepada mengingati kandungan
pembelajaran. Direktif-bermakna pula berkaitan dengan kunci
konsep dan direktif-aplikasi berkaitan dengan pengalaman setiap
hari.
Stail pembelajaran Vermunt juga menekankan aspek
pembelajaran terarah diri (self-directed learning) yang mana
bersesuaian dengan pembelajaran orang dewasa mengikut teori
andragogi oleh Knowles (1984). Oleh kerana GP yang merupakan
orang dewasa adalah terarah diri, pensyarah dan guru pembimbing
haruslah membenarkan GP melakukan penemuan sendiri, dan
memberi bimbingan dan bantuan jika kesilapan berlaku.
BELAJAR UNTUK MENGAJAR (LEARNING TO TEACH)
GP JPTK
Vermunt dan Oosterheert (2001) telah mengkaji perbezaan
individu dalam aspek belajar untuk mengajar (learning to teach)
terhadap GP yang telah selesai menjalani latihan mengajar selama
tiga bulan dan memperolehi pengalaman. Mereka mendapati
terdapat perbezaan didalam cara GP belajar dan model stail
314
pembelajaran sangat membantu dalam pendekatan pembelajaran
mereka. Perkembangan GP dalam belajar untuk mengajar
bersamaan dengan stail pembelajaran Vermunt (1996, 1998).
Walaubagaimanapun, untuk melihat perkembangan GP belajar
untuk mengajar adalah lebih efektif jika kajian dilakukan
sepanjang tempoh GP menjalani praktikum latihan mengajar.
Selain itu, disamping mengenalpasti stail pembelajaran GP yang
efektif, penyelidik dapat melihat pola perkembangan GP di
sepanjang tempoh praktikum latihan mengajar. Coffield et.al.
(2004) juga menggalakkan penggunaan stail pembelajaran untuk
melihat perkembangan kesedaran diri (self-awareness) pelajar dan
kemahiran metakognitif mereka.
Seperti yang telah dibincangkan sebelum ini, stail
pembelajaran tidak-direktif merupakan peringkat dimana GP
mengalami kekeliruan dalam mengenalpasti orientasi pembelajaran
yang harus digunakan oleh mereka. Orientasi pembelajaran yang
dikatakan ini bermaksud pembelajaran mereka untuk mengajar dan
transformasi daripada pelajar kepada seorang guru. Jika dilihat dari
perspektif pola perkembangan Furlong dan Maynard (1995), stail
pembelajaran ini mempunyai perkaitan dengan peringkat yang
pertama iaitu ‘dealism awal’. Guru Pelatih (GP) masih belum
mempunyai identiti yang tersendiri dimana mereka hanya meniru
cara guru-guru mereka melalui pengalaman yang lepas. Pada
ketika ini mereka amat memerlukan sokongan dan bimbingan
daripada pensyarah dan guru pembimbing untuk mengenalpasti
stail mereka yang tersendiri.
Vermunt (1996, 1998) menyatakan stail pembelajaran direktifreproduksi merupakan satu orientasi pembelajaran untuk menguji
keupayaan seseorang (self-test oriented). Oleh itu, stail
pembelajaran ini sinonim dengan peringkat ‘kelangsunganperibadi’ dimana dengan bimbingan yang telah diberikan oleh
pensyarah dan guru pembimbing, GP mula mengenalpasti identiti
dan personaliti diri mereka dan cuba menyesuaikannya. Mereka
mula membuat penilaian terhadap diri mereka sendiri. Peringkat
ini juga dikenali sebagai ‘intake of knowledge’ (Vermunt &
Oosterheert, 2001).
315
Stail pembelajaran yang dikenal pasti pada peringkat ketiga dan
keempat iaitu ‘menangani kesukaran’ dan ‘mencapai tahap
mendatar’ bersesuaian dengan direktif-bermakna. Ini adalah kerana
peringkat ini melibatkan aspek pemprosesan yang mendalam (deep
processing). Pada ketika ini, GP mula membina pengetahuan
sendiri dan mereka perlu berhadapan dengan pelbagai tekanan dan
cuba menyelesaikannya sendiri dengan bimbingan mentor. Guru
pelatih (GP) perlu dilibatkan dalam perancangan dan penilaian
pembimbingnya. Pengalaman (termasuk kesilapan) menjadi asas
untuk aktiviti pembelajaran. Pembelajaran GP adalah berpusatkan
masalah dan bukan berorientasi isi kandungan. Melalui
pengalaman ini, mereka mula mempunyai keyakinan diri untuk
menguruskan sendiri kelas mereka.
Stail pembelajaran yang bersesuaian pada peringkat pola
perkembangan GP yang terakhir iaitu ‘bergerak terus’ adalah
direktif-aplikasi. Stail pembelajaran dan pola perkembangan ini
menekankan aspek pemprosesan konkrit dan pengaplikasian
pengetahuan. Pada tahap ini, GP telah mampu untuk menempuh
cabaran sebagai seorang guru dan mampu menggunakan pelbagai
kaedah pengajaran dan menyesuaikannya dengan keadaan dan
tugas yang diberikan (Vermunt dan Verloop, 1999). Guru pelatih
(GP) mampu meningkatkan kualiti diri dan seterusnya kearah
profesionalisma keguruan.
Setiap stail pembelajaran Vermunt (1996, 1998) yang telah
disuaipadankan dengan peringkat pola perkembangan GP
mengikut Furlong dan Maynard (1995) berkait rapat dengan
pembelajaran melalui pengalaman (experiential learning) Kolb’s
(1984). Pembelajaran merupakan proses dimana pembinaan
pengetahuan berdasarkan transformasi daripada pengalaman. Ini
dapat dilihat melalui perbincangan setiap peringkat perkembangan
GP melibatkan pengalaman lepas dan pengalaman setiap hari di
sepanjang tempoh praktikum latihan mengajar.
Pembelajaran GP juga memberi makna daripada aktiviti dan situasi
sebenar yang berlaku dalam tempoh latihan mengajar itu.
Mengikut Lave dan Wenger (1991), pengetahuan terhasil daripada
proses ‘way in’ dan ‘practice’. Ini menunjukkan ‘Way in’ merujuk
316
kepada konteks pembinaan pengetahuan GP dalam tempoh
praktikum latihan mengajar. Manakala, ‘practice’ merujuk kepada
penggunaan dan pengaplikasian pengetahuan GP.
Smith dan Dalton (2005) di dalam kajiannya mengenai perbezaan
stail pembelajaran GP pendidikan teknik dan vokasional
mengatakan pembangunan profesional stail pembelajaran GP
dalam bidang teknik dan vokasional dapat dicapai melalui
praktikal seperti latihan mengajar.
PENUTUP
Kesimpulannya, untuk mengenalpasti stail pembelajaran dan pola
perkembangan GP pendidikan teknik dan vokasional dengan lebih
efektif adalah disepanjang tempoh praktikum latihan mengajar. Ini
adalah kerana di dalam tempoh ini, GP harus belajar untuk
mengajar.
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319
THE SOCRATIC METHOD
ONLINE TO IMPROVE CRITICAL
AND HIGH ORDER THINKING
AMONG STUDENTS
Salihuddin Md. Suhadi, Hasnah Mohammed,
Norasykin Mohd. Zaid, Zaleha Abdullah & Baharuddin Aris
ABSTRACT
Student ability in mastering higher order thinking skill, relates
closely with their critical thinking in solving problem. If the
students can improve their critical thinking, indirectly higher level
of thinking can be achieved. The method that is suitable to improve
the students critical thinking is through the socratic method. This
method is based on learning through questioning, whereas through
the questioning, students will always think on building their
understanding construct on their own. The students can also
integrate the new concept with the prior knowledge to come up
with a concept with a concept that is flexible in regards to the
problems and more innovational. This concept paper will discuss
the socratic learning method through the online medium; allow the
teaching and learning without boundaries.
Keywords:
Socratic Learning, Critical Thinking, Technology in
Socratic Method, Online learning
320
INTRODUCTION
Since the existance of social sites is more widespread nowadays;
adolescents ages 13 to 17 are often engaged in it more than
studying. These things happen because they are exposed to the use
of technology since birth. This can be avoided since technology
can be put to good use in daily or everyday life. Various parties,
especially parents and teacher should monitor their children’s
addiction to technology can be deflected to thing that can be
beneficial. For example, the use of online learning is an ideal
medium for students who often use the computer while studying.
The use of online technology for learning can help student to share
ideas with other students and socialize at the same time (Liao et
al., 2014). Apart from that, there are also studies that state the
online learning can stimulate the student’s use of critical thinking
as they challenged each other to express their views (Kalelioğlu
dan Gülbahar, 2014). To futher improve the online discussion, the
use of socratic method which is a method that can make students
always think. This due to the fact that this method uses questioning
techniques to encourage students to think for acquiry answers, thus
construct their own concept of the answers given and received
from their peers in the forum (Yang et al., 2005).
SOCRATIC METHOD OF LEARNING
The Socratic Method originated from Socrates, a Greek
philosopher who lived circa 470 – 300 BC and was well known for
his thinking through questioning and always providing a reason
with his answers. The main concept in learning via Socratic
Method is that teachers put forth multiple questions whereby with
those questions, students are driven to think thoroughly before
answering them. The one aspect that is emphasized in the Socratic
Method of learning is to motivate students to think and build
constructs upon learning something. When a student repeatedly
thinks, it will indirectly mould them into becoming inquisitive, or
321
to be more precise, have a high level of curiosity (Tikva, 2010).
One method that is often used in Socratic learning is the
dialogue. The purpose of a dialogue is to discuss a problem to find
a variety of solutions whereby this of learning is more towards
independent learning (Birnbacher et al., 2004). Often the dialogue
is an interaction between two individuals, but when there is
learning in the classroom, the teacher changes the dialogue to a
group interaction. The role of the teacher is to facilitate the group
and ensure that the group is always in a dialogue with one another
until all concerns are resolved (Clay, 1990). All the arguments
raised will be synthesized constructively to achieve an optimal
solution. The same concept is also available in a Socratic seminar,
whereby a series of questioning techniques with logical answers
are given to construct an argument and conclusions. This technique
will stimulate the mind to think more critically (Shea et al,. 2006).
By using the dialogue, each member in the dialogue would feel
compelled to either give an opinion or to ask a question. This
activity will ignite critical thinking as question after question
would arise and stimulate students' brains to think..
Socratic Method is not a just a matter of asking question and
having the answer given by the teacher, but it is a method that
requires the review of reading, thinking and reasoning that can lead
to answering the questions given (Landis et al., 2007). There is a
significant difference between dialogue and debate because both
go through different processes. Dialogue is a process of knowledge
sharing whereas debate is championing one’s personal opinion.
Socratic Method of learning is not a common method in class
discussions; where by eventually the teachers will provide answers
after the students get stuck, but it is a process of interaction
between teachers and students that allows students to be more
involved than teachers. Once you reach a point where students
cannot respond, the teacher will help by providing questions that
can open the minds of students to think (Imison, 2004). Socratic
Method can also make students more active, which is in line with
the student-centred Active Learning concept (Peterson, 2011).
Peterson also adds that there are a few important roles of teachers
322
when conducting this Socratic learning method. Among them are: i. Asking students to provide answers by giving relevant
examples
ii. Gain support or acquiescence of the members of the group
with an opinion or answer from a student
iii. Propose an example similar to the actual situation
iv. Giving an analogy in explaining a concept
CRITICAL THINKING
There are many aspects in higher order thinking when viewed as a
whole and one of them is critical thinking. Critical thinking is
introduced to mean an attitude and skill to apply logic in problem
solving (Glaser, 1942). Further opinion states that critical thinking
means that students develop a logical concept based on the
phenomenon that they have experienced (Brookfield, 1987 ; Ennis,
1989 ; Paul, 1992), however, critical thinking can actually be
learned, or it can be built from the motivations and natural
preferences of a person. Critical thinking requires a person to apply
suppositions, knowledge, competencies and abilities in their
thinking. When critical thinking skills are used, the individual
should be able to make a reflection of the quality of the thinking
that has been made (Courtney, 2002). According to Banning
(2006), the process of critical thinking involves scrutiny,
comparison and evaluation of information to make a reflection and
subsequently forming the right conclusions. Critical thinking also
takes into account the arguments given in depth when presented
with the conclusions (Fahim and Pezeshki, 2012).
323
Figure 1: Level of Thought, revised by (Ball and Garton, 2005)
According to figure 1, Ball and Garton, (2005), there are three
levels of thinking which are Lower, Middle and Higher order.
Higher-order thinking described here involves three main
elements, namely (i) analysing, (ii) evaluating, and (iii) creating.
Two of these three elements will be the main basis for the critical
thinking which are analysing and creating. Therefore critical
thinking is very closely related to higher-order thinking skills.
Figure 2: Core Critical Thinking Skills (Youens et al., 2014)
Referring to Figure 2 which shows the basic elements of
critical thinking, there are six elements and two of which are
closely related to higher-order thinking skills. According to
Youens, thinking critically is vital for the future of the student as
they will constantly reflect on their thinking when making a
decision which will indirectly strengthen the comprehension of a
324
concept deeply. Students will also be able to evaluate all the
decisions that they have made in the past. In fact, according to
Faturohman (2012), students who think critically can be deemed
responsible as they are used to thinking thoroughly, openly and
imaginatively before making a decision. The ability to think
critically is vital because in our daily life, all of us, not just
students, will face a situation whereby we have to make a
thoughtful decision that can determine whether the outcome is
favourable or otherwise.
USING TECHNOLOGY IN A SOCRATIC METHOD
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT CAN BUILD CRITICAL AND
HINGHER ORDER THINKING
The rationale for using Socratic Method of learning is to
achieve the aim to develop critical thinking skills in students.
There are several elements that are important in shaping critical
thinking which includes an interpretation of the concept, analysis,
evaluation and inference from a context or observation
(Boghossian, 2006). Opinion Shea (2006), says that critical
thinking is more focused on using logic to explain or to answer a
problem as well as providing relevant evidence as a reference.
Socratic Method makes an effective process of managing class
discussions and students can get valuable experience when they
participate in the discussion. According to a study by (Polite dan
Adams, 1996), they say that the Socratic Method, students are able
be tolerant in the reflective activities such as the dialogue
activities. Reflective in the Socratic aspects mean active thinking,
beliefs and assumptions that could lead fellow students to master
problematic issues (Griffith and Frieden, 2000). Reflective
activities such as dialogue indirectly encourage students to think
critically where students initially were forcing themselves to think.
In addition, students' confidence in answering questions will
encourage other students to be more motivated to think critically
because peer influences often provide students with an indirect
325
boost.
The Socratic Method Learning Environment may involve the
use of technology as the present era of technology is booming. The
purpose of technology is to make the students more motivated to
engage in learning (Granito, 2012). Involvement of students in the
teaching and learning process is a very important matter to be
taken into account. If student engagement is not satisfactory,
indirectly teacing and learning objectives will not be successfully
achieved. Therefore, when the online Socratic Method Learning
Environment can be implemented, students can participate
simultaneously (together) compared to routine learning
environment which is implemented on a rotational basis. Learning
environment will become even more attractive and will also
encourage students to give opinions without restraint.
CONCLUSION
Based on the description above, it clearly shows the presence of
technology in education has become a priority to encourage,
stimulate and motivate students while learning. With the use of
technology, previous studies concluded that the learning process
can be done more easily by teachers, particularly to monitor,
respond and communicate any information to students. According
to the study, when critical thinking can be learned then it will be
extended to students who have problems in creating thought
because not everyone has the same level of thinking and it can be
developed through Socratic Method of learning as discussed.
However, a dominant part of learning is in presenting a
concept, while technology is a medium that helps to ensure the
success of such learning. Compared with previous studies where
Socratic Method was applied in person, this study aims to combine
the Socratic Method of learning with technology which can be
implemented online.
326
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328
DIFFICULTIES OF
IMPLEMENTING
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE
TEACHING (CLT) IN MALAYSIA
Samira Nikian & Faizah Mohammad Nor
ABSTRAK
Earlier method such as The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM)
and Audio-lingual Method (ALM) only put the focus on set of
linguistic system, structures and forms and learners’ ability to use
language correctly (Hung, 2009; Ahn, 2009). However, they did
not take consider the need of communication for learners (Chang,
2009). A change of focus in language teaching from linguistic
structures to learners' needs of communication happened by
introducing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) based on a
functional model of language (Halliday, 1973. Since the CLT is
against traditional language teaching methods by putting focus on
communication in language learning classrooms, applying it as a
western method in Asian countries face with some difficulties and
challenges.
Keywords: Implementing CLT, Malaysia, Difficulties
329
INTRODUCTION
Earlier method such as The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM)
and Audio-lingual Method (ALM) only put the focus on set of
linguistic system, structures and forms and learners’ ability to use
language correctly (Hung, 2009; Ahn, 2009). However, they did
not take consider the need of communication for learners (Chang,
2009). A change of focus in language teaching from linguistic
structures to learners' needs of communication happened by
introducing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) based on a
functional model of language (Halliday, 1973) and a concept of
communicative competence as a major innovation in language
teaching in England in the 1970s (Habermas, 1970; Hymes, 1971;
Jakobovits, 1970; Savignon, 1972 cited in Nikian, 2011) . Since
the CLT is against traditional language teaching methods by
putting focus on communication in language learning classrooms,
introducing CLT was considered a revolution in language teaching
methodology and rapidly gained extensive acceptance in the
western countries especially in Britain, North America, and
Australasia, a region consisting of New Zealand, Australia, New
Guinea and other smaller surrounding islands in the South Pacific
Ocean (Holliday, 1994).
In a while textbooks and curricula in most EFL and ESL
countries changed to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
but according to the research teachers, especially in EFL countries,
did not implement CLT in their classrooms. Some researchers such
as Sara Pe’er, et. al (2007) considered lack of training for teachers
is the most important reason of teachers ‘failure.
Ho-Yan Mak (2011) states when English Foreign Language
(EFL) teachers adapt the Western-based approaches such as CLT
to Asian contexts, tensions between attitudes about the different
traditions of language teaching effects on their attitudes and
practice of new teaching methodology. Embarks et al (2011)
believe “introducing Western educational innovations into nonWestern contexts can be a great challenge due to the disinterest or
resistance of those teachers who hold strong attitudes about the
efficacy of traditional teaching approaches especially when the
330
implementation of the proposed innovations requires a change in
teachers’ attitudes about teaching and learning and involves a shift
in their classroom instructional approaches from teacher-centred
into learner-centred” (Embarks et al, 2011). “The image of
teaching that they tend to bring with them from years observing
teachers “a teacher . . . standing at the blackboard demonstrating
lessons"--appears to be transformed (Feiman-Nemser, 1987; p. 17).
Teachers have different attitudes towards the role of teachers in
the classroom. Some of them believe language teaching is a
process of information transmission while some teachers may
regard the role of a teacher as facilitator of language learning.
Peacock (2001) found that student teachers frequently start
professional training with views of teaching as telling and learning
as remembering, which poses difficulties when they are
encouraged to conduct communicative language teaching.
Although there are some factors to inhibit implementing CLT in
Asian countries, many researchers believe “teachers’ instructional
approaches are guided by the conceptions of teaching and learning
so if they bear in their minds some misconception or poor
understanding of innovations, these factors can significantly affect
the way of their practice in classrooms” (Bruner, 1996; Marton and
Booth, 1997; Peterson and Irving, 2008).
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Intense British colonialization initialized the English language in
Malaysia in the 1800's for the first time (Pandian, 2002). Malaysia
has gone through vast changes in various fields since it attained
independence from Britain in 1957. After independence of
Malaysia, many changes happened in the education policy to
provide national unity by developing a national language (Watson,
1983 cited by Ting, 2007). “In the decades following
independence, the nationalization of the education system has gone
through a period of turbulence, documenting growth, decline and
eventual stabilization of its role and function in the system”
331
(Pandian, 2002; p.35). According to the changes in language
teaching, language syllabus in secondary schools in Malaysia also
changed. “The Razak Report (1956: No. 20: p.14) recommended a
number of positive and negative sanctions which were later
adopted by the Ministry of Education and other government
departments of independent Malaysia. Briefly, these sanctions
included: Making the Malay language a qualification at the various
levels of entry into the government service; Using the Malay
language as a factor for selection for secondary education; Making
the Malay language compulsory in all government departments;
Making the Malay language a requirement for anyone aspiring to a
scholarship from public funds; Providing bonuses in government
service to encourage a more rapid acquisition of the language;
Varying grants to schools depending in part on the successful
learning of Malay as and when adequate facilities could be
provided; Making the Malay language a compulsory part of
teacher training courses and examinations; Not charging fees to
pupils in adult education classes formed to study the Malay
language” (Gaudart, 1987, p.1).
The next educational report was announced by Rahman Talib
in 1960 to offer inducements to qualified teachers already in school
to study the Malay language or the National Language to teach
through the medium of the National Language. The reason for
putting focus on the learning of Malay was that Malay is the
national language of the newly independent country and a common
language would create a common culture and so create a new
national identity (Gaudart, 1987).
LITERATURE REVIEW
After announcing of Razak and Talib’s reports, “the National
Language and National Educational policies were implemented
gradually from 1970 until 1983 in primary and secondary levels of
education. Certain problems were overlooked in the teaching of
English in this scenario such as finding the best approach to
332
teaching English to multilingual students” (Darus, 2009). In this
situation, adhoc committees and the Curriculum Development
Centre developed 3 different approaches in the English syllabus for
the primary/secondary and upper secondary school. Hence, based
on the report of Ministry of Education (1973,1975,1976) the
Structural Syllabus was applied for Forms 1, 2 and the
Communicative Syllabus for Forms 4 and 5.
Azian (2011) believes “the success of national language policy
had an adverse effect on Malaysians’ ability to speak and write in
English” (p.5). Hence Nunan(2003) and Nur salawati believe
English is Malaysia is more of foreign language rather than second
language.
The structional-situational syllabus was adopted in primary
schools. According to Abraham, (1987 cited by Pandian, 2002),
the structural approach usually provides a list of language
structures and words as learning objectives. Structural syllabus
emphasized on discrete learning of grammar. It aims to produce
the list of language structures in context or situation. Teaching
reading and writing in the structural syllabus led to teachercentered classroom. In addition sentences were learned in isolation
and students have to learn too many skills related to examination
and could not use language in a meaningful situation (Tang, 2007).
Introducing Communicative syllabus for form 4 and 5 gives
secondary school learners the opportunities to use the language for
various functions, such as
relaying messages and giving
instructions, with the assumption that they have acquired adequate
grammatical knowledge to use it (Tang, 2007) but students and
teachers could not adopt themselves with the new syllabus which
required them to put less focus on grammar (Pandian, 2002). Even
after the communicative syllabus was adopted for education in
Malaysia, Pandian (2004) and Chan and Tan (2006) feel that
Malaysian students are still not equipped with communicative
competence. Radzi et al (2007) also found Malaysian students’
fluency in oral English is comparatively low compared to their
performance in writing. Noor Hashimah Abdul Aziz (2007)
explains most English language students in higher education face
333
many difficulties in speaking English. In addition, Radzi et al
(2007) discussed after a number of years learning English in
school, the low performance of Malaysian learners still remains a
problem to be solved. Moreover, Mustafa and Yahya (2012) state
“the problem of students having low proficiency level in English
still exists in community colleges throughout the country. Despite
the strength of CLT as a potential approach in enhancing oral
communication skills among learners, community colleges
constantly receive feedbacks from employers about students’ poor
communication skills, especially in English” (p. 789). This fact is
also discussed by Subermaniam in 2013. He states Malaysian
learners cannot communicate in English fluently even after 11
years of formal English language education.
Lack of communicative competence among Malaysian students
may be related to practicing the teacher-dominated educational
model for centuries as in many Asian contexts. According to Koo
Yew Lie (2008) producing autonomous and independent student
learning in the Malaysian education system is difficult. Teachercentred approaches and chalk and talk drill method have been for
decades used in English classes in Malaysia (Ministry of
Education, 2003). Naginder (2006) cited in Musa (2012) also
believes teachers in Malaysia have the authority in teaching the
lessons while Wong-fillmore (1985, cited in Al-Mekhlafi, 2013)
claimed teacher-centred classes are far more effective than studentcentred ones. Saleh and Aziz (2012) believe “in general, most of
the teaching practices applied in Malaysian schools still take place
in a condition whereby the teacher still dominates over the
students. This shows that teaching method at schools is still
bounded by traditional methods” (p.4).
Pandian (2004) believes examination-based system at schools
is one of several reasons for the teacher-centred teaching method in
Malaysia. Pandian (2002), after analysing KBSM syllabus found
that many grammatical skills are tested in examination and
students have to learn them during the class time to pass exams and
obtain good grades. Moreover, Musa (2012) declares English
language learning in Malaysia is based on a “set of language
334
mechanics with fixed ways of using the language; isolated from its
communicative use. It is presented as a neutral set of language
systems, to be learned and mastered for specific classroom
situation” (p.5). So in this situation Musa et al., (2012) believe,
teachers in Malaysia have to put focus on teaching grammar and
ignore sociocultural elements of language learning and the
importance of communicative competence in their teaching and
students have to put the focus on scoring good grade in the exam
by memorizing and regurgitating in the discourse of assessment
(Siong et al, 2010). Therefore, it can be concluded that although
English language teaching has shifted toward CLT in Malaysia,
teachers are still applying traditional methods such as the
grammar-translation and audio-lingual methods (Abd. Razak et al.,
1996; Jemaah Nazir Sekolah Persekutuan, 1996; Voo, 1996; Wan
Mohd Rani, 1999 cited in Saleh and Aziz; 2012).
Apart from examination-based system at schools, Musa et al
(2012) state the lack of communicative competence among
Malaysian learners is due to teachers’ negative attitudes of learnercentred methods of teaching English which influence the teaching
and learning of English. In addition, Al-Mekhlafi (2012) posits
learner centred approaches such as CLT may not be consistent with
the attitudes of teachers about teaching and learning. Bax (2003)
also asserts that the language teaching profession has been
negatively influenced by “an almost unconscious set of attitudes”
(p. 280) which he labels, the CLT attitude. The effect of teachers’
negative attitudes on inhibiting practicing CLT was also found by
Hiep (2007). He found that one of the factors that prevents
implementing CLT in Vietnam is teachers’ negative attitudes
towards CLT. In this regard, Bybee (1993) contends that teachers’
attitudes and their teaching practice are the most essential
components of educational change to occur. So it is clear that
teachers’ attitudes are crucial if substantial changes are needed
because they have a great deal of authority in making decisions
regarding the planning of day-to-day instruction (Judson, 2006).
Hence, teachers’ ways of thinking and attitude are vital
components of their practice in the classroom (Kagan, 1992;
335
Burnaby and Sun, 1989; Ellis, 1994; Fox, 1993; Gamal and Debra,
2001 ; Karavas-Doukas, 1996; Li, 1998; Mustafa, 2001 ; Penner,
1995; Rollman, 1994; Sato and Kleinsasser, 1999; Thompson,
1996).
While the majority of the research about attitudes and practices
have been conducted with teachers, recently researchers have
shifted their focus and demonstrated an unprecedented interest in
examining pre-service teachers’ attitudes, thinking, planning and
decision-making (Fang, 1996; Fives and Buehl, 2010). Epler
(2011) recommends that teacher educators attempt to identify the
attitudes of pre-service teachers and modify those attitudes if
modifications of attitudes are needed. Similarly, Joram and
Gabriele (1998) state targeting incorrect attitudes about teaching of
pre-service teachers during their training will be effective to help
trainees become aware of their attitudes and try to put them in
practice in the best way in their classroom. Ellis (1994) calls this
awareness “Raising” (pp.184).
CONCLUSION
Consequently, as Wallin (2003) believes political leaders in
developing nations would like to upgrade their educational systems
in order to improve the quality of education to meet the challenges
of globalization. Hence, the most important factor in improving
education in Malaysia should be on teacher performance and
certain instructional methods that produce higher student
achievement than other methods. In the history of Malaysia, it is
evident that the education policy over the past years has been
consistent and in line with Vision 2020. However, since the goal of
Vision 2020 in is to gain the status of "a developed country" for
Malaysia by the year 2020, one of the important factors that play a
significant role in new vision of Malaysia in 2020 will be raising
education in to world standards.
336
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A FRAMEWORK OF SCENARIOEPISTEMIC GAME FOR
PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND
HIGHER ORDER THINKING
SKILLS
Kho Pui Wun & Jamalludin Harun
ABSTRACT
This paper addressed the looming crisis of education to produce
effective workers in the 21st century. Epistemic games are claimed
to have the potential to solve the educational crisis. In this research
study, the purpose was to identify a framework of scenarioepistemic game which centered on inducing professional skills and
Higher Order Thinking Skills(HOTs). The framework of the
scenario-epistemic game allowed epistemic game designer to
create an epistemic frame of professions and construct the
scenarios of the game. This approach engendered students towards
mastery of professional skills and HOTs. Therefore, this study
regarded as a new dedication to the game-based learning in 21st
century.
Keywords: 21st century, Game-based learning, Scenario-epistemic
game, Professional skills, Higher order thinking skills
341
INTRODUCTION
In the era of globalisation, there is a competition for innovative
work. The world is racing ahead to produce innovative and
creative workers who have professional skills to solve the complex
problems (Friedman, 2005). Dede (2007) also agreed that the
world will be dominated by innovation and knowledge. Employers
have higher expectation on their workers. Bennett and Robinson
(2000) have listed the three skills that must possessed by the most
valuable worker are basic academic skills, higher order thinking
skills and certain personal qualities. Wagner (2008) designated that
these are the vital survival skills that must be possessed by every
individual.
Apart from that, previous study reported that the graduated
students who have inadequate knowledge and skills have caused
the problems in industry (Yampinij and Chaijaroen, 2012). Office
of Accreditation Standard and Educational Quality Assessment
(2007) found that they are lacking of systematic skill, analytical
skill and synthesis skill. They could not analyse and solve the realworld problems effectively (Rajendran, 2001). Therefore, effective
and valuable worker can be produced through nurturing students
with Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTs) in school.
A study conducted by Wenglinsky (1998) to investigate the
relationship between learning through computer games and
students’ HOTs. He found that computer games will enhance
students HOTs and conventional drill and practice will lead
students to have lower order thinking skills. In this study, the
instructional technology used in educational practices is
educational game. Prensky (2001) also claimed that many
researchers predicted that game-based learning (GBL) will serve
the education world as the rapid advancement of technology.
Students learn the content of knowledge indirectly and achieve
learning objective at the same time while playing the digital game
(Garris, et al., 2002). This can bring the enjoyment and excitement
in learning process.
In this paper, the literature of GBL will be reviewed and a
342
framework of game which focuses professional practices will be
introduced.
LITERATURE REVIEW
This section will briefly review the literature of game-based
learning and one suitable types of GBL will be selected to solve
the looming crisis in education. Furthermore, the best instructional
strategy used in the game will be further identified.
Game-Based Learning
Cicchino (2013) suggested GBL as an effective strategy to nurture
students’ HOTs and promote content learning. Game-based
learning can be regarded as cognitive tools that arouse student’s
motivation and engagement in learning (Burguillo, 2010; Lee &
Probert, 2010). It can be used to teach in some subjects, such as
mathematics, science, history, and language learning (Zin, Jaafar,
& Yue, 2009).
There are many studies showing that the GBL increases the
motivation and performance in learning process (Burguillo, 2010;
Ebner & Holzinger, 2007; Papastergiou, 2009; Wang & Chen,
2010). This is because educational games provide interesting
learning environment that allow students to acquire deeper and
longer-lasting knowledge of the content (Cicchino, 2013; Sung and
Hwang, 2012). Koenig (2008) indicated that the environment of
instructional games is also able to develop HOTs such as critical
thinking skills.
However, there are studies argued that the inadequacies of the
GBL. Apostol, Zaharescu and Alexe (2013) also pointed out that
the possibility of using game-like learning may devalue the subject
to be learned. Cankaya and Kuzu (2010) indicated that children
learn by playing and having fun. Yet, it is a challenge to keep
balance between learning and gaming (Kickmeier-Rust and Albert,
343
2010). Students might focus on the enjoyment of the game.
Barzilai and Blau (2014) found that one of the core challenges in
GBL is to assist students to relate between the knowledge learned
in game and disciplinary content. Therefore, the learning tasks in
the game can be designed ground on the learning objectives. Then
the students will not drift away from content learning.
Furthermore, games alone could not significantly improve
students’ performance (Apostol, Zaharescu and Alexe, 2013). They
explained that some of the students may encounter problems in
solving the task due to the lack of knowledge and understanding.
Their ability is not enough to cope with the complicated situation
and thus make them feel frustrated or demotivated. Therefore,
teachers’ facilitation is vital to the GBL.
Nonetheless, it is very clear that challenges occurred hinder the
adoption of the games in the classroom. Watson, et al. (2011) listed
out the issues faced by teachers who conducted game-like learning
in school. They claimed that problem with technology, fixed class
schedule and the concern of parents and administration about the
effects of gaming. Thus, Extra instructional support and good
implementation strategies will ensure the effectiveness of game
learning (Watson, et al., 2011). Sung and Hwang (2012) also urged
that the importance of providing the learning support or guidance
in GBL.
All in all, GBL is able to promote learning engagement, induce
students’ cognitive growth and potentially foster students’ HOTs.
Thus, it is important to indicate and introduce a suitable game that
focuses on professional practice and induces students’ HOTs
Epistemic Game
There are many popular games which enhance students’ cognitive
development such as role-playing games, simulation game, realtime strategy games, adventure games, action games, puzzle
games, and chess games (Zhi and Zhenhong , 2008). However,
there is a demand of the mastery of complex thinking, technical
344
language and problem solving skills even in elementary schools
(Gee, 2003; Johnson, 2005). Shaffer (2007) introduced a
computer-supported games based on real world practices known as
epistemic games.
The main objective of epistemic games is to stimulate
experiences of professional practices and help students to cope
with the real world situation effectively (Nash, Bagley and Shaffer,
2012). Shaffer and Gee (2005) claimed that the epistemic games
provide an opportunity for students to construct knowledge, apply
knowledge and share knowledge while dealing with the games.
They also urged that the epistemic games can solve the coming
crisis in education. This is because the epistemic game allows the
students to engender the experiences of the professional practices.
One of the great promises of the epistemic game is that students
could develop their epistemic frame in the context of professional
action. This enables the mastery of knowledge and skills (Shaffer,
2006). Students are engaged in making knowledge, applying
knowledge and sharing knowledge via playing the epistemic game
(Shaffer and Gee, 2005). Shaffer (2007) proposed that the
epistemic frame is formed by the combination of skills,
knowledge, identity, value and epistemology (SKIVE). The
SKIVE elements form the epistemic frame of community and have
the base structure as below:
1. Skills (S): the things that people within the community do.
2. Knowledge (K): the understandings that people in the
community share.
3. Identity (I): the way that members of the community see
themselves.
4. Values (V): the beliefs that members of the community
hold.
5. Epistemology (E): the warrants that justify actions or claims
as legitimate within the community.
(Shaffer, 2006)
345
Figure 1 The SKIVE elements are interrelated.
Figure 1 shows the combination of these frame elements
characterise the professional ensemble and thus develop the
professional way of thinking (Rupp, et al., 2010). They further
accentuate the elements of the frame are interconnected and linked
in practice. This helps students develop the professional patterns of
acting and thinking that are driven by their epistemic frame. Thus,
the epistemic game is able to engender students’ knowledge and
apply it in ways that HOTs. However, the learning support or
guidance provided in game increase the learning potential.
Therefore, it is vital to examine a suitable instructional strategy to
enrich the epistemic game and yet helping the students in
accomplishing the task.
Suitable Instructional Strategy used in Epistemic game
In order to maximise the learning experience through the epistemic
game, a good learning strategy can immerged into the game
design. Scenario based learning (SBL), problem-based learning
(PBL) and case-based learning (CBL) are the strategies that can be
used to design the activities in games. Although Mery and
Blakiston (2010) explained that SBL can be considered as PBL and
CBL. However, they are different in between. Thus, the
346
differences must be well notified and an appropriate strategy needs
to be carefully chosen in order to select the best approach to create
learning activities.
Table 1: The differences of scenario based learning, problem based
learning and case based learning.
Approach
Scenario
based
learning
Problem
based
learning
(PBL)
Case based
learning
(CBL)
Details
Students are put in a context and allowed them to explore the
learning issues, and challenges. They are required to apply
knowledge and practice skills relevant to the situation
(Muhamad et al., 2012).
Students visualise and experience a practical scenario of what
they learn in coursework (Siddiqui,et al., 2008) They have
basic knowledge of the topics.
PBL allows students to apply their knowledge and skills in the
new situation to solve the problem or to achieve definite goals
(Williams and Beattie, 2008).
Students do not have basic knowledge of the topics. They
must discover new methods by using the previous knowledge
or principles (Williams and Beattie, 2008).
CBL helps students to develop their perspective field via using
case studies which are based upon real life problem in practice
(Kaddoura, 2011).
CBL focuses on resolving a problem or case with wellorganised teamwork (Rosenbaum, et al., 2005)
CBL engenders knowledge acquisition, skills and attitudes
(Cender, et al., 2011)
By referring to the table 1, SBL is selected as a strategy to
create a real world context in game-based learning. Students will
be presented the epistemic game after they have gone through the
topic in order to strengthen their understanding and thus enhance
their HOTs. It has been widely used to teach the students in
different professions such as engineering problem, corporate
trainings and vocational educational program (Chu, 2007; Clark,
2009; Dahl, 2010; Naidu, et al., 2007). Siddiqui,et al. (2008) added
that this approach of learning allows students to apply knowledge
to the situation and practice the skills relevant to critical thinking
and decision-making.
Kindley (2002) claimed that scenario based learning is
347
effective when presents with game-like appearance. The epistemic
games emulate real life situations and enable students to solve
problems based on their real experiences. The decisions of the
actions and strategies used in such learning context will enhance
their learning experiences and increase the mastery of knowledge
and skills. The integration of SBL into the game will be a good and
promising tool to induce and foster students’ knowledge and skills
needed in the specific domain.
Clark (2009) introduced Ruth Clark’s scenario-based model
that simulates the real world situation as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Ruth Clark’s Scenario-Based Model
Ruth Clark’s Scenario-Based Model (Clark, 2009) explained
that Task Deliverable as learning objectives must be set before
designing the learning activity. Every scenario includes trigger
event, case data, feedback, reflection and guidance that reflects the
learning objectives. The learning tasks that grounded on learning
objectives will prevent students to trivialize the subject learned.
Apart from that, Trigger Event provides the script of the learning
activity is launched based on specification for the scenario in the
task deliverable. This can arouse students’ interest and engage
them in dealing with the epistemic game. Case Data provides
players with all the details. Moreover, Guidance such as relevant
models, tutorials and references is embedded in the game to guide
the students who need assistance. This could improve students’
348
learning capacity. Feedback is also a significant component to be
considered as it expands students’ learning experience with
insights. Case data, Guidance and Feedback are the best learning
supports while students encounter problem to solve the tasks. The
students then can play the epistemic game at home independently
without teacher’s facilitation. Thus, this will not deter the fixed
class schedule. Last but not least, students are given chances to
think and reflect. Reflection allows them to recall and reflect what
they learned throughout the game.
FRAMEWORK PROPOSED FOR SCENARIO-EPISTEMIC
GAME
Shaffer (2007) believes that the epistemic frame is generated when
there is a linkage between knowledge and practice (Shaffer, 2007).
Dewey (1958) supports this by stating that knowing and doing is
highly related. Each of the scenarios in the epistemic game is
centered on learning objectives with the aim to optimise the
learning outcome by developing a better learning environment in
the epistemic game.
Figure 3 Integration of Ruth Clark’s Scenario-Based Model into SKIVE
elements.
The SKIVE elements are used to build students’ epistemic
frame of professional practices and Ruth Clark’s Scenario-Based
349
Model will be used to create the scenario of the problem-solving
situations. For instances, the epistemic game provides chances for
the students to generate an epistemic frame of chemist to work in
laboratory. The students will then take the role as a chemist to
solve the problem and accomplish the goal by overcoming the
obstacles in the learning task. Therefore, the students are trained to
think like an expert in their professional domain and solve problem
in real world context created based on scenario-based learning. The
integration of the SKIVE elements and Ruth Clark’s ScenarioBased Model can thus generate the application of HOTs in the
epistemic game.
CONCLUSION
The scenario-epistemic game is authentic, real and reflective.
Students are allowed to construct their own knowledge and skills
by critically solved the problems in the complex and meaningful
ways. This could stimulate students’ HOTs, develop a better
content understanding and enhance their professional skills via
game playing. The framework of the scenario-epistemic game
focuses on professional practices and it is applicable to any
professional domain such as chemist, lawyer and engineer. Thus,
the education crisis can be solved and effective worker who meet
the requirement in the 21 st century will be hence produced.
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355
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF
VIDEO LEARNING BASED ON
POPBL AND CBE
Khairul Anuar Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Sukri Daud, Yusri
Kamin & Norazrena Abu Samah
ABSTRACT
Demonstration method is often used in technical and vocational
teaching. This has led to a longer period of teaching and learning
(T&L) and is difficult to be repeated if the student missed it. In
addition, the diversity of students' backgrounds affects how they
think, insofar; influence their thinking skills and the knowledge
exhibited. Therefore, the use of video in T&L is the latest
alternative to allow students to see the process involved in practical
and stimulate students' ability to engage in T&L. This should be
added to the Competency-based Education (CBE) and Project
Oriented Problem Based Learning (POPBL) because the concept
of learning is appropriate for compentecy-based education as well
as to establish the characteristics of the competencies required by
employers. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the
conceptual framework of video learning based on POPBL and
CBE. This conceptual framework was built based on the analysis
results of previous study and will be tested by experts for further
research.
Keywords: POPBL, CBE, Video, Conceptual framework
356
INTRODUCTION
Technical and vocational education (TVE) without a doubt is the
catalyst for national development (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013).
Teaching and learning process in TVE should not only focus on
chalk and talk method, but should also emphasize competencies
(Marina & Jamil, 2013). Utilization of various teaching aids is very
important to ensure that students can master a task in a specific
competency before moving to a new task. Therefore, competencybased education in teaching skills has become a necessity in
education (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013; Drive & Asnul Dahar, 2006;
Lokman, Nurul Qistin, and Mohd Hanafi, 2009; Marina & Jamil,
2013).
Competency-based Education (CBE) is very effective to be
used in education as it aims in training individuals of the skills
related to workplace (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013; Marina & Jamil,
2013). Competencies and learning outcomes are the main models
and keys to solution of problems in technical and vocational
education at present time such as problems in technological
changes and the gap between education and employment needs
(Edwards, Sánchez-Ruiz, & Sánchez-Díaz, 2009; Ennis 2008;
Gasperini, 2009). This problem has also been highlighted in the
Ninth Malaysia Plan (RMK-9), where there is a need to use
strategic approach of CBE in producing skillful and knowledgeable
human capital of (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013).
In achieving developed nation status in 2020, employers are
becoming more critical in the selection of new employees (Rasul,
et al., 2009). This is due to the quality of graduates produced by
local universities who did not exhibit the required competencies
according to job sector and low capability of graduates to master
social skills and manners effectively in the society (Othman et al.,
2008). This finding is in line with the technological changes which
is constantly improving and advancing from time to time (Hamzah
& Musta'mal, 2012). This goes along with the government's desire
to create and strengthen human capital skills and knowledge
contained in the second core of RMK-9 that is to increase the
357
capacity for knowledge and innovation (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013).
Therefore, POPBL should be applied in T&L to produce workers
who are innovative, creative, and able to solve problems, work in
teams and manage projects.
Studies conducted by Hernández-Ramos (2007) and Sampson
and Fytros (2008) proved that the use of technology in education
offers huge potential as it introduces an innovative teaching and
learning modalities among students with different backgrounds. It
also provides learning experiences that are similar to student life
experience (Potter, 2005) and also provides support, extend or
change in pedagogy and curriculum output (Kearney & Schuck,
2004). Technology and pedagogy are often seen from the
perspective of constructivist (Jonassen, et al., 2003).
In line with the development of technology in the country, the
application of video learning is highly encouraged to be used as
one of the teaching methods, especially in TVE. It aims to produce
students who are skillful and knowledgeable. This is to fulfill the
government's efforts to produce highly competent human capital
(Shiung & Ling, 2005). The use of the video too has shown that it
has helped educators in T&L process, helped students improve
their understanding in mastering a subject (Ismail et al., 2006;
Jurich, 1999; Zurina & Zaidatun, 2006) and prepared the students
to be equipped with lifelong learning and be proactive when
entering the workforce (Gasperini, 2009).
In addition, the use of video also encourages students to take
greater responsibility towards their learning by enriching learning
experiences (Kearney & Schuck, 2006). This is also supported by
Norton (1985), who found that the experience of using learning
resources such as video materials can enhance learning and selfdirection. Quality video production following the national
curriculum can contribute to the success of nation education in the
future (Ismail et al., 2006). The use of video technology in learning
can also bridge the gap between the artificial environments of the
school to the realities of the classroom (Jurich, 1999). The use of
video in T&L gave a huge impact and is effective in influencing
and attracting students’ interests and motivation as well as
358
encouraging students to yield more efforts. In all, it can make
learning to be more meaningful in achieving the learning
objectives (Jiar & Fakhri, 2010; Waters & Jones, 2011).
Nonetheless, the use of video in TVE was something new and
underused (Hamdan Mohd Yasin, 2010). According to him, if
learning to be done using video, it is expected that teachers to be
ready to integrate information and communication technologies in
the T&L process. In addition, preliminary studies conducted in a
vocational training center previously has shown that students did
participat in T&L that used video, but the T&L has failed to
implement the desired skills and failed to build problem-solving
skills. This is because the video that they used was not carefully
developed. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the
conceptual framework of video learning based on POPBL and
CBE in TVE.
COMPETENCY-BASED EDUCATION (CBE)
CBE is a practical approach that is based on the student's ability
and society’s competency requirements (Frank, et al., 2010).
According to Frank et al. (2010) CBE did not emphasize on timebased training and it promises accountability, flexibility and is
student-centered. CBE was first introduced in 1992 in Australian
Vocational Education and Training (VET). Its objective is to
achieve demonstration skills according to the industry standards
(Mulcahy, 2000). These skills and knowledge required of the
individual are needed to meet the expectations of the workplace
rather than relying on the learning process solely (Shellabear,
2002). Through CBE, engineering and community members can
show the behavior, knowledge, skills and necessary abilities to
perform their duties at the highest level of efficiency through a mix
of experience, training and education (Dallosta, 2011).
According to The National Council on Technical and
Vocational Education and Training (2006), CBE elements include
tasks for students that are recognized by industry experts, provide
359
opportunities for students to enhance their competencies and
assessment of knowledge as well as attitudes and competencies.
The competencies to be assessed are informed beforehand to
students. This is to ensure that the teaching is in line with the
objectives set and the students would be able to show their
competencies during T&L process. Besides that, according to
Norton (1985) and Asnul and Kandar (2006), the application of the
CBE involves a variety of methods and teaching materials.
CBE is advantageous as it is more training oriented and is able
to shape a future worker amongst students as they need to undergo
employee training program or focused-competency program.
These programs focuses on the knowledge and skills of the job
specifications based on industry and employers competency
standards (Hall & Jones, 1996; Mansfield, 1989; Mulcahy, 2000;
Tuxworth, 2005; Williams, 1997). CBE also stated that
prerequisite information and directions need to be provided
together with the module (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013; Hall & Jones,
1996; Norton, 1985; Stanley Elam, 1971; The National Council on
Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2006). In
addition, CBE offers courses that are relevant and balanced to the
needs of consumers and society (Mulder, 2012; Stanley Elam,
1971). Furthermore, CBE is an alternative to meet current needs
and not just looking at individual result-driven achievements only.
(Kandar & Asnul, 2006). Assessments involved in CBE are pre
assessment and post assessment (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013; Hall &
Jones, 1996; Marina & Jamil, 2013; Norton, 1985; Stanley Elam,
1971; The National Council on Technical and Vocational
Education and Training, 2006).
CBE programs in T&L is more focused as it follows the
syllabus and systematic teaching where teaching facilitates the
development and assessment of competence-oriented coach,
teacher as fasilatator and promote lifelong learning (Asnul Dahar,
et al., 2013; Marina & James, 2013; Stanly Elam, 1971; Williams,
1997). In addition, this program also provides sufficient and
complete equipment to provide experience to students (Norton,
1985; The National Council on Technical and Vocational
360
Education and Training, 2006). Through CBE, the student will be
informed of the criteria of competence and attitude needed in the
workplace and the role given before students follow the modules.
Requisite information and directions provided together with the
module and the competence that need to be achieved first are
identified, validated and disseminated (Asnul Dahar, et al., 2013;
Norton, 1985; Stanley Elam, 1971; The National Council on
Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2006).
According to Kyobe and Rugumayo (2005), CBE is an
approach to technical education and vocational training which
emphasizes the development of skills and abilities that are actually
needed in the working world. The instructor will provide a learning
environment that resembles the work environment (Mansfield,
1989; The National Council on Technical and Vocational
Education and Training, 2006; Williams, 1997). Through CBE, the
focus shifted from input in the training to required training at
workplace or industry standards (Hall & Jones, 1996; Mulcahy,
2000; Tuxworth, 2005; Williams, 1997).
The study conducted by Hall and Jones (1996) and Williams
(1997) found that CBE is a mastery learning where there is no
provision in the learning time in achieving different competencies
and values. Instructor will provide a complete and easy instructions
to help students to master competencies that are being determined
(Norton, 1985), as well as providing tasks in the real world of
workplace to be completed by students before being given the next
task (Williams, 1997). Learning activities are also graded to help
some of the students to have at least a minimum level of
competencies (Hall & Jones, 1996). Additionally, the knowledge
and understanding were gained through certain experiences that
enable students to master quickly with respect to the objectives
(Norton, 1985; Wolf, 2005). If students make a mistake during the
T&L process, teachers promptly correct students’ errors and
provide immediate feedback on tasks and tests given (Norton,
1985; Stanley Elam, 1971; The National Council on Technical and
Vocational Education and Training, 2006).
361
PROJECT ORIENTED PROBLEM BASED LEARNING
(POPBL)
POPBL is an educational discipline by nature where it can be
divided into two themes, namely, project-based and problem-based
learning that involves daily lives issues (Krüger-Basener &
Kosuch, 2009; Uziak, et al., 2010). Problem-based learning
requires students to develop and build the foundation for the
synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines (knowledge)
while project-based learning requires a wide range of theories and
related knowledge (know-why) (Moesby, 2005; Ruhizan, et al.,
2011; Uziak et al., 2010).
POPBL approach encourages students to engage in more
complex scenarios or complex problems given to them. They need
to identify the information they have learned and the skills they
need to have to solve the problem (Ruhizan, et al., 2011). In
POPBL structured methods, in the early stages of the course,
students carried out simple projects in the beginning through selfstudy followed by critical and complex questions (Moesby, 2005;
Uziak, et al., 2010). Many of the early projects were done through
self-study that helps students to revise or develop the necessary
basic concepts, learn how to use the design tools, develop problem
solving and critical thinking skills and develop independent
learning skills (Ruhizan, et al. 2011; Uziak, et al., 2010).
The results of the study done by Ruhizan, Saemah and
Kamaruzaman (2011) for trainers in 12 polytechnics in Malaysia
showed that the use of technology in the implementation of
POPBL can have a positive impact on students' knowledge and
technical skills. The key features of POPBL are student-centered,
providing instruction through skills required, process-centered,
group-based, experience-based and problems are treated as the
core issue in learning (Ruhizan, et al., 2011; Uziak, et al., 2010).
POPBL application in design and craftsmanship requires
special attention because there is evidence that it improves the
design thinking, the skills and experience (Ruhizan, et al., 2011). It
also promotes and supports the work of the team and improves the
362
retention of knowledge in valid multi-disciplinary design
scenarios, as well as crossing geographical boundaries and
cultures. POPBL approach can also help students to learn design
thinking effectively because it encourages creativity and enhance a
comprehensive approach to solving problems (Uziak, et al., 2010).
According to Krüger-Basener & Kosuch (2009), POPBL able to
attract female students to study science and technical subjects.
According to Moesby (2005), the characteristics of the
application of POPBL is to state the problem according to level,
strong group planning which is led by individuals who are
experienced in every level and validated discussions are the
keywords used in categorizing individual skills and talents. In
addition, through POPBL, students’ personal efficiency is very
significant and higher when compared with conventional
techniques. POPBL is also seen to be having the potential to foster
the ability of students to learn actively, think critically and solve
problems through teaching process that focuses on practical tasks
(Aziz, Sicard, & Dhia, 2010; Othman et al., 2008). It also
encourages students to conduct group discussions. Moreover,
POPBL can create independent learning, improve soft skills,
develop first class human capital and form an active, constructive
and creative learning (Othman et al., 2008).
According to Dolog et al., (2010), POPBL have different
perspectives among students, teachers or trainers and educational
institutions. From the students’ perspective, POPBL involves
problems related to everyday life, which attract students’ interests
and increase students’ motivation. Meanwhile, lecturers or teachers
believe that POPBL promotes mutual learning among their
students. Finally, from the perspective of educational institutions,
POPBL is viewed to able to motivate students, produce graduates
who are competent and enhance collaboration between institutions
and industry.
363
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF RESEARCH
CBE model has certain characteristics which are; predetermined
training, results of assessment, involvement of industry in
determining the success of a training program and training
program that follows the industry standard competencies
(Mulcahy, 2000). It is also training-oriented where learning
objectives are clearly stated and correlated and the course elements
are appropriate and proportionate, suitable with the needs of
customers and society (Mulder, 2012). From the results of the
documents analysis carried out by researchers, there are 17
characteristics of CBE that will be highlighted in this study.
POPBL is a suitable approach in teaching engineering subjects
(Moesby, 2005). Therefore, POPBL will also be referred in this
study. From the results of the documents analysis carried out by
researchers, there are nine characteristics of POPBL. Through
POPBL, students will be actively involved in stimulating learning
experience through teaching that emphasize skills and process
centered, encourage them to think critically and innovatively, solve
problem and also encourage group discussion amongst them (Aziz,
et al., 2010). Therefore, the 17 features characteristics of CBE and
nine characteristics of POPBL will be the fundamental in the
construction of the conceptual framework of video learning based
on CBE and POPBL in PTV (see Figure 1.0).
364
Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework of video learning based on
CBE and POPBL in PTV
365
CONCLUSION
Realizing that these learning problems have yet to have solid
solutions, researchers have conducted studies on the elements that
are necessary in the production of video-based learning in TVE
based on CBE and POPBL. Researchers have chosen video as the
medium to develop students' competencies as it have been proven
by other resaerchers that the use of multimedia is effective in
attracting students’ interests and motivation in learning.
Unfortunately, existing medium did not help much in shaping
students to be competent and it is not very suitable to be used in
TVE. Therefore, the conceptual framework of video-based
learning based on CBE and POPBL was built and will be tested by
experts for further research.
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PERSEPSI PELAJAR SEKOLAH
BERASRAMA PENUH (SBP)
TERHADAP MATA PELAJARAN
FIZIK
Nur Hazwani Zakaria & Fatin Aliah Phang
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi pelajar tingkatan
empat sekolah berasrama penuh (SBP). Dua aspek yang dikaji iaitu
tahap motivasi pelajar dan strategi pembelajaran Fizik yang
diamalkan. Responden kajian terdiri daripada 40 orang pelajar SBP
di Kedah. Kajian ini menggunakan soal selidik sebagai instrumen
kajian. Data maklumat yang diperoleh dianalisa dengan huraian
peratus dan min. Purata taburan menggunakan tiga bahagian iaitu
tinggi, rendah dan sederhana. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan
tahap motivasi adalah tinggi dan strategi pembelajaran yang
diamalkan juga tinggi. Di samping itu terdapat beberapa cadangan
dan item yang memerlukan perhatian untuk kajian seterusnya
seperti kurang keyakinan untuk belajar sendiri dan mencari
penyelesaian
Fizik
melalui
internet.
Kesimpulannya,
kebergantungan kepada guru dan rakan adalah sangat tinggi di
kalangan pelajar SBP.
Kata Kunci: Persepsi pelajar, Motivasi, Strategi pembelajaran,
penilaian,Ppencapaian, KBAT, Fizik, Pembelajaran pengalaman
371
PENGENALAN
Penurunan bilangan pelajar dalam bidang sains di universiti
memberi impak yang besar kepada pembangunan negara (Mujtaba
& Reiss, 2012). Banyak negara memperkasa bidang sains yang
memfokuskan Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
(STEM) untuk memastikan kelangsungan modal insan berkualiti
dalam sains (Divine & Williams, 2013). Fizik merupakan satu
mata pelajaran yang menjadi disiplin ilmu sains. Bilangan pelajar
yang memasuki aliran sains tulen juga rendah dan dasar
pendidikan negara yang mensasarkan 60 % pelajar aliran sains dan
40 % pelajar aliran sastera pada peringkat menegah atas belum
dicapai (Mohd Saleh, Fatin, Mohamad Bilal, & Salmiza, 2012).
Maka, kerajaan mewujudkan sekolah berasrama penuh (SBP)
sebagai satu langkah untuk memenuhi dasar tersebut. Pelajar
cemerlang dari kawasan luar bandar diberi peluang untuk
meneruskan pelajaran di SBP melalui saringan Ujian Penilaian
Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) dan Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR)
(Ministry of Malaysia Education, 2013b).
Penilaian antarabangsa seperti Trends in Mathematics and
Science Study (TIMMS) dan Programme for International Student
Assessment (PISA) memberi kesan kepada sistem pendidikan
negara. Hasrat pendidikan negara dan pencapaian didapati tidak
selari. Ini dapat dibuktikan dengan peruntukan belanjawan
terhadap pendidikan adalah besar iaitu RM 36 Billion pada tahun
2012 melebihi 8.7 % lebih dari purata Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD)(Ministry of Malaysia
Education, 2013b). Berdasarkan keputusan TIMMS tahun 2011,
Malaysia berada di kedudukan ke 26 daripada keseluruhan 42 buah
negara yang mengambil bahagian. Malaysia berada di kedudukan
ke-7 dikalangan negara Asia dan kedudukan ke-2 antara empat
buah negara Asia Tenggara yang menyertai TIMSS tahun 2011,
iaitu selepas Singapura. Kedua-dua kajian ini menjadi penanda
372
aras sistem pendidikan negara pada tahap antarabangsa (Ministry
of Malaysia Education, 2013a).
Persamaan kedua – dua penilaian antarabangsa ini adalah
faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pelajar, kebolehan mengaplikasi
pelajaran yang diajar di sekolah kepada situasi harian, tahap
motivasi pelajar, kepercayaan diri, strategi pembelajaran, literasi
sains dan pencapaian dalam Sains dan Matematik. Kajian tersebut
melibatkan faktor guru, sekolah dan dasar yang dilaksanakan oleh
sistem pendidikan. Keputusan yang rendah dalam penilaian
TIMMS adalah rendah dalam kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi seperti
konsep mengaplikasi dan penaakulan. Peratus soalan yang
disediakan adalah kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi sebanyak 75%
iaitu konsep mengaplikasi dan penaakulan. Begitu juga dengan
penilaian PISA, pelajar dinilai kemahiran aras tinggi seperti
menyelesaikan masalah.
KAJIAN LITERATUR
Pelajar SBP merupakan pelajar yang mempunyai tahap
pencapaian yang tinggi dalam akademik (Ministry of Malaysia
Education, 2014). Jadi, pelajar SBP dijangka mempunyai
pengetahuan subject-matter seimbang dengan kemahiran berfikir
aras tinggi (KBAT). Bagi menguasai KBAT, pelajar perlu
menguasai kemahiran berfikir aras rendah (KBAR) dengan baik. Ia
menyediakan asas yang baik untuk pembelajaran KBAT. Menurut
Krathwohl (2002) menerusi Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
menyatakan pemahaman dan aplikasi menyediakan pelajar untuk
menguasai pengetahuan yang abstrak, menggunakan formula untuk
situasai yang baru. Jadi, pelajar boleh menganalisis, mensintesis
dan membuat penilaian pada situasi baru. Melalui KBAT, pelajar
didapati boleh membuat hubungan antara pengetahuan sedia ada
dengan pengetahuan baru secara kreatif dan kritikal. Interaksi
KBAR dan KBAT melibatkan kemahiran psikomotor, afektif dan
373
kognitif (Bolte, Holbrook, & Rauch, 2012).
Teori pembelajaran pengalaman oleh Kolb (1984) menekankan
pembelajaran berasaskan pengalaman dan pengamatan.
Pembelajaran pengalaman didefinasikan perspektif pembelajaran
yang holistik melibatkan pengalaman berterusan, pengetahuan dan
tingkah laku. Ia juga melibatkan penguasaan dan menukarkan
pengalaman kepada pembelajaran bermakna. Terdapat empat fasa
dalam kitaran yang dicadangkan oleh Kolb (1984) iaitu
pengalaman konkrit, refleksi pemerhatian, mengkonsepsi abstrak
dan mengeksperimen secara aktif. Refleksi adalah pemikiran akhir
yang menjadikan ia relevan dengan situasi sedia ada (Akella,
2010).
Fizik merupakan satu disiplin ilmu STEM yang diberi pelbagai
persepsi oleh pelajar sebagai subjek yang membosankan
(Williams, Stanisstreet, Spall, Boyes, & Dickson, 2003) dan tidak
relevan (Trumper, 2006), abstrak (Norlidah & Siraj, 2012; Semela,
2010), sukar (Richardson, 2013) dan susah (Carlone, 2003). Hal ini
mewujudkan penguasaan kognitif yang rendah, kurang minat
terhadap Fizik seterusnya motivasi dan pencapaian yang rendah.
Pelbagai kajian dijalankan untuk meningkatkan minat pelajar dari
segi strategi pembelajaran secara kontekstual, konstruktivisme,
inquiry-discovery, pembelajaran masteri dan science-tecnologysociety (STS). Begitu juga dengan kaedah pengajaran dan
pembelajaran yang digunakan seperti eksperimen, perbincangan,
simulasi, projek, lawatan dan penggunaan teknologi. Dalam
mengukuhkan penguasaan psikomotor dan kognitif pelajar,
eksperimen dicadangkan sebagai kaedah yang sesuai dengan
strategi pembelajaran inqury-discovery (Bolte et al., 2012).
Kajian Chambers (2014) mendapati eksperimen dalam makmal
berpanduan (guided labs) menunjukkan penguasaan lebih baik
dalam penilaian konsepsual dan eksperimen makmal terbuka (open
labs) menghasilkan pelajar yang lebih baik dalam tugasan
eksperimen berbanding makmal tradisional (traditional labs).
374
Eksperimen merupakan elemen penting supaya pelajat dapat
menguasai konsep Fizik dengan kukuh (Ministry of Malaysia
Education, 2008) dan menguasai kemahiran proses sains (SPS)
(Ministry of Malaysia Education, 2010). Eksperimen
membolehkan pelajar berinteraksi dengan peralatan makmal
melalui aktiviti dan eksperimen dapat mengukuhkan pemahaman
pembelajaran (Dziabenko, Ordufia & Garcia-zubia, 2013). Melalui
eksperimen, penyiasatan keadaan suatu bahan dijalankan,
mengesahkan teori dan mengukuhkan kemahiran mengeksperimen
(Ojediran et al., 2014; Sin, 2014) dan menghubungkan
pemerhatian eksperimen dengan konsep teori, memahami konsep
abstrak dan sikap kritikal terhadap Fizik (Ojediran, Oludipe, &
Ehindero, 2014).
Pendekatan inquiry-discovery memberikan kesan inkuiri
unggul apabila pelajar mencari jawapan kepada soalan dengan
pelbagai cara kaedah yang mereka patut gunakan. Inkuiri
memberikan motivasi berbeza tetapi kaedah inkuri terbuka perlu
dibimbing oleh guru supaya bersesuaian dengan kekangan
kurikulum dan sistem penilaian. Inkuiri didapati membolehkan
pelajar lebih memahami idea atau konsep, keupayaan prakikal
merentasi aras intelek tetapi ia mengambil lebih masa berbanding
kaedah tradisional (Bolte et al., 2012). Secara rumusan, inquirydiscovery yang dijalankan dengan kaedah eksperimen adalah
bertujuan untuk membolehkan pelajar menjalankan eksperimen
dengan kemahiran SPS yang bersesuaian dan ini dibuktikan pelajar
belajar secara aktif. Kajian Salmiza & Afiq (2012) membuktikan
58.33 % responden kajian yang merupakan 12 orang guru dari
Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi (SBT), Sekolah Kecemerlangan
Kluster, Sekolah Sukan dan SMK harian, menjalankan komunikasi
sehala yang menyebabkan keadaan pembelajaran menjadi pasif.
Kajian ini juga menyatakan 91.67 % responden bersetuju dengan
penyataan guru sebagai sumber maklumat utama kepada pelajar.
Hasil kajian juga menunjukkan 91.67 % responden menggunakan
375
kaedah formula untuk kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah
berbanding hanya 8.33 % responden menggunakan kaedah
penyelesaian masalah secara kreatif bersama penggunaan formula.
Motivasi mempengaruhi tindakan seseorang yang dicetuskan
oleh motivasi intrinsik dan pembentukan motivasi ekstrinsik (Ryan
& Deci, 2000). Kajian menunjukkan motivasi dan sifat kepunyaan
semasa melibatkan diri dalam pembelajaran sains memberi potensi
untuk mereka meneruskan kerjaya dalam bidang sains di masa
hadapan (Loukomies et al., 2013). Motivasi berhubung kait
dengan kombinasi pengetahuan pelajar dan pencapaian akademik.
Kepercayaan diri yang positif mempengaruhi pencapaian akademik
dan pengetahuan pelajar. Jadi, pelajar yang menggunakan pelbagai
strategi dalam memperoleh pengetahuan, pelajar akan lebih
menggunakan metakognitif. Pelajar akan terus mempunyai
motivasi sedemikian walaupun menghadapi saat susah dan cabaran
akademik yang tidak menarik (Pintrich & de Groot, 1990).
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti tahap motivasi
terhadap Fizik dan mengenalpasti strategi pembelajaran Fizik
dikalangan pelajar tingkatan empat di SBP.
TEKNIK PERSAMPELAN
Kajian ini dijalankan terhadap 40 orang pelajar tingkatan empat di
sebuah SBP di Daerah Kubang Pasu, Kedah. Sampel rawak mudah
digunakan kerana pelajar tetap dalam kelas yang mempelajari sains
tulen dan latar belakang akademik yang homogen.
376
INSTRUMEN
Instrumen kajian diadaptasi dari Motivated Strategies for Learning
Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Liu & Lin, 2010; Pintrich & de Groot,
1990). Soal selidik ini menggunakan Skala Likert 1 hingga 5,
bermula dengan sangat tidak setuju, tidak setuju, tidak pasti, setuju
dan sangat setuju. Soal selidik telah disahkan oleh dua orang guru
fizik dan seorang pensyarah fakulti pendidikan dalan bidang
pendidikan sains (Mohd Ali, 2003). Ujian rintis dijalankan dua
minggu sebelum soal selidik kajian dijalankan. Didapati indeks
kebolehpercayaan alpha Cronbach selidik motivasi dalam
pembelajaran fizik adalah 0.868 dan nilai ini boleh diterima untuk
kajian penyelidikan. Motivasi dibahagikan kepada tiga sub skala:
nilai, harapan dan pengaruh. Manakala strategi pembelajaran
dikelaskan kepada strategi kognitif, strategi meta-kognitif,
pengurusan sumber tidak-berinformasi, dan pengurusan sumber
berinformasi. Kajian ini menggunakan dua konstruk iaitu nilai dan
harapan bagi mengetahui tahap motivasi pelajar. Bagi mengetahui
strategi pembelajaran Fizik yang dijalankan oleh pelajar, satu sub
skala digunakan iaitu pengurusan sumber tidak-berinformasi iaitu
satu konstruk bantuan (help-seeking). Jadual 1 menunjukkan sub
skala motivasi Fizik, konstruk dan item yang digunakan motivasi
dan strategi pembelajaran Fizik. Melalui kajian ini, pengkaji
memilih konstruk bantuan (help-seeking) kerana ia strategi yang
semakin digunakan oleh guru dan pelajar. Hal ini disokong oleh
kajian Liu & Lin (2010), strategi pembelajaran yang selalu
dilaksanakan oleh pelajar adalah bantuan.
377
Jadual 1 : Sub skala motivasi Fizik, konstruk dan item dalam
instrumen Motivasi dan Strategi pembelajaran Fizik
Motivasi Fizik
Sub skala
Konstruk
Item asal
Nilai
Orientasi
Matlamat
Intrinsik
Orientasi
Matlamat
Ekstrinsik
Keberkesa
nan diri
Bantuan
13, 18, 24, 30
Item
Kajian
1, 2, 3, 4
2, 8, 25. 31
5, 6, 7, 8
11, 22, 28, 34
9, 10, 11,
12
13, 14,
15, 16
Harapan
Strategi
Pembelajaran
Fizik
Pengurusan
sumber
tidakberinformasi
19, 30, 52, 63
ANALISIS
Data yang diperoleh dianalisa menggunakan analisa deskriptif min
dan peratus.
KEPUTUSAN
Peratus pelajar yang bersetuju dengan penyataan yang diberikan
dinyatakan pada ruangan skala 1 hingga 5. Min ditunjukkan untuk
merujuk kepada tahap yang dicapai seperti rendah, sederhana dan
tinggi. Min yang diperoleh adalah tahap sederhana 3.36 hingga
tahap tinggi 4.78. Berdasarkan Jadual 2 di bawah, keputusan soal
selidik adalah seperti berikut.
378
Jadual 2 : Keputusan Soal Selidik
Bil
1
2
3
4
5
2.5%
-
2.5%
12.5
%
82.5
%
4.73
5%
2.5%
30%
47.5
%
15%
3.65
-
2.5%
5%
42.5
%
50%
4.40
-
-
2.5%
17.5
%
75%
4.70
-
-
2.5%
17.5
%
80%
4.78
-
-
22.5
%
40%
37.5
%
4.15
5%
10%
45%
25%
15%
3.35
2.5%
17.5
%
10%
37.5
%
32.5
%
3.80
5%
10%
27.5
%
40%
17.5
%
3.55
2.5%
-
27.5
%
47.5
%
22.5
%
3.88
Saya layak mengajar rakan
sekelas saya subjek Fizik
7.5%
12.5
%
20%
47.5
%
12.5
%
3.45
Bagi saya Fizik tidak sukar
2.5%
7.5%
42.5
%
37.5
%
10%
3.45
Komponen dan Penyataan
Orientasi Matlamat Intrinsik
1
Harapan saya adalah untuk
memahami isi kandungan bahan
pembelajaran dalam kelas Fizik
2
Saya suka menjalankan banyak
projek dan kerja rumah kerana
ia membantu saya lebih
memahami Fizik walaupun ia
tidak meningkatkan pencapaian
saya
3
Pembelajaran
Fizik
meningkatkan pemikiran logik
saya.
4
Saya akan belajar lebih kuat
untuk mendapatkan pencapaian
lebih baik dalam Fizik
Orientasi Matlamat Ekstrinsik
5
Saya
mahu
mendapat
pencapaian terbaik dalam kelas
Fizik
6
Bagi saya, kelas Fizik boleh
meningkatkan
pencapaian
keseluruhan akademik saya
7
Harapan besar saya adalah
untuk memasuki universiti
melalui pembelajaran Fizik
8
Saya mahu markah Fizik yang
tinggi supaya orang menghargai
saya.
Keberkesanan Diri (Self-efficacy)
9
Saya yakin bahawa saya boleh
memahami bahagian Fizik yang
sukar
dalam
bahan
pembelajaran Fizik dengan cara
saya sendiri
10 Saya yakin boleh mahir dalam
setiap topik dalam Fizik
11
12
Bantuan (Help-seeking)
Min
379
13
14
15
16
Saya akan bertanya kepada guru
untuk menjelaskan bahagian
Fizik yang kurang jelas
Jika saya tidak memahami
bahan pembelajaran, saya akan
meminta
rakan
sekelas
membantu
Jika saya tidak memahami
bahan pembelajaran, saya akan
mencari penyelesaian di laman
sesawang internet
Saya akan terus bertanya
kepada guru bahagian yang
kurang jelas semasa di dalam
kelas
-
5%
-
50%
45%
4.35
2.5%
-
2.5%
32.5
%
62.5
%
4.53
5%
5%
42.5
%
30%
17.5
%
3.50
2.5%
5%
17.5
%
52.5
%
22.5
%
3.88
Berdasarkan Jadual 2, item yang mempunyai peratus tertinggi
adalah “saya mahu mendapatkan pencapaian terbaik dalam kelas
Fizik” dengan 97.5 % dan peratus yang rendah adalah “harapan
memasuki universiti melalui pembelajaran Fizik” dengan 40 %.
Dua pernyataan yang mempunyai peratusan bawah tahap purata
iaitu persepsi Fizik sebagai subjek yang tidak sukar sebanyak 47.5
% dan strategi pembelajaran Fizik yang diamalkan oleh pelajar
SBP, iaitu mencari penyelesaian di laman sesawang di internet
sebanyak 47.5 %. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan pelajar banyak
bertanya kepada guru dan kawan dalam menjelaskan bahagian
Fizik yang sukar difahami. Jadual 3 menunjukkan analisis peratus
motivasi pelajar SBP terhadap Fizik adalah tinggi dan strategi
pembelajaran Fizik yang diamalkan juga tinggi.
Jadual 3 : Analisis Peratus motivasi dan Strategi
Pembelajaran Fizik
Persoalan
Motivasi
Strategi pembelajaran
Fizik
Peratus (%)
Tidak
Setuju
Setuju
28.12
71.88
21.87
78.13
Tahap
penilaian
Tinggi
(positif)
Tinggi
(positif)
380
Kesimpulannya, objektif kajian pertama iaitu tahap motivasi
pelajar adalah tinggi. Obkejtif kajian kedua iaitu strategi
pembelajaran Fizik yang diamalkan juga tinggi.
PERBINCANGAN
Berpandukan Jadual 2 dan Jadual 3, item yang perlu dibincangkan
adalah tahap yang sederhana iaitu 62.5 % pada pernyataan “pelajar
suka menjalankan banyak projek dan kerja rumah kerana ia
membantu saya lebih memahami Fizik walaupun ia tidak
meningkatkan pencapaian akademik saya”. Pelajar mungkin
kurang berminat dengan aktiviti projek sains, dan kerja rumah. Hal
ini mungkin disebabkan kurang pendedahan tentang kebaikan dan
keseronokan dalam menjalankan projek sains mahupun aktiviti
dalam dan luar makmal Fizik. “Fizik tidak sukar” menunjukkan
peratusan sebanyak 47.5%. Maka, masih terdapat persepsi bahawa
subjek Fizik adalah sukar. Kesimpulannya, Fizik masih dianggap
satu subjek yang sukar seperti kajian yang dijalankan Richardson
(2013); Carlone (2003).
Pernyataan “harapan besar saya adalah untuk memasuki
universiti melalui pembelajaran Fizik” sebanyak 40 %. Hal ini
mungkin disebabkan pelajar berminat dengan subjek sains yang
lain seperti Kimia dan Biologi. Pembelajaran Fizik merupakan satu
cara untuk menunjukkan sikap pelajar yang berminat dengan
penerokaan bidang Fizik secara khusus.
Pernyataan “saya layak mengajar rakan sekelas saya subjek
Fizik” menunjukkan peratusan 60 %. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan
oleh keyakinan yang sederhana dalam proses pembelajaran dan
perkongsian pengetahuan dengan rakan sebaya. Pernyataan “saya
yakin bahawa saya boleh memahami bahagian Fizik yang sukar
dalam bahan pembelajaran Fizik dengan cara saya sendiri” dengan
peratusan 57.5 %. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan pelajar banyak
bertanya kepada rakan dan guru mengenai bahagian Fizik yang
381
sukar.
Pernyataan “jika saya tidak memahami bahan pembelajaran,
saya akan mencari penyelesaian di laman sesawang internet”
menunjukkan peratusan yang rendah iaitu 47.5 %. Pelajar lebih
menumpukan pertanyaan kepada guru dan kawan berbanding
mencuba mencari bahan pembelajaran alternatif dari internet.
Pelbagai kemudahan seperti portal pendidikan yang menyediakan
bahan pembelajaran, video dan simulasi yang boleh diperoleh
melalui internet. Jadi, skop strategi pembelajaran dikalangan
pelajar masih menggunakan bahan yang disediakan guru dan guru
menjadi tumpuan dalam pengesahan dan jawapan penyelesaian
masalah. Hal ini bertepatan dengan kajian Salmiza & Afiq (2012)
yang menunjukkan guru adalah sumber informasi utama pelajar.
Konstruk keberkesanan diri (self-efficacy) menunjukkan purata
peratus yang rendah berbanding konstruk yang lain iaitu 58.75 %,
konstruk orientasi matlamat ekstrinsik sebanyak 71.25 %, konstruk
bantuan sebanyak 78.13 % dan orientasi matlamat intrinsik
sebanyak 85.63 %. Jadi, pelajar perlu mempunyai keberkesanan
diri yang tinggi untuk menguasai kognitif dan kebolehan
mengaplikasi Fizik memberi persepsi positif terhadap Fizik.
Maka, dicadangkan pembelajaran Fizik menggunakan komputer
dalam menjalankan eksperimen. Eksperimen berasaskan komputer
menyediakan pembelajaran yang menarik (Siew Wei Tho & Baseri
Hussain, 2011) dan menjimatkan masa (Makan, Kopasz, & Gingl,
2014). Radas yang digunakan juga lebih moden berbanding radas
makmal tradisional (Siew Wei Tho & Baseri Hussain, 2011).
Eksperimen merupakan aktiviti makmal yang mampu
meningkatkan motivasi, menjana kemahiran berfikir secara
kritikal, mengelak miskonsepsi dan penguasaan kognitif pelajar
(Tomshaw, 2006). Kajian Venables (2008) juga membuktikan
pencapaian pelajar meningkat dengan menggunakan eksperimen
berasakan komputer.
382
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385
MENGENALPASTI KESAN
PENDIDIKAN KEUSAHAWANAN
PADA PELAJAR
KEJURUTERAAN
: satu kajian literatur
Ahmad Firdaus Abd Hadi, Mohd. Khata Jabor &
Dayana Farzeha Ali
ABSTRAK
Perubahan dalam ekonomi dan keperluan tenaga kerja telah
membawa banyak Institut Kejuruteraan mempertimbangkan untuk
menawarkan pendidikan keusahawanan kepada pelajar-pelajar
mereka. Kajian literatur ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti tahap
kecenderungan keusahawanan pelajar kejuruteraan bagi membuat
perbandingan kesan antara pelajar yang telah mengambil kursus
keusahawanan dan pelajar yang tidak mengambil kursus
keusahawanan di universiti terhadap niat keusahawanan
berdasarkan kepada beberapa kajian yang telah di lakukan sebelum
ini. Hasil kajian literatur adalah berdasarkan kepada tiga
pembolehubah untuk mengenalpasti kecenderungan keusahawanan
iaitu jantina, pendedahan kursus keusahawanan dan pendedahan
dari keluaraga usahawan.
Kata Kunci: Pendidikan keusahawanan
386
PENGENALAN
Keusahawanan sering dikaitkan dengan merangsang pertumbuhan
ekonomi, inovasi dan pekerjaan dan usaha ciptaan. Kajian
empirikal juga menyokong pautan positif antara aktiviti
keusahawanan dan kesan ekonomi (Van Praag & Versloot, 2007).
Bidang keusahawanan ini juga telah menjadi topik yang
diutamakan dalam dasar peningkatan taraf hidup masyarakat
(Luthje & Franke, 2003).
Oleh yang demikian, pelbagai program dan perkhidmatan telah
dilaksanakan untuk memberikan infrastruktur yang lebih baik
untuk menggalakkan usahawan. Satu elemen penting dalam
aktiviti-aktiviti ini adalah mensasarkan pelajar sains dan
kejuruteraan sebagai usahawan masa depan. Pelajar dalam bidang
kejuruteraan adalah dijangka untuk menjana ekonomi secara
signifikan dan merangsang pekerjaan (Luthje & Franke, 2003).
Fakta ini disokong oleh Hisrich (2000) bahawa pelajar dalam
bidang kejuruteraan dipercayai sangat kuat dalam menjalankan
aktiviti keusahawanan.
Kesedaran tentang nilai potensi pendidikan keusahawanan
kepada pelajar-pelajar kejuruteraan telah meningkat dengan ketara
dalam tahun-tahun kebelakangan ini berasaskan kepada trend
ekonomi dan didorong dengan permintaan kerja yang tinggi.
Secara umum, peranan jurutera telah berkembang bebas,
berkeyakinan yang tinggi, pencipta dan bermotivasi tinggi dari
bergantung kepada dunia korporat, kecil atau besar (Yurtseven,
2002). Untuk menyediakan pelajar menghadapi realiti yang baru,
universiti semakin sedar bahawa mereka bukan sahaja mampu
untuk mencipta produk baru, tetapi juga mempunyai keupayaan
untuk mengenal pasti peluang, memahami kuasa pasaran,
mengkomersialkan teknologi baru, dan penyokong untuk mereka.
Trend ini telah mendorong meningkatkan dalam penyampaian
pendidikan keusahawanan kepada pelajar-pelajar kejuruteraan
melalui kursus, program, dan pembelajaran pengalaman yang
ditawarkan oleh pihak pihak universititi. Sokongan ini untuk
387
mewujudkan kursus keusahawanan telahpun di berikan oleh pihak
kerajaan sendiri yang memberikan galakkan kepada pelajar untuk
menceburi bidang keusahawanan. Kerajaan telah menggalakkan
rakyat Malaysia terutama pelajar-pelajar lepasan universiti untuk
menjadi usahawan selepas tamat pengajian dan tidak terlalu
bergantung kepada kerja makan gaji semata-mata. Untuk
merangsang minat pelajar universiti dalam bidang keusahawanan,
bermula dari ambilan Julai 2007 dan seterusnya, Kementerian
Pengajian Tinggi telah mewajibkan semua pelajar yang
melanjutkan pengajian di institusi pengajian tinggi awam (IPTA)
mengambil mata pelajaran keusahawanan sebagai satu mata
pelajaran wajib (Utusan Malaysia, 2007).
Walaupun jumlah pelajar kejuruteraan yang didedahkan kepada
pendidikan keusahawanan telah meningkat, penyelidikan
berkenaan sikap pelajar kejuruteraan ke arah keusahawanan, atau
kesannya ke atas pembelajaran mereka, tingkah laku, kecekapan
profesional,
atau
matlamat
kerjaya
adalah
kurang.
Walaubagaimanapun terdapat beberapa kajian telah dilakukan
dalam bidang keusahawanan, tetapi tidak fokus kepada pelajar
kejuruteraan secara khusus. Antara sebab-sebab utama bagi
kurangnya kajian dalam bidang ini termasuk: 1) integrasi
pendidikan keusahawanan ke dalam kurikulum kejuruteraan adalah
satu usaha yang agak baru, 2) terdapat kekurangan yang konsisten
pada model program, dan pendekatan pedagogi pengajaran di
institut pengajaran (Standish-Kuon & Beras 2002), dan 3)
mendefinisikan sebuah ilmu pengetahuan keusahawanan untuk
jurutera adalah satu proses yang berterusan (Shartrand et al. 2008).
Beliau telah menerangkan mendapati banyak daripada kajian yang
telah dibuat oleh fakulti kejuruteraan merupakan kajian kes
deskriptif antaranya ialah mengenalpasti minat pelajar terhadap
keusahawanan, mengkaji berkenaan kandungan kurikulum
keusahawanan, pendekatan pedagogi yang digunakan, cabaran
pelaksanaan, dan penilaian merancang. Manakala Ohland (2004)
menyatakan terdapat banyak kajian yang telah menghasilkan
berkenan kurikulum keusahawana dan dari kajian tersebut terdapat
banyak kajian menunjukkan kejayaan program yang dilakukan
388
oleh mereka.
Kajian literatur ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti kesan
pendidikan keusahawanan terhadap pelajar kejuruteraan.
Penyelidikan ini adalah berdasarkan dari bahan bacaan yang telah
dibuat terhadap beberapa kertas penyelidikan yang memberi fokus
kepada kesan pendidikan keusahawanan terhadap pelajar
kejuruteraan. Penyelidikan terhadap sikap pelajar kejuruteraan
berhubung dengan pendidikan keusahawanan telah tertumpu
kepada faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi niat untuk menjadi
usahawan. Terdapat beberapa bukti bahawa faktor-faktor
kontekstual seperti program pendidikan boleh meningkatkan niat
keusahawanan.
OBJEKTIF DAN PERSOALAN KAJIAN
Kajian literatur ini akan mengenalpasti hasil daripada pendidikan
keusahawanan pelajar kejuruteraan. Ianya menjelaskan hubungan
antara ciri-ciri pencapai pelajar kejuruteraan yang mengambil
program keusahawanan di universiti. Ianya memberi fokus kepada
tiga ciri-ciri iaitu jantina, pendedahan keusahawanan dari keluarga
usahawan dan pendedahan pendidikan keusahawanan. Persoalan
kajian yang diberi tumpuan adalah :
Apakah kesan pendidikan keusahawanan terhadap niat
keusahawanan pelajar kejuruteraan berdasarkan jantina,
pendedahan kursus keusahawanan dan pendedahan dari keluarga
usahawan ?
KAEDAH KAJIAN
Kajian literatur ini dihasilkan melalui hasil dari bacaan yang telah
dilakukan terhadap beberapa kajian lepas dan journal di internet
antaranya di IEEE Journal, Journal of Engineering Education dan
beberapa yang lain lagi.
389
MODEL KECENDERUNGAN KEUSAHAWANAN
Niat keusahawanan menggambarkan keadaan fikiran yang
memulakan orang ramai untuk memilih daripada bekerja sendiri
dan bukannya memilih pekerjaan makan gaji. Menurut Krueger
(1993) niat keusahawanan adalah komitmen untuk melaksanakan
tingkah laku yang perlu untuk fizikal memulakan usaha
perniagaan. Oleh yang demikian, niat keusahawanan adalah
fenomena yang penting dan salah satu yang telah menarik
penyelidikan kognitif yang besar. Penyelidikan menyokong
keperluan untuk mengkaji fenomena keusahawanan sebelum ia
berlaku (Pruett et al, 2009). Niat keusahawanan sering dikaji
dengan penggunaan model niat. Model Niat menawarkan koheren
dan rangka kerja yang kukuh untuk mengikuti pemahaman yang
lebih baik tentang proses keusahawanan (Krueger, 1993).
Walaupun terdapat beberapa model niat keusahawanan dalam teori
keusahawanan (Bird, 1988; Boyd & Vozikis, 1994; Krueger dan
Brazeal, 1994), kedua-dua model yang dinamakan niat adalah
Teori Ajzen (1991) tingkah laku yang dirancang dan Sokol (1982)
teori program keusahawanan. Menurut kajian, teori Ajzen iaitu
tingkah laku yang dirancang dan Shapero dan Model Shokol
mengenai bidang-bidang keusahawanan adalah selari dan serasi.
Rangka Kerja Kajian
Kedua-dua teori-teori tingkah laku terancang dan model acara
keusahawanan menekankan latar belakang motivasi kepada niat
keusahawanan. Mereka tidak termasuk pembolehubah eksogen /
demografi yang boleh mempengaruhi niat. Krueger et al. (2000)
berhujah bahawa kerana pembolehubah eksogen atau demografi
beroperasi secara tidak langsung kepada niat, mereka tidak
termasuk dalam model niat. Tetapi beberapa penyelidik
menekankan keperluan untuk menggabungkan pembolehubah lain
memahami niat keusahawanan yang lebih baik. Seperti yang
dinyatakan oleh Gelderen et al. (2008), pembolehubah tambahan
seperti jantina, pengalaman kerja, peranan ibu bapa model dan
390
personaliti yang sebenarnya meningkatkan pemahaman kita
tentang niat keusahawanan. Kepentingan faktor-faktor demografi
adalah biasa dalam penyelidikan niat. Oleh yang demikian dalam
kajian ini, kesan demografi keusahawanan menjadi pembolehubah
pendidikan keusahawanan (seperti jantina, pendedahan kepada
pendidikan dan pendedahan kepada keusahawanan) ditunjukkan
sebagai pengaruh tidak langsung berkaitan niat seperti yang
ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 1.
Rajah 1 Kerangka kajian
kecenderungan keusahawanan
pembolehubah
terhadap
391
Pendedahan Pendidikan Keusahawanan
Melalui beberapa penyelidikan yang telah dijalankan mendapati
bahawa pendidikan keusahawanan boleh memberikan kesan niat
pelajar terhadap keusahawanan. Kajian yang dijalankan oleh Webb
et al. (1982) mendapati bahawa pelajar-pelajar yang telah
mengambil bahagian dalam program-program keusahawanan lebih
cenderung untuk memulakan perniagaan mereka sendiri daripada
pelajar-pelajar lain. Grubb et al. (2006) juga telah membuat
kesimpulan bahawa pelajar universiti dalam bidang pengurusan
perniagaan lebih cenderung kearah kerjaya dalam arena perniagaan
kecil. Peterman (2000) mendedahkan bahawa penyertaan dalam
program keusahawanan dengan ketara meningkat pengaruh
memulakan perniagaan. Noel (2001) juga mengesahkan bahawa
graduan keusahawanan lebih cenderung untuk memulakan
perniagaan. Katz (2007) juga mencadangkan bahawa latihan
keusahawanan boleh menambah nilai sebenar dengan
meningkatkan kejayaan kebarangkalian untuk memulakan
perniagaan. Sejajar dengan itu, Franke dan Luthje (2004)
mendapati bahawa pendidikan keusahawanan mempunyai kesan
positif kepada niat keusahawanan dan juga mencadangkan bahawa
kekurangan pendidikan keusahawanan membawa kepada tahap
yang rendah terhadap niat keusahawanan pelajar. Program
pendidikan keusahawanan adalah faktor sikap keusahawanan dan
niat keseluruhan untuk menjadi usahawan masa depan (Souitaris et
al., 2007).
Jantina
Menurut beberapa penyelidik, tidak ada perbezaan dalam niat
keusahawanan berdasarkan pelajar lelaki dan perempuan (Pruett et
al, 2009;. Indarti dan Kristiansen, 2003), penyelidikan
mencadangkan bahawa niat keusahawanan banyak berbeza dengan
ketara dengan jantina (Mazzarol et al, 1999;. Kolvereid, 1996;
Harris dan Gibson, 2008; Shay dan Terjesen, 2005; Wilson et al,
392
2004.; Ramayah dan Harun, 2005). Menurut Mazzarol et al. (1999)
perempuan kurang mempunyai niat keusahawanan. Penemuan ini
telah diperkukuhkan oleh Kolvereid (1996) yang merumuskan
bahawa lelaki mempunyai lebih tinggi niat keusahawanan daripada
perempuan. Keputusan yang sama telah dirumuskan oleh Ede et al.
(1998) yang mendedahkan bahawa pelajar lelaki mempunyai lebih
positif terhadap sikap keusahawanan daripada rakan-rakan wanita
mereka. Wilson et al. (2007) juga mendapati skor yang ketara lebih
rendah untuk wanita pada niat keusahawanan. Pada masa yang
sama, Zhao et al. (2005) mendapati jantina mempunyai kesan yang
ketara dalam niat keusahawanan. Veciana et al. (2005) juga
mengesahkan bahawa wanita mempunyai niat keusahawanan yang
lebih rendah daripada lelaki.
Pendedahan Dari Perniagaan Keluarga
Pendedahan kepada keusahawanan, seperti perniagaan keluarga,
telah diintegrasikan ke dalam keusahawanan-niat model (Krueger,
1993; Shapero dan Sokol, 1982) yang meletakkan mengemukakan
pendedahan itu untuk perniagaan keluarga secara tidak langsung
mempengaruhi keusahawanan niat melalui kebaikan dilihat dan
kemungkinan. Reitan (1996) menunjukkan bahawa pengalaman
kerja dengan perniagaan keluarga boleh mempunyai kesan positif
kepada persepsi baru kemungkinan usaha dan keinginan. Drennan
et al. (2005) mendapati bahawa mereka yang melaporkan
pandangan positif pengalaman perniagaan keluarga mereka
dianggap memulakan perniagaan kerana kedua-dua wajar dan
boleh dilaksanakan. Harris dan Gibson (2008) juga menunjukkan
bahawa pelajar-pelajar perniagaan yang dilaporkan mempunyai
pendedahan keusahawanan sebelum ini melalui keluarga
perniagaan kecil seseorangmempunyai sikap keusahawanan yang
tinggi. Krueger (1993) juga menyatakan bahawa anak-anak muda
keluarga yang memiliki perniagaan sendiri lebih cenderung untuk
berhasrat untuk memulakan mereka sendiri perniagaan.
393
KESIMPULAN
Berdasarkan kajian-kajian yang telah dilakukan menunjukkan
bahawa pelajar-pelajar yang didedahkan dengan pendidikan
keusahawanan di universiti secara umum, dilaporkan mempunyai
niat lebih kepada keusahawanan berbanding pelajar kejuruteraan
yang tidak mengambil kursus keusahawanan. Secara khusus,
pelajar yang telah terdedah kepadan pendidikan keusahawanan
menunjukkan daya tarikan yang lebih peribadi ke arah
keusahawanan. Dilaporkan juga lokus kawalan dalaman telah
meningkatkan keberkesanan diri dan norma subjektif dilihat kuat
daripada pelajar kejuruteraan yang tidak mengambil pendidikan
keusahawanan. Pada masa yang sama, melalui pendidikan
keusahawanan akan dapat mempengaruhi orang lain (seperti sikap
rakan-rakan rapat dan keluarga) terhadap pelajar yang menjadikan
keusahawanan sebagai pilihan kerjaya. Penemuan ini adalah
dengan kerja-kerja kajian sebelumnya (Pruett et al, 2009; Souitaris
et al, 2007; Wilson et al, 2007;. Hollenbeck dan Hall, 2004; Noel,
2001).
Berhubung dengan kesan jantina dalam niat keusahawanan
pelajar universiti, kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa pelajar lelaki
yang telah mengambil kursus keusahawanan menyuarakan hasrat
yang lebih tinggi ke arah keusahawanan berbanding pelajar
perempuan yang telah mengambil kursus keusahawanan dan juga
pelajar kejuruteraan lelaki dan perempuan yang tidak mengambil
kursus keusahawanan. Apabila perbandingan dibuat dalam
kumpulan yang (antara lelaki dan perempuan dalam jabatan yang
sama), pelajar lelaki yang telah mengambil kursus keusahawanan
dilaporkan lebih tinggi niat keusahawanan daripada pelajar
perempuan di jabatan yang sama. Kajian ini selaras dengan
penemuan kajian Harris dan Gibson (2008), Shay dan Terjesen
(2005), Wilson et al. (2004) dan Ramayah dan Harun (2005) tetapi
ia adalah berbeza daripada dapatan yang diperolehi Olomi dan
Sinyamule (2009), Pruett et al. (2009), Indarti and Kristiansen
(2003) yang menunjukkan tiada perbezaan yang bermakna antara
394
lelaki dan perempuan dari segi niat untuk memulakan perniagaan.
Oleh itu, daripada dapatan kajian ini, ia adalah mungkin untuk
membuat kesimpulan bahawa pelajar perempuan adalah mungkin
lebih berminat untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan bergaji dan bukannya
mencari kerjaya keusahawanan.
Dilihat kesan latar belakang keusahawanan keluarga pada
pelajar niat keusahawanan pula, kajian menunjukkan
pembolehubah ini gagal untuk menyokong idea bahawa pelajar
yang mempunyai keluarga keusahawanan mempunyai niat
keusahawanan lebih daripada pelajar-pelajar yang ahli keluarganya
bukan usahawan. Oleh itu, walaupun pelajar yang keluarga
mempunyai perniagaan perusahaan biasanya cenderung kepada
niat keusahawanan, mereka adalah sangat kritikal ke arah
keusahawanan sebagai kerjaya.
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397
PERSONALITY TRAITS AND LIFE
SATISFACTION: A STUDY
AMONG STUDENTS IN A PUBLIC
UNIVERSITY
Seyedeh Maryam Geramian & Mohd Tajudin Ninggal
ABSTRACT
The current study explored the relationships between personality
traits and life satisfaction among university students in Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. (N = 53) students were asked to complete
self-report measures of global life satisfaction (SWLS) and
personality traits based on Five Factor Model (i.e., extraversion,
neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and
agreeableness). Neuroticism appeared to be the strongest predictor.
Moreover, three other traits of Big Five (agreeableness,
conscientiousness, and extraversion) were also found to have
significant correlation with life satisfaction where as openness
showed small correlation. Findings support the importance of
including all Big Five personality factors in exploratory models of
life satisfaction.
Keywords: Personality Traits, Life satisfaction, Five Factor Model
of Big Five.
398
INTRODUCTION
All students entering university for the first time will go through a
transition phase that will vary from student to student. For some,
the experience will be exciting. These students will tackle the
challenges thrown up by new learning and social experiences. For
others, the experience will be far less enjoyable and may even be
traumatic, leading to an early end to their tertiary education. Others
will leave university because they come to the realization that
university is not for them at that point in time. Thus, for many
students the transition experience can have a profound effect on
their life satisfaction and particularly life satisfaction during their
study period at university. (McKenzie and Schweitzer, 2001,
McKenzie et al., 2004). Personality, comprising the psychological
aspect of a person that is carried from one situation to another is
one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of subjective
well-being (Diener et al., 1999,FerreriCarbonell and Frijters, 2004,
Lykken and Tellegen, 1996). Veenhoven (1996), divides the search
for the determinants of happiness into two categories; external
conditions and inner psychological processes. He stated by
identifying external circumstances that lead people to satisfaction
they could potentially try to create such conditions for everybody.
In other words, having knowledge of the mental processes
involved in obtaining high levels of life satisfaction would be
helpful theoretically to assist others to acquire them (Veenhoven,
1996). A large body of research studies reveals the importance of
life satisfaction to individual’s psychological, educational, social,
and physical well-being(Suldo et al., 2009). Personality traits are
viewed as a relatively stable factor over time and extraversion and
neuroticism are found to have consistent correlations with life
satisfaction (Heaven, 1989, Huebner et al., 2006, McKnight et al.,
2002). However relatively little knowledge has been gained about
the relationship between life satisfaction and three less studied
personality traits; agreeableness, openness to experience, and
conscientiousness. In this respect, a more thorough investigation of
Big Five personality traits as predictors of life satisfaction is
399
needed.The current study intended to determine the overall
contribution of personality traits to life satisfaction and the unique
relationship of each five trait (extraversion, neuroticism,
conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness) to life
satisfaction among students in UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Life Satisfaction
A key construct enfolded within the positive psychology
movement
is
Subjective
well-being
(Seligman
and
Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). It refers to the frequency with which one
experiences positive emotions relative to negative emotions, as
well as how highly they appraise the quality of their lives. Life
satisfaction is considered a more stable indicator of SWB as
emotions can change often and quickly (Diener et al., 1999). Life
satisfaction as one of the three components of subjective wellbeing (positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction), is the
ability of an individual to develop a subjective point of view about
his or her life quality under his or her own criterion. It refers to
cognitive judgments of a person’s life as a whole, in addition to
one’s satisfaction with different domains of life such as family,
self, and school (Huebner et al., 2006). As suggested by Frisch
(1998) evaluations of life satisfaction are based on a number of
factors including to what extent people’s needs, goals, and wishes
have been achieved in important areas of life. Similarly, qualitative
research with youth concluded that adolescents reflect on a variety
of factors ranging from external conditions (family quality,
schooling), to internal aspects of oneself as well as their
extracurricular activity involvement when formulating their global
appraisals of life satisfaction (Suldo and Shaunessy-Dedrick, 2013)
400
Five Factor Model (Big Five)
Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of
characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his
or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations
(Ryckman, 2004). The Five Factor Model ( FFM) is one of the
most widely accepted models for conceptualizing personality
(Costa Jr and McCrae, 1992, Digman, 1990). The five basic
dimensions of personality that have been identified include
neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and
conscientiousness. Neuroticism refers to emotional instability.
Extraversion is a social and active dimension. Openness to
experience refers to willingness to try new things and ideas.
Conscientiousness is the dutiful and deliberate dimension.
Agreeableness is the ‘nice’ dimension (Costa Jr and McCrae,
1992).
Life Satisfaction and Personality
Researchers and mental health professionals are working to
towards identifying factors correlated with life satisfaction by
determining the degree to which how much variance in life
satisfaction can be attributed to relatively stable conditions (e.g.,
demographic characteristics, personality) as opposed to malleable
situations (e.g., social relationships, extracurricular activities). It is
essential to reach a full understanding of the correlates of life
satisfaction; it would enable, in part, the identification of which
factors are most likely to place students at risk for low life
satisfaction. Research with students consistently points to
extraversion and neuroticism as the personality traits most related
to life satisfaction (Diener et al., 1999, Emmons and Diener, 1986,
Pavot et al., 1997). In a recent investigation of 235 Iranian Muslim
students (M age=20.56), Joshanloo and Afshari (2011)
demonstrated that the Big Five personality factors predicted 25.4
% of the variance in life satisfaction. In their multiple regression
401
analysis, neuroticism (b= -.38) and extraversion (b=.20) emerged
as the only unique predictors, but at the bivariate level, both
agreeableness and conscientiousness demonstrated small,
significant associations with life satisfaction (r =.23 and .24,
respectively).Among a sample of 249 American university students
(ages 18–30), Fagley (2012) found that neuroticism (b= -.26),
extraversion (b=.24), and conscientiousness (b=.20) were
significant predictors of life satisfaction, and that taken together all
Big Five factors accounted for 31 % of the variance in life
satisfaction. In a similar investigation, Lounsbury et al. (2005)
studied 552 American undergraduates (mostly aged18 and 19) and
found that the significant factors from the FFM (agreeableness plus
the three unique predictors identified by Fagley) accounted for 45
% of the variance in students’ life satisfaction.
METHOD
This research is conducted at UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, and it
was designed to measure the overall contribution of personality
traits to life satisfaction and the unique relationship of each five
trait (extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness to
experience, agreeableness) to life satisfaction among university
students. This research is categorized as a correlation study as the
researcher described the relationships between scientific variables
(Fraenkel and Wallen, 2006).
Participants
Participants were 53university students who were studying at
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Fifty-two percent of the samples
were male and forty-eight percent were female with an average age
of 30-32years. In this study, the researcher used systematic random
sampling. In this study, the researcher used Pearson correlation to
see the overall contribution of personality traits to life satisfaction
402
and the unique relationship of each five trait (extraversion,
neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness to experience,
agreeableness) to life satisfaction among students at
UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia.
Measures
In this study, one set of a 44 item Big Five inventory developed by
John and Srivastava (1999) along with, Satisfaction with Life Scale
(SWLS) Diener et al. (1985) were distributed among 53
university students who were currently students at Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. SWL scale was used to assess global life
satisfaction. This scale consists of five items. Each item is rated on
a 7-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree
(7).was distributed.
Data Analysis
This study investigated the overall contribution of personality traits
to life satisfaction and the unique relationship of each five trait:
extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness to
experience and agreeableness to life satisfaction among university
students at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. SPSS software version
16.0 was used to analyze the results. To satisfy the objectives of
the study. In this study, Pearson correlation is used in order to
describe the relationships between five facets of the Big five and
life satisfaction. The Pearson correlation coefficient ‘r’ is used to
measure linear relationship between variables (AziziYahya et al.,
2007). In order to identify the level of relationship, the researcher
was used the concept of ‘Guilford’s Rule of Thumbs’ which can be
seen in Table 1.
403
Table 1.Guilford Rules of Thumbs Guidelines
Value of Correlation
Coefficient (r)
Level of Relation
>0.90
0.90-0.70
0.70-0.40
40-0.20
<0.20
Very high
High
Medium
Low
Very low
RESULT
Inferential analysis was done to exhibit the overall contribution of
personality traits to life satisfaction and the relationship of each of
five traits including extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness,
openness to experience, agreeableness to life satisfaction.
Correlations between each of the five personality factors and life
satisfaction were statistically significant (p<.001). Neuroticism
demonstrated the strongest and only inverse relationship(r = -.27)
with life satisfaction. Significant relationships were found between
life satisfaction and three personality factors- agreeableness,
conscientiousness, and extraversion. The positive relationship
between life satisfaction and openness to experience was small (r =
.29) (Table 2).
DISCUSSION
The present study investigated the relationship between life
satisfaction and Five Factor Model (FFM).Findings of this study
regarding the relation between personality traits and life
satisfaction are also consistent with those of previous studies
(DeNeve and Cooper, 1998). The finding that nearly half of the
variance in life satisfaction was explained by differences in
404
personality elucidates the importance of including all five factors
in studies of personality in relation to life satisfaction. Neuroticism
depicted inverse relationship with life satisfaction, suggesting that
adolescents who display higher levels of neuroticism are quite
likely to experience lower levels of life satisfaction. The strong,
negative relationship between neuroticism and life satisfaction is
likely related to psychopathological symptoms (e.g., anxiety,
anger/hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsivity and
vulnerability) associated with neuroticism, as psychopathology is
inversely associated with life satisfaction (Huebner et al., 2000).
Table 2.Correlation Coefficient
Category
Overall Personality
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Neuroticism
Openness to
experience
Value
Pearson Correlation
.667**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
Pearson Correlation
.549**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
Pearson Correlation
.801**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
Pearson Correlation
.713**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
Pearson Correlation
-.270
Sig. (2-tailed)
.050
Pearson Correlation
.294*
Sig. (2-tailed)
.033
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
The influence of extraversion on life satisfaction may occur via
increased adolescent participation in social activities (Argyle and
405
Lu, 1990b), and/or because extraversion co-occurs with a number
of positive traits (i.e., positive affect), attributes, and skills (i.e.,
social competence, assertiveness, empathy) which positively
influence SWB (Argyle and Lu, 1990a). Earlier research
examining conscientiousness in relation to life satisfaction found a
similarly sized correlation (Joshanloo and Afshari, 2011).Hayes
and Joseph (2003), identified a comparable empirical link between
these constructs among students, and suggested the role of
conscientiousness in relation to life satisfaction has been
understated. Hayes and Joseph posited ‘‘individuals high on
conscientiousness are more likely to be able to function effectively
in society and to achieve their goals; in turn, goal efficacy leads to
greater SWB’’ (p. 726).Openness to experience explained a small
proportion of variance in life satisfaction. These results suggest
that students who report more openness to experience also
experience greater life satisfaction, which is consistent with
previous literature (Barbaranelli et al., 2008, Mervielde et al.,
1995). The moderate, bivariate correlation between agreeableness
and life satisfaction suggested that higher levels of agreeableness
co-occurred with higher life satisfaction. Results of bivariate
correlation analysis showed that four of the Big Five traits
(extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness)
were significantly correlated with life satisfaction. Openness to
new experiences showed a small correlation with life satisfaction.
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408
TASK INDUCED INVOLVEMENT:
THE ISSUE OF REACTIVITY ON
THE DEVELOPMENT OF
VOCABULARY:
A REVIEW PAPER
Halah Abdulelah Mohammed, Norazman Abdul Majid &
Tina Abdullah
ABSTRACT
It has been widely recognized that learning and developing
meaning of new words is dependent on the nature of linguistic
input, memory, cognitive abilities as well as phonological,
morphological and syntactic links formed by the learner. The
interrelationship between language use and the construction of
meaning of words is fundamental to language learning and
language development. Reading comprehension tasks insufficient
to promote the development of new vocabulary, as using complex
cognitive processes need to be used in the development of new
words. This paper demonstrates the use of verbalization of thought
through think-aloud while engaging in language based tasks such
as in reading comprehension as a way to encourage awareness of
language cognitive processes, promote increased attention on
meaning (micro and macro) and enhance the level of awareness
which lead to these activities when given proper guidance may
result in deeper processing and induce reactivity effect on the
409
development of new vocabulary through reading. Through a deep
review of literature on leaning and development of vocabulary
based on the involvement load hypothesis. The paper proposes a
particular focus on the issue related to the three components of the
involvement load hypothesis (need, search, and evaluation) such as
reading comprehension task that have related to the learning and
development of vocabulary which have attracted the most attention
in the issue of reactivity of think aloud on vocabulary
development.
Keywords: Vocabulary development, Involvement
hypothesis, Reading task, Think-aloud, Reactivity
load
INTRODUCTION
Research in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in
psychology and cognitive process believed that most of vocabulary
knowledge is acquired incidentally in the sense as a natural byproduct of learners performing linguistics activities and tasks or
when learners’ attention are focused on an on-going task such as
reading tasks other than word learning itself (Paribakht, and
Wesche, 1999).
Reading comprehension is expected to play a crucial role and
the most common task to expand L1 and L2 learners’ vocabulary
knowledge (Anderson et al., 1988; Nagy, 1988). SLA Research
supposes the fundamental role of reading in vocabulary learning
(Krashen, 1989; Hulstijn, 1992; Hulstijn et al., 1996; Ellis, 1997;
Gass, 1999, Swanborn and De-Glopper, 2002). Reading is
considered the significant source for the acquisition of vocabulary
in L2/FL context (Ponniah, 2011; Naser and Amir, 2010).
However, not all studies in the same boat with respect to
whether more of L2 and FL lexical knowledge and word meaning
could be learnt incidentally via reading (Mohammad and Mousa,
2014). Reading as input task is insufficient to pick up the meaning
of the new vocabulary (Laufer and Hill, 2000). Complex cognitive
410
processes, which involve at least mental effort of considering the
semantic aspects of a word, need to be used in learning and
developing the meaning of new words. The involvement load
hypothesis of Laufer and Hulstijn (2001) propose that indirect task
which motivate the learners’ attention to explore, search, and
estimate the meaning of new words may lead to better learning the
meaning of new vocabulary.
The question arises of whether all language tasks, specifically
reading comprehension tasks which have higher degree of
involvement load in deep processing of lexical information lead to
better learning of vocabulary incidentally, even the task is input or
output. Research in SLA need to be investigate whether
performing of think aloud as additional input task while engaging
in reading comprehension task induce higher degree of
involvement load; arise learners’ awareness to be aware of their
own learning when given proper guidance may result in deep
processing and changes their cognitive process, induce reactivity
may effect on vocabulary development.
The paper proposes a particular focus on issues in the realm of
L2 learning vocabulary via reading comprehension task; focusing
on issues related to the three components of the involvement load
hypothesis (need, search, and evaluation) such as reading
comprehension task and level of awareness which have attracted
the most attention in the issue of reactivity on vocabulary
development.
INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING AND TASK OF
VOCABULARY LEARNING
The conviction that much second language vocabulary learning
occurs incidentally while the learner is engaged in reading process
has been held by numerous researchers involved in the study of the
relationship between reading and vocabulary (Paribakht &
Wesche, 1997). However, incidental vocabulary learning through
reading could not always be considered as effective particularly for
411
ESL/EFL learners (Laufer, 2001). Frequently, L2 vocabulary
obtained from reading are approximately limited and not
necessarily efficient (Hulstijn, 1992). Such limited achievements
of words learned just by reading could be related to different
issues: the first ones can be attributed to lack of processing;
incidental vocabulary learning failed to create a memory trace for
each word through reading. The second and the major is attributed
to the lack of noticing. According to Schmidt (1995), conscious
attention is fundamental for learning to occur, and noticing is
generally the first stage of learning. However, it is highly possible
that learners usually fail to notice the unfamiliar words when they
engaged in reading process; particularly, they can comprehend and
construct the meaning of the message without knowing those
words.
One way to view vocabulary learning is to see it as a process of
related sub-tasks. When learners encounter unfamiliar word, they
may guess its meaning and usage from available clues. Evidence
suggests more systematic approaches are needed in learning
vocabulary rather than leaving learners to acquire vocabulary
incidentally through reading (Nation, 2001; Schmitt, 2008).
Various methods of elaborative processing may help learners to
consolidate specific target words (Nation, 2001). Most learners
might proceed to look up the meaning of the new words in the
dictionary. Others might take down notes along the margins,
between the lines, or on separate vocabulary notebooks. Some
would even try to apply the word actively. Each of these task
stages demands metacognitive judgment, choice, and arrangement
of cognitive strategies for vocabulary learning. Therefore, each
strategy that a learner uses will determine largely how and how
well a new word is learned (Mohammad and Mosa, 2014). As
Laufer and Hulstijn, 2001; Rott, 2005; Kim, 2008; Sayyed et al.,
2011; Ayman, 2012, contend the usefulness of various method and
different tasks to support incidental learning vocabulary and
development via reading comprehension.
412
INVOLVEMENT LOAD HYPOTHESIS
INDUCED INVOLVEMENT
AND
TASK
Laufer and Hulstijn (2001) proposed the notion of the
involvement as an operationalization for the construct of depth of
processing in SLA. Involvement Load Hypothesis based on the
notion that incidental task which induce higher involvement is
conducive to the type of processing that is deemed crucial for
vocabulary retention. The notion of involvement includes three
task-specific components: a motivational component, ‘need’, and
two cognitive components, ‘search’ and ‘evaluation’
Most scholars seem to agree that incidental vocabulary
learning environment, with high input task is more effective than
a low-input tasks regardless of receptive vocabulary knowledge,
or the acquisition of productive vocabulary knowledge (Laufer
and Hulstijn, 2001; Kim, 2008; Keating, 2008; Sayyed, et al., 2011;
Zargham, et al., 2012. However, not all studies have validated the
involvement load hypothesis. Contrary to Laufer and Hulstijn
(2001), Martínez-Fernández (2008) and Yaqubi, et al., (2010)
paint a different picture to the notion of the involvement load
hypothesis. They found that in intentional learning conditions of
reading task, fill-in-blanks and writing a composition tasks
triggered better learning of vocabulary than multiple-choice
question, even though fill-in-blanks task has lower degree of
involvement load.
A question arises of whether type of task either input or output
has a crucial role for the best learning of vocabulary or the
motivational and cognitive components may contribute to better
learning of vocabulary. Involvement load hypothesis is standing
on task which lead to higher degree of motivational and cognitive
components (need, search, and evaluation) correspondingly
induce better learning and retention of recalling word meaning of
unfamiliar words, even the task either input or output.
Yaqubi, et al., (2010) and Martínez-Fernández (2008)
revealed that output-oriented tasks are more conducive to learning
413
and developing of vocabulary than input-oriented tasks and they
are compatible parallel with the output hypothesis in SLA
(Swain,2000), according to which language production facilitates
learning through provision of extra input and development of
awareness.
In a comprehensive review of research on the involvement
load hypothesis, the evaluation cognitive components of a
learner’s involvement in processing words play a significant part
to be more effective than other components. The component of
evaluation has two degrees of prominence based on the
involvement load hypothesis (Laufer and Hulstijn, 2001):
moderate and strong. When evaluation requires the use of a new
word within a given sentence it is moderate, but when the learners
are required to produce an original sentence, evaluation is strong
because learners should judge how to combine words and produce
a sentence. The evaluation components make the learners to
engage in deep processing of memory performance that may lead
to induce higher awareness and lead to think, analyze, compare,
infer, and act or produce the word and write connect discourse
which demand deeper cognitive effort and contribute to the better
learning of vocabulary and word meaning.
A question of whether higher degree of involvement in
cognitive components (search and evaluation) and motivational
components (need) may lead the learners to pay attention to
higher level of awareness in deep processing, promote them to
develop the meaning of new vocabulary when engaging in
reading task. In fact, when encountering unfamiliar words in L2
or FL text, the language learner can do one of the two things.
Learner can either ignore the unknown words (i.e. avoidance
strategy), or may attempt to infer its meaning, using linguistic and
non-linguistic resources available in or outside the text.
According to Laufer and Hulstijn’s (2001) involvement load
hypothesis, incidental vocabulary learning is dependent upon the
motivational variable of ‘need’; words that are significant for
comprehending L2 text are more likely to be learnt and accessed
for longer time periods.
414
The motivational component ‘need’ listed by Laufer and
Hulstijn can predict whether the language learner decides to
ignore the word or to guess its meaning, a proposition which has
implicitly mentioned by Laufer and Hulstijn: if the learner is
reading a text and unknown words is necessary for
comprehension, s/he will experience the need to understand it.
The learner has decided to embark on inferring the meaning of
an unknown word. The need, search, and evaluation components
in reading task guide the learner to use some strategies to know
the meaning of unfamiliar word and comprehend the meaning of
the text. Such strategies, either cognitive or metacognitive
strategies, may be more effective in inducing high level of
awareness to learn and develop new vocabulary.
In fact, learners have to think while they are engaged in
completing certain language tasks (reading comprehension task).
Thus, using some strategies may stimulate learners’ thoughts and
thinking process, help them to construct the meaning of the text.
Such strategies might lead the students to involve in deep
processing, induce higher level of awareness, attention, which
increases the learners’ cognitive load, and eventually reflect on
their final performance (Jourdenais, 2001).
Using model of think aloud as a method to enhance awareness
of language cognitive process, promote increased attention on
meaning by thinking, analyzing, reflecting their prior thoughts;
induced changes of learning process, called reactivity, of reading
processing which lead to raise of new questions that lead to
change the original purpose of the cognitive process (Snow,
2002).
THINK ALOUD PROTOCOL AND THE ISSUE OF
REACTIVITY
SLA research report the useful methodological tool of think aloud
to examine L2 students’ cognitive processes and to operationalize
awareness in second language learning and second language
415
learners' cognitive processes while they interacted with second
language task (Sachs and Suh, 2007; Leow and Morgan-Short,
2004; Leow, 2006; Rott, 2005; Leow et al., 2008; MartinezFernandez,2008).
Although think-aloud protocols have proved to be a successful
tool to operationlize awareness, their potential reactivity might
affect learners’ performance in some cases. SLA research has
found negative reactivity and reactivity on time on task but not on
learners’ performance (Leow and Morgan-Short, 2004; Bowles
and Leow, 2005; Yoshida, 2008; Bowles, 2008; Goo, 2010).
However, so far a limited research in SLA has addressed the issue
of reactivity effect on vocabulary development when learners
engaged in reading comprehension task based on the Involvement
Load Hypothesis in relation to the type of reading task and level
of awareness.
The issue of reactivity may play a significant role to improve
the notion of the involvement load hypothesis (Laufer and
Hulstijn, 2001) in cognitive components (search and evaluation).
When performing of verbal report of think aloud while engaging
in reading task might create extra learning opportunities, promote
increased attention, and lead to deeper processing (Jourdenais,
2001). Verbal report of think aloud may enhance the development
of vocabulary through giving learners the opportunity to reflect
their insights and try to improve strategy via using metacognitive
strategies through metalinguistic awareness or generate a new
once in order to know the meaning of new words to understand
reading text.
Such types of strategies may play an essential role to change
the primary cognitive process in order to learn the meaning of new
vocabulary when learners encounter new vocabulary and this new
vocabulary is needed to construct the meaning of the passage and
eventually complete the reading comprehension task.
416
CONCLUSION
This paper present a review of research on incidental vocabulary
learning via reading comprehension task based on the involvement
load hypothesis (Laufer and Hulstijn, 2001). It was indicated that
stable conclusions cannot be made from studied that have been
carried out so far since there have been many disagreements
findings regarding the issues that surrounded the involvement load
hypothesis. Therefore, many more need to investigate to improve
the issues on the realm vocabulary development of involvement
load hypothesis. The paper lies its ability to raise the significance
of performing thinking aloud as an additional input task while the
students engaged in reading comprehension tasks to arise learners’
attention to be aware of their own learning and address the issue of
reactivity and its role effect on the development of vocabulary.
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THE STUDY OF
ARGUMENTATIVE KNOWLEDGE
CONSTRUCTION IN WEB 2.0
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
TOWARDS STUDENTS’
CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS
Siti Nur Khadijah Aishah & Jamalludin Harun
ABSTRACT
In this era of rapid development of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT), online collaborative and social
learning has been seen as one of the ways to encourage students’
critical thinking skills. Past studies have proven that students’
critical thinking skills were shown significantly when it is done
socially and collaboratively amongst peers. Previous researches
also stated that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of
thought and preserve information longer than learners who work
quietly as individuals. In addition, working in a collaborative
environment also involves processes of evidence and
argumentation. Therefore, this research study addresses the area of
social learning environment mainly in Web 2.0 learning
environment to facilitate argumentative knowledge construction, a
subject which is relevant for both Higher Education and lifelong
learning in order to improve students' critical thinking skills.
421
Keywords: Argumentation, Knowledge construction, Web 2.0,
Social learning environment, Critical thinking skills
INTRODUCTION
In recent years, the Malaysian education system has come under
increased public enquiry and debate, as parents’ expectations rise
and employers expressed their concern regarding the system’s
ability to adequately prepare young Malaysians for the challenges
of the 21st century.
In order to properly address the needs of all Malaysians, and
to prepare the nation to perform at an international level, it is
important to first expect what a highly-successful education system
must accomplish, particularly in the Malaysian context; (1) what
kinds of students are best-prepared to meet the challenges of a 21st
century economy? (2) what kind of education prepares them for
this rapidly globalizing world?
Currently, in a knowledge-based economy, it is important to
create new knowledge in order to be able to connect to different
pieces of knowledge and learn how to continue acquiring
knowledge throughout their lives which encouraging an interest for
inquiry and lifelong learning. Each student will learn a range of
important cognitive skills, including problem-solving, reasoning,
critical and creative thinking, and innovation. However, this is an
area where the system has historically fallen short, with students
being less able than they should be in applying knowledge and
thinking critically outside familiar academic contexts (Malaysia
Education Blueprint, 2012).
Thus, in this era of rapid development of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT), online collaborative and social
learning has been seen as one of the ways to encourage students’
critical thinking skills. Past studies have proven that students’
critical thinking skills were shown significantly when it is done
socially and collaboratively amongst peers (Gokhale, 1995;
Dillenbourg, 1999; Veerman, Andriessen & Kanselaar, 2002; Chou
422
& Chen, 2008; Noroozi et. al, 2012). Previous researches also
stated that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought
and preserve information longer than learners who work quietly as
individuals. In addition, working in a collaborative environment
also involves processes of evidence and argumentation (Rosen &
Rimor, 2009).
In order to deal with collaboration and argumentation, Web 2.0
technology has makes it an easy and popular way to communicate
information to either a select group of people or to a much wider
audience. The University can make use of these tools to
communicate with students, staff and the wider academic
community. It can also be an effective way to communicate and
interact with students and research colleagues.
Hence, this research study addresses the area of social learning
environment to facilitate argumentative knowledge construction, a
subject which is relevant for both Higher Education and lifelong
learning in order to improve students’ critical thinking skills mainly
in the Web 2.0 learning environment.
COMPUTER SUPPORTED SOCIAL-COLLABORATIVE
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
If paired with a wide-ranging methodology of use, ICT, and in
particular social technology, has a good potential to support
learning and knowledge building in higher education (Hamid,
2009; Hemmi et al., 2009; Hughes, 2009; Scardamalia & Bereiter,
2002). As concerns the topic of interest for this study, Steinberg
(1992) points out that the key feature of ICT with respect to
practicing argumentation and critical thinking is its potential
support to the focused discussion of alternative points of views
between participants. Students in social digital environments are
not affected by some factors typical of face-to-face settings that
may inhibit discussion (such as gender, age, ethnicity, performance
skills). Besides, studying through ICT consists mainly of text-based
contributions to the topics under consideration. Henri (1992)
423
indicated that a written text demands exactness, careful
consideration, and explicit expression of thoughts. These qualities
are important in argumentative dialogues and debates in which the
goal is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of others’
contributions. Several studies such as (Littlefield, 1995; Marttunen,
1999) also suggest that learning environments in which students are
engaged in active interaction and debates with each other are
beneficial when the aim is to promote argumentation skills.
CSCL and Social Collaborative Learning Environment
Recently, a variety of new tools and technologies nurturing
computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) and computersupported cooperative working (CSCW) appeared and established
themselves on the Internet (Beldarrain 2006; Bryant 2006). This
development is frequently referred to as Web 2.0 (Bridsall 2007;
Murugesan 2007). On the one hand, the term Web 2.0 describes a
set of new interactive technologies and services on the internet
(Richardson 2006). As an alternative, it refers to a modified
utilization of information (Tredinnick 2006).
The social network services (SNS) provides opportunities for
the individual learner to create sound and practical knowledge
syntheses from broken and immature information. The generation
of practical ideas, sharing of common classes of problems and the
common pursuit of solutions enables individuals to aim toward a
common goal of knowledge creation (Owen, Grant, Sayers &
Facer, 2006).
Currently, a second generation of web-based communities and
hosted services such as social networking sites, wikis and
folksonomies provided account for a significant serving of web
traffic and content generation. The term Web 2.0 has been invented
to embrace such collaborative applications and also to indicate a
social approach to generating and distributing Web content,
characterized by open communication, decentralization of
authority, and freedom to share and re-use. Implicit and explicit in
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many Web 2.0 applications are social networks, through which
users share and filter content, collaborate, seek information, and
interact socially on the Web.
One of the key features of Web 2.0 application is collaboration,
not only between machine and user, but also among users. These
social applications have the capacity to function as ‘intellectual
partners’ to promote critical thinking and facilitate cognitive
processing (Voithofer et al., 2007). Text, voice, music, graphics,
photos, animation and video are combined to promote users’
thinking and creativity when undertaking high-level tasks. They
offer a wide range of resources that can be used for problem
solving, critical thinking collaboration and so on (Dillenbourg,
1999), in both physical classrooms and virtual learning
environments. In addition, Web 2.0 technologies, with their
interactivity potential, foster active participation and studentcentered learning. Collaboration among students is a defining
feature of constructivist classrooms (Jonassen et al., 1993), and
Web 2.0 has wide-ranging potential for social interactivity and the
promotion of collaboration and collective learning. Virtual
communities of students can be organized on the Internet, allowing
them to work in small groups to attain shared objectives and to
strengthen their commitment to the values inherent to collaborative
working. The more or less diverse grouping of students for the
purpose of undertaking tasks may favor the creation of ‘zones of
proximal development’ (Vygotsky, 1978) and provide students
with opportunities to construct shared meaning for their practices
(Dillon, 2004).
Facebook for Collaborative Argumentation
The impact of Web 2.0 and social networking tools on education
has been much commented on. In order to support knowledge
construction, learning environments should allow for selforganizing system of interactions among participants and their
ideas (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006). Computer mediated
425
communication environments have provided multiple ways to
interact and exchange information among groups of users in the
form of messages or files: emails, forums, discussion boards, blogs,
instant messaging, social spaces, learning management systems.
Today, Facebook (www.facebook.com) is probably the most
tangible example of environments known as social networks or
Web 2.0. Besides, Facebook is one of the services are freely
available online. There are a number of unique features that make it
suitable in education. Facebook is equipped with discussion
forums, instant messaging, email, and the ability to post videos and
pictures. Most notably, Group feature on Facebook seems to be a
powerful tool for collaborative learning. Students can use this
Group feature on Facebook to perform various tasks and share
resources at the same time. Students create a ‘Group’ to pertain to
their interests.
Basically, social networking sites are platforms that facilitate
information sharing, interaction and collaboration among their
users. However, Facebook’s success is not only dependent on its
capacity to connect people, although this was its initial orientation.
The platform’s power for sharing resources and linking content on
the Internet to user profiles, as well as its evolution towards life
streaming and micro blogging, enable it provide support for
complex, continuous interaction experiences and, consequently, to
structure collaborative-learning processes. The platform’s
communication tools, combined with the option to enhance its
potential by installing third-party modules and applications, allow
members of a community or work team to carry out very diverse
activities.
Facebook is an example of a Web 2.0 social networking site,
which has enormous potential in the field of education despite the
fact that it was not designed as an environment for constructing and
managing learning experiences. It operates as an open platform,
unlike other systems organized around courses or formally
structured content. In fact, while Facebook is not a learning
environment, either in its underlying concept or the design of its
tools, it can serve as a very valuable support for the new social
426
orientations now dominant in approaches to educational processes.
According to Garrison et al. (2005), learning communities
represent a fusion between the individual realm (subjective) and the
shared realm (objective). In this context, Facebook represents a
great opportunity to generate knowledge and inter-group cohesion.
A number of high-level thinking skills and socially rich activities
could result from the use and management of Facebook. A few
educators are already exploiting the potential of Facebook to
transform the learning experience into one in which student
centered learning can be facilitated. Facebook may become a focal
point of interest for developing communities of practice, within
which they can store their treasure house of knowledge about their
specific interests and learning. In the other hand, for example in the
classroom learning, teachers will need to encourage all members to
contribute thereby fostering a sense of community, but it is
inevitable that some students will contribute more content than
others. Moreover, social loafing is sometimes observed where the
contribution rate for some students is unequal to others. However,
providing all members are deemed to have contributed something
within a defined period, teachers might adopt a laissez-faire
attitude. Previous studies also shown that some students learn even
when they do not directly contribute to a message board, which has
been termed ‘lurking’ (Beaudoin, 2002).
KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION
Knowledge construction starts with the learner articulating an
intention to build knowledge. That may be stimulated by a question
or problem, a failure to achieve something, a general curiosity, an
argument or anything that perturbs a person’s understanding
enough to want to make sense out of it (Jonassen, 1999).
SNS, such as Facebook, are an increasingly important platform
for CSCL. However, little is known about whether and how
academic opinion change and argumentative knowledge
construction can be facilitated in SNS. Existing argumentation
427
practice in informal SNS discussions typically lacks elaboration
and argumentative quality (Tsovaltzi et. al, 2012). Argumentative
knowledge construction (AKC) is the deliberate practice of
elaborating learning material by constructing formally and
semantically sound arguments with the goal of gaining
argumentative and domain knowledge. Argument structure
provided through individual argument diagramming is among the
most prominent approaches to foster AKC in CSCL environments
(Scheuer et al, 2010). However, there is little known about the
extent these approaches can be applied to learning in SNS
(McLoughin, & Lee, 2010; Tsovaltzi et al, 2012).
Research results learning suggest that argumentative
elaboration can promote individual knowledge construction, and
can greatly benefit from additional support through scripting, i.e.
socio-cognitive structures that specify what learners are to do in
collaborative learning scenarios (e.g. Baker & Lund, 1997;
Weinberger, Stegmann & Fischer, 2010). Learners, for instance,
can be prompted to provide support or counterarguments for their
claims. This can help them elaborate the task, gain argumentative
knowledge, understand multiple perspectives, and promote
knowledge convergence (Weinberger et al., 2010). An alternative
way to script learners is to let them first work on a task individually
and then compare and combine their individual solutions (e.g.,
Weinberger, 2011; Asterhan & Schwarz, 2007). Such approaches
may prevent process losses of simultaneously following diverse
instructions, also characterized as over-scripting (Dillenbourg,
2002), which can hinder AKC. Moreover, learners in online
discussions often dismiss conflicting opinions and inconsistencies
rather than try to resolve them. Raising awareness of opinion
conflict is one way to foster critical argumentative elaboration
during collaboration and take advantage of the dialogic potential of
SNS (Bodemer, 2011).
428
Argumentation
Argument can be defined as the reason(s) a person gives in support
of a claim. Basically, argument is not just a matter of presenting
information but rather is a matter of presenting a conclusion based
on information or reasons. Argument consists of evidence
presented in support of an assertion or claim that is either stated or
implied (Seyler 1994). This paper defines arguments as a set of
claims, one of which is supposed to be supported by the rest as
used by Toulmin (1958).
In educational studies, the social function of argumentation has
been similarly emphasized, both with regard to its role in building
disciplinary knowledge and its role in facilitating students’ learning
and understanding of disciplinary knowledge (Mitchell &
Andrews, 2000). In particular (Mitchell, 1994) asserts that
argument is about ‘bringing difference into existence’ and that
from a students’ point of view, this can be a difficult task. Not only
do students have to acquire the discourse of the discipline and ‘to
manage the actual voices and meanings of others in the forms of
citations and references to existing writers in the field’ but in
addition they have to go ‘beyond this, to construct an argument out
of and in response to these voices’ (Mitchell, 1994). The result of
this process can be the suppression of the student’s voice whereby
the writing may contain arguments of others but not present itself a
strong argumentative line.
Argumentative Knowledge Construction (AKC)
In AKC, learners acquire knowledge through the elaboration of
learning material by constructing arguments (Weinberger et. al,
2007). AKC is based on the assumption that learners engage in
specific discourse activities and that the frequency of these
discourse activities is related to knowledge acquisition (Weinberger
& Fisher, 2006).
The importance of AKC in higher education pedagogy lies in
429
its very nature: the study of subjects and disciplines at higher
education level implies students’ ability to research complex
connections among knowledge. Indeed, exploring connections
among knowledge, together with acquiring discipline-specific
knowledge and inquiry methods can be defined as three distinctive
characteristics of higher education pedagogy. These characteristics
can also be seen as three forms of argumentative knowledge
construction. Therefore, fostering advancements in higher
education pedagogy necessarily implies offering students more
opportunities to master the argumentative discourse structure.
Argumentation is therefore of interest of the educational
research for being a conceptual tool that suitable to promote
learning, knowledge building and cognitive growth. Although
argumentation skills appear to be so much necessary, university
students seldom know how to argue effectively, as documented by
several research studies: not only have they difficulties producing
relevant evidence to support their positions (Kuhn, 1991), but also
they are often guided by beliefs and bias when evaluating
arguments. Moreover, Stein and Albro (2001) demonstrate that the
affective dimension has a strong influence on students’ effective
engagement in argumentation: college students tend to avoid
getting involved in argumentative discussions for the fear that this
might disrupt interpersonal relations with their peers. A further
difficulty is introduced by the fact that only generic skills can be
used across fields, as argumentation skills are mostly subjectdependent. Hence, it is important for university students to practice
argumentation on all subjects of their interest, on which they have
command of discipline-specific knowledge and discourse (Mitchell
& Andrews, 2000), as well as to be introduced to effective
argumentation by means of suitable methods and tools.
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
The significance of this study lies broadly in its addressing the
important of how Web 2.0 can be used in meaningful ways in the
430
classroom learning and constructing student’s knowledge through
their critical thinking skills and how it can be used to sustain tied
and valued practices in teaching and learning such as
argumentation. Due to the availability of such a large literature
base in the area of critical thinking and argumentation (Walton,
2005; Walton et. al, 2008) and its importance in knowledge
construction, it could be cautiously contended that there is a need
to look at the possible benefits of shifting the underlying
pedagogical theories to other domains. However, with the
importance of using asynchronous discussions, such as discussion
forum, as precedence for research in the area of knowledge
construction there is an urgent need to study the use of argument in
other domains using online discussion.
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436
PENDIDIKAN TEKNIKAL DAN
LATIHAN VOKASIONAL KE
ARAH PEMUPUKAN
KEMAHIRAN GENERIK HIJAU
Nadia Hartini Mohd Adzmi , Mohd Zolkifli Abd Hamid & Yusri
Kamin
ABSTRAK
Kemajuan ekonomi negara haruslah diimbangi dengan
pemeliharaan dan pemuliharaan alam sekitar. Justeru itu dalam
menyokong pertumbuhan ekonomi hijau, negara memerlukan
sumber manusia yang dilengkapi dengan kemahiran bukan teknikal
atau kemahiran generik. Ini kerana negara amat bergantung kepada
keupayaan generasi muda yang berkebolehan bagi memenuhi
kehendak industri yang memerlukan tenaga kerja mahir,
berpendidikan dan berkualiti (Siti Nur Rohazrien, 2013). Dalam
konteks kelestarian alam sekitar, kemahiran ini disebut sebagai
kemahiran generik hijau yang merupakan value added kepada
kemahiran generik sedia ada. Pendidikan teknikal dan latihan
vokasional (PTLV) merupakan platform yang mampu mendorong
sumber manusia ke arah kelestarian. Semakin banyak seseorang
pekerja itu mendapat pendedahan berkenaan konsep kelestarian,
maka semakin banyak kesedaran yang mereka peroleh untuk
melakukan perubahan sikap dan tingkah laku di tempat kerja yang
dapat menyokong kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi hijau. Kertas
kerja ini membincangkan secara terperinci mengenai peranan
437
pendidikan teknikal dan latihan vokasional dalam menjayakan
pembangunan lestari dan kepentingan komponen kemahiran
generik hijau dalam sukatan kurikulum PTLV.
Kata Kunci: Kemahiran Generik Hijau, Kelestarian Alam Sekitar,
Pendidikan Teknikal Dan Latihan Vokasional
PENGENALAN
Kemajuan teknologi dan peningkatan taraf hidup yang semakin
tinggi telah mendorong permintaan penggunaan tenaga dan sumber
asli dari semasa ke semasa. Sedarkah kita bahawa pembangunan
yang tidak terkawal telah mengakibatkan berlakunya pemanasan
global dan penyusutan sumber asli dan ini telah mencetuskan
kebimbangan di seluruh dunia. Di Malaysia, data yang dikeluarkan
oleh Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB) berhubung emisi
karbon dianggarkan telah mencecah sehingga 187 juta tan di mana
puratanya merangkumi sebanyak 7.2 tan bagi setiap individu pada
tahun 2006 (Md Azizul et. al 2012). Lebih membimbangkan
apabila berlakunya penyusutan sumber asli di mana dunia
dianggarkan bakal menghadapi kekurangan sumber asli dalam
tempoh enam puluh tahun lagi (Syahrul Hisham, 2012).
Serentak dengan itu, penekanan untuk memelihara dan
memulihara alam sekitar perlu diberi perhatian yang serius di
peringkat local. Bagi merealisasikan agenda pembangunan
nasional, sumber manusia yang berkemahiran tinggi menjadi teras
utama perlaksanaannya. Sehubungan itu dalam menyokong
pertumbuhan ekonomi hijau dan seterusnya mengekalkan kualiti
alam sekitar, sumber tenaga kerja negara sewajarnya dilengkapi
dengan kemahiran bukan teknikal atau kemahiran generik. Dalam
konteks kelestarian alam sekitar, kemahiran ini disebut sebagai
kemahiran generik hijau.
Sepertimana yang dirumuskan oleh Watch (2010), pendidikan
merupakan wasilah yang dapat menimbulkan kesedaran dan
amalan terhadap kepentingan untuk memelihara dan memulihara
438
alam sekitar. Selain itu, menerusi pendidikan juga akan muncullah
golongan pekerja yang menjadi tonggak pertumbuhan ekonomi di
samping menitikberatkan sikap dan impak pembangunan terhadap
komuniti setempat. Ini bertepatan dengan pandangan yang
dilontarkan oleh Subahan et al. (2005) berkenaan konsep
pembangunan lestari yang menggabungjalinkan komponen alam
sekitar, masyarakat dan ekonomi yang dilihat saling bergantung
antara satu sama lain.
KEMAHIRAN GENERIK HIJAU
Kebelakangan ini, konsep hijau mula mendapat perhatian yang
meluas dan dipandang serius. Jika diteliti dengan lebih mendalam,
konsep ini telah diperkatakan melewati sekitar tahun enam puluhan
dan tujuh puluhan lagi (Laupa Junus, 2009a). Perkembangan ini
telah membawa kepada pembangunan ekonomi hijau yang turut
mendorong tercetusnya kemahiran generik hijau.
Mohd Zolkifli (2014) menyatakan kemahiran ini adalah
kemahiran bukan teknikal yang diperlukan oleh setiap pekerja
sebagai pelengkap kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi rendah karbon.
Faktor ini bertujuan untuk mengekalkan kestabilan ekosistem
melalui penggunaan teknologi dan segala aktiviti pembuatan mesra
alam yang berupaya meminimakan penggunaan tenaga dan sumber
semula jadi. Ini bertepatan dengan laporan yang dikeluarkan oleh
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD, 2010) bahawa kemahiran generik hijau begitu penting dan
diperlukan dalam sektor pekerjaan agar produk, perkhidmatan dan
aktiviti pengeluaran mengambilkira kesannya terhadap alam
sekitar.
Seterusnya, Pavlova (2011) telah menyenaraikan enam aspek
bagi kemahiran generik hijau di tempat kerja:
I. Kesedaran dan tingkah laku terhadap alam sekitar serta
kesanggupan untuk melakukan penjelajahan fikiran
berkenaan isu/cabaran pembangunan lestari.
II. Kemahiran mengurus dan mentadbir secara holistik dan
439
merentas disiplin untuk mencari penyelesaian bagi
memenuhi objektif ekonomi, sosial dan ekologi.
III. Kemahiran keusahawanan bagi memanfaatkan peluang
daripada pembangunan teknologi rendah karbon.
IV. Kemahiran inovasi dalam merebut peluang dan seterusnya
merangka strategi baru dalam mendepani cabaran ekonomi
hijau.
V. Kemahiran-kemahiran
STEM:
Pemahaman
umum
sumbangan sains, teknologi, kejuruteraan dan matematik
dalam merealisasikan masyarakat dan ekonomi hijau.
VI. Kemahiran berfikir secara analitik: Memahami pemikiran di
sebalik close-loop ekonomi dan bagaimana ianya berbeza
daripada model-model linear pertumbuhan ekonomi sedia
ada ekoran perniagaan dan industri kian beralih kepada
model kelestarian asli.
Sementara itu, Rebecca (2010) menyebut kemahiran ini
sebagai green skills, green job dan green career. Beliau
mengklasifikasikan kemahiran ini sebagai kemahiran employability
sedia ada yang diintegrasikan dengan kemahiran-kemahiran hijau
yang spesifik dengan menerapkan pengunaan teknologi hijau.
Dalam konteks ini, kemahiran ini bukanlah kemahiran baru tetapi
menjurus kepada penambahbaikan kemahiran generik sedia ada
bagi mewujudkan persekitaran yang sihat bagi semua hidupan.
PENDIDIKAN TEKNIKAL DAN LATIHAN VOKASIONAL
UNTUK PEMBANGUNAN LESTARI
Hussin Sarju (2010) merumuskan pendidikan merupakan proses
untuk membangunkan potensi akal, tingkah laku dan spiritual
manusia ke arah kelestarian hidup. Bertepatan dengan konsep
pembangunan lestari, pendidikan teknikal dan latihan vokasional
(PTLV) memiliki hubungan yang sangat erat dengan agenda
pembangunan nasional.
PTLV menjadi peneraju dalam
membekalkan sumber tenaga kerja mahir dan separuh mahir yang
diperlukan negara dalam pelbagai sektor pekerjaan. Justeru itu,
440
PTLV berperanan besar melahirkan golongan pekerja yang
memiliki kesedaran terhadap kepentingan melestarikan alam
sekitar. Namun begitu, persoalan yang kerap kali berlegar adalah
bagaimanakah kesedaran ini dapat diterapkan ke dalam diri pekerja
dan sejauhmanakah mereka benar-benar memahami lantas
mempraktikkan kemahiran generik hijau di tempat kerja.
Lantaran itu, pendidikan dan latihan merupakan platform yang
mampu mendorong masyarakat ke arah kelestarian. Ini kerana
melaluinya pelbagai masalah dapat ditangani malah pendidikan
juga mampu menyuburkan pelbagai peluang (Watch, 2010). Chen
et al. (2011) menyatakan pendidikan dan latihan merupakan
instrumen yang penting untuk membangunkan sumber manusia
yang berupaya menjayakan pembangunan yang bersifat mesra
alam dan lestari. Pernyataan ini turut disokong oleh Ki-Moon
(2012):
Without education, there can be no
sustainable
development.
Education
empowers people with the knowledge, skills
and confidence they need to shape a more
stable and peaceful future. It is thus the key
to building greener societies (ms2).
Berikutan itu, pembangunan lestari tidak dapat dicapai
menerusi kemajuan teknologi dan sokongan kewangan sematamata. Bahkan ianya menuntut perubahan cara berfikir dan
bertindak bagi seseorang individu. Berdasarkan laporan yang
dikeluarkan oleh UNESCO (2012), perubahan ini merangkumi:
I.
II.
Pendidikan untuk pembangunan lestari diintegrasikan secara
sistematik ke atas semua peringkat/settings pendidikan dan
latihan bermula daripada asas persekolahan sehingga ke
pengajian tinggi dan seterusnya diperluaskan lagi di
persekitaran tempat kerja.
Memajukan dan menghijaukan PTLV sebagai wasilah dalam
menyediakan pekerja yang memiliki pengetahuan, kemahiran
dan komitmen kepada kelestarian. Ini sebagai usaha
memastikan ekonomi semasa yang bergantung kepada sumber
441
tenaga yang tidak boleh diperbaharui beralih kepada
penggunaan teknologi dan segala aktiviti pengeluaran yang
bersifat mesra alam.
Justeru itu, menghijaukan PTLV menjadi pra-syarat
menjayakan pembangunan berteraskan kelestarian alam sekitar.
Menghijaukan PTLV merangkumi beberapa aspek seperti
memperuntukkan pendidikan dan latihan berkonsepkan prapekerjaan, memberikan pendedahan berkenaan pembelajaran di
tempat kerja dan menjana latihan secara berterusan dengan
mempertimbangkan faktor alam sekitar, ekonomi dan sosial.
Menghijaukan PTLV juga merujuk kepada usaha mempersiapkan
pekerja ‘kolar hijau’ yang menyumbang ke arah persekitaran yang
sihat demi keadilan dan kesejahteraan sejagat. Pasek (2010)
menyatakan dalam ruang lingkup latihan dan latihan semula,
program latihan hijau dalam komponen kemahiran bukan teknikal
sewajarnya merangkumi pengajaran berkaitan perancangan kerjaya
hijau, tingkah laku hijau di tempat kerja dan kemahiran-kemahiran
hijau yang meliputi satu pertiga keseluruhan program latihan.
Sejajar dengan itu, UN’s International Center for Technical
and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC, 2006) telah
menekankan kepentingan PTLV digabungkan dengan pendidikan
dan kemahiran yang berteraskan kelestarian alam sekitar. Ini
kerana fenomena dunia pekerjaan pada hari ini seringkali
mengalami perubahan impak daripada globalisasi dan
perkembangan teknologi. Hal ini menuntut PTLV membangunkan
sumber tenaga manusia yang bukan sahaja berkemahiran tetapi
juga komited dan bermotivasi tinggi. Di samping itu, mereka juga
sewajarnya memahami kesan perubahan global ke atas industri dan
sektor perniagaan tempatan serta bagaimana kesan perubahan ini
mempengaruhi kualiti sosial, ekonomi dan alam sekitar
(UNESCO-UNEVOC 2009).
442
KEPENTINGAN KOMPONEN KEMAHIRAN GENERIK
HIJAU DALAM SUKATAN KURIKULUM PTLV
Suatu hakikat yang tidak boleh dikesampingkan ialah pemahaman
umum berkenaan konsep kemahiran generik pada realitinya lebih
tertumpu kepada kemahiran personal dan interpersonal. Hubungan
dan interaksi dengan alam sekitar kurang diberi penekanan dan
perhatian yang serius (Mohd Zolkifli, 2014). Hal ini berbeza
dengan kemahiran generik hijau yang tidak hanya terbatas kepada
hubungan antara individu tetapi turut mengambil kira bagaimana
komuniti berinteraksi dengan alam tabii di persekitarannya (Mohd
Yusof, 2010). Ini kerana sekiranya konsep pembangunan
berteraskan kelestarian alam sekitar tidak dipraktiskan, negara
bakal menghadapi risiko melahirkan golongan pekerja yang
mungkin berkemahiran tetapi mengabaikan kesan tindakan
terhadap alam sekitar serta keperluan penjimatan tenaga dan
sumber asli.
Oleh hal yang demikian, keperluan bagi kemahiran generik
hijau diintegrasikan dalam kurikulum khususnya bagi aliran
kemahiran-kemahiran teknikal dan vokasional dilihat kian
mendesak (Siti Nor Syazwani, 2012). Faktor ini ekoran pada masa
hadapan setiap lapangan pekerjaan dijangka menuju ke arah
pekerjaan-pekerjaan yang berorientasikan teknologi hijau yang
menjadi pemacu pertumbuhan ekonomi baru (CEDEFOP, 2010).
Dalam pada itu, kurikulum PTLV yang sedia ada memperlihatkan
topik-topik hijau tidak diintegrasikan secara menyeluruh bahkan
sumber rujukan mahupun kajian berkenaan kemahiran generik
hijau di Malaysia masih lagi kurang (Mohd Zolkifli, 2014). Malah,
analisis sukatan dan kurikulum berkaitan Teknologi Hijau yang
dijalankan oleh Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air
(KeTTHA) pada tahun 2011 di peringkat pra-sekolah, sekolah
rendah dan sekolah menengah mendapati topik-topik ini bersifat
tidak menyeluruh dan perlu dikemaskini.
Seterusnya, kajian yang dilakukan oleh Yahya Buntat et al.
(2013) mendapati majoriti guru tidak mempunyai kefahaman yang
lengkap dan menyeluruh mengenai apa itu kemahiran generik hijau
443
sungguhpun menyedari kemahiran ini sangat diperlukan dalam
industri berteknologi hijau. Faktor ini merangkumi beberapa aspek
seperti tidak
mengetahui
tanda
aras/guideline
untuk
mengimplementasikan kemahiran generik hijau, tiada deskripsi
yang spesifik berkenaan kandungan/syllabus malah syllabus juga
bersifat tidak menyeluruh dan tidak memberi penekanan yang
menjurus kepada pengaplikasian kemahiran generik hijau (Yahya
Buntat et al., 2013). Lebih merumitkan lagi keadaan apabila
kaedah penerapan dan bentuk penilaiannya juga masih lagi kabur
dan tidak diketahui (Yahya Buntat et al., 2013).
Lantaran itu, topik-topik hijau perlu dikemaskini dalam sistem
pendidikan selaras dengan tahap pemahaman dan peringkat
pemikiran pelajar (Siti Nor Syazwani, 2012). Ini disokong oleh
Pavlova (2012) di mana beliau berpandangan bahawa pendidikan
dan latihan hendaklah seiiring dengan perubahan dan
perkembangan ekonomi. Menyedari hakikat ini, adalah penting
untuk mengenalpasti set-set kemahiran bukan teknikal yang
diperlukan ke arah merealisasikan agenda pembangunan lestari
(Pavlova, 2012). Hal ini adalah sejajar dengan penyataan yang
dikeluarkan oleh Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD, 2009) iaitu:
Education and training programmes are
critical for developing the human capital
needed for eco-innovation and a potential
labour force for “green jobs”. A number of
countries have taken measures to mainstream
environmental education in the school curricula
or vocational training, but further focus is
needed.
KESIMPULAN
Sebagai kesimpulan, adalah amat penting pengetahuan berkenaan
amalan hijau diperoleh dan diterapkan ke dalam diri seseorang
pekerja sebelum mereka menceburi profesyen pekerjaan dan
444
seterusnya memastikan latihan yang berterusan sentiasa ditambah
dari semasa ke semasa di tempat kerja. Ini kerana pendidikan dan
latihan merupakan key aspect atau kunci yang mengarah kepada
kelestarian (McKeown, 2002).
Berdasarkan kajian literatur yang dilakukan, didapati
penyelidikan mahupun sumber rujukan mengenai kemahiran
generik hijau di Malaysia masih lagi berada pada tahap awal.
Terdapat begitu banyak persoalan-persoalan yang belum terjawab
dan menjadi tanda tanya berkenaan kemahiran-kemahiran generik
yang seharusnya ada pada diri setiap pekerja ‘kolar hijau’ (Mohd
Zolkifli, 2014). Fenomena ini membuka ruang kepada penyelidikpenyelidik tempatan untuk mengkaji perkembangan kemahiran
generik hijau di negara ini. Ini bertepatan dengan seruan yang
diketengahkan oleh pihak UNESCO-UNEVOC pada tahun 2006 di
mana bidang PTLV pada masa hadapan seharusnya tidak hanya
mempersiapkan seseorang individu kepada dunia pekerjaan tetapi
juga melatih mereka menjadi komuniti yang bertanggungjawab
dan berintegriti terhadap keperluan melindungi dan memelihara
alam sekitar.
RUJUKAN
CEDEFOP, (2010). Skills for Green Job: Developing a Low-Carbon
Economy Depends on Improving Existing Skills Rather Than
Specialised Green Skills. Briefing Note-9024 EN. Thessaloniki,
Greece.
Kementerian Sumber Manusia, (2011). Occupational Structure: Green
Technology Industry, Jabatan Pembangunan Kemahiran, Bandar
Baru Bangi, Selangor.
Kerjasama Pintar, (2011). Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air
(KeTTHA). (http://www.kettha.gov.my). Dicapai pada 10
Oktober 2014.
Laupa Junus (2009a). Teknologi Hijau: Apa dan Kenapa? Estidotmy
(edisi 20), Utusan Malaysia. (6-7)
Laupa Junus (2009b). Pelancaran Dasar Teknologi Hijau Buka Lembaran
Baru. Estidotmy (edisi 20), Utusan Malaysia (4-5).
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McKeown, R. (2002). The Education for Sustainable Toolkit.
(http://www.esdtoolkit/org). Dicapai pada 5 September 2014.
Mohd Zolkifli Abdul Hamid (2014). Kemahiran Generik Hijau:
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Aziz (2005). Pembangunan Lestari Melalui Pendidikan Guru.
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446
EMPLOYING WRITTEN
CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK IN
TEACHING WRITING
Ng Siew Fong, Wan Fara Adlina Wan Mansor &Abdul Rahim
Salam
ABSTRACT
Written corrective feedback is paramount because it triggers
students’ awareness on the writing errors and mistakes made.
Students' awareness on errors and mistakes can eventually lead to
the learning of accurate structure or knowledge. In this paper,
different types of written corrective feedback are explicated,
namely direct feedback, indirect feedback, text-specific, directives,
and positive feedback.
Keywords: Written corrective feedback, Teaching and Learning,
writing
INTRODUCTION
In teaching writing, corrective feedback given by the teachers
usually necessitates the students to produce multiple drafts. The
production of multiple writing drafts is proved to be able to
culminate in positive writing developments among students from
all level of proficiency (Peterson and McClay, 2010; Chien, 2011).
In producing writing drafts, it is reported that students tend to
completely rely on teacher feedback when revising their written
work (McMartin-Miller, 2014). Moreover, previous study also
447
reports that feedback is significant for students’ self-esteem
(Peterson and McClay, 2010). A reason that may account to this is
that the students perceive that the amount of corrective feedback
correlates with their writing errors. Thus, few corrective feedback
indicates few writing errors. In the subsections that follow, written
corrective feedback is discussed in more detail.
UNDERPINNING THEORIES
In the context of language learning, providing corrective feedback
is essential in order to enable the students to notice and rectify their
error. Theorists endorse the use of corrective feedback and they
point out two theories in justifying the use of corrective feedback,
namely cognitive theories (Piaget, 1974) and sociocultural theory
(Vygotsky, 1978).
According to cognitive theories, written corrective feedback
facilitates language acquisition. Piaget (1974) espouses that it is
the interaction with the environment that stimulates the students’
internal thought or action patterns that lead to acquisition. Piaget
highlights two key concepts in explicating cognitive theory,
namely assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation occurs
when the students’ internal thought interacts with the environment
and process what is gained from the environment. Accommodation
occurs when the students adjust their action patterns in accordance
to what is gained from the environment. In relation to learning,
Ellis (2012) stipulates that when the students have their attention
on the contextual meaning of the text and completely understand
the meaning of the text, they might produce structural errors as
they write. At this time, the teacher provides corrective feedback
and this enables the students to compare their errors with the
provided accurate structure. Since the students completely
understand the meaning of the structure, it is believed that uptake,
or the acquisition of the accurate language structure, can
effectively take place.
Another theory that supports the provision of corrective
feedback is sociocultural theory. In the words of Vygotsky (1978),
448
“Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice:
first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first,
between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child
(intrapsychological),” (p. 78). Vygotsky emphasizes the notion of
social interaction in stimulating the students’ cognitive change.
Moreover, learning takes place when the students experience social
interaction and that learning do not take place in the mind of the
students (Vygotsky, 1978; Ellis, 2012). Sociocultural theorists
argued that each student is different and what applies to one
student does not apply to another. As such, the teacher has to build
a zone of proximal development for a particular student when the
student is unable to rectify error on his own. When building the
zone of proximal development, the teacher performs scaffolding or
provides corrective feedback in enabling the student to practice
accurate structure independently.
NATURE OF WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK
There are myriads of studies foregrounding the nature of written
feedback. It is noteworthy that there are a lot of categories of
written feedback. Zhao (2010) emphasized on the source of
feedback as she argued that feedback can be in the form of peer
feedback or teacher feedback. It is self-explanatory that peer
feedback is given by peers whilst teacher feedback is given by
teachers. Apart from focusing on the source of feedback, feedback
can be categorized into two levels, namely surface level and deep
level. For the surface level, feedback is directed towards the
grammatical and linguistic aspects (Ferris et al., 1997) such as
direct corrective feedback and indirect corrective feedback
(Chandler, 2003; Bitchener, Young, and Cameron, 2005;
Bitchener, 2008; Bitchener and Knoch, 2009; Sheen, Wright, and
Moldawa, 2009; Sampson, 2012) and mixed feedback (Yilmaz,
2013). For the deep level, feedback is directed towards the content
aspect such as text-specific (Goldstein, 2004); as well as directives
(Ferris et al. 1997). Interestingly, a type of feedback overlaps both
449
surface level and deep level, which is positive feedback (Ferris et
al. 1997; Hyland and Hyland, 2001). When providing surface and
deep levels of feedback, syntactic and pragmatic feedback can be
provided (Conrad and Goldstein, 1999).
Direct corrective feedback denotes providing the accurate
linguistic term or structure beside or near the linguistic error
(Chandler, 2003; Bitchener Young, and Cameron, 2005; Bitchener,
2008; Bitchener and Knoch, 2009). Alternative terms for this type
of feedback are uncoded correction (as the accurate answer to the
error is provided rather than the provision of codes where the
students have to decode the code provided) (Sampson, 2012) and
focused feedback (as the feedback is focused to a specific error and
accurate answer is provided to that error) (Sheen, Wright, and
Moldawa, 2009). Also, this kind of feedback also refers to act of
crossing off inappropriate lexis, phrase or morpheme; inserting
missing lexis, phrase or morpheme; or providing accurate
structure.
Moreover, direct corrective feedback also encompasses written
metalinguistic explanation, which is the inclusion of grammar rules
and illustrations at the end of the students’ paper with the emphasis
of the exact line where the error occurs. Alternatively, direct
feedback can also be practiced using oral meta-linguistic
explanation, where a mini-lesson imparting grammar rules and
illustrations is provided. Oral meta-linguistic explanation can also
be utilized by conducting one-on-one meetings between teacher
and student or meetings between a teacher and a few students.
Indirect corrective feedback, as the term suggests, denotes
providing feedback in an indirect manner where the error is
pointed out but the accurate answer is not included (Bitchener,
Young, and Cameron, 2005; Bitchener, 2008; Bitchener and
Knoch, 2009). In doing so, the students have to think of the
accurate way to correct their error (Chandler, 2003). There are four
ways of practicing this type of feedback, and they are underlining
or circling the error; writing the frequency of error occurrence at
the corner of the paper; or applying a code in demonstrating the
place where the error occurs and in eliciting the type of error. The
450
utilization of code in providing indirect corrective feedback is also
known as coded annotations (Sampson, 2012). Yilmaz (2013)
augments that mixed feedback can be given as well. In her study,
she employed mixed feedback treatment, where direct corrective
feedback is provided first, and subsequently followed by implicit
feedback.
Apart from that, feedback can be text-specific (Goldstein,
2004). Text-specific feedback is conveyed when the comment is
direct enough that can lead to students’ action but not to the extent
of providing the accurate answer to the particular writing
deficiency. For example, a comment is text-specific when it
requires the students to “elaborate more on this point/your
unpleasant experience, give more details of your experience and
how it affects your perceptions”. When a comment is not textspecific, it requires the students to “expand this point”.
Other than that, feedback can also be expressed in a directive
manner (Ferris et al., 1997). There are three ways of practicing
directive manner when commenting, which are asking for
information, making a suggestion or a request and giving
information. The asking for information can be motivated by three
factors. One of the factors is to get students’ clarification on
aspects which is unknown to the teacher such as the students’
experiences or intentions. The second factor is to get students’
detailed description of the point mentioned in writing and the last
factor is to provide food for thoughts for students by providing
rhetorical questions. Another way of practicing directive feedback
is by making a suggestion such as asking the students, “Maybe you
can make this point more concise by eliminating one of these
examples.” Another way of expressing directive feedback is by
giving information. When giving information, the teacher can
either act like a reader responding to the text or provide
information regarding other writers’ work, which is pertinent to the
students’ writing.
Besides, feedback can be positive (Ferris et al. 1997; Hyland
and Hyland, 2001). Feedback is usually conveyed in a negative
way where the teacher criticizes students’ weaknesses, be it in the
451
surface or deep level. Too much criticism may overwhelm the
students and demotivate them and thus, impede their effort in
improving their writing skill. Providing positive feedback
occasionally will make the students feel that their effort is
appreciated and this may encourage them to work harder in
polishing their writing skill. Lastly, according to Conrad and
Goldstein (1999), when feedback is viewed in a syntactic manner,
it is whether a question, declarative or imperative. On the other
hand, when feedback is viewed in a pragmatic manner, it is
whether suggestive or directive.
CONCLUSION
Succinctly, written corrective feedback can be given in the form of
peer feedback or teacher feedback; surface level or deep level;
direct feedback, indirect feedback or mixed feedback; text-specific
feedback or directives; positive feedback; syntactic or pragmatic
feedback can be provided. Regardless of the types of corrective
feedback, caution should be practiced when giving feedback such
as not giving too much criticism especially to weak students or
avoid providing vague feedback in ensuring the students make the
most of the feedback and improve their writing skill.
REFERENCES
Bitchener, J. 2008. Evidence in support of written corrective feedback.
Journal of Second Language Writing, 17(2): 102-118.
Bitchener, J. and Knoch, U. 2009. The relative effectiveness of different
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Bitchener, J., Young, S. and Cameron, D. 2005. The effect of different
types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing. Journal of
Second Language Writing, 14(3): 191-205.
Chandler, J. 2003. The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for
improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing.
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Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(3): 267-296.
Chien, C. 2011. Analysis of EFL university students’ written revisions
towards peer feedback and teacher written comments in Taiwan.
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Conrad, S. M. and Goldstein, L. M. 1999. ESL student revision after
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commentary on student writing: Descriptions and implications.
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working together. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(1):
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written feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(3):
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focused and unfocused written correction on the accurate use of
grammatical forms by adult ESL learners. System, 37(4): 556569.
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454
AMALAN KEPIMPINAN
TRANFORMASI GURU BESAR
DAN IMPAKNYA TERHADAP
KOMITMEN GURU SEKOLAH
RENDAH DI NEGERI SABAH
Faridah Mat Noor & Khadijah Daud
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini dijalankan oleh penyelidik bertujuan mengenalpasti
amalan kepimpinan guru besar dan impaknya terhadap komitmen
guru di sekolah rendah di Negeri Sabah. Kajian ini adalah
berdasarkan kepada teori kepimpinan yang diasaskan oleh
Leithwood (1992) dan teori komitmen yang diasaskan oleh Allen
dan Meyer (1990). Sebanyak tujuh dimensi teori kepimpinan yang
dikaji iaitu kepimpinan iaitu membina visi dan matlamat sekolah,
menyediakan rangsangan intelek, menawarkan sokongan secara
individu, menjadi teladan terhadap nilai-nilai penting organisasi,
menunjukkan prestasi kerja yang tinggi, membina budaya sekolah
yang kreatif, membangunkan struktur dan mengalakkan
penglibatan dalam proses membuat keputusan. Tiga komponen
teori komitmen yang dikaji iaitu oleh Allen dan Meyer (1990)
dengan tiga komponen organisasi iaitu komitmen afektif,
komitmen berterusan dan komitmen normatif. Seramai 540
responden daripada1071 buah sekolah rendah di negeri Sabah yang
455
terlibat dalam kajian ini. Instrumen yang digunakan ialah soal
selidik dan temubual. Data mentah yang dikumpulkan akan
dianalisis menggunakan SPSS Version 14.0. Analisis data di buat
secata deskriftif iaitu dalam bentuk kekerapan, peratus, min , anova
dan regrasi.
Kata Kunci: Guru besar, Kepimpinan tranformasi, Komitmen guru
PENGENALAN
Guru besar sebagai pengurus dan pemimpin pendidikan di sekolah,
bukan sahaja kejayaan sekolah menjadi faktor utama tetapi dengan
kepimpinan dan pengurusannnya serta visi dan misinya boleh
menentukan hala tuju institusi pendidikan nasional yang
diamanahkan kepadanya (Day el. al. 2000). Oleh itu kepimpinan
sekolah yang berprestasi tinggi perlu dipupuk bagi meningkatkan
prestasi sekolah.
Dokumen Rancangan Malaysia Ke 10: 2011-2015 (RMK10)
menyatakan dengan jelas harapan negara terhadap kepimpinan
sekolah melalui pernyataan berikut:
“ Membuat pelaburan bagi membangun kepimpinan unggul di
setiap sekolah. Membuat pelaburan yang besar bagi meningkatkan
prestasi kepimpinan sekolah sebagai pemangkin utama perubahan
menerusi kreteria pemilihan yang ketat, latihan dan pengurusan
prestasi
yang
mantap
berdasarkan
prestasi
pelajar”
(Rancangan Malaysia kesepuluh: 2010)
Merujuk kepada pernyataan diatas, kepimpinan transformasi
dianggap sebagai salah satu corak kepimpinan yang sesuai dan
relevan digunakan masa kini bersesuaian dan berpotensi untuk
membina komitmen yang tinggi dalam kalangan guru dengan
cabaran penstrukturan semula sekolah dan persekitaran yang tidak
menentu dalam bidang pendidikan menyebabkan perubahan
kepimpinan sekolah daripada kepimpinan pengajaran kepada
kepimpinan transformasi. (Leithwood , 1992, 1994; Leithwood
& Janzi, 1999) .
456
Walau bagaimanapun keberkesanan sesebuah sekolah dan
komitmen guru banyak bergantung kepada kualiti kepimpinan guru
besar kerana keberkesanan kepimpinan kini diukur berdasarkan
kemampuan pemimpin untuk mengubah tingkahlaku kepimpinan
dan pengurus sekolah dalam pelbagai konteks dan situasi (Bolman
(1999).
LATAR BELAKANG MASALAH
Lokman. (2007) menwajarkan kupasan terperinci tentang
kepimpinan guru besar dalam usaha melahirkan pengetua yang
berwawasan, berwibawa dan sekali gus menjadikan kualiti
kepimpinan sekolah bertaraf dunia. Malangnya kajian-kajian yang
dilakukan oleh Ariffin (2001) dan Vishalache (2005) melaporkan
bahawa guru besar di Malaysia masih mengamalkan komunikasi
sehala, kurang interaksi dengan guru, tidak melaksanakan
autonomi guru malah jarang melaksanakan pengurusan
pengupayaan dianggap menjadi punca penurunan tahap komitmen
guru terhadap sekolah (Hasrat & Mansor, 2001).
Seringkali masyarakat umum hingga ke peringkat nasional
memperkatakan topik isu kepimpinan antaranya adalah isu
berkaitan pembentukan visi dan matlamat sekolah yang pada
dasarnya sangat mudah, mudah difahami, memberi manfaat dan
mendorong kreativiti di dalam organisasi itu. Gambaran yang
diberikan menonjolkan imej yang menarik, realistik dan boleh
dicapai pada masa akan datang. Tetapi ada guru besar yang masih
mentadbir dengan kaedah lama atau “one man show”. Menjadikan
sekolah tidak berkesan dan tidak dinamik untuk berdaya saing dan
kurang potensi besar kerana kurang keterlibatan warga sekolah.
Isu seterusnya berkaitan pembentukan struktur pemuafakatan
dalam membuat keputusan.
Ada pengurusan berpusatkan
pemimpin yang memberi arahan, desakan dan tekanan terhadap
kakitangan bawahan. Maison (1990, Sonia 2007) menyimpulkan
gaya kepimpinan terbuka, “penglibatan guru” adalah penting
dalam menubuhkan sekolah berkesan iaitu perubahan budaya
457
mengurus sekolah dari model hierarki “atas ke bawah” kepada
struktur yang lebih mendatar yang melibatkan majoriti staf
memimpin sekolah.
Selaku pemimpin di sekolah hendaklah bertindak sebagai agen
perubahan yang mampu merangsang guru-guru menunjukkan
prestasi kerja yang tinggi, berubah dengan mengilap bakat mereka,
mengembangkan potensi dan menyegarkan nilai-nilai murni yang
mereka miliki. (Abd. Aziz Yusof, 2000).
Guru besar dianggap sebagai “role model” dan diambil contoh
teladan kepada guru-guru. Menganggap kepimpinan sebagai satu
tanggung jawab yang mempunyai matlamat yang unggul, tahu erti
dan fungsi kepimpinan dan tidak menganggap kepimpinan sebagai
hak mutlak seseorang dalam kedudukan yang tinggi dalam hieraki
organisasi sahaja ( Syed Ismail Syed Mustapa & Ahmad Subki
Miskon, 2010)
Kajian Dr. Warren Bennis, professor di Universiti Southern
California mendapati tidak lebih 20% pemimpin sekolah gagal
untuk memanfaatkan kakitangan mereka. Hal ini akan menjadi
lebih serius jika pemimpin sendiri tidak mempunyai kemahiran
bekerja dengan guru-guru yang mempunyai keperluan yang
pelbagai dan masalah sahsiah yang tersendiri kerana pemimpin
sebegini lebih mengutamakan kepakaran dalam hal-hal teknikal
sahaja (Ainon, 2005).
Guru besar yang kurang keupayaan memimpin cenderung
bersikap autokratik dan kurang memberatkan isu-isu guru sebagai
manusia akan menimbulkan pelbagai masalah kerana kejayaan
hanya akan dapat dicapai jika sumber manusianya terutama
pemimpin sekolah dibangunkan secara bersepadu (Syed Ismail &
Ahmad Subki, 2010).
Menurut Chan (2000), aspirasi pendidikan negara tidak akan
mencapai matlamat jika kepimpinan terlalu tertumpu kepada tugas
pentadbiran sahaja sedangkan bidang kepimpinan hal ini bersifat
dinamik, kompeks malah menuntut sesuatu yang lebih tinggi.
(Herbert, 2006: Speck, 1999). Maka guru besar adalah dituntut
membuka ruang sebagai pemacu ke arah pendidikan yang
berkualiti.
458
PERNYATAAN MASALAH
Masih terdapat beberapa kelemahan kepimpinan guru besar dalam
memimpin sekolah (Abdul Sukor. 2004). Amalan kepimpinan
guru besar masih merujuk kepada model birokratik menyebabkan
mereka masih kabur tentang peranan merka sebagai pemimpin
yang perlu menjana komitmen guru di sekolah. (Hishamuddin
Shah, Mohd Rizal & Supian Hashim, 2013). Guru yang
mempunyai tahap komitmen rendah didapati melakukan
tingkahlaku yang mengurangkan produktiviti seperti melambatkan
kerja, tiada di tempat kerja, mementingkan hal peribadi dan tidak
mahu bekerja lebih masa (Patvin, 1991)
Oleh itu kajian ini akan menghuraikan mengenai amalan
kepimpinan transformasi guru besar dan komitmen guru. Mengenal
pasti sejauhmana terdapat perbezaan amalan kepimpinan guru
besar berdasarkan faktor demografi iaitu umur, jantina, tahap
pendidikan, pengalaman pentadbiran dan lokasi sekolah.
Seterusnya meneliti perkaitan antara kepimpinan transformasi guru
besar dengan komitmen guru terhadap sekolah bandar dan luar
bandar.
OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk :
1.4.1
Mengenal pasti dimensi kepimpinan tranformasi yang
paling dominan diamalkan oleh guru besar.
1.4.2 Mengkaji amalan guru besar dalam setiap demensi
kepimpinan transformasi.
1.4.3 Mengkaji perbezaan amalan kepimpinan guru besar
berdasarkan faktor demografi iaitu umur, jantina, tahap
pendidikan, pengalaman pentadbiran dan lokasi sekolah.
1.4.5 Mengkaji peramal komitmen guru terhadap sekolah yang
terdiri daripada amalan kepimpinan tranformasi guru besar
di sekolah rendah bandar dan luar Bandar.
459
KEPENTINGAN KAJIAN
Hasil kajian dan maklumat yang diperoleh penting untuk rujukan
pihak-pihak tertentu yang terlibat secara langsung atau tidak
langsung seperti guru besar, pengetua sekolah, penolong kanan,
ketua bidang, ketua panitia, guru-guru dan sebagainya.
DEFINISI OPERASIONAL
Amalan Kepimpinan Tranformasi Guru Besar
Mengikut Bass dan Avalio (1990) kepemimpin transformasi
melakukan tiga perkara penting ia itu menyedarkan pengikut
kepentingan menjayakan satu tugasan, memberi sokongan
berterusan kepada pengikut untuk membuktikan kesediaan untuk
bersama dalam mencapai matlamat organisasi menekankan kepada
proses pembangunan dan meningkatkan kekuatan komitmen
pengikut ke arah pencapaian matlamat organisasi.
Dalam konteks kajian ini kepimpinan berdasarkan model
kepimpinan transformasi Leithwood (1993) yang terdiri tujuh
demensi kepimpinan iaitu membina visi dan matlamat sekolah,
menyediakan rangsangan intelek, menawarkan sokongan secara
individu, mejadi teladan terhadap nilai-nilai penting organisasi,
menunjukkan prestasi kerja yang tinggi, membina budaya sekolah
yang kreatif, membangunkan struktur dan mengalakkan
penglibatan dalam proses membuat keputusan.,
Komitmen Terhadap Sekolah
Menurut (Kamus Dewan, 2002) komitmen didefinisikan sebagai
sikap atau perbuatan memberikan sepenuh tenaga dan perhatian
dan sebagainya atau menunjukkan sokongan dan azam yang
sepenuhnya kepada sesuatu iltizam iaitu keterlibatan secara
bersungguh-sungguh
dan
penuh
tanggungjawab
dalam
460
melaksanakan sesuatu.
Mengikut (Meyer & Allen, 1997)
komitmen adalah interpretasi awal gambaran penerimaan pekerja
terhadap organisasi melalui tingkah laku pekerja. .
Dalam konteks kajian ini, komitmen guru terhadap sekolah
merujuk kepada model komitmen organisasi oleh Allen dan Meyer
(1990) dengan tiga komponen organisasi iaitu: komitmen afektif,
komitmen berterusan dan komitmen normatif.
Konsep Kepimpinan
Kepimpinan merujuk kepada kebolehan untuk mempengaruhi
manusia ke arah pencapaian malamat organisassi (Daft. 1997).
Kepimpinan adalah satu konsep yang sukar dan kompleks kerana
ia tidak terikat dengan penghasilan dan pengekalan arahan tetapi ia
menghasilkan perubahan (Abdul Ghani el. al. (2010). Ini
disebabkan pemimpin tidak mampu melakukan semua perkara
secara bersendirian dan memerlukan pengikut untuk berkongsi
kuasa dan memperkasakan pengikut bagi mencapai malamat dan
menangani kekangan yang bakal dihadapi. Sebagaimana (Jamaliah
& Norashimah, 2008) meyatakan kepimpinan adalah daya
mempengaruhi tingkah laku seseorang itu sehingga menyebabkan
ia sanggup memberi kerjasama untuk mencapai sesuatu matlamat
yang dipersetujui.
Oleh itu untuk memastikan seseorang pemimpin itu dapat
melakukan sesuatu dalam pekerjaannya, seseorang pemimpin
harus memiliki kemampuan dalam bentuk pengetahuan, sikap dan
kemahiran yang sesuai dengan bidang pekerjaannya.
KONSEP KOMITMEN
Komitmen dalam organisasi merujuk kepada individu yang
mempunyai kepercayaan yang kuat dan penerimaan terhadap
matlamat dan nilai organisasi, kesanggupan anggotanya di dalam
organisasi. Komitmen merupakan sikap dan kelakuan pekerja
461
yang amat penting dan ia menjadi tumpuan penyelidik dalam
bidang pengurusan, gelagat organisasi dan pengurusan sumber
manusia (A. Sukor, Noran & Rosna, 2004) kerana menurut
Ghemawat (1991), komitmen adalah sebagai salah satu faktor
fomula kejayaaan prestasi organisasi.
Sebagaimana menurut Firestone & Pannell (1993) juga
mengatakan komitmen guru juga mempunyai hubungan dengan
pencapaian pelajar kerana dalam bidang pendidikan prestasi
sekolah sebagai sebuah organisasi pendidikan amat bergantung
kepada komitmen guru sebagai pendidik dan pengurus.
SOROTAN KAJIAN
Kajian Lepas Tentang Kepimpinan Transformasi
M. Al-Muz-Zammil B. Yasin & Nazri Bin Mahmood telah
menjalankan kajian mengenai amalan kepimpinan transformasi
guru besar dan pengetua. Hasil kajian menunjukkan tahap amalan
kepimpinan transformasi berada pada tahap yang tinggi dalam
kepimpinan yang diamalkan oleh guru besar. Hasil kajian (Zainal
Abidin
& Khalid Ashaari, 1997) terhadap pengetua juga
mengukuhkan kenyataan di atas bahawa pengamalan gaya
kepimpinan
tranformasi
oleh
pemimpin
berkeupayaan
meningkatkan prestasi guru dalam perlakuan warga organisasi dan
sikap guru iaitu komitmen mereka terhadap kerja.
Walau bagaimanapun, kajian Abd. Razak Hashim (1995)
mendapati tiada hubungan yang signifikan antara gaya kepimpinan
dengan komitmen guru. Hal ini berbeza dengan dapatan kajian
Abdul Ghani Abdullah (2005) iaitu pengamalan gaya kepimpinan
transformasi oleh pengetua dapat meningkatkan prestasi dan
komitmen guru di sekolah.
Kajian Lokman Mohd. Tahir, M. Al–Muzammil Yassin (2008)
terhadap impak psikologi guru hasil kepimpinan pengetua
mendapati bahawa tahap kepercayaan guru terhadap pengetua
adalah pada tahap sederhana walaupun tahap komitmen guru
462
dicatatkan pada tahap yang tinggi. Dapatan ini membuktikan
bahawa pengetua dianggap sebagai individu yang berkelayakan
untuk mentadbir sekolah. Melalui kajian ini juga mampu
dibuktikan bahawa kepemimpinan pengetua adalah pengaruh
utama pembentukan tahap komitmen terhadap sekolah dan
kepercayaan guru kepada sekolah.
Kajian-kajian mengenai kepimpinan transformasi juga banyak
dilakukan di luar Negara. Antaranya adalah kajian dalam bidang
pendidikan oleh Leithwood (1993) mendapati bahawa pemimpin
tranformasi di sekolah memberi penekanan untuk mencapai tiga
matlamat
utama
iaitu
membantu
guru
membentuk,
memperkembangkan dan juga mengekalkan budaya kerja
profesional dan semangat bekerjasama, memupuk perkembangan
profesional guru dan membantu menyelesaikan masalah secara
efektif. Leithwood, Tomlinson & Genge (1997) dalam kajiannya
juga mendapati gaya kepimpinan transformasi pengetua
mempunyai kesan yang positif ke atas kepuasan kerja, komitmen
terhadap organisasi dan prestasi kerja guru.
Kajian Lepas Tentang Komitmen
Kajian Mohd Safar Ahmad (2003) mengenai komitmen guru
terhadap organisasi dan profesion perguruan mendapati tahap
komitmen guru terhadap organisasi adalah sederhana begitu juga
dengan tahap komitmen guru terhadap profesion perguruan.
Walaupun tahap komitmen mereka adalah sederhana tetapi
didapati guru lebih komited terhadap profesion keguruan daripada
organisasi. Dapatan kajian juga mendapati terdapat hubungan yang
signifikan diantara komitmen terhadap organisasi dan profesion
perguruan di tahap yang sederhana.
Kajian Lepas Kepimpinan Transformasi Dan Komitmen
Manakala kajian (Lokman Mohd Tahir, M. Al-Muzzamil (2008)
463
pula mendapati peranan pengetua dalam meningkatkan tahap
psikologi guru terutamanya komitmen dan kepercayaan dianggap
penting dalam menjamin persekitaran sekolah yang berkualiti dan
berkesan. Rosnah dan A. Sukor, Noran & Rosna (2004) pula telah
menjalankan kajian ke atas 370 orang guru dari 108 buah sekolahsekolah menengah di negeri Kedah. Dapatan kajian dari segi
hubungan komitmen terhadap profesion dan prestasi kerja
mengikut penilaian pentadbir menunjukkan semakin tinggi tahap
komitmen terhadap profesion semakin tinggi prestasi kerja guru.
Keputusan kajian yang diperolehi oleh Leithwood (1993) telah
menunjukkan bahawa peningkatan komitmen guru-guru terhadap
sekolah adalah dipengaruhi oleh tingkah laku kepimpinan
transformasi yang diamalkan oleh pengetua. Satu lagi keputusan
kajian yang menyokong keputusan ini telah diperolehi oleh Otto
(1993). Beliau telah menemui keputusan kajian yang menunjukkan
bahawa amalan tingkah laku kepimpinan transformasi oleh
penyelia ada kaitannya dengan peningkatan komitmen pekerja
terhadap pekerjaan. Kesimpulannnya adalah amalan kepimpinan
transformasi oleh pemimpin sekolah mampu meningkatkan
komitmen guru-guru terhadap organisasi.
REKA BENTUK KAJIAN
Reka bentuk kajian yang digunakan adalah reka bentuk deskriptif.
Reka bentuk deskriptif ini dijalankan dengan tujuan untuk
memberi penerangan yang sistematik mengenai fakta dan ciri-ciri
sesuatu populasi secara fakta dan tepat (Sidek. 2002). Soal selidik
dipilih kerana soal selidik adalah kaedah termudah dan berkesan
dalam memperolehi data piawai daripada saiz sampel kajian yang
besar dan menyeluruh (Barbie, 2000: Frankel & Wallen 2003).
Kaedah tinjuan digunakan bagi menentukan pemboleh ubah yang
mana mempunyai perkaitan dengan subjek yang dikaji atau pun
bagi melakukan ujian pada hipotesis berhubung dengan perkaitan
yang dijangkakan. (Azizi Yahya, Shahrin Hashim, Yusof Boon.
2007). Pemboleh ubah bersandar dalam kajian ini ialah tahap
464
amalan kepimpinan tranformasi guru besar, manakala pemboleh
ubah tidak bersandar pula ialah komitmen guru.
SAMPEL DAN TEMPAT KAJIAN
Populasi kajian meliputi 25394 orang guru yang berkhidmat di
1071 buah sekolah rendah di negeri Sabah. Guru dipilih sebagai
responden kerana guru adalah golongan yang dapat memberi
gambaran yang tetap tentang rutin pengurusan dan gelagat
kepimpinan guru besar di sekolah (McNulty et. Al. 2005).
Pemilihan sampel adalah kaedah persampelan berstrata kerana
populasi kajian tidak seragam dari segi jantina, kategori
perkhidmatan dan pengalaman pentadbiran. Menurut Brymann
dan Cramer (2005) persampelan berstrata mampu memberikan
kesahan sampel yang lebih tepat kerana agihan saiz sampel yang
agak sama untuk setiap strata. Saiz dan bilangan sampel adalah
mengikut Sekaran (2003) iaitu saiz sampel antara 30 sehingga 500
responden adalah mencukupi untuk kajian tinjauan. Kajian ini
akan melibatkan sekolah rendah kebangsaan dalam empat zon di
negeri Sabah.
INSTRUMEN KAJIAN
Secara khusus, kajian ini menggunakan dua kaedah utama iaitu
soal selidik dan temu bual. Soal selidik adalah alat kajian utama
untuk mengumpul data tentang kepimpinan transformasi guru
besar dan komitmen guru terhadap sekolah.
Satu set borang soal selidik untuk guru-guru akan diedarkan dan
mengandungi tiga bahagian iaitu bahagian A, B, dan C. Keputusan
kajian ini akan dianalisa menggunakan Statictical Package For
Social Science (SPSS ) Version 15.0.
Bahagian A :
Demografi Guru terdapat lima item yang perlu ditanda oleh
responden iaitu umur, jantina, tahap pendidikan, pengalaman
465
pentadbiran dan lokasi sekolah.
Bahagian B :
Kepimpinan Transformasi diukur menggunakan soal selidik
Multifactor Leadership Questionare (MLQ) oleh (Bass & Avalio.
2004) terdiri daripada soalan berkaitan persoalan kajian yang telah
ditetapkan.
Bahagian C :
Komitmen Organisasi diukur menggunakan Organization
Commitment Questionare (OCQ) oleh (Mowday et. Al, 1982)
terdiri daripada soalan berkaitan persoalan kajian yang ditetapkan.
Setiap item mempunyai pilihan jawapan yang diukur dengan
menggunakan skala Likert. Responden hanya perlu menyemak
kategori respon yang difikirkan paling sesuai. Skala yang
digunakan adalah skala 5 mata iaitu (5 – Sangat Setuju, 4 – Setuju
3 – Tidak Pasti, 2 – Tidak Setuju, 1 – Sangat Tidak setuju).
Melalui kaedah temu bual, protokol temu bual yang
mengandungi soalan terbuka telah dibina untuk mendapatkan
maklum balas tentang pelaksanaan setiap ciri dalam kepimpinan
guru besar. Soalan susulan turut dikemukakan berdasarkan
jawapan subjek kajian untuk memahami fenomena kajian dengan
lebih jelas dan terperinci. (Merriam. 2001 : Taylor & Bogman
1998). Justeru, penyelidik merasakan perlu gabungan kaedah
kuantitatif dan kualitatif dilakukan untuk menguji kerangka kajian
ini dalam konteks kajian kepimpinan guru besar di Malaysia.
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PENDEKATAN KONTEKS
PENGGUNA DALAM
REKABENTUK PERSEKITARAN
PEMBELAJARAN SECARA
TALIAN TERUS
Nur Syamimi Mohd Razali & Noraffandy Yahaya
ABSTRAK
Persekitaran pembelajaran secara talian terus dilaksanakan sebagai
platform pembelajaran secara
maya
bertujuan untuk
menyampaikan sumber pembelajaran bagi mencapai objektif
pembelajaran. Oleh sebab itu, e-pembelajaran seperti ini
direkabentuk supaya ia dapat membantu pengajar dan pelajar yang
menggunakannya dapat mencapai matlamat tersebut. Kertas kerja
ini akan membincangkan serba sedikit tentang konteks pengguna
dalam proses rekabentuk persekitaran pembelajaran, kepentingan
dan kelebihannya.
Kata kunci: konteks; e-pembelajaran; konteks pengguna
PENGENALAN
Persekitaran pembelajaran secara talian terus adalah menjadi salah
satu medium pembelajaran yang mendapat tempat pada masa kini.
471
Integrasi teknologi seperti komputer dan internet dalam situasi
pembelajaran adalah tepat dan bersesuaian dengan zaman
teknologi berada dihujung jari. Persekitaran pembelajaran secara
talian terus menyediakan platform pembelajaran yang fleksibel dan
autonomi kepada pelajar untuk menggunakannya untuk mengakses
sumber pembelajaran dan tidak kurang juga terlibat dalam
komuniti maya seterusnya mencapai objektif pembelajaran. Oleh
sebab itu, persekitaran pembelajaran secara talian terus tersebut
hendaklah direkabentuk supaya matlamat pembelajaran boleh
dicapai (McAlpine & Allen, 2007). Hunaiyyan et al. (2008)
menyatakan bahawa adalah amat penting untuk menyediakan
pelajar satu persekitaran pembelajaran yang boleh memberikan
keselesaan kepada pelajar. Oleh sebab itu, bagi tujuan tersebut,
beberapa
penyelidik
mencadangkan
supaya
mengenali
karakteristik dan konteks pelajar semasa proses rekabentuk
(Hunaiyyan et al., 2008; Benson & Samarawickrema; 2009 &
Sheinberg, 2001)
KONTEKS PENGGUNA DALAM REKABENTUK
Salah satu matlamat rekabentuk sesuatu sistem adalah untuk
memberi kemudahan dan kepuasan kepada pengguna. Oleh sebab
itu, sistem tersebut hendaklah direkabentuk secara berkesan dan
sistematik untuk mencapai matlamat tersebut. Dan dalam masa
yang sama, situasi ini akan memberikan cabaran kepada pendidik
dan perekabentuk untuk memastikan matlamat ini tercapai.
Dalam rekabentuk e-pembelajaran dan persekitaran
pembelajaran atas talian, Brown & Voltz (2005) mengatakan
bahawa untuk merekabentuk persekitaran pembelajaran yang
berkesan, salah satu elemen yang perlu ditekankan ialah konteks.
Memahami konteks pelajar adalah penting kerana sistem yang
direkabentuk berasaskan kepada konteks pengguna dikatakan
mampu meningkatkan kepuasan pengguna (Vredenburg et al.,
2002). Tambahan pula, mengenalpasti dan mengaplikasi konteks
pengguna dalam rekabentuk juga dipercayai boleh meminimakan
472
masalah yang dihadapi oleh pelajar semasa pembelajaran secara
talian terus (Noraffandy, 2008)
Menurut Fischer & Baird (2005), sejauh mana penglibatan
pelajar dalam persekitaran pembelajaran secara talian terus adalah
ditentukan oleh struktur kursus. Contohnya, jika rekabentuk
persekitaran pembelajaran tersebut mampu menyediakan
persekitaran yang bersesuaian dengan keperluan dan konteks
mereka, pelajar menjadi lebih puas menggunakannya dan
seterusnya dapat
memotivasikan mereka untuk terus
menggunakannya (Fischer & Baird; 2005). Hujah ini disokong
oleh kajian yang dilakukan oleh Al-Hunaiyyan et al. (2008) yang
meyatakan karakteristik mesti diambil kira dalam rekabentuk
pembelajaran. Perkara ini penting kerana pelajar hendaklah
disediakan satu persekitaran pembelajaran yang boleh menjadikan
mereka selesa untuk menggunakannya dan mampu memenuhi
keperluan mereka (Hunaiyyan et al., 2008; Noraffandy, 2008)
REKABENTUK BERASASKAN PENGGUNA
Rekabentuk berasaskan pengguna merupakan satu pendekatan
yang melibatkan pengguna sebenar secara aktif dalam proses
merekabentuk suatu sistem (Mao et al., 2005; Sripathi & Sandru,
2013). Abras et al. (2004) mendefinisikan rekabentuk berasaskan
pengguna adalah satu proses yang membantu rekabentuk perisian
yang memenuhi kehendak pengguna dengan melibatkan pengguna
sebenar secara aktif dalam proses rekabentuk.Pendekatan sebegini
banyak digunapakai dalam proses rekabentuk contohnya seperti
perisian ()dan laman web (De Troyer & Leune, 1998). Menurut
Wallach & Scholz (2012) rekabentuk berasaskan pengguna adalah
penting kerana tingkahlaku pengguna sebenar atau pengguna-akhir
(end user) adalah mungkin berbeza daripada tingkahlaku yang
diimaginasi oleh perekabentuk atau pemilik produk. Keadaan ini
menyebabkan pengguna tidak dapat mengguna sesuatu produk
dengan berkesan.
Dalam konteks pendidikan, pelajar adalah merupakan
473
pengguna akhir kepada produk contohnya, persekitaran
pembelajaran yang direkabentuk bagi tujuan pengajaran dan
pembelajaran. Jika sebelum ini persekitaran pembelajaran
direkabentuk berasaskan kepada model pembelajaran (), pedagogi
dan teori rekabentuk (), rekabentuk berasaskan kepada pelajar
(learner-centered) menumpukan kepada kehendak dan keperluan
pelajar dalam konteks mereka.Untuk tujuan ini, pengajar atau
perekabentuk perlu mengambil kira kehendak, keperluan dan
pandangan mereka sebagai asas rekabentuk. Dalam erti kata lain,
rekabentuk berasaskan pelajar ini mampu memenuhi keperluan
pelajar seterusnya dapat menyediakan persekitaran pembelajaran
yang sesuai bagi mereka.
Mengambil kira konteks pelajar membolehkan perekabentuk
memahami pengguna iaitu pelajar tentang cirri-ciri keperluan,
kehendak, persepsi pengalaman lepas dan sekarang serta mungkin
juga harapan pelajar terhadap aktiviti pembelajaran mereka. Ini
turut disokong oleh Sanders (2002) yang menyatakan bahawa
daripada pengalaman pengguna, perekabentuk dapat mengenalpasti
dan merungkai beberapa perkara seperti apa kata pengguna,
membuat inferens daripada fikiran, apa mereka guna, apa mereka
tahu, memahami perasaan mereka dan juga harapan mereka. Proses
seperti ini memerlukan perekabentuk memahami pengguna terlebih
dahulu sebelum ciri-ciri tersebut diadaptasi kepada teknologi
komputer.
Kepentingan dan kelebihan rekabentuk berasaskan pengguna
banyak dibincangkan dalam literatur. Dengan mengambil kira
konteks pengguna, pengguna sebagai pengguna akhir boleh
mendapat kepuasan dan dapat menggunakan produk atau sistem
dengan lebih baik. Tinjauan yang dilakukan oleh Vredenburg et al.
(2002) yang melibatkan 103 orang responden terhadap kelebihan
menggunakan pendekatan rekabentuk berasaskan pengguna adalah
positif. Hasil dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa secara
keseluruhannya, produk yang direkabentuk berasaskan pengguna
meningkatkan kegunaan dan kebolehgunaan. Dapatan kajian ini
turut disokong oleh Mao et al. (2005) yang mendapati bahawa
responden mereka mengakui bahawa rekabentuk berasaskan
474
pengguna mampu meningkatkan kegunaan dan kebolehgunaan
kepada pengguna akhir.
Memahami konteks pengguna membolehkan perekabentuk dan
pendidik mendapat maklumat yang lebih mendalam tentang
keperluan dan pandangan pelajar. Sebagai contoh, Chakraborty &
Nafukho (2014) mengelaskan kepada lima ciri yang pelajar
perlukan semasa menggunakan persekitaran pembelajaran secara
talian terus. Lima perkara tersebut ialah:
a) Mewujudkan dan memastikan persekitaran pembelajaran
terjamin positif
b) Membina komuniti secara talian terus
c) Memberi maklumbalas yang yang konsisten pada masa yang
tepat
d) Menggunakan teknologi yang betul untuk sebaran kandungan
yang betul
e) Menyediakan sistem sokongan yang bersesuian (Chakraborty
& Nafukho, 2014)
Dalam masa yang sama, pelbagai kaedah telah dilakukan untuk
mendapatkan maklumat berkaitan keperluan pengguna dalam
proses rekabentuk berasaskan pengguna. Dalam rekabentuk
persekitaran maya (Virual Environment, VE), Gabbard et al.
(1999) memperkenalkan empat langkah bermula daripada
pengumpulan maklumat pengguna sehinggalah kepada penilaian.
Empat langkah tersebut ialah:
a) Analisis tugas pengguna (user task analysis)
b) Penilaian berdasarkan panduan pakar (expert guidelines-based
evaluation)
c) Penilaian formatif berpusatkan pengguna (formartive usercentered evaluation)
d) Penilaian perbandingan sumatif (Summative comparative
evaluations)
Namun begitu, usaha ini memerlukan pendekatan atau kaedah
yang sistematik untuk mengumpul keperluan pelajar. Ia sudah
tentulah melibatkan isu seperti penglibatan pakar, keadaan masa
dan juga status kewangan (Kallio & Kekäläinen, 2004). Mao et al.
(2005) juga melaporkan sedemikian. Mereka mendapati responden
475
kajian mereka yang mendakwa rekabentuk berasakan pengguna
tidaklan menjimatkan masa sekiranya ia memerlukan proses
rekabentuk semula diperlukan dan sekali gus akan meningkatkan
kos. Oleh sebab itu, Noraffandy (2008) menekankan supaya
perlunya kepada pendekatan rekabentuk yang sistematik dan
mudah untuk dikendalikan serta memfokuskan kepada konteks
pengguna dan keperluan selain daripada mengurangkan masa
pembangungan dan kos.
Dalam konteks menyediakan persekitaran pembelajaran kepada
pelajar, rekabentuk persekitaran pembelajaran haruslah bersesuaian
dan memenuhi keperluan pelajar (Noraffandy, 2008). Persekitaran
pembelajaran hendaklah fleksibel dengan menyediakan alat serta
sokongan yang bersesuaian dalam usaha untuk menggalakkan
pembelajaran pelajar. Situasi ini menjadi cabaran kepada pendidik
atau perekabentuk untuk memilih pendekatan rekabentuk yang
berasaskan pengguna yang bersesuaian dan boleh mengenalpasti
keperluan konteks pelajar. Sheinberg (2001) & Benson &
Samarawickrema (2009) menambah, keperluan pelajar hendaklah
diberi penekanan dan diambil kira dalam pembelajaran berasaskan
e-pembelajaran di samping kandungan dan objektif pembelajaran
yang juga penting berbanding pembelajaran tradisional. Oleh sebab
itu, adalah penting untuk mengambil kira konteks pengguna
khususnya pelajar dalam proses rekabentuk persekitaran
pembelajaran secara talian terus.
Secara keseluruhan, kertas kerja ini membincangkan tentang
pendekatan konteks pengguna dalam proses rekabentuk. Selain itu,
ia turut membincangkan tentang kepentingan dan kelebihan
konteks pengguna dalam rekabentuk.
RUJUKAN
Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D. & Preece, J. (2004). User-Centered
Design. In Bainbridge, W. Encyclopedia of Human Computer
Interaction, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.
Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Al-Huwail, N. & Al-Sharhan, S. (2008). Blended E-
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2008, pp. 17-32.
Benson, R. & Samarawickrema, G. (2009). Addressing the context of elearning: using transactional distance theory to inform design.
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Chakraborty, M. & Nafukho, F.M. (2014). "Strengthening student
engagement: What do students want in online courses?", European
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De Troyer, O.M.F. & Leune, C.J. (1998). WSDM: a user centered design
method for Web site, Computer Networks and ISDn Systems, 30,
pp. 85-94.
Fisher, M. & Baird D. E., (2005)."Online learning design that fosters
student support, Self-regulation, and retention", Campus-Wide
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Gabbard, J. L., Hix, D. & Swan II, J. E. (1999). User-Centered Design
and Evaluation of Virtual Environments, Virtual Reality, IEEE
Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 51-59.
Kallio, T. & Kekäläinen, A. (2004). Improving the effectiveness of
Mobile Application. In S. Brewster and M. Dunlop (Eds):
MobileHCI 2004, 315-319.
Lai, J., Honda, T. and Yang, M. C. (2010). A study of the role of usercentered design methods in design team projects. AI EDAM, 24(3):
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Noraffandy, Y. (2008). Designing for learning and support: The usercentred construction and evaluation of an on-line environment for
Malaysian teachers learning about digital graphics. Tesis PhD.
University of Leeds.
Mao, J.-Y., Vredenburg, K., Smith, P.W. & Carey, T. (2005). The State
of User-Centered Design Practice. Communication of the ACM,
Volume 48, No 3, pp. 105-109.
McAlpine, I. & Allen, B. (2007). Designing for active learning online
with learning design templates. In ICT: Providing choices for
learners and learning. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007.
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Sanders, E.B.-N. (2002). From user-centred to participatory design
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Taylor and Francis Books, New York (2002), pp. 1–8.
Sheinberg, M. (2001). Know Thy Learner: The Importance of Context in
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Sripathi, V. & Sandru, V. (2013). Effective Usability Testing –
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Vredenburg, K., Mao, J.-Y., Smith, P.W. & Carey, T. (2002). A Survey
of User-Centered Design Practice. In Proc. of CHI 2002, pp. 471–
478. ACM Press, 2002.
Wallach, D., & Scholz, S. (2012). User-centered design: Why and how to
put users first in software development. In A. Maedche, A.
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Fundamentals, trends and best practices (pp. 11–38). Berlin:
Springer.
478
KOMPETENSI PENGETUA DAN
PENGURUSAN PERUBAHAN DI
SEKOLAH
Kalithasan A/L Muniandy & M.Al-muzzammil Yasin
ABSTRACT
This research aims to investigate the competency of school leaders
to bring change to the organization. The rapid changes in the
Malaysian education system make headmasters claim to be leaders
in the school to be sensitive to change. Headmasters also need to
look at the needs of the school and plan changes appropriately. The
ability of headmasters in bringing about change in schools
provides an overview of the school’s ability to meet the challenges
in the world of education today and meet the desire of the Ministry
of Education. In addition, this article also suggests that the study
will investigate the aspects of competence and change management
using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The proposed study
also expected to explain about some of the main things such as
understanding of the principals on changes, challenges, and change
strategies used by schools that have been successful.
PENGENALAN
Perubahan adalah realiti yang besar dalam kehidupan kontemporari
yang berlaku pada kadar yang pantas (Westover, 2010). Perubahan
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menjadikan sesuatu kelihatan baru dan mengubah sesuatu dari
bentuk yang lama ke bentuk yang baru (Harris, 2007 dalam
Ghavifekr, Afshari, Siraj, Zabidi & Razak 2012). Mengikut
Sufean(2004) dalam Izham dan Norzaini (2009), perubahan
mempunyai takrifan peralihan, anjakan, transformasi, inovasi,
adaptasi, atau reformasi. Perubahan juga adalah tindakan mencipta
sesuatu yang berbeza dari masa lalu (Rezvani, Dehkordi &
Shamsollahi, 2012). Mengikut Lewis, Romanaggi dan Chapple
(2010) perubahan adalah kemampuan menggerakkan warga
sesebuah organisasi ke arah matlamat baru dengan kaedah baru
melaksanakan perubahan. Mengikut Hall dan Hord (2001) dalam
Evelyn dan Johnson (2007), perubahan adalah satu proses di mana
individu dan organisasi bergerak secara beransur-ansur dalam
memahami, menjadi mahir dan cekap dalam penggunaan kaedah
baru. Daripada beberapa definisi di atas boleh dirumuskan bahawa
perubahan merupakan keadaan yang lebih baik dan maju daripada
keadaan sebelumnya. Dalam dunia dinamik hari ini, perubahan
adalah komponen penting yang tidak boleh dielak dalam proses
sosial masyarakat (Erlandson, 1980).
Menurut Ghavifekr et al. (2012), sesebuah organisasi
membangun dan mengembangkan budaya perubahan dan inovasi
agar dapat meletakkan mereka dalam posisi yang dinamik dan
berdaya saing. Kebanyakan program perubahan yang dirancang
dan dilaksanakan membantu sesebuah organisasi menyesuaikannya
secara signifikan dan memantapkan posisinya dalam dunia
persaingan yang menjanjikan masa depan yang cerah (Kotter,
1996). Menurut Andreeva (2008), semua organisasi akan
menghadapi keperluan akut untuk melakukan perubahan dalam
organisasi dan ianya menjadi lebih topikal untuk organisasi yang
sentiasa dicabar oleh persekitaran yang berubah dengan cepat dan
dramatik.
Mengikut Macfarland dan Goldsworthy (2014), perubahan
memerlukan kesungguhan dan ianya penting untuk mencapai
objektif perubahan. Kejayaan program perubahan bergantung pada
usaha mengurus semua peringkat (Gokce, 2009) iaitu komitmen
tinggi pihak pengurusan, budaya kerja sepasukan dan penglibatan
480
menyeluruh semua staf organisasi dalam proses perubahan dengan
berkesan. Fisher (2005) menyatakan bahawa sesebuah organisasi
hanya akan berubah apabila individu dalam organisasi berubah.
Keinginan dan komitmen pihak yang terlibat dalam perubahan juga
amat diperlukan agar dapat mencapai matlamat yang ditetapkan
(Preston, 1999 dalam Mulinge& Munyae,2008). Cabaran pengurus
organisasi hari ini adalah untuk belajar menangani perubahan
dengan cara yang berkesan (Westover, 2010) dan mempunyai
berkompetensi yang perlu dalam mengembangkan pemahaman dan
apresiasi ahli dalam menggalakkan sokongan pekerja terhadap
perubahan (Mulinge dan Munyae, 2008).
Dalam dunia pendidikan perubahan membantu sekolah
mencapai matlamat dengan efektif dengan menggantikan struktur
program sedia ada dengan suatu yang lebih baik daripada
sebelumnya(Izham, Hamzah & Norzaini, 2009). Ini sesuai dengan
peranan sekolah sebagai organisasi pendidikan yang
merealisasikan dasar-dasar negara. Pendidikan perlu bertindak
balas kepada keadaan dan peristiwa yang berlaku dalam
masyarakat dengan berkembang mantap dan menyesuaikan
keadaannya kepada perubahan dalaman dan luaran (Blanford,
2010). Dalam konteks organisasi sekolah, apa sahaja perubahan
yang dirancang akan memberi kesan kepada pihak yang terlibat
termasuklah pihak pengurusan, guru, staf sokongan, pelajar dan
masyarakat. Oleh itu perubahan dan inovasi yang hendak
dilaksanakan perlulah dilakukan dengan bijaksana, melalui
kerjasama antara pemimpin dengan rakan sejawatan atau stafnya
(Hall &Hord, 1986).
Pengurus perubahan dalam konteks sekolah iaitu pengetua
berperanan besar dalam mengurus perubahan di sesebuah
organisasi sekolah. Pengetua memiliki kedudukan yang sangat
penting dalam sistem pendidikan sebagai pengurus perubahan
(Gokce, 2009). Pengetua hendaklah bersedia membincangkan
perubahan dari aspek kelebihan, kebaikan, keperluan dan
pengetahuan yang harus dimiliki untuk membudayakan perubahan
di sekolah (Jameela dan Jainabee, 2013). Pengetua sebagai
pengurus atau pemimpin sekolah hendaklah memantapkan diri
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dengan pengetahuan dan kompetensi menghadapi cabaran dunia
pendidikan. Menurut Amin (2008), terdapat kompetensi khusus
yang perlu dipunyai oleh pengetua dalam memastikan
kecemerlangan pemimpin dalam melakukan perubahan.
Kompetensi adalah pengetahuan dan kemahiran yang diperlukan
oleh seseorang individu dalam menjalankan tugas dengan jayanya
dalam konteks tertentu (Conger & Kanungo, 1988) dan kompetensi
penting dalam memastikan proses tranformasi tidak ke luar
kawalan (Kotter, 1996).
Standard
Kompetensi
Kepengetuaan
Sekolah
Malaysia(SKKSM) adalah panduan piawaian kompetensi yang
ditetapkan yang perlu ada pada pentadbir sekolah (Institut
Aminuddin Baki, 2005). SKKSM diharapkan dapat membantu
pemimpin sekolah dalam melaksanakan perubahan agar mencapai
status Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi (SBT). SKKSM menekankan
penyediaan kepimpinan pendidikan bagi meningkatkan prestasi
sekolah secara keseluruhan berlandaskan sembilan bidang utama
yang telah dikenalpasti. SKKSM diharapkan mampu
meningkatkan kompetensi pengetua sekolah sebagai pengurus
perubahan yang berhadapan dengan pelbagai perubahan dalam
bidang pendidikan terutamanya selepas pengenalan Bidang
Keberhasilan Utama Nasional (NKRA) pada tahun 2009.Dalam
Enam Bidang Keberhasilan Negara (NKRA) yang diperkenalkan
perkara utama berkaitan pendidikan yang dinyatakan ialah tentang
memperluaskan akses pendidikan yang berkualiti dan
berkemampuan (NKRA, 2012). Selaras dengan keperluan untuk
mencapai NKRA, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia telah
melancarkan Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan (PPPM) 2013-2015
untuk memastikan keberkesanan transformasi sistem pendidikan
Negara (KPM, 2012). Dengan adanya dokumen ini, peranan
sekolah menjadi lebih mencabar. Banyak agenda penting perlu
dibawa dan direalisasikan dalam pengurusan sekolah. Pengetua
harus bersedia dan bertanggungjawab membudayakan perubahan
supaya sekolah sama-sama dapat bergerak seiring dengan
globalisasi dunia (Jamelaa & Jainabee, 2013) termasuklah dalam
mendepani hasrat PPPM yang telah ada.
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PERNYATAAN MASALAH
Halangan perubahan dianggap suatu isu yang kerap berlaku dalam
pengurusan perubahan (Cummings & Worley, 2005; Senior &
Swailes, 2010). Halangan perubahan tidak dapat dielakkan di mana
ia ditunjukkan secara langsung atau tidak langsung (Marshall &
Conner, 2000). Halangan untuk berubah kerap menjadi cabaran
utama sesebuah organisasi menjadi tidak efektif dan menjejaskan
peluang untuk bertahan dalam persaingan (Pierce, Gardner
&Dunham, 2002). Kebanyakan program perubahan yang
diumumkan di peringkat sekolah menemui kegagalan (Metwally,
2012)kerana wujud pelbagai halangan yang mengakibatkan
pengurusan perubahan mengalami disrupsi atau gangguan yang
tidak diduga. Menurut Blanford (2010), sesetengah staf berasa
ghairah apabila program perubahan diumumkan sementara yang
lain melihatnya sebagai ancaman. Perubahan adalah faktor yang
menjadi perkara yang ditentang kuat oleh individu dalam
organisasi (Heera Singh, 2013), kerana individu dalam organisasi
sekolah berasa takut kehilangan kuasa, autonomi, kedudukan,
kebebasan dan keselesaan yang sedia ada yang dimiliki (Yue,
2008). Tidak semua warga organisasi menginginkan perubahan
kerana dianggap ia akan mengundang ketidakpuasan. Mengikut
Sweet dan Heritage (2010), kebanyakan pekerja berwaspada dan
berasa curiga akan perubahan yang dilakukan oleh pemimpin.
Prospek perubahan menakutkan kebanyakan orang dalam
organisasi sama ada ia realistik atau tidak dan ia kerap
menyebabkan gangguan dalam organisasi apabila sesuatu
perubahan diumumkan (Westover, 2010).
Ketiadaan komitmen daripada pasukan kerja menjadi cabaran
atau halangan utama dalam pengurusan perubahan. Menurut
Metwally (2012), salah satu faktor signifikan menyebabkan
program perubahan gagal adalah kerana tiada komitmen daripada
pasukan kerja. Rezwani (2012) dan Kotter (1996) mengutarakan
isu bahawa sesebuah organisasi akan menghadapi pelbagai
masalah dalam mengurus perubahan apabila berlakunya kelemahan
dalam pasukan kerja. Menurut Roger Gill (2002) pula, cabaran
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yang paling sukar dihadapi oleh pemimpin hari ini adalah untuk
memastikan bahawa warga organisasi boleh menyesuaikan diri
dengan perubahan. Warga sekolah tidak ingin berubah mungkin
kerana tidak suka, tidak yakin, tidak mempercayai atau tidak
menghormati pihak yang membawa perubahan (Kotter &
Schlesinger, 2010). Isu ini dihebatkan dengan norma kumpulan
yang teguh atau strong group norm yang selalunya menggalakkan
rintangan atau halangan untuk berubah (Pierce, Gardner &
Dunham, 2002). Menurut Isett, Glied, Sparer dan Brown (2012),
salah satu cara melaksanakan perubahan dalam organisasi adalah
menyuburkan sokongan terhadap perubahan yang dapat
diwujudkan dengan adanya pasukan kerja yang mempromosikan
perubahan dan merekrut pekerja bawahan yang lain. Kegagalan
membentuk kumpulan pekerja atau pasukan kerja yang efisien
dalam proses perubahan menyebabkan sesuatu organisasi kurang
berjaya (Kotter, 2007).
Kegagalan pengurusan perubahan mungkin disebabkan oleh
tindakan pengetua yang terlalu menumpukan kandungan
perubahan berbanding proses atau komponen perubahan yang
harus dikaji dan dirancang teliti sebelum diaplikasikan dan isu ini
dapat dibuktikan dengan kewujudan banyak penyelidikan yang
cenderung menekankan kandungan perubahan berbanding proses
yang dilalui di mana perubahan dilakukan di sesebuah organisasi
(Kuipers dalam Van der, 2013). Ahli teori pula beranggapan
langkah pengurusan perubahan yang dikemukakan oleh mereka
bagi semua organisasi dalam semua keadaan menyebabkan
program perubahan gagal (Burns, 1996; Beer, Eisentat & Spector,
1990 dalam Andreeva, 2008). Langkah perubahan yang tidak
sistematik menyebabkan program perubahan yang dibawa
menemui kegagalan. Langkah-langkah perubahan yang digunakan
di dalam sesebuah organisasi perlu dikenalpasti, dikaji dan
diperbaiki agar dapat membawa hasil perubahan yang
memberangsangkan.
Mengikut Miranda (2014), kegagalan perubahan juga
disebabkan oleh kelemahan komunikasi, masalah ego dalam
organisasi, tiada keyakinan serta kurang kemahiran atau latihan
484
dan sebagainya. Komunikasi merupakan salah satu komponen
penting dalam pengurusan perubahan (Kotter, 1996). Perbincangan
Harkness (2010) dalam kajiannya menyebut bahawa komunikasi
dalaman memainkan peranan penting dalam membantu seseorang
pekerja menghadapi sesuatu perubahan. Beliau juga mendakwa
kebanyakan komunikasi dalaman tidak dilaksanakan ketika
pengurusan perubahan dijalankan. Kesannya, ketiadaan maklumat
yang memuaskan dan ketidakfahaman terhadap perubahan, lalu
menyebabkan ianya disalah tafsir dan bermacam-macam tingkah
laku ke arah halangan perubahan akan wujud (Yue, 2008).
Mengikut Kotter (1996), kebanyakan pengurus organisasi samada
tidak membuat komunikasi, atau membuat komunikasi yang tidak
efektif ketika menjalankan program perubahan dan kesalahan ini
menyukarkan usaha memikat minda dan hati pekerjanya.
Kesannya, mereka tidak mempercayai pengurus perubahan, maka
segala perubahan yang dibawa akan diterima dengan negatif
(Pierce, Gardner & Dunham, 2002).
CADANGAN KAJIAN KOMPETENSI PENGETUA DAN
PENGURUSAN PERUBAHAN DI SEKOLAH
Berdasarkan perbincangan dan isu di atas penulis telah
mengenalpasti beberapa persoalan kajian yang bersesuaian untuk
kajian ini. Persoalan kajian tersebut adalah seperti yang di bawah:
1. Sejauhmanakah pengurus sekolah memahami kehendak
NKRA dan PPPM?
2. Sejauhmanakah SKKSM membantu pengetua sekolah dalam
membawa perubahan?
3. Apakah strategi pengetua sekolah dalam membawa
perubahan?
4. Apakah halangan perubahan yang dihadapi oleh pengetua
sekolah?
5. Bagaimanakah pengetua sekolah berprestasi tinggi berupaya
menangani cabaran perubahan?
485
6. Adakah satu model perubahan yang bersesuaian dalam
konteks pendidikan di Malaysia boleh dibangunkan untuk
dijadikan rujukan kepada pemimpin di sekolah?
Kajian dicadangkan untuk dilaksanakan di sekolah menengah
termasuk yang sedang bergelut dalam perubahan dan juga sekolah
yang telah berjaya melonjakkan ditahap yang disasarkan. Adalah
dicadangkan pensampelan secara berperingkat (multi-stage) dan
rawak kluster (cluster sampling) digunakan bagi memastikan
perwakilan dalam data yang dikumpul. Kajian akan menggunakan
kedua-dua pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantitatif memandangkan
terdapat persoalan kajian (persoalan 3,4,5) yang memerlukan
pendekatan kualitatif manakala yang lainnya (persoalan kajian
1,2,6) boleh dijawab melalui data kuantitatif. Antara cabaran yang
mungkin dihadapi ialah untuk menerbitkan soalselidik yang sesuai
bagi menguji kefahaman pengetua sekolah dalam memahami
NKRA. Ini adalah kerana soal selidik tersebut berperanan sebagai
ujian yang boleh mengukur kefahaman yang betul dan tidak betul
dalam kalangan pemimpin sekolah. Soalselidik tersebut tentunya
mempunyai item-item yang sukar diteka, bagi memastikan
jawapan yang diterima adalah benar dan bukan tekaan (by chance).
Selain itu dijangkakan pendekatan kualitatif yang pelbagai
(temubual, dokumen analisis, pemerhatian dll) perlu digunakan
untuk mengenalpasti strategi, halangan perubahan, dan cara
pengetua menangani perubahan di sekolah. Penggunaan perisian
seperi en-Vivo adalah dijangkakan dapat membantu pengkaji
dalam menguruskan data yang banyak dan kaya. Data kuantitatif
yang diperoleh akan diproses menggunakan IBM SPSS-AMOS
Versi 21. Selain itu, cabaran seterusnya adalah untuk
menggunakan dapatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif yang ada dalam
mencadangkan model perubahan yang bersesuaian untuk
digunakan dalam konteks sekolah di Malaysia. Adalah diharapkan
model ini boleh mengambilkira lokasi, pencapaian, kekuatan sedia
ada, dan tahap pencapaian perubahan sedia ada di sekolah.
486
KESIMPULAN
Perubahan merupakan konsep yang penting dalam pengurusan
organisasi kontemporari. Para pengetua memiliki tanggungjawab
yang lebih siginifikan dalam melaksanakan perubahan di peringkat
sekolah agar setiap sekolah di Malaysia diiktiraf sebagai sekolah
berprestasi tinggi.Daripada kajian ini diharapkan pengkaji dapat
mengenalpasti kefahaman dan cabaran yang dihadapi oleh
pemimpin sekolah. Selain itu diharapkan model perubahan yang
dapat terbaik dapat dihasilkan untuk digunakan oleh sekolah yang
pelbagai latar belakang bagi memastikan perubahan dapat
dilaksanakan dengan dengan jayanya bagi menggalas hasrat
perubahan dalam pendidikan Negara.
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490
MENGKAJI KEMAHIRAN
BERFIKIR KRITIS DAN
PENCAPAIAN PELAJAR
MENERUSI PERSEKITARAN
PEMBELAJARAN KOLABORATIF
BERBANTUKAN KOMPUTER
BAGI SUBJEK BAHASA
PENGATURCARAAN
Siti Mastura Baharudin & Jamalludin Harun
ABSTRAK
Pelajar yang mengikuti subjek bahasa pengaturcaraan didapati
tidak memahami bagaimana untuk mengaplikasikan pembelajaran
yang diperolehi kepada permasalahan dunia sebenar. Masalah ini
adalah disebabkan oleh tahap kemahiran berfikir pelajar yang
dilaporkan masih rendah terutamanya kemahiran berfikir kritis
dikalangan pelajar. Malah, kemahiran berfikir kritis pelajar
didapati akan lebih tinggi apabila pelajar bersikap aktif semasa
pembelajaran dan berinteraksi sesama ahli kumpulan. Oleh itu,
kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengkaji tahap pencapaian dan
tahap kemahiran berfikir kritis pelajar bagi subjek bahasa
pengaturcaraan melalui persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif
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berbantukan komputer yang dibina berdasarkan ciri-ciri
pembelajaran kolaboratif dan interaksi berkesan. Malah, strategi
pembelajaran berasaskan masalah digunakan sebagai prinsip
pembangunan aktiviti pembelajaran memandangkan ciri utama
strategi pembelajaran berasaskan masalah adalah aktiviti
pembelajaran yang menggunakan dan dimulakan dengan
permasalahan dunia sebenar. Kajian ini dibangunkan berdasarkan
lima tahap di dalam model ADDIE dan disusun mengikut tiga
peringkat kajian dimana pengkaji mendapatkan ciri-ciri
persekitaran pembelajaran yang digemari oleh pelajar berdasarkan
ciri-ciri pembelajaran kolaboratif dan interaksi berkesan.
Seterusnya, persekitaran pembelajaran dibangunkan berdasarkan
ciri-ciri kolaboratif berbantukan komputer dan pembelajaran
berasaskan masalah. Akhirnya, persekitaran pembelajaran
digunakan oleh pelajar bagi menguji kesannya terhadap
pencapaian pelajar dan kemahiran berfikir kritis mereka. Hasil
dapatan daripada kajian ini akan menentukan kesan daripada
persekitaran pembelajaran yang dibina terhadap pencapaian
pembelajaran dan kemahiran berfikir kritis mereka.
Kata Kunci: Pembelajaran Berasaskan Masalah; Pembelajaran
Kolaboratif
Berbantukan
Komputer;
Interaksi;
Bahasa
Pengaturcaraan
PENGENALAN
Ciri-ciri sistem pendidikan konvensional adalah lebih
berorientasikan guru dan isi kandungan. Para pelajar pula hanya
menerima maklumat daripada guru secara teori dan kemudiannya
mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang diperolehi semasa menjawab
soalan peperiksaan (Ryan, Carlton & Ali, 1999).Dengan kaedah
pengajaran dan pembelajaran (P & P) konvensional sebegini,
pelajar tidak berpeluang untuk mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang
dipelajari di dalam bilik darjah terhadap situasi dunia pekerjaan
sebenar (de Villiers & Queiro, 2003). Hal ini merupakan satu
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masalah yang harus ditangani terutamanya apabila melibatkan
pelajaran atau kursus yang memerlukan pelajar untuk melakukan
aktiviti amali dimana ia memerlukan mereka untuk mempraktikkan
pengetahuan yang mereka pelajari semasa di universiti ke dalam
alam pekerjaan. Malah pelajar akan terbiasa dengan sistem
pendidikan berorientasikan guru yang akhirnya menjadikan mereka
malas mencari maklumat dan pengetahuan sendiri dan asyik
mengharapkan pengetahuan yang diberikan oleh guru. Situasi ini
akhirnya menghasilkan graduan yang kurang berdaya saing dan
malas (Pucel & Stertz, 2005 dan Regueras et. al, 2009).
Malah tanpa disedari, akibat daripada P&P konvensional yang
berorientasikan isi kandungan dan peperiksaan ini juga akan
menghasilkan para graduan yang kurang kemahiran generik yang
amat diperlukan dalam pasaran kerja masa kini. Tanpa kita sedari
graduan yang terhasil daripada P&P konvensional adalah lebih
bersifat tertumpu kepada isi kandungan dan peperiksaan. Keadaan
ini seterusnya akan menyebabkan proses pembelajaran yang
membentuk kemahiran berinteraksi dan berkolaborasi di antara
pelajar terabai walaupun ia seharusnya diberi penekanan (Lee &
Tsai, 2011). Akhirnya ini akan membentuk pelajar yang
mementingkan diri sendiri dan kurang berkolaborasi bagi
berkongsi ilmu pengetahuan. Oleh itu, seharusnya dalam P&P
terdapat suntikan proses yang mampu mengasah kemahiran pelajar
dalam berinteraksi dan berkolaborasi sesama mereka bagi
menjana pengetahuan mereka sendiri. Menurut Kreijns, Kirschner
& Jochems (2003), telah terbukti kemahiran berinteraksi dan
berkolaborasi sesama pelajar mampu meningkatkan kemahiran
berfikir pelajar semasa proses pembelajaran berlangsung.
Oleh itu, dengan terdapatnya kemudahan teknologi yang
semakin berkembang dengan pantas ia mampu merubah situasi
P&P konvensional. Perubahan teknologi yang pesat juga
menandakan akan terdapatnya perubahan terhadap proses P&P.
Menurut Abraham (2007), teknologi mampu mengubah cara
penyampaian pengetahuan kepada pelajar malah mampu
mengubah bentuk interaksi sesama pelajar dan guru semasa proses
P&P berlangsung. Malah ia membuka ruang yang lebih luas bagi
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pelajar berinteraksi dan berkolaborasi dalam berkongsi
pengetahuan seterusnya memberi peluang kepada pelajar bagi
meneroka kebolehan mereka sendiri dalam menyelesaikan setiap
permasalahan yang timbul semasa proses P&P tersebut. Dengan
ini, pelajar mampu mendidik diri mereka untuk lebih berdaya saing
dan mampu berdikari dalam mencari penyelesaian kepada setiap
permasalahan yang diberikan dengan bantuan yang minimum
daripada guru (Abraham, 2007 dan Klaus, 2002).
MASALAH PEMBELAJARAN BAGI KURSUS BAHASA
PENGATURCARAAN
Mengikut laporan kajian yang lepas, pelajar yang mengikuti
pembelajaran bahasa pengaturcaraan tidak benar-benar memahami
bagaimana untuk mengaplikasikan apa yang mereka pelajari di
dalam kelas kepada permasalahan dunia sebenar (Moura & van
Hattum-Janssen, 2011). Oleh itu, adalah menjadi kebiasaan
sekiranya terdapat pelajar yang gagal melihat kegunaan apa yang
mereka pelajari semasa di dalam kelas seterusnya mengakibatkan
pelajar kurang berminat dengan kursus ini. Situasi ini akhirnya
mengakibatkan peningkatan peratusan kegagalan bagi kursus ini.
Barak et. al., (2007) menyatakan bahawa kebanyakan pelajar di
institusi pengajian tinggi yang mengikuti kursus bahasa
pengaturcaraan kebanyakkannya sekadar menghadiri pembelajaran
di dalam kelas dan menduduki peperiksaan hanya untuk lulus dan
tidak benar-benar berminat untuk mendalami kursus tersebut.
Seharusnya kaedah P&P bagi kursus bahasa pengaturcaraan
menekankan hubungkait di antara teori dan amali seterusnya
mengaplikasikan kepada permasalahan yang lebih kompleks (Kay
et. al., 2000). Aplikasi kepada permasalahan dunia sebenar adalah
penting bagi pelajar memahami hubungkait pembelajaran yang di
pelajari dalam kelas dengan dunia sebenar (Nuutila, Torma &
Malmi, 2005).
Oleh itu, penyelidik mula melihat potensi teori pembelajaran
konstruktivisme yang menggalakkan pembelajaran aktif sebagai
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satu potensi besar dalam membantu P & P bagi kursus bahasa
pengaturcaraan. Pelajar didapati belajar dengan lebih baik apabila
mereka terlibat secara aktif dalam mengeksplorasi, menterjemah
dan membina pengetahuan daripada pelbagai sumber yang
diperolehi. Malah, peranan laman web dalam membantu
pembelajaran aktif pelajar juga turut menyumbang kepada
pembangunan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi mereka (Koohang,
2004 dan Kirkwood, 2000). Oleh itu, laman web yang dibina bagi
menyokong pembelajaran mereka seharusnya mambantu pelajar
dalam meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi.
KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR KRITIS
Kemahiran berfikir kritis telah menjadi fokus dikalangan ahli
falsafah, penyelidik dan pendidik sejak dahulu lagi. Hager et. al.,
(2003) menyatakan bahawa untuk berfikir secara kritis dalam
semua bidang bermakna seseorang harus mengambil keputusan
dan apa yang harus dipercaya dan lakukan menggunakan
pemikiran reflektif bagi menunjukkan kebolehan dan ciri-ciri
kemahiran berfikir kritis. Para pengkaji dalam bidang pendidikan
lebih mendalam dalam mendefinisikan kemahiran berfikir kritis,
dimana mereka membenarkan guru membuat keputusan bila
masanya dan kenapa untuk mengajar dan menekankan kemahiran
tertentu.
Terdapat dua fahaman dalam mengajarkan dan menekankan
kemahiran berfikir kritis yang terdapat dalam kajian lepas di dalam
bidang pendidikan. Fahaman yang pertama ialah apabila
kemahiran berfikir kritis dianggap sebagai kemahiran generic
dimana ia bermula oleh Ennis (1996), Davidson & Dunham
(1997)yang mengatakan bahawa kemahiran berfikir kritis adalah
sesuatu konsep yang boleh diuji secara eksperimen dan diajar di
sekolah. Manakala fahaman yang kedua pula menganggap
kemahiran berfikir kritis sebagai subject specific dimana ia
bermula daripada Atkinson (1997) dimana beliau menganggap
kemahiran berfikir kritis adalah konsep yang kurang jelas dan lebih
495
spesifik kepada subjek tanpa melibatkan pengujian secara
eksperimen yang wujud secara terselindung semasa perlakuan
sosial. Walaupun terdapat kurang persamaan di dalam
mendefinisikan kemahiran berfikir kritis, kajian kini menunjukkan
bahawa kemahiran berfikir kritis boleh diuji dan dan diukur.
Penyelidik telah mencadangkan pelbagai senarai aspek kemahiran
berfikir kritis yang mencapai satu tahap persamaan kemahiran di
antara kesemua definisi iaitu: mencari sebab, menganalisa hujah
dan menilai kebenaran sesuatu sumber. Semua kemahiran ini
adalah sangat penting bagi pelajar untuk berjaya pada peringkat
pengajian tinggi.
Hasil kajian Garrison, Anderson & Archer (2001) pula telah
membangunkan satu instrument bagi mengukur ciri-ciri dan kualiti
perbualan yang kritikal dalam talian. Fokus kajian ini adalah bagi
mengkaji ciri-ciri interaktif bagi kemahiran berfikir kritis melalui
model Practical Induiry yang dibangunkan. Model Practical
Inquiry ini mempunyai empat fasa iaitu: pencetusan peristiwa,
eksplorasi, integrasi dan resolusi. Pada fasa pertama iaitu
pencetusan peristiwa dilemma atau timbulnya isu yang
dikenalpasti atau dikenali melalui pengalaman. Fasa kedua adalah
fasa eksplorasi dimana ia menggalakkan perubahan daripada ruang
privasi dan perkongsian dimana di antara refleksi kritikal dan
perbualan. Fasa ketiga adalah fasa inteagrasi yang melibatkan
proses memahami maklumat. Fasa terakhir adalah fasa resolusi
dimana dalam fasa ini terjadinya aplikasi penyelesaian kepada
masalah.
Namun, untuk memastikan pelajar menguasai kemahiran
berfikir kritis, sesuatu persekitaran pembelajaran haruslah
dilengkapi dengan aktiviti pembelajaran dan kemudahan
pembelajaran yang bersesuaian dan terbukti berkesan. Oleh itu,
bagi kajian ini, penyelidik akan menggabungkan beberapa strategi
pembelajaran seperti pembelajaran berasaskan masalah dan
pembelajaran kolaboratif. Kedua-dua strategi pembelajaran ini,
menekankan pembelajaran aktif seperti yang dicadangkan oleh
teori konstruktivisme.
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PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN MASALAH
Pembelajaran berasaskan masalah adalah strategi pembelajaran
yang bermaksud untuk pelajar bekerja dalam kumpulan kecil dan
bekerjasama untuk menyelesaikan masalah. Mereka akan
membincangkan punca masalah tersebut, membina hipotesis dan
strategi, mencari maklumat untuk menyelesaikan masalah,
mengkaji penyelesaian dan mencapai kesimpulan. Semasa proses
menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar akan membina kemahiran seperti
kemahiran berfikir kritis, kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah,
kemahiran membuat keputusan, kemahiran berkomunikasi dan
seterusnya membina pengetahuan yang ingin dicapai Hmelo-Silver
& Barrows (2006).
Pembelajaran berasaskan masalah merupakan salah satu
strategi pembelajaran yang menjurus ke arah pendidikan
profesional.Ia telah diperkenalkan oleh penyelidik dalam bidang
profesional termasuk perubatan, kejururawatan, pergigian, kerja
sosial, pengurusan, kejuruteraan dan senibina. Pembelajaran
berasaskan masalah adalah pendekatan pembelajaran di bawah
teori konstruktivisme (Harper-Marinick, 2001) yang menekankan
kepada proses penyelesaian masalah bagi konteks dunia sebenar.
Terdapat peningkatan dalam bilangan institusi dan program yang
mengadaptasikan
strategi
pembelajaran
berasaskan
masalah.Namun Hmelo-Silver & Barrows (2006) menyatakan,
dalam pendekatan pembelajaran berasaskan masalah, dimana
pembelajaran kendiri diutamakan, pelajar dilatih untuk mencari
sendiri penyelesaian bagi sesuatu masalah. Proses penyelesaian
masalah ini akan menggalakkan pelajar untuk berfikir cara untuk
menyelesaikan masalah tersebut pada masa yang sama mereka juga
akan memperolehi pengetahuan ketika proses mencari maklumat
itu berlaku (Alvarstein & Johannesen, 2001). Pembangunan
strategi pembelajaran berasaskan masalah didapati memberikan
impak yang besar kepada penyelidikan berkaitan sains kognitif
(Herrington & Herrington, 1998). Tetapi apabila strategi
pembelajaran berasaskan masalah diadaptasikan kepada bidang
lain, strategi pembelajaran berasaskan masalah telah
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dikembangkan untuk di gabungkan dengan teori yang menekankan
kepada aspek pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
Dolmans and Schmidt (2000) menyatakan bahawa
pembelajaran berasaskan masalah dapat membantu pelajar untuk
membina model kognitif yang berkesan dimana permasalahan
dikemukakan kepada mereka. Engel (1991) pula berpendapat
bahawa strategi pembelajaran berasaskan masalah yang diadaptasi
kedalam pendidikan profesional bermatlamat bagi membantu
pelajar membina kemahiran tertentu yang berguna bagi membantu
mereka bagi pekerjaan mereka.Oleh itu, strategi pembelajaran ini
perlu digabungkan dengan beberapa ciri instruksi bagi
meningkatkan keberkesanannya.
PEMBELAJARAN
KOMPUTER
KOLABORATIF
BERBANTUKAN
Persoalan tentang cara untuk mengaplikasikan kemudahan
teknologi dalam menambahbaik proses pengajaran dan
pembelajaran masih menjadi isu yang kritikal dalam kajian
berkenaan bidang teknologi pendidikan. Asalnya, banyak kajian ini
bertujuan menambahbaik proses pembelajaran oleh setiap pelajar
secara mengaplikasikan ilmu pengetahuan yang diperoleh melalui
kaedah latih tubi dan melalui penggunaan perisian komputer.
Pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan komputer merupakan model
pembelajaran yang berasaskan pembelajaran pembentukan dan
sosial) yang mana kaedah pembelajaran dipermudahkan dengan
menggunakan teknologi sebagai medium.
Secara umumnya, pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan komputer
boleh didefinisikan sebagai satu modul pembelajaran baru yang
terhasil daripada kombinasi aplikasi kemudahan teknologi dan
modul pembelajaran kolabroratif yang menyediakan persekitaran
pembelajaran yang memberi galakan kepada para pelajar untuk
bergaul dan berinteraksi sesama mereka dan secara tidak langsung
dapat membantu perkembangan yang baik dalam proses
pembelajaran. Teknologi juga boleh digunakan sebagai perantara
498
komunikasi secara synchronous dan asynchronous bagi
menyokong modul ini dengan menyediakan satu ruang
perkongsian di mana setiap kegiatan dan minat pelajar dapat
dipantau. Pada masa yang sama juga, ia digunakan sebagai tapak
untuk membentangkan perbincangan kepada penyelesaian
berkenaan permasalahan yang timbul. Malah, ia turut berfungsi
sebagai medium untuk menyalurkan maklumat yang baru kepada
pelajar (Koschmann, 1999).
INTERAKSI BERKESAN DALAM PEMBELAJARAN
Pembelajaran dalam kumpulan kecil telah dikaji dengan mendalam
dan faktor interaksi telah menjadi isu utama dalam pembelajaran
secara berkumpulan yang melibatkan aspek sosial.Pendekatan
untuk mengkaji bagaimana keberkesanan interaksi dalam
meningkatkan pencapaian dan kemahiran berfikir pelajar dibina
dan sering ditingkatkan terutamanya dalam pembelajaran
kolaboratif dan pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan komputer.
Walaubagaimanapun, fokus utama kajian yang terdapat sehingga
kini lebih tertumpu kepada kualiti produk pembelajaran dan
pencapaian individu, namun sangat sedikit kajian yang
menumpukan kepada proses dan aktiviti pembelajaran kolaboratif
dan interaksi yang berkesan. Strijbos, Martens & Jochems (2004)
telah menjalankan kajian untuk meningkatkan keberkesanan
terhadap pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan komputer yang
melihat dari sudut proses interaksi dalam pembelajaran itu sendiri.
Telah diketahui bahawa pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan
komputer tidak menjanjikan keberkesanan terhadap semua ahli
kumpulan namun, ia merupakan persekitaran yang mampu
menyokong penyertaan dan interaksi antara pelajar dengan pelajar
dan di laporkan merupakan mampu meningkatkan kemahiran
pelajar. Fokus kajian ini adalah merupakan pembelajaran
kolaboratif berbantukan komputer yang memberi tumpuan kepada
faktor interaksi di antara pelajar dengan pelajar dalam
meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran dan kemahiran berfikir
499
kritis pelajar.
Pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan komputer memberi
maklumat yang banyak terhadap sosio-psikologi pelajar yang
bekerja secara berkumpulan, strategi pembelajaran yang digunakan
dan kemahiran yang diperolehi melalui persekitaran ini. Namun
malangnya, kesemua kebaikan ini tidak diperolehi oleh medium
pembelajaran lain (Henri, 1992).
Pembelajaran kolaboratif
berbantukan komputer walaubagaimanapun menetapkan bahawa
pencapaian seseorang pelajar bergantung juga kepada pencapaian
pelajar lain dalam kumpulan yang sama. Dalam kajian ini pula
mengkaji bentuk interaksi antara pelajar dengan pelajar dalam
meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir kritis dan pencapaian pelajar
dalam pembelajaran.
Menurut Gunawardena, Lowe & Anderson (1997), interaksi
adalah proses dimana perbincangan makna dan pembinaan
pengetahuan berlaku. Menurut mereka interaksi berlaku apabila
terdapat mesej yang mendapat maklum balas dan berhubung di
antara satu sama lain. Mereka berpendapat bahawa interaksi adalah
apabila setiap ahli kumpulan menyumbangkan sesuatu maklumat,
dan kemudiannya kesemua maklumat tersebut di gabungkan dan
akan menghasilkan pembelajaran itu sendiri (contoh: kemahiran
berfikir kritis, pencapaian pelajar, kemahiran menulis dan
sebagainya).
KERANGKA KAJIAN
Kerangka kajian ini telah memadankan beberapa idea bagi
membentuk keseluruhan kajian. Kerangka kajian ini adalah
mengikut susunan peringkat kajian ini yang mana dibahagikan
kepada tiga peringkat kajian.
Peringkat Kajian Pertama
Sebelum membangunkan persekitaran pembelajaran ini, penyelidik
perlu mendapatkan ciri-ciri kolaboratif dan interaksi berkesan bagi
500
proses
merekabentuk
dan
membangunkan persekitaran
pembelajaran tersebut. Tiga ciri-ciri pembelajaran kolaboratif yang
ditekankan dalam persekitaran pembelajaran ini adalah yang telah
dicadangkan
oleh
Kirschner
(2001)
iaitu:
pelajar
bertanggungjawab terhadap proses pembelajaran mereka sendiri,
pelajar dirangsang untuk membuat refleksi kendiri dan pelajar
adalah bersifat aktif semasa pembelajaran dan dua ciri-ciri
pembelajaran kolaboratif yang dicadangkan oleh Johnson &
Johnson (1994) iaitu: pelajar belajar dalam kumpulan kecil dan
pelajar bekerjasama dan membantu antara satu sama lain untuk
mencapai satu tujuan yang sama.
Bagi meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran kolaboratif,
aspek interaksi berkesan juga harus diberi penekanan dan tiga ciriciri interaksi berkesan untuk diaplikasikan ke dalam kajian ini
dicadangkan oleh Johnson & Johnson (1996) iaitu: pelajar
memberi maklum balas antara satu sama lain, pelajar bertukartukar sumber seperti maklumat dan bahan-bahan kepada antara
satu sama lain dan pelajar memberi bantuan dan tunjuk ajar kepada
antara satu sama lain.
Peringkat Kajian Kedua
Strategi pembelajaran pembelajaran berasaskan masalah ini
digunakan sebagai prinsip kepada aktiviti pembelajaran semasa
proses pembelajaran dijalankan. Oleh itu, penyelidik akan
mengaplikasikan lima prinsip pembelajaran pembelajaran
berasaskan masalah yang dicadangkan oleh de Graaff & Kolmos
(2003) iaitu: masalah merupakan titik tolak dalam proses
pembelajaran, pembelajaran adalah berpusatkan pelajar dan guru
hanya memberi panduan untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang
diberikan, guru harus kreatif dalam memberi masalah yang
bersesuaian dengan topik yang di ajar, pelajar menggunakan
pengalaman yang sedia ada semasa proses pembelajaran dan
aktiviti-aktiviti semasa pembelajaran merupakan asas kepada
proses pembelajaran.
501
Kemudian, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Gress & Hadwin
(2010) pembelajaran dalam talian dapat membantu meningkatkan
keberkesanan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Oleh itu, setelah
menggabungkan kesemua ciri-ciri dan prinsip di atas, penyelidik
akan mengaplikasikan pula ciri-ciri kontekstual yang
meningkatkan keberkesanan persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif
berbantukan komputer seperti yang telah dicadangkan oleh kajian
lepas. Ciri-ciri persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif berbantukan
komputer yang diaplikasikan oleh kajian ini adalah daripada Lee
(2010): saiz kumpulan ditetapkan kepada empat orang satu
kumpulan, peranan instruktor dimana pembelajaran kolaboratif
berbantukan komputer memerlukan instruktor bagi memantau
perjalanan pembelajaran pelajar (Garrison, Anderson & Archer,
2001), ciri-ciri tugasan yang berbentuk aplikasi, menggunakan
penilaian semasa pembelajaran memberikan kesan positif terhadap
penyertaan pelajar dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif. Oliver & Shaw
(2004), bahawa ciri-ciri yang digemari pelajar dalam suasana
pembelajaran mempengaruhi penyertaan mereka semasa
pembelajaran (Ragoonaden & Bordeleau, 2000) dan pembelajaran
kolaboratif berbantukan komputer, penyertaan pelajar adalah
dibantu dengan teknologi yang dibawa oleh komputer (Heckman &
Annabi, 2003).
Peringkat Kajian Ketiga
Bagi menguji keberkesanan persekitaran pembelajaran kolaboratif
berbantukan komputer yang telah dibangunkan ini, penyelidik akan
menguji melalui dua kaedah. Kaedah pertama ialah dengan
memberi ujian pra dan ujian pasca kepada pelajar. Kaedah kedua
ialah dengan mengukur tahap kemahiran berfikir kritis pelajar.
Terdapat beberapa model berfikir secara kritis dalam kajian
lepas dan Model Practical Inquiry oleh Garrison, Anderson &
Archer (2001) telah dipilih bagi kajian ini. Model ini dipilih kerana
ianya menumpukan kepada menguji kemahiran berfikir atas talian
di dalam suasana pembelajaran berkumpulan. Oleh kerana kajian
502
ini menumpukan kepada pembelajan kolaboratif, maka model ini
amat bersesuaian. Kerangka bagi kajian ini disertakan dalam Rajah
1.
Rajah 1: Kerangka Kajian
IMPLIKASI
Dapatan daripada kajian ini akan membantu instruktor
melaksanakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran kursus bahasa
pengaturcaraan yang lebih berkesan melalui pembelajaran
kolaboratif berbantukan komputer yang digabungkan dengan ciriciri pembelajaran berasaskan masalah, pembelajaran kolaboratif
dan interaksi berkesan. Malah, kajian ini akan menyediakan
503
panduan kepada instruktor dalam mereka bentuk pembelajaran
yang lebih efektif dalam meningkatkan lagi keberkesanan
pembelajaran. Pada masa yang sama, instruktor boleh memantau
penyertaan pelajar sepanjang pembelajaran berlangsung dan
membantu mereka dalam peningkatan kemahiran berfikir kritis
mereka. Dengan ini, persekitaran pembelajaran yang dibangunkan
akan lebih dimanfaatkan bagi membantu pencapaian pelajar dan
juga kemahiran berfikir kritis mereka.
KESIMPULAN
Walaupun terdapat banyak kajian berkaitan kemahiran berfikir
pelajar
terutamanya
kemahiran
berfikir
kritis.Namun,
pembelajaran dalam talian merupakan medium yang terbaik dalam
mengendalikan pembelajaran bagi bahasa pengaturcaraan.
Interaksi berkesan diantara pelajar dan juga persekiataran
pembelajaran yang disediakan akan membantu pembelajaran
pelajar. Oleh itu, kajian ini memfokuskan kepada ciri pembelajaran
kolaboratif berbantukan komputer yang disokong oleh ciri
pembelajaran berasaskan masalah dan ciri kolaboratif dan interaksi
berkesan.
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FOSTERING PROBLEM SOLVING
IN CHEMISTRY: THE
IMPORTANCE, DIFFICULTIES
AND THE NEEDS OF SCIENTIFIC
CREATIVITY
Siti Salbiah Omar, Noor Dayana Abdul Halim, Johari Surif,
Jamalludin Harun
ABSTRACT
The development of Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) in
teaching and learning Science in schools is one of the desired goals
by many countries. HOTS will produce better lifelong learning and
will provide more opportunities for students to succeed in the
future. But teaching and learning especially in Chemistry
particularly emphasis on facts, vocabulary, definitions, algorithms
and rote learning which is not geared towards the development of
HOTS. In fact, students are still unable to solve open ended
problems and high level questions. What is more worrying, the
type of open ended problems in teaching and learning is still rare
and less emphasized and there are teachers in Malaysia that unable
to apply thinking skills fully in their learning strategies. Therefore,
this paper discuss about the importance of problem solving, student
difficulties in solving open ended problem and the need of
scientific creativity in problem solving. All this issues will be
discussed based on the literature from previous finding and at the
508
end further work will also suggested.
Keywords : Open Ended Problem Solving,Scientific Creativity
INTRODUCTION
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is a thinking skill that
occurs when an individual is facing a remarkable, uncertainty,
question or dilemma (Goodson, Rohani, & King, 1998). HOTS
enable students to better understand what they have learned
(Heong et.al, 2011) and prepare themselves to undergo changes in
the 21st century (Geersten, 2003 & Kenney, 2013). According to
Zoller (2001) HOTS in the context of chemical education refers to
the questioning, problem solving, decision making and critical
thinking. HOTS especially problem solving primarily provide
individual to meet the challenges in the world of work and
everyday life to have enough skills to operate effectively in society
and the workplace (Cooper, 2006; Ramos, Dolipas & Villamor,
2013).
PROBLEM SOLVING AND ITS IMPORTANCE
Hayer (1981) states that if you're having a problem if there are a
gap between the present you with what you want to accomplish,
and you do not know how to bridge the gap. According to Mayer
(2003), the problem occurs when in any case, the goal to be
achieved, but there is no routine method for achieving these goals.
Each individual cannot escape from the problem, as it occurs in
various aspects of life (Reid & Yang, 2002; Overton & Potter,
2007). Each of the problems must to be solved, especially
problems that occur in learning, because the failure to solve the
problem would be reduced motivation (Sarbiyik, et.al, 2004) and
the students will less interested in pursuing education as a result of
the lack of problem solving skills (Teichert & Stacy, 2002; Bodner,
509
2003).
Problem solving is also very effective in improving student
achievement in education (Aka, Guven & Aydogdu, 2010; Gok,
2010) because when they managed to solve the problem, their
motivation will increase and eventually they will be eager to learn
(Hamza & Griffith, 2006). Problem solving also indirectly enhance
the skills to argue, social skills and decision-making (Kim & Tan,
2013). This is because when solving problems, students learn how
to exchange ideas and integrate the nature and level of knowledge
and communication in an effort to find a solution. Mustafa (2008)
states that problem-solving skills also allow individuals adapt to
the environment, making the person more flexible and able to
control what happens around him. In terms of education,
particularly science education, providing students with problemsolving skills, will help them improve scientific thinking (Aka
et.al, 2010). It is also very helpful in the development of science
process skills in which are very important in solving daily
problems (Aktamis & Ergin, 2008).
Other than that, problem solving is a method of studentcentred, active learning and knowledge development (Aka et.al,
2010) and more recently it was used as the primary domain of
large-scale assessment systems around the world such as PISA
(Greiff et.al, 2013). Osman (2010) also noted that the key in
determining the competency of a person at the moment are based
on their level of problem solving. Because of that an effort to
increase the level of problem solving in students need to be
addressed in order to help countries create communities that are
able to compete with the global world.
According to Johnstone (1993) there are three types of
problems that is algorithm, conceptual and open-ended. Algorithm
are problems involving low-level thinking skills and more to the
form of exercise (Zoller & Pushkin, 2007) .While conceptual
problem usually involve non routine chemical phenomenon among
students and students should use the concepts that have learned to
solve Johari Surif et al., 2014). The open ended problem requires
the application of high level thinking skills, not just knowledge
510
consumption. (Overton et.al, 2013).
Gotwals and Songer (2013) states teaching and learning
that is able to produce students with a scientific attitude should be
to foster something more than just rote learning and normal or,
more accurately it should be applied with more open ended and
high level questions (Zoller & Pushkin, 2007 ) . The ability to
solve open ended problem has also been shown to increase the
confidence of students to solve real life (Overton & Potter, 2007;
Mourtos, 2010). This is because the real life problem is usually
very open and lack of information (Douglas et al., 2012). Besides,
the use of the open ended problem can enhance creative and
analytical thinking (Scottish Qualification Authority (SQA), 2010).
On the other hand, the use of open ended problem are also able to
avoid the bias that may arise from the proposed solution is given
and hence it can enhance the discussion of a topic (Johari Surif, et.
al., 2014)
Based on previous studies, most of the problems that are
used in chemical education in particular are in algorithm (Bennett,
2008; Overton & Potter, 2007; Pappa & Tsaparlis, 2011, Reid &
Yang, 2002). The learning are also more emphasis on the facts,
vocabulary, definitions, and algorithms (Aksela, 2005). In
Malaysia, application of open problems in the teaching and
learning is still rare and less emphasized (Johari Surif et al., 2014)
.This is not a good thing because the problem or question of low
and medium level do not help develop problem-solving skills in
real life (Mourtos, 2010). Even though the goals of chemistry
curriculum are indirectly help students to develop problem-solving
skills (Tsarparlis, 2005; Taasoobshirazi & Glyn, 2009), but if this
continues, it will produce the students that can only solve the low
level of problem.
To compete globally and career needs to come, of course
students should be able to solve the high level problem (Overton &
Potter, 2007). The fact is that students are still not able to solve an
open ended and high level problem (Zohar & Dori, 2003)
.Therefore, there is a need to improve problem-solving skills,
especially those involving HOTS among students (Alhusaini &
511
Maker, 2011; Altuncekic et.al., 2005; Zoller & Pushkin, 2007) .In
order to improve problem-solving skills on higher level, we
certainly need to know the difficulties faced by students and then
find a way out to overcome these difficulties.
STUDENT DIFFICULTIES IN SOLVING OPEN ENDED
PROBLEM
Mourtos (2010) found that students failed to use information from
previous learning and not be able to apply these principles in a new
context. There is also students do not want to allocate enough time
for each problem. This thing leads failure to managing time
effectively. The students also do not want to write or sketch ideas
during the process of solving the problem, and this is one of the
reasons students fail to solve open ended problem.
Douglas et al. (2012) found that the difficulties face by
students is failed to see the problem as a whole. They could not get
into a problem or in other words, they only look at one task to the
extreme and less focus on other tasks. Lack of confidence in own
ability to solve open ended problem also become a constraint.
When they failed in making the right choice of materials, they
stopped there and did not see others aspect. There is also a students
who use the concept of irrelevant and does not assess the
suitability of the selected concept, they just write what they know
related to the question.
Several other difficulties faced by the students are their
failure to identify the problem in detail (Overton et.al, 2013). This
is more geared to a less rigorous attitude and lack of knowledge
about the problem. There are also students who use approach that
does not help to solve the problem or in other words they did not
use a scientific approach when solving problems. What's more
concerns are those that solve open ended problem but using
algorithmic approach (Overton et.al, 2013). This is not surprising
because the students experience in solving the algorithm structured
problem (Bennett, 2008; Overton et.al, 2013; Pappa & Tsaparlis,
512
2011). Reid & Yang (2002) states that students are not able to
make a planning that can help identify a logical step for a solution.
They also do not use the information solely and also do not try to
find material from another source that make them unable to
manage the available information to find solutions for the
problems studied (Johari Surif et al., 2014).
It can be concluded that the students ' difficulties in solving
open- ended problems can be divided into two parts , cognitive and
affective aspects of the difficulties. The students who find
difficulty in cognitive is failed to use the principles they have
learned to use the settlement , unable to extract the information in
the limited data , and failed to use the right concept and the
approach is not suitable in solving open- ended problems . In
affective aspects, students are not able to manage time well, often
in despair because of the lack of knowledge and do not make a
plan so that they can get the appropriate steps to solve the problem.
It can be said that all these difficulties occurred because of lack of
chances to solve open ended problem and the students did not
know the appropriate method in solving open ended problem.
Thus, an effort to help overcome these difficulties need to be done.
Clearly, the difficulties of students to solve problems in an open
ended and HOTS need to be corrected as soon as possible so that
they can be shifted from low level solver to the higher (Overton
et.al, 2013).
THE NEEDS OF SCIENTIFIC CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM
SOLVING
According to Hu & Adey (2002) in solving a problem, the students
have to be creative with imagination of the ways of solutions, and
build coalitions of knowledge or technique to get this solution and
thus improve their problem solving skills (Pekmez et.al, 2009).
Khairul (2011) stated that creativity is becoming a necessity
because of the creativity helps individuals to analyze the various
possibilities, creating a strong problem solving, constructive and
513
effective. But the question is what is meant by creativity, how it is
viewed from science viewpoint?
Torrance (1988), defines creativity as a process of
formulating, reviewing, evaluating hypotheses in an effort to solve
a problem is not known. But according to Lin et al. (2003) general
creativity should be separated from the creativity from a scientific
viewpoint. This is supported by Liang (2002), which states that "a
person who is creative in chemistry is not necessarily creative in
the arts". This means that the creative person in life not necessarily
creative in terms of science. Creativity in science education or
accuracy of the so-called scientific creativity is a stand-alone field
(Mukhopadhyay, 2013). Hu & Adey (2002) defines scientific
creativity as intellectual abilities to produce certain products are
original and have the personal or social, is designed with a specific
purpose in mind using the information provided.
Hu & Adey (2002) also describe the first structure of
scientific creativity is different from the creativity of others
because it involves the creative science experiment, involving
science-based problems. Second, scientific creativity is one
involving intellectual abilities. Third, scientific creativity is based
on scientific knowledge and science process skills. Fourth,
creativity and analytical intelligence are two different factors that
come from the mental. Based on the statement, it can be
concluded that scientific creativity is a kind of creativity that
measured scientifically, involves data and science-related issues.
Overton et.al, (2013) categorize the types of problem
solvers based on the approach used to solve the problem.
Categories of problem solvers are expert, non-expert and
transitional. Expert problem solvers referring to students who use
scientific approach in which the properties are to understand the
problem, logic, making the estimates, and be able to manage the
situation even though the data is reduced. The second is a nonexpert problem solver, refers to a student who is not use a
scientific approach. Problem solvers in this category cannot
understand what the problem is, cannot adapt to the problem
because of lack of data and lack of knowledge related to a given
514
problem. They also not evaluate the selected solution. They also
prefer to find a solution in form of algorithm. The third category is
transitional problem solvers. Transitional problem solver refers to
solver who uses both a scientific and non-scientific approach.
Sometimes they use scientific approach, but on the other part they
use non-scientific approach. They usually evaluate a solution, but
at the same time using an algorithm approach. Problem solvers in
this category are called transitional because they are in transition
phase from non-expert to expert problem solvers.
Based on the above explanation and detail can be
concluded to be good problem solvers, students must use a
scientific approach (Cartrette & Bordner, 2010; Overton et.al,
2013). Here, the role of scientific creativity is needed. When the
student creative scientifically, then the idea that issued is based on
science and not just by logic or other views that may not
correspond to a given problem situation and this will lead to more
relevant solution (Overton et.al, 2013).
SUGGESTION OF FURTHER WORK
Apart from promoting the use of open- ended problem in the
classroom, some of the learning strategies that are appropriate and
can help to improve problem-solving skills and scientific creativity
will be examined. Learning activities based on the selected
learning strategies will be develop and the impact of this activity
will then be evaluated on students' performance, the level of
problem solving and the level of scientific creativity of students.
Next, research will be study on how the learning activities promote
the development of scientific creativity and problem solving. The
process of construction of scientific creativity and problem solving
occurs also will be examined. All of these findings will be used to
develop a framework that can be used as a reference to help
teachers and students improve problem-solving skills as well as
scientific creativity.
Even though there is already a framework related to
515
problem solving and framework that linking problem solving and
creativity, but there is no such a model that specifically linking on
open -ended problem solving and scientific creativity. Therefore, a
flexible structure of the framework that can be used to improve the
quality of problem solving and indirectly enhancing scientific
creativity will be further explored. It will be such an effort to
increase the level of problem solving among students in order to
help countries create communities that are able to operate
effectively in society and compete with the global world.
CONCLUSION
In order to help improve problem-solving skills, teachers have to
develop problem solving culture in classroom. Students must be in
a student-centered learning environment in which they are
involved actively in the learning process, but should also be given
counseling if they have difficulty in solving a problem. Teachers
should always be willing to take risks to change strategy (Hamza
& Griffith, 2006) and not just tied to a learning strategy in order to
increase problem solving skills (Zoller et al., 2007). Through this
study is expected to help provide a framework that can be used to
improve problem solving skills as well as scientific creativity
among students so that they can participate effectively in society
and work environment (Cooper, 2006; Ramos, Dolipas &
Villamor, 2013).
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PENGHASILAN VIDEO
INTERAKTIF BAGI PENGUJIAN
KETANGKASAN REAKTIF
KHUSUS UNTUK PERMAINAN
BOLA JARING
*Nur Ezzaini Mohd Nor, Halijah Ibrahim
ABSTRAK
Pelbagai ujian ketangkasan telah dilaksanakan bagi menguji
ketangkasan pemain bola jaring. Ujian yang sedia ada seperti ujian
ketangkasan zig-zag (Barrow, 1953), ujian ketangkasan 505
(Sheppard & Young, 2006) dan ujian ketangkasan T (Semenick,
1990) telah digunakan untuk menguji tahap ketangkasan dalam
sukan bola jaring. Ketangkasan reaktif merupakan komponen
penting dalam menilai kemahiran atlet yang menggabungkan ciriciri fizikal iaitu kelajuan, kuasa, dan koordinasi (Chelladurai,
Yuhasz & Sipura, 1977) dan kemahiran persepsi. Objektif kajian
ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan instrumen pengujian
ketangkasan reaktif khusus untuk pemain bola jaring universiti
yang mewakili Malaysia. Seramai 25 orang pemain bola jaring
universiti dibawah Program Kecemerlangan Sukan (PKS) terlibat
dalam ujian ketangkasan reaktif. Penyelidik telah memilih
rekabentuk kajian iaitu model ADDIE sebagai model
pembangunan video interaktif dan setiap komponen mempunyai
fungsi yang tersendiri. Penghasilan Instrumen Ketangkasan Reaktif
dapat membantu menilai ketangkasan dan aspek membuat
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keputusan bagi permainan bola jaring kerana ia melibatkan
kemahiran sesuatu sukan, pergerakan pihak lawan ataupun bola.
Kata kunci : Ketangkasan; Ketangkasan Reaktif; Video Interaktif
PENGENALAN
Pelbagai ujian ketangkasan telah dilaksanakan bagi menguji
ketangkasan pemain bola jaring seperti kajian Farrow et al., (2005)
dan Bock-Jonathan et al., (2007). Ujian yang sedia ada seperti
ujian ketangkasan zig-zag (Barrow, 1953), ujian ketangkasan 505
(Sheppard & Young, 2006) dan ujian ketangkasan T (Semenick,
1990) telah digunakan untuk menguji tahap ketangkasan dalam
sukan bola jaring. Namun ujian ini hanya menguji kemahiran
ketangkasan berfokus kepada perubahan arah kelajuan kerana
semua pergerakan boleh dirancang dan tidak memerlukan respon
kepada rangsangan (Sheppard et al., 2006). Ketangkasan reaktif
merupakan komponen penting dalam menilai kemahiran atlet yang
menggabungkan ciri-ciri fizikal iaitu kelajuan, kuasa, dan
koordinasi (Chelladurai, Yuhasz & Sipura, 1977) dan kemahiran
persepsi iaitu membuat keputusan dan bertindak terhadap
rangsangan untuk kejayaan dan pelaksanaan dalam sukan
berpasukan (Farrow et al., 2005; Gabbett, Kelly, & Sheppard,
2008; Young & Willey, 2010).
Objektif kajian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan instrumen
pengujian ketangkasan reaktif khusus untuk pemain bola jaring
universiti yang mewakili Malaysia. Kajian ini menggunakan
kaedah persampelan bertujuan dimana pemilihan subjek
berdasarkan kepada kriteria seperti :a)
Pemain merupakan pemain universiti yang mewakili
Malaysia sama ada kategori remaja ataupun senior.
b)
Pemain memperoleh program latihan yang sama yang telah
dirancang di bawah Program Kecemerlangan Sukan (PKS).
c)
Pemain juga menyertai pertandingan anjuran kebangsaan
sebagai siri latihan dan pertandingan secara berterusan.
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d)
Pemain yang tidak mengalami sebarang kecederaan yang
menghalang perlaksanaan pengujian ketangkasan reaktif.
Seramai 25 orang pemain bola jaring universiti dibawah
Program Kecemerlangan Sukan (PKS) terlibat dalam ujian
ketangkasan reaktif. Kajian ini dilakukan di Dewan Serbaguna,
Pusat Sukan Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (UM). Lokasi ini
menjadi lokasi pengujian ujian ketangkasan reaktif kerana lokasi
ini merupakan lokasi utama penganjuran kejohanan bola jaring di
peringkat universiti seperti Majlis Sukan Universiti Malaysia
(MASUM) pada setiap tahun. Selain itu, lantai gelanggang yang
digunakan di dalam Dewan Serbaguna adalah bersesuaian sebagai
tempat lokasi kajian yang dijalankan. Instrumen pengujian Ujian
Ketangkasan Reaktif yang dihasilkan akan melibatkan penggunaan
komputer, kamera video SVHS (NV-MS5), bola, borang maklumat
diri, projektor, dual beam timing gate, kon dan skrin putih.
Fasa Penghasilan Instrumen Ujian Ketangkasan Reaktif
Fasa penghasilan instrumen Ujian Ketangkasan Reaktif ini
merangkumi tiga fasa. Pada fasa pertama, penyelidik menghasilkan
instrumen pengujian ketangkasan reaktif khusus untuk pemain bola
jaring dimana instrumen pengujian mengandungi video interaktif
mengenai kemahiran hantaran bola jaring. Tiga kemahiran
hantaran telah dipilih iaitu hantaran aras dada, aras bahu dan
hantaran lantun. Terdapat pelbagai model pembangunan untuk
menjalankan rekabentuk kajian dan penyelidik telah memilih
model ADDIE sebagai model pembangunan video interaktif.
Model ini dibangunkan oleh Branson, Rayner, Cox, Furman, King
dan Hannum (1975) dan dicipta untuk Center for Educational
Technology di Florida State University bagi askar Amerika
Syarikat. Model ini merupakan antara model pengajaran yang
sering menjadi asas kepada model-model rekabentuk
pembangunan yang lain. Model ini terdiri daripada lima fasa iaitu
:-
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Fasa Analisis (Analysis)
Setiap komponen mempunyai fungsi yang tersendiri. Di peringkat
ini, ia melibatkan beberapa proses penentuan serta mengenalpasti
masalah yang ingin diselesaikan. Setelah sesuatu masalah dapat
dikenalpasti, proses analisis akan dilaksanakan bagi mencari punca
atau faktor yang berkaitan atau yang menimbulkan masalah
tersebut.
Dalam fasa ini, penyelidik melaksanakan proses
menganalisis terhadap keperluan video interaktif pengujian
ketangkasan reaktif bagi memastikan pembangunan tersebut lebih
terancang dan sistematik. Sebagai contoh, penyelidik memastikan
instrumen yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan video interaktif
dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik.
Fasa Rekabentuk (Design)
Peringkat ini dilaksanakan selepas proses analisis selesai. Ia
menjelaskan pandangan keseluruhan mengenai rupabentuk,
struktur, pendekatan teori, jenis media dan teknologi yang
digunakan. Ia juga melibatkan proses :-
524
i.
ii.
iii.
Pembentukan objektif yang khusus untuk pengajaran.
Pembinaan item-item mengenai pengujian
Pemilihan strategi pembangunan
Media yang digunakan adalah kamera digital yang
bertujuan untuk merakam tiga kemahiran hantaran dalam
permainan bola jaring iaitu kemahiran hantaran aras dada, aras
bahu dan hantaran lantun.
Fasa Pembangunan (Development )
Pada peringkat ini, ia melibatkan pembinaan sistem sebenar
dengan menggunakan semua elemen media dan teknologi yang
terpilih berdasarkan keperluan. Penghasilan video interaktif
melibatkan rakaman kemahiran hantaran dan diubahsuai
mengunakan perisian Movie Maker. Ia juga menggunakan perisian
sokongan yang telah diformatkan iaitu perisian AIS React.
Fasa Perlaksanaan (Implementation)
Diperingkat ini, video interaktif yang telah dihasilkan akan
digunakan atau dilaksanakan dalam situasi sebenar kepada
jurulatih pasukan bola jaring kebangsaan. Jurulatih akan
menggunakan video interaktif ini untuk menguji keberkesanannya
serta mengkaji kelancaran video interaktif tersebut. Dengan ini,
penyelidik dapat mengenal pasti masalah-masalah yang tidak
disedari sewaktu fasa rekabentuk serta pembangunan dan
seterusnya, memperbaiki aspek-aspek kelemahan yang telah
dikenalpasti melalui proses pemulihan.
Fasa Penilaian (Evaluation)
Penilaian terbahagi kepada dua komponen iaitu penilaian formatif
dan penilaian sumatif. Penilaian formatif perlu dilakukan terhadap
525
semua peringkat untuk memastikan keberkesanannya. Penyelidik
memilih penilaian formatif kerana ia dapat memperbaiki
kelemahan bagi setiap fasa penghasilan video interaktif.
KESAHAN
Setelah video interaktif selesai dihasilkan, video tersebut akan
diberikan kepada jurulatih yang terlibat dalam pasukan Malaysia
serta pakar akademik berkaitan dengan sukan bola jaring untuk
menilai kesahan instrumen. Kesahan (validity) merupakan elemen
yang penting bagi mempertahankan kejituan instrumen daripada
terdedah kepada kecacatan. Semakin tinggi nilai dan tahap kesahan
dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen maka semakin jitu data yang akan
diperoleh bagi menghasilkan kajian yang baik dan berkualiti
(Fraenkel dan Wallen, 1996). Penyelidik menggunakan kesahan
kandungan (content validity) untuk menilai isi kandungan video
interaktif dapat mengukur domain pengetahuan dan kemahiran
yang hendak diukur oleh instrumen tersebut. Kandungan video
merangkumi jenis hantaran dan arah pergerakan bola, kesesuaian
video yang perlu ditayangkan di skrin,tempoh tayangan video
apabila subjek bersedia serta jarak larian yang digunakan.
Sebanyak tiga jenis hantaran yang digunak.an iaitu hantaran aras
dada, hantaran lantun dan hantaran aras bahu.
KEBOLEHPERCAYAAN
Setelah kesahan kandungan dipersetujui, video interaktif tersebut
diperkenalkan dan digunakan untuk menguji tahap ujian
ketangkasan reaktif kepada pemain bola jaring UTM. Data yang
diperolehi akan digunakan untuk menilai kebolehpercayaan
instrumen kajian yang dijalankan. Kebolehpercayaan atau
reliability ialah satu konsep yang merujuk kepada ketekalan
(consistency) dan kestabilan (stability) sesuatu pengukuran, alat
kajian atau soal selidik. Ia bertujuan untuk mengetahui sama ada
pengukuran yang dijalankan mendapat hasil catatan yang sama
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apabila ia digunakan terhadap responden yang sama pada waktu
yang berlainan (Gale & Thomas, 1982). Terdapat beberapa jenis
kebolehpercayaan dan penyelidik menggunakan kebolehpercayaan
uji ulang uji untuk mengukur kebolehpercayaan instrumen video
interaktif yang akan digunakan sebagai alat pengujian ketangkasan
reaktif.
Kebolehpercayaan uji ulang uji (test - retest) merupakan
skor ke atas ujian yang sama dan konsisten pada masa tertentu.
Skor yang diperoleh pada ujian yang pertama menghampiri skor
untuk ujian yang diuji sekali lagi. Semakin sama skor pada ujian
yang dijalankan pada masa tertentu, semakin stabil skor ujian
tersebut (Rosenthal and Rosnow, 1991). Empat prosedur
kebolehpercayaan uji ulang uji merangkumi :i.
Menjalankan ujian terhadap kumpulan tertentu
ii.
Selepas dua minggu, ujian yang sama dijalankan ke atas
kumpulan yang sama
iii.
Hitungkan pekali korelasi antara skor ujian yang pertama
dengan skor ujian kedua.
iv.
Menilai keputusan yang diperolehi
527
UJIAN KETANGKASAN REAKTIF
Rajah 1 : Arah pergerakan larian bagi Instrumen Ketangkasan
Reaktif
• Ujian ketangkasan dilakukan dimana subjek berada di Gate A
untuk memulakan larian.
• Subjek memulakan larian dengan membuat pecutan sepanjang 3
meter. Catatan masa diambil apabila subjek melintasi Gate A
sehingga Gate B. Catatan masa yang diambil diantara Gate A
sehingga Gate B merupakan masa catatan untuk menguji tahap
ketangkasan (Movement Time) subjek tersebut.
• Apabila tiba di kawasan bulatan subjek perlu membuat
perubahan arah kelajuan ke arah kanan atau kiri dengan jarak 4
meter sehingga ke penamat iaitu Gate C dan Gate D. Catatan
masa yang diambil diantara Gate B sehingga Gate C dan Gate D
merupakan masa catatan untuk menilai tahap ketangkasan
reaktif ataupun dikenali sebagai Decision Time subjek tersebut.
• Setelah subjek melepasi Gate C dan Gate D, masa catatan
keseluruhan iaitu Total Time direkodkan.
• Setiap subjek melakukan lima percubaan ujian ketangkasan
reaktif dan mengambil masa selama 20 minit untuk
menyelesaikannya.
528
Rajah 2 : Lakaran Pengujian Ketangkasan Reaktif
Rajah 2 merupakan lakaran pengujian ketangkasan reaktif
yang lebih jelas dimana subjek perlu membuat keputusan
berdasarkan paparan video interaktif yang ditayangkan di skrin
putih. Decision Time juga diambil untuk menilai catatan masa yang
dilakukan oleh subjek. Kemudian subjek perlu berlari ke garisan
penamat yang telah ditetapkan.
KESIMPULAN
Penghasilan Instrumen Ketangkasan Reaktif dapat membantu
menilai ketangkasan dan aspek membuat keputusan bagi
permainan bola jaring kerana ia melibatkan kemahiran sesuatu
sukan, pergerakan pihak lawan ataupun bola. Malah, ujian-ujian
baru yang menggabungkan ketangkasan fizikal dan kemahiran
kognitif adalah digalakkan kerana ia dapat meningkatkan prestasi
atlet dan pasukan tersebut untuk mencapai kejayaan.
RUJUKAN
Barrow, H. M. (1953). Test Of Motor Ability for College Men. Research
529
Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 25, 326–332.
Bock-jonathan, B. B., Venter, R. E., & Bressan, E., S. (2007). A
comparison between skill and decision-making ability of netball
players at club level : pilot study. South African Journal For
Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 29(1), 29–
38.
Chelladurai, P., Yuhasz, M., Sipura, R. (1977). The reactive agility test.
Perceptual and Motor Skills, (44), 1319–1324.
Farrow, D., Young, W., & Bruce, L. (2005). The development of a test of
reactive agility for netball: a new methodology. Journal of Science
and Medicine in Sport, 8(1), 52–60.
Fraenkel, J.R., and Wallen, N.E., (1996). How to Design and Evaluate
Research. USA : Mc. Fraw-Hill Inc.
Gabbett, T. J., Kelly, J. N., Sheppard, J. M. (2008). Speed , change of
direction speed, and reactive agility of rugby leaque players.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1533-4287/, 174–
181.
Gale H. Roid and Thomas M. Haladyna (1982). A Technology for TestItem Writing. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovonavich Publishers.
Rosenthal, R. and Rosnow, R. L. (1991). Essentials of Behavioral
Research: Methods and Data Analysis. Second Edition.
Semenick, D. (1990). Test and Measurement. Journal of National
Strength and Conditioning Association, 12(1), 36–37.
Sheppard, J .M., & Young, W. B. (2006). Agility literature review:
classifications, training and testing. Journal of Sports Sciences,
24(9), 919–932. doi:10.1080/02640410500457109
Young, W. B., & Willey, B. (2010). Analysis of a reactive agility field
test. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(3), 376–378.
doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.05.006
530
ROBOTIK DALAM
PENDIDIKAN DI MALAYSIA
Hafzan Ibrahim, Mohammad Bilal Ali, Fatin Aliah Phang
Abdullah, Norazrena Abu Samah
ABSTRAK
Berdasarkan Gelombang 1 dalam Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan
Malaysia (PPPM) 2013-2025, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
akan memberikan tumpuan pada peningkatan prestasi sistem
pendidikan negara. Ini berdasarkan penurunan peratusan markah
dalam Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
(TIMSS) dan Programme for International Student Assessment
(PISA). Dalam usaha merealisasikan hasrat PPPM, bahan sumber
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP) Sains dan Matematik
dibangunkan dengan berteraskan pembentukan kemahiran berfikir
aras tinggi (KBAT). Dapatan TIMSS dan PISA jelas menunjukkan
murid di Malaysia lemah dalam domain kognitif yang melibatkan
KBAT seperti menaakul, mengaplikasi, menganalisis, menilai dan
mencipta. Berdasarkan kajian-kajian lepas di peringkat
antarabangsa, robotik digunakan dalam pendidikan dapat
meningkatkan penguasaan pelajar dari domain kognitif, afektif dan
psikomotor. Oleh itu, kertas konsep ini membincangkan tentang
potensi robotik dalam pendidikan sebagai bahan sumber di
Malaysia dalam membantu meningkatkan KBAT pelajar.
Kata Kunci : Robotik
531
PENGENALAN
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan menyatakan bahawa matlamat
dan tujuan sistem pendidikan, adalah untuk melengkapkan pelajarpelajar kita secara menyeluruh untuk membolehkan mereka
berjaya terutama dalam abad ke-21. Menerusi Rancangan Malaysia
Kesepuluh (Razak, 2010), Negara berhasrat menghasilkan modal
insan bertaraf dunia menjelang tahun 2020 di mana pelajar
mempunyai kelayakan pendidikan yang tinggi yang bercirikan
pengetahuan dan inovasi serta memiliki tahap kemahiran yang
tinggi dalam bidang teknikal.
Berdasarkan keputusan pentaksiran peringkat antarabangsa
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)
dan Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) pada
tahun 2011, pelajar Malaysia jauh ketinggalan dengan berada pada
kelompok satu pertiga ke bawah (Bahagian Perancangan dan
Penyelidikan Dasar Pendidikan, 2013). TIMSS dan PISA ini
merupakan alat kajian yang digunakan sebagai penanda aras kualiti
pendidikan Sains, Matematik dan Bacaan. Soalan yang dibina
melibatkan domain kognitif yang menekankan Kemahiran Berfikir
Aras Tinggi (KBAT) iaitu menaakul, mengaplikasi, menganalisis,
menilai dan mencipta. Dapatan keputusan menunjukkan salah satu
faktor penyumbang adalah pelajar Malaysia tidak mampu
menjawab dengan baik soalan-soalan yang memerlukan mereka
berfikir pada aras tinggi (Darus, 2012).
Justeru, kesan daripada penurunan keputusan ini,
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM) telah bertindak proaktif
dengan
mengambil
tindakan
susulan
antaranya
mentransformasikan kurikulum lama kepada yang baru iaitu
Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) dan Kurikulum
Standard Sekolah Menengah (KSSM) serta melaksanakan Pelan
Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2015 (Kementerian
Pendidikan Malaysia, 2012b). Menerusinya, Pendidikan Sains dan
Matematik di Malaysia dimartabatkan dengan berfokuskan kepada
melahirkan pelajar yang menguasai KBAT.
Menerusi KSSR dan KSSM, satu program pendidikan
532
berasaskan robotik telah dilaksanakan oleh KPM bersama agensi
kerajaan lain seperti Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Inovasi
(MOSTI), Pusat Sains Negara, sektor swasta dan badan bukan
kerajaan (NGO) (Bahagian Perancangan dan Penyelidikan Dasar
Pendidikan, 2013). Program robotik ini dijalankan pada peringkat
sekolah rendah, sekolah menengah, matrikulasi, pra-universiti
malahan di peringkat universti.
Kajian-kajian lepas menunjukkan penggunaan robotik
member impak positif dari aspek kognitif, afektif dan juga
psikomotor pelajar. Oleh itu, kertas kerja ini membincangkan
potensi program pendidikan robotik di Malaysia dalam
merealisasikan hasrat kerajaan untuk melahirkan modal insan
berkualiti dalam bidang sains dan inovasi.
DEFINISI ROBOTIK
Pengunaan robotik adalah meluas terutamanya dalam bidang
pengindustrian, perubatan, pertanian. Namun pengunaan robotik
dalam pendidikan masih belum diperluas lagi. Robot menurut
Kamus Pelajar Edisi Keempat (Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2005)
adalah mesin yang dapat melakukan atau membuat berbagai-bagai
pekerjaan manusia. Robot merupakan satu sistem mekanikal yang
mempunyai sensors (input), actuators (output) dan dikawal oleh
komputer (processor/brain) (Anderson & Bracken, 2010). Maka,
robot dapat ditakrifkan sebagai pengendali pelbagai kegunaan
yang boleh diaturcara dan mempunyai ciri-ciri kepandaian dan
kebolehsesuaian.
Robotik pula dalam Kamus Dewan Edisi Keempat (Dewan
Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2005) merujuk kepada bidang sains yang
berkaitan dengan reka bentuk, pembuatan dan penggunaan.
Robotik berasal daripada perkataan robot yang membawa maksud
peralatan elektrik dan mekanikal (mekatronik) yang boleh
dikendalikan secara automotik. Robotik juga boleh disimpulkan
sebagai ilmu tentang robot.
533
PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN
ANTARABANGSA
ROBOTIK
PERINGKAT
Program pendidikan robotik pada peringkat antarabangsa telah
bermula sejak 1990-an lagi. Ia dikukuhkan lagi dengan kewujudan
teori pembelajaran yang baru iaitu teori constructionism yang
diterapkan semasa sesi pengajaran dan pembelajaran
menggunakan robotik oleh Profesor Seymour Papert (Papert &
Harel, 1991). Natijahnya, pelbagai program pendidikan
berteraskan robotik telah dilaksanakan dalam pelbagai bentuk
sama ada dilakukan di dalam kelas mahupun luar kelas sebagai
aktiviti kokurikulum mahupun pertandingan.
Perubahan secara drastik dalam bidang pendidikan ini dapat
dilihat selepas tahun 2000. Ia berikutan pembaharuan
pembangunan kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran menggunakan
robotik yang cuba diterapkan bagi meningkatkan interaksi antara
guru dan pelajar serta teknik penyampaian agar seberapa banyak
maklumat yang ada dapat diberikan secara menyeluruh (Alejos et
al., 2012).
Di Sepanyol, satu projek yang dinamakan sebagai
ENXENO yang berbentuk kokurikulum dibangunkan dengan
tujuan memperkenalkan bidang robotik pada peringkat K-12
sebagai cara yang kreatif untuk mendekati Sains dan Teknologi di
peringkat pra-universiti (Alejos et al., 2012). Negara-negara di
Eropah juga adalah antara negara yang giat melaksanakan program
pendidikan robotik dalam bentuk kurikulum sehingga mereka
mewujudkan program Teacher Education Enhanced Constructivist
Pedagogical Methods yang dikenali sebagai TERECoP (Alimisis
et al., 2010).
Selain itu, terdapat juga program yang melibatkan
pertandingan pendidikan robotik seperti World Robotic Olympiad
(WRO). Hampir seluruh negara telah menyertai pertandingan
tersebut seperti Amerika Syarikat, Negara-negara Eropah, Negara
Asia Timur, Negara Asean (WRO Advisory Council, 2014).
Penyelidikan ilmiah dalam bidang robotik pendidikan sejak
dua puluh tahun kebelakangan ini memberi penekanan terhadap
534
kesan pendidikan robotik ke atas pelajar dalam pelbagai aspek.
Salah satunya adalah hubungan interaksi antara penciptaan
teknologi baru dan pembangunan cara-cara inovatif pembelajaran
(Martin et al 2000).
Menurut Alimisis (2010), projek dan aktiviti robotik dalam
persekitaran sekolah dikelaskan dalam dua kategori berasingan
iaitu robotik sebagai objek pembelajaran dan alat pembelajaran
(Alimisis et al., 2010). Pertama robotik sebagai objek
pembelajaran bermaksud robotik sedang dikaji sebagai mata
pelajaran dengan sendiri. Ia termasuk aktiviti-aktiviti pendidikan
yang bertujuan untuk mengkonfigurasi persekitaran pembelajaran
yang aktif (Barker & Ansorge, 2007), dan melibatkan pelajar
dalam penyelesaian masalah (Altin & Pedaste, 2013)
Kedua robotik sebagai alat pembelajaran di mana robotik
sebagai alat untuk pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam mata
pelajaran di pelbagai peringkat sekolah (Alejos et al., 2012).
Robotik sebagai alat pembelajaran biasanya dilihat sebagai aktiviti
pembelajaran berasaskan projek dan bermakna (Caci, Chiazzese, &
D’Amico, 2013).
Sesetengah pendidik mendakwa bahawa, pendidikan
robotik membantu pelajar mengubah ilmu Sains, Kejuruteraan dan
Teknologi daripada abstrak kepada konkrit melalui aktiviti handson yang membawa pemahaman dunia sebenar
(Mathers,
Goktogen, Rankin, & Anderson, 2012). Pendidikan robotik juga
berpotensi mempromosikan matapelajaran Sains, Teknologi,
Kejuruteraan dan Matematik (STEM) yang bertujuan melahirkan
tenaga kerja yang berkemahiran tinggi bagi memenuhi permintaan
abad ke-21 (Loh, Loo, Loh, & Lim, 2013).
PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN ROBOTIK DI MALAYSIA
Robotik telah mula diterapkan pada peringkat sekolah menerusi
Kelab Rekacipta dan Robotik dalam aktiviti kokurikulum dari
tahun 2005. Kemudian, ia diperluaskan menerusi Pertandingan
Robotik antara sekolah-sekolah. Terdapat pelbagai jenis
535
pertandingan robotik di Malaysia antaranya Pertandingan Robotik
Kebangsaan (NRC) untuk semua jenis sekolah, Robofair untuk
Maktab Rendah Sains Mara dan Malaysia Robot Contest
(ROBOCON) untuk pelajar universiti, kolej dan politeknik.
Terdapat pelbagi jenis kit robot yang digunakan dalam
pertandingan robotik antaranya Lego Mindstorm dan Arduino.
NRC merupakan salah satu inisiatif kementerian dalam
usaha mencapai misi menyediakan platform pembelajaran yang
dapat membentuk pelajar berkemahiran untuk berjaya pada abad
ke-21 (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 2012a). Program NRC
ini merupakan anjuran bersama antara KPM, Pusat Sains Negara
(PSN), Bahagian Kesenian dan Kokurikulum (BKK), dan Sasbadi
Sdn. Bhd.
Sambutan terhadap NRC dapat dilihat melalui peningkatan
penyertaan sekolah-sekolah dari tahun ke tahun. Hal ini dapat
dilihat di mana pada tahun 2005 hanya 300 buah sekolah
meningkat kepada 3000 buah sekolah pada tahun 2013. Pasukan
yang berjaya dalam NRC pada peringkat kebangsaan ini akan
bertanding di peringkat antarabangsa World Robotic Olympiad
(WRO). Amat membanggakan apabila pasukan Negara telah
beberapa kali menang dengan menjadi johan keseluruhan dan
menggondol beberapa jenis pingat utntuk setiap kategori. Jadual 1
menunjukkan statistik pencapaian pasukan pelajar Malaysia di
peringkat antarabangsa. Justeru, dengan statistik ini menunjukkan
pelajar Malaysia mampu menguasai ilmu robotik ini
Jadual 1: Statistik Pencapaian Kotinjen Malaysia di World Robot
Olympiad (WRO), (Sasbadi, 2014)
Year
Venue
2009
Pohang,
South Korea
2010
Manila,
Philippines
Participant Malaysia’s Achievement
country
32
2 Golds
Countries 1 Award of Excellence
2 Special Awards
22
2 Golds, 3 Silvers
Countries 2 Awards of Excellence
1 Special Award
536
2011
Abu Dhabi,
United Arab
Emirates
34
Countries
2012
Kuala
Lumpur,
Malaysia
30
Countries
1 Gold, 1 Silver & 1
Bronze
6 Awards of Excellence
1 Special Award
2 Golds, 2 Silvers & 8
Bronzes
Objektif penganjuran Pertandingan Robotik ini adalah
merangsang pelajar yang menyertai program untuk menyelesaikan
masalah melalui pemikiran kreatif, logik dan di luar sempadan.
Selain itu, membantu pelajar membina asas kukuh dalam mata
pelajaran Matematik, Sains, Teknologi, Rekacipta dan ICT,
merangsang kreativiti murid menyelesaikan masalah dan
mengalakkan inovasi. Pada masa yang sama ia member juga
penekanan terhadap KBAT dan kemahiran sosial selari dengan
kehendak pasaran industri sains dan teknologi.
Hal demikian, dapat diperincikan lagi yang mana menerusi
pertandingan robotik ini pelajar dapat meningkatkan kepakaran
menggunakan peralatan berteknologi seperti memprogramkan
komputer, membina dan merekacipta robotik, dan menguasai seni
dan bahasa. Pertandingan secara berkumpulan ini dapat menyemai
semangat berpasukan, meningkatkan kebolehan berkomunikasi dan
mengasah bakat kepimpinan. Secara tidak langsung kebolehan
menyelesaikan masalah dan motivasi diri setiap pelajar dapat
diterapkan.
Melalui program yang diperkenalkan, kementerian yakin
untuk membangun dan mengukuhkan pemikiran kreatif dan kritis
serta ke-mahiran sosial pelajar bagi mencapai kejayaan dalam
pelajaran juga masa depan. Para pelajar turut akan didedahkan
dengan kemahiran-kemahiran insaniah seperti kemahiran
penyelesaian masalah, pemikiran kreatif, komunikasi interpersonal
dan kerjasama berkumpulan yang begitu penting untuk mereka
kuasai di peringkat ini.
537
KESIMPULAN
Kertas konsep ini membentangkan tentang kebaikan penggunaan
robotik dalam pendidikan. Oleh demikian, diharapkan agar robotik
dapat digunakan sebagai bahan sumber dalam kurikulum sekolah
terutamanya dalam mata pelajaran Sains Teknologi, Kejuruteraan
dan Matematik (STEM).
RUJUKAN
Alejos, A. V., Rio, V. S., Isasa, M. V., Lorenzo, E. De, Cuinas, I., &
Sanchez, M. G. (2012). ENXENO : LEGO © Robots from
University Lab to K-12 Classroom. Electronics and Electrical
Engineering, 2(2), 103–108.
Alimisis, D., Arlegui, J., Fava, N., Frangou, S., Ionita, S., Menegatti, E.,
… Pina, A. (2010). Introducing robotics to teachers and schools :
experiences from the TERECoP project Theoretical background
and methodology of the TERECoP, 1–13.
Altin, H. &, & Pedaste, M. (2013). Learning Approaches to Applying
Robotics in Science Education. Journal of Baltic Science
Education, 12, 365–378.
Anderson, T. R., & Bracken, C. (2010). Robotics in Education eJournal
Contents :, 2(March), 1–18.
Bahagian Perancangan dan Penyelidikan Dasar Pendidikan. (2013).
Perangkaan Pendidikan Malaysia. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Bahagian
Perancangan dan Penyelidikan Dasar Pendidikan.
Barker, B. S., & Ansorge, J. (2007). Robotics as Means to Increase
Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment.
Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 229–243.
doi:10.1080/15391523.2007.10782481
Bilotta, E., Gabriele, L., Servidio, R., & Tavernise, A. (2009).
Edutainment Robotics as Learning Tool. In Z. Pan, M. Chang, A.
D. Cheok, & W. Muller (Eds.), Transactions on Edutainment 111
(pp. 25–35). Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Caci, B., Chiazzese, G., & D’Amico, A. (2013). Robotic and virtual
World Programming labs to Stimulate Reasoning and visualspatial Abilities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93,
538
1493–1497. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.070
Darus, Z. (2012). Status Pencapaian Malaysia TIMSS dan PISA : (p. 34).
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. (2005). Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu @
DBP. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Retrieved from
http://prpm.dbp.gov.my/Search.aspx?k=robot
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2012a). Buletin Rasmi Kementerian
Pendidikan Malaysia. Unit Komunikasi Korporat. Retrieved from
http://buletinkpm.blogspot.com/2012/02/malaysia-tuan-rumahworld-robotic.html
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2012b). Preliminary ReportExecutive Summary: Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025.
Putrajaya, Malaysia.
Loh, S. C., Loo, C. K., Loh, H. C., & Lim, Y. K. (2013). Transformative
Robotic Education for the Realization of Malaysia National
Philosophy of Education. In K. Omar, M. J. Nordin, P.
Vadakkepat, A. S. Prabuwono, S. N. H. S. Abdullah, J. Baltes, …
M. F. Nasrudin (Eds.), Intelligent Robotic Systems: Inspiring The
NEXT (pp. 416–426). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Springer Berlin
Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40409-2_35
Mathers, N., Goktogen, A., Rankin, J., & Anderson, M. (2012). Robotic
Mission to Mars: Hands-on, minds-on, web-based learning. Acta
Astronautica, 80, 124–131. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.06.003
Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating Constructionism. In Ablex
Publishing Corporation (Ed.), Constructionism (p. 518). Westport,
Amerika Syarikat.
Razak, N. A. (2010). Rancangan Malaysia Kesepuluh 2011-2015 (p.
444). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Unit Perancangan Ekonomi, Jabatan
Perdana Menteri.
WRO Advisory Council. (2014). World Robot Olympiad. World Robot
Olympiad Association Ltd.
539
CONCEPTUAL CHANGES IN
SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTATION
THROUGH GUIDED GROUP
SETTINGS
Lee Ling Heng, Johari Surif, Cher Hau Seng
ABSTRACT
The main goal of scientific argumentation is to foster students’
understanding of scientific concepts and to eliminate alternative
frameworks. Conceptual changes during argumentation are
likely to occur when deeper cognitive processing is required,
especially when students are asked to clarify, explain, and to
defend their own ideas. This study examines conceptual changes
in scientific argumentation, based on the three levels of
representations, through a guided group argumentation setting.
After several lessons on acids and bases, students first answered
an Open-ended Scientific Argumentation Test 1 (OSAT 1).
Based on the answers provided, 32 students are then selected
using purposive sampling and are asked to complete the OSAT 2
in a guided group argumentation setting. Discussions during the
guided group argumentation are also recorded, and the process
of conceptual changes is also identified. The results show that
students change their existing alternative frameworks to the
correct scientific concepts after being guided through the group
argumentation. Students are also able to construct arguments that
540
link between the three levels of representations: macroscopic,
sub microscopic and symbolic levels. It is observed that the
process of deep thinking about two alternative concepts led to
conceptual changes. Therefore, the teaching and learning of
science need to focus on group argumentations and incorporate
the linkage between the macroscopic, sub microscopic and
symbolic representations to promote conceptual changes, which
improve students’ understanding and learning.
Keywords : Acids And Bases, Alternative Frameworks,
Conceptual Change, Guided Group Argumentation, Three
Levels Of Representation
INTRODUCTION
The main goal of scientific argumentation is to foster students’
understanding of scientific concepts (von Aufschnaiters et al.,
2008; Nussbaum, 2011; Sadler, 2004; Zohar and Nemet, 2002)
and to eliminate alternative frameworks (Cross et al., 2008). The
involvement of students in argumentative activities also
enhances their scientific reasoning skills (Osborne et al., 2004).
In order to induce conceptual changes through
collaboration, instructional intervention are usually conducted
following the socio-cognitive conflict design (Amigues, 1988).
This design is based on the idea whereby the pairing of students
with different initial conceptions will lead to their cognitive
conflict. As a result, they will then seek for equilibrium to
accommodate their naive concepts as scientific concepts.
According to Kendeou and Broek (2007), when students’
existing concepts are activated and integrated with a scientific
explanation, this will lead to an imbalance. The identification of
this imbalance will trigger deeper information processing that
causes conceptual changes. Mason (1996) stressed that
conceptual change is likely to occur when students are asked to
clarify, explain, and defend their own ideas. This is consistent
541
with Schwarz et al. (2000), whom suggested that the knowledge
construction tasks will be more effective if students engaged in
peer argumentation.
According to Nussbaum and Sinatra (2003), while
constructing a scientific argument, individuals need to consider
both sides of the argument, explain aspects of the problem that
are anomalous to their existing conceptions, and confront with
the discrepancies between their points of views. These actions
will allow students to engage in the process of deep thinking
about the alternative concepts, and subsequently rebut the
alternative frameworks and change their conception.
Furthermore, by considering the three levels of scientific
representation, students will form a better understanding of the
concepts (Beall et al., 1994; Bucat and Mocerino, 2009;
Johnstone, 1991), which assists the process of conceptual
change. As stated by Bucat and Mocerino (2009), the sub
microscopic level should be knitted into the observable
macroscopic and symbolic levels of representation to enhance
the understanding of chemistry concepts. However, are our
students able to link all the three levels of representation in order
to achieve conceptual change? Thus, this study examines
conceptual changes in scientific argumentation through guided
group settings.
METHODOLOGY
This descriptive study involved fourth form science students in
the district of Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. Two instruments,
the Open-ended Scientific Argumentation Test 1 and 2 (OSAT 1
& 2) were first developed based on the fourth form chemistry
syllabus. Both instruments consisted of similar questions related
to neutralization and the properties of acids and bases. In the
instrument, information about the phenomenon being studied
and diagrams were provided to assist students in answering the
questions. After seven lessons of acids and bases, students were
542
first asked to answer the OSAT 1 in the time allocated. The
arguments constructed in the answers were assessed based on
their accuracy and the three levels of representation in chemistry.
If the argument consisted of alternative framework in any of the
argumentation elements, that argument will be considered as
non-scientific. On the other hand, any argument with the correct
concepts and without any alternative framework will be
classified as scientific argument. Thirty two (32) students who
have constructed different arguments were then selected by
using purposive sampling to go through a guided group
argumentation. Guided by a researcher (McNeil et al., 2006),
each group consisted of two students who mastered the scientific
concepts and two students with alternative frameworks (Webb,
1985). According to Osborne et al. (2004), the characteristic of
this combination is essential to create cognitive conflict among
group members, which will trigger scientific argumentation. In
groups, students were guided and encouraged to explain their
arguments constructed, and to relate them to the three levels of
representation. The argumentation processes were also recorded,
transcribed and analyzed. Students were then asked to answer
the OSAT 2 and the arguments constructed were re-assessed to
compare the mastery of scientific argumentation before and after
the guided group argumentation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Mastery of Scientific Argumentation
The findings show that almost all of the students involved have
changed their existing alternative frameworks to the correct
scientific concepts after following guided group argumentation.
As shown in Figure 1, only 7.14% of arguments constructed by
students have alternative frameworks. Besides, content analysis
shows that these students experienced alternative frameworks at
the sub microscopic level but provided appropriate scientific
543
concepts at the macroscopic level. This indicates that scientific
argumentation especially in guided group setting promotes
conceptual change (Aydeniz et al., 2012; Nussbaum and Sinatra,
2003; Nussbaum, 2011).
100.0
92.86
100
80
60
Scientific
40
20
7.14
0.0
Non Scientific
0
Before
After
Figure 1 Comparison of students’ mastery of scientific argumentation
before and after guided group argumentation
Construction of Scientific Arguments at Macroscopic, Sub
microscopic and Symbolic Level
Table 1 shows that all students involved in guided group
argumentation could construct claim and evidence with correct
scientific concepts. The element of reasoning constructed is
mostly at macroscopic and sub microscopic level (57.15%).
Furthermore, the arguments constructed did consist of the
element rebuttal although the percentage is lower that other
elements. The results suggest that guided group argumentation
not only changed students’ alternative frameworks to appropriate
concepts, it also improved the quality of the arguments that are
constructed (Aydeniz et al, 2012; Nussbaum, 2011). These
findings corroborate with Cross et al. (2008) that involved in
scientific argumentation help students to reflect on their existing
ideas and eventually eliminate the alternative frameworks that
544
exist. Content analysis also shows that the scientific arguments
constructed were accurate in terms of the scientific concepts and
complex in terms of the argumentation structure. Moreover,
there are also arguments which showed the link between the
three levels of representation. This suggests that students
possessed deep and holistic scientific knowledge in the concepts
being studied (Beall et al., 1994; Bucat and Mocerino, 2009).
Table 1 Comparison of students’ mastery of argumentation elements
before and after guided group argumentation
(%)
56.25
50.00
Before
Non
Scientific
(%)
43.75
50.00
0.00
0.00
12.5
71.88
0.00
9.37
0.00
0.00
12.50
18.75
3.12
0.00
84.38
81.25
60.71
53.57
0.00
0.00
39.29
46.43
3.12
0.00
0.00
18.75
0.00
0.00
78.13
14.29
21.43
32.14
0.00
0.00
0.00
28.57
0.00
0.00
3.57
0.00
Scientific
Element
Claim
Evidence
Reasoning:
Macro only
Sub micro only
Macro and sub
micro
Macro, sub micro
and symbol
Rebuttal:
Alternatif claim
Alternatif
evidence
Alternatif
reasoning:
Macro only
Submicroonly
Macro and sub
micro
Macro, sub
micro and
symbol
No
answer
(%)
0.00
0.00
Scientific
(%)
100.00
100.00
After
Non
Scientific
(%)
0.00
0.00
6.25
7.14
3.57
57.15
0.00
0.00
7.14
25.00
0.00
No
answer
(%)
0.00
0.00
0.00
Based on Table 1, more than half of the arguments
constructed did include the element rebuttal. Thus, the arguments
presented are considered complex and with high quality since
rebuttal is seen as a quality indicator (Erduran, 2007; Osborne et
al., 2004; von Aufschnaiter et al., 2008). However, a few students
constructed simple arguments with mostly macroscopic level, but
sub microscopic level with alternative frameworks, and without
the element rebuttal. These results align with the findings by
Dindar and Geban (2011) which reported that alternative
frameworks are difficult to eliminate. Thus, it is clear that
545
scientific argumentation could promote conceptual change which
is driven by the efforts of students to construct evidence,
reasoning and rebuttal at the macroscopic, sub microscopic and
symbolic levels. Hence, it requires in-depth explanation of the
thinking process that occurs in students’ scientific argumentation
scheme.
Conceptual Change in Scientific Argumentation Scheme
Figure 2 shows the conceptual change in scientific
argumentation scheme of students involved in guided group
argumentation.
1. Construct
claims with
supporting
evidence /
explanation
(Constructing
initial claim)
2. Support claim
with
reasoning at
macro, sub
micro and
symbolic
levels (Deep
thinking)
7. Restructuring claim with
reasoning at three levels of
representation
(Changing alternative
framework to scientific
concept)
3. Consider
alternative
claim with
explanations
(Challenges
alternative
claim)
6. Present condition
and criteria for the
claim to be valid
(Presenting
additional
information)
4. Evaluate
alternative
claim at three
levels of
representation
(Deep
thinking)
5. Compare initial
claim with
alternative claim
(Awareness of
alternative
frameworks)
Figure 2 Conceptual change in scientific argumentation scheme
Based on Figure 2, students involved in comparing and
evaluating the two alternative concepts at the macroscopic, sub
microscopic and symbolic levels which led to cognitive
conflicts. Through the process of deep thinking, students aware
of their alternative frameworks and replaced it with appropriate
scientific concepts. This conceptual change enables students to
understand the scientific concepts completely and subsequently
546
enhance their mastery of related concepts. These findings are in
line with several studies which reported that argumentation in
group setting can be used as a tool for conceptual change
(Asterhan et al., 2009; Aydeniz et al., 2012; Nussbaum, 2011;
von Aufschnaiters et al., 2008) and to eliminate alternative
frameworks (Cross et al., 2008).
CONCLUSION
This study showed that conceptual changes occur when students
construct scientific arguments that link between the
macroscopic, sub microscopic, and symbolic levels of
representations. While constructing arguments in a group setting,
students tended to elaborate their pre-existing ideas in a social
context, thus providing opportunities to their peers to evaluate
the rationality and accuracy of the ideas, as well as to provide
feedback (Aydeniz et al., 2012). The study also showed that the
process of deep thinking about the two alternative concepts at
the three levels of representation helped with conceptual
changes. It was observed that students tend to restructure and
accommodate these conceptions to discover and accept the
alternative conception, if it is intelligible, plausible and fruitful
(Posner et al., 1982). Hence, the teaching and learning of
science need to focus on group argumentation and incorporate
the linkage between the macroscopic, sub microscopic, and
symbolic representations (Tsai, 1999; Wu, 2003) to promote
meaningful learning and to ensure students’ understanding of
scientific concepts (Jaber and BouJaoude, 2012).
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550
CONCEPT MAP AS AN
ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN
LABORATORY ACTIVITIES
Intan Baizura A Ghani, Noraffandy Yahaya, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim,
Mohamed Noor Hasan
ABSTRACT
Transformation of 21st century education emphasized in-depth
knowledge and improve students' higher-order thinking skills. The
main purpose of doing laboratory activities in Chemistry is for the
students to gain deep understanding and is one of the activities that
can stimulate higher cognitive skills. In addition, assessment is
also one of the key elements that essential in stimulating higherorder thinking skills of students. Accordingly, the Malaysian
Educational Development Plan 2013-2025 also emphasizes the
importance of a holistic assessment to be conducted on the process
of teaching and learning as an effort to help students improve their
thinking on a higher level. However, students are always found not
able to integrate the laboratory activities performed with the
concepts and theories that should be mastered from the activity.
Furthermore, the traditional assessment tool such as laboratory
reports only provide students with low level thinking skills.
Therefore, an alternative assessment strategy namely concept map
is selected to be used in this study. This is because the concept map
has been reported in previous studies serve as a metacognitive tool
which are able to generate a better understanding of the concepts
551
and can stimulate higher-order thinking skills of the students.
Keywords : Laboratory Activities, Alternative Assessment,
Concept Map, High Order Thinking Skills, Understanding
INTRODUCTION
The rapid development of the world's technological advances,
economy competition, scientific innovation generally have claim to
the transformation of the educational system as a whole (Koh, Tan,
Ng, 2012). The transformation done in science, math, technology
and engineering in the 21st century is emphasized to the formation
of students who can demonstrate higher thinking skills with
confidence, such as critical thinking and creative, innovative
thinking and problem solving (Evren, Bati & Yilmaz, 2012). This
is of concern not only to provide a workforce that is ready to
compete at the global level, but more importantly for the
development of self as individuals more successful (Ministry of
education, 2012).
Extensive changes in terms of curriculum, pedagogy and
assessment system is needed to ensure that the education
transformation was successful (Koh, Tan, Ng, 2012). In this
regard, through the Malaysian educational development plan 20132025, the Ministry will undertake implementation of integrated
curriculum and conducting a holistic assessment with an emphasis
on in-depth knowledge and higher-order thinking skills of students
in the assessment system and in particular (Ministry of education,
2012).
THE IMPORTANCE OF ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES OF
TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS
Assessment of students' ideas and conceptual understanding is the
core of the curriculum, as well as learning and teaching
552
environment activities (Ruiz Primo et al, 2001; Kaya, 2008; Bak
Kibar, Yemen & Ayas, 2013). The role of assessment for teaching
and learning activities is not only to determine the marks or grades
of students, but rather to improve the quality of teaching and
learning activities itself (Kumaran & Sankar, 2013). Many experts
in the field of education assessment and learning theories agree
that evaluation is part of the process of teaching, and assessment
activities should be used to support and assist students ' learning in
the classroom teaching and learning process from day to day
(Shepard 2000; Koh, Tan, Ng, 2012). Appropriate assessment
activities should be done to acquire high-level thinking skills
process than just the basic skills and knowledge.
In addition, the assessment is important in identifying
problems of students’ science and mathematics learning, helping to
overcome the problem in making the learning and teaching process
more appropriate (İngeç, 2009). If the teacher does not build the
test according to the procedures for the correct measurement,
information about students ' level of mastery of a concept is likely
to be less accurate. Such things can not be the result of an
assessment used for the purpose of improving teaching and
learning in the classroom (Phang, Abu Ali & Ali, 2012).
The issue is, does the practice of teaching, learning and
assessment strategies of science laboratory activities nowadays
provide in-depth understanding to encourage high-level thinking
skills of students? In reality, assessment and evaluation in science
laboratory has been continuously carried out using traditional
methods such as laboratory reports and quizzes (Hofstein &
Lunetta, 2004; Kaya, 2008; Dogan & Kaya, 2009; Özmen,
DemİrcİoĞlu, & Coll, 2007; Bak Kibar et al., 2013). The
traditional method has been questioned because of the less
favorable active participation of students in the assessment process
and provide students with low-level thinking skills (Zoller &
Pushkin, 2007; Dochy, Segers, Van den Bossche, & Gijbels, 2003;
Dogan & Kaya, 2009). Traditional or conventional assessments of
student learning outcomes are generally focused on the production
of knowledge of facts and skills of a student alone (Koh, Tan, &
553
Ng, 2012). One of the assessment strategy that have the potential
to measure the level of understanding of the students and be able to
stimulate higher-order thinking skills of students is a concept map
(Ruiz-primo & Shavelson, 2001; Kaya, 2008)
CONCEPT MAP AS AN ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
A variety of alternative assessment tools that have been used in
many science education studies include posters, portfolio, concept
map, vee map, and integration of ICT (Aksela, 2005). However,
one alternative assessment tool that has been widely recognized in
improving students' conceptual understanding is the use of concept
maps (Bak Kibar et al., 2013; Ruiz-primo & Shavelson, 2010;
Kaya, 2008; Moni & Moni, 2008; Harris & Zha, 2013). Previous
studies also have linked the concept map with the higher-order
thinking skills (Moni & Moni, 2008; Kumaran & Sankar, 2013;
Bramwor-lalaor et al, 2014). In addition, many previous research
have also discussed about the importance of concept map in
chemistry education (eg Markow & Lonning, 1998; Aksela, 2005;
Kaya, 2008, Theodoros vachliotis, Katerina Salta, Petroula
Vasiliou, 2011; Correia, 2012; Bak Kibar et al., 2013).
Concept map is a visual thinking tool that was developed
by Joseph Novak and his colleagues at Cornell University in 1979.
The development of a concept map requires students to organize
their thoughts on the concepts learned by writing or labelling the
relationship between these concepts. This visual graphic can
represent students with a deep conceptual understanding thus helps
students to critically evaluate their own ideas and to compare their
ideas with other students. It also provides opportunities for
teachers to assess understanding, conceptions and misconceptions
of students on the topic of learning (Novak, 2010).
Students who are experiencing deep learning will produce a
concept map that has more new concepts, more links and branches
compared to students who experience rote learning This is in line
with the findings made by Hilbert & Renkl (2008) in which more
554
accurate labelled links can be generated, more effective knowledge
can be integrated. Martin (2011) emphasizes the importance of the
relationship between the maximum concepts that can be produced
during the construction of the concept map because it gives the
best impression of a deep understanding. Three types of concept
maps that ‘spoke’, ‘chain’ and ‘net’ have been identified by
Kinchin, Hay, and Adams (2000) in his study, where he concluded
that the concept map in the form of net (with the most level of the
hierarchy than the others) is more representative of the presence of
meaningful learning.
In addition, the construction of a concept map is also
regarded as a strategy to facilitate the students to develop critical
and creative thinking (Harris & Zha, 2013), as well as promoting
higher level of cognitive process if its construction is done
correctly (Novak, 2010). Concept map allows the assessment of
high-level cognitive development (Kinchin et al., 2000) in Bloom's
taxonomy, especially when students have to pick and choose the
most appropriate linking phrase during its construction (Kumaran
& Sankar, 2013). The use of linking phrases to describe the
relationship between the concepts has made concept map better
than the other visual graphics techniques to translate knowledge
and information (Correia, 2012).
According to Hilbert & Renkl (2008), the cognitive
processes that occur during concept maps’ construction related to
the effective learning is through two processes, namely, the
process of labelling the relationship between the two concepts
(construction of the linking phrase) and the process of planning
and controlling the process of construction. Students will express
difficulty to label the line that connects the two concepts if they
don't understand the relationship that exists between the two
concepts as well as the correct word to characterize the relationship
between these concepts. . If students have already started to focus
on producing words that can characterize the relationship between
the two concepts, they will begin to see the relationship between
all the concepts to determine the most appropriate cross link. This
process involves a high cognitive level (Bloom, 1956), known as
555
evaluation and synthesis of knowledge (Novak, 2010).
Many studies have diversified the concept mapping
technique that can be used to show students ' cognitive structure.
According to Ruiz Primo (1996), assessment using concept maps
can be categorized based on how much information can be given to
a student by a teacher who refers to the degree of directedness.
Figure 1 shows the degree of directedness involved in the
construction of the concept map-based assessment.
Degree of directedness
Element of a
concept map
High
Low
Provided by
Concept
Assessor/Teacher
Student
Linking line
Assessor/Teacher
Student
Linking phrase
Assessor/Teacher
Student
Map structure
Assessor/Teacher
Student
Table 1: Degree of directedness involved in the construction of a
concept map by Ruiz Primo et al. (1996)
Type of concept map can be classified into a continuous
range of map that has a high degree of directedness to a low degree
of directedness. Concept map that has the highest degree of
directedness means the students have been provided with the
concept, connecting lines, phrases and structure maps relationships
while concept map that has a low degree of directedness allows
students to decide for themselves how many of the concepts that
should be used and how these concepts are related. Low degree of
directedness of a concept map is said to be able to foster and
evaluate the higher level of students thinking (Yin, Vanides, RuizPrimo, Ayala & Shavelson, 2005). Giving those elements to
students only will prevent the spread of knowledge and
understanding of the student, thus contributing to low cognitive
skills (Kaya, 2008).
Concept map is a good assessment tool, able to give an
556
overview of a students' prior knowledge before studying a unit or
topic, as well as formative assessment that occurs during learning
activities (Kumaran & Sankar, 2013). When students are creating
or translating a concept map, the new knowledge will exist and
then assimilated into the students' prior knowledge. It can also
provide a clearer picture of the structure of knowledge which is
built in the mind of a student than traditional assessment tools
(Soika, Reiska, & Mikser, 2010). According to Stoddart, Abrams,
Gasper, & Canaday (2000), concept map has been chosen as an
alternative assessment tool because it can be used in a wide scope
of fields and at all levels of students. Therefore, it is appropriate to
use concept maps as an assessment tool for teaching and learning
(Novak,1990; Slotte & Lonka, 1999; Kinchin et. al., 2000; Kaya,
2008; Özmen et al., 2009; Bramwell lalor et al., 2014).
In addition, the concept map has also been reported to
improve students ' abilities in problem solving, and help for
collaborative learning (Moni Moni, 2008), making this strategy is
very suitable to use in laboratory activities, which often involve
group activities. Furthermore, the characteristics of concept maps
as a very suitable strategy to promote students' conceptual
understanding in science and chemistry in particular (Bunce,
Francisco, Nakhleh, Nurrenbern, & Miller, 2002; Aydin, Aydemir,
Boz, Cetin-Dindar, & Bektas, 2009) can help students make
conceptual connections during learning activities conducted in
laboratory (Markow & Lonning, 1998; Özmen et al., 2009)
CONCLUSION
The discussion above leads to the selection of concept map as a
potential strategy to assess and promote the exploration of deep
understanding thus helps in stimulating higher-order thinking skills
of students in laboratory activities. Therefore, it is appropriate for
this study to be conducted in order to contribute in the search for
alternative learning strategies and assessments that can be applied
in the transformation of the curriculum of the 21st century. This is
557
important to produce individuals who are knowledgeable in depth
and have the skills of higher order thinking to be competitive in an
era of a more challenging world.
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QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON
EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT (ESD)
PRACTICES AMONG
MALAYSIAN POLYTECHNICS
Crystal Joan Peter, Wilfredo Herrera Libunao
ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to determine how far ESD is being
implemented in Malaysian TVET system. The instrument selected
was based on the Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ)
developed by University Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF).
The respondents for this study were 115 lecturers of 11
polytechnics in Malaysia. Data was collected using a Likert-type
ordinal scale, some nominal, and yes-no questions, then analysed
using descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS). Research finding shows that polytechnics in
Malaysia are still not fully committed to ESD. The inclusion of
sustainability in polytechnics curriculum is still in its initial stage.
Sustainability is only incorporated on programmes/courses that are
directly related to sustainability such as: Civil Engineering;
Mechanical Engineering and Hospitality and Tourism. The
participation of faculty, staff and students in research and
scholarship in sustainability areas are not notable. In the area of
operations, polytechnics do not have high commitment to
562
sustainability. Faculty and staff in polytechnics are not being given
the opportunities to enhance their understanding, research and
teaching in sustainability. Polytechnics’ involvement in
sustainability related issues are low, and there is no student group
directly involved in sustainability initiatives. However, the
polytechnics’ commitment to promote SD at the institutional
mission level can be seen with the existence of positions and
committees related to sustainability in the institutions.
Keywords : Education For
Sustainability, Polytechnic, TVET
Sustainable
Development,
INTRODUCTION
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a contentious
concept that has been present in many official agendas at higher
education institutions (HEI) for more than a decade. Many higher
education institutions have already recognized that they must play
a role in creating a more sustainable future. However, because
there is a general lack of adequate conditions, the progress on
campuses has not been as fast as expected (Velazquez, Munguia &
Sanchez, 2005).
ESD can be defined as ‘the use of education as a tool to
achieve sustainability’ (McKeown, Hopkins, Rizi, 2002).
Sustainable development according to Gustavo (2000) occurs
when we acknowledge the relationship between human needs and
the natural environment. Thus, sustainable development (SD) can
be best described as ‘a development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs’ (Brundtland Report, 1987).
ESD was first described in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21.
Adopted by the 1992 Earth Summit, Agenda 21 emphasizes that
human population; consumption and technology are the primary
driving forces of environmental change. Agenda 21 states that
‘education is critical for promoting sustainable development and
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improving the capacity of all people to address environment and
development issues’.
The impact of sustainable development in higher education
institutions is greatly bigger than the impact of any other single
sector of society. This is because universities and polytechnics are
the place where they educate the next generation of decisionmakers and influencers, and also the centres of research and
development activities.
Studies about ESD in Higher Education have been done in
developed countries like Russia, USA, United Kingdom, Sweden,
and Germany for years. Garcia (2010) stated that studies assessing
the status of ESD in HEI have been performed by private and
public organizations in developed countries. Unfortunately, in
developing countries, this type of studies is limited. In Malaysia
for example, there has been no recorded study to determine the
implementation of ESD in the polytechnics. This study therefore
was conducted to know whether if ESD is being practiced in
Malaysian TVET system, especially in polytechnics.
TVET AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
TVET is an effective education and training system that provide
skills training and produce competitive human capital worldwide.
Being a major supplier of workforce for the industries, TVET
plays a significant role in implementing and promoting sustainable
development. In achieving the sustainable development, TVET can
be a leading education and training by creating awareness and
promoting sustainable development in its daily practices.
Sustainable development consists of three pillars;
economic, socio-cultural, and environmental development.
Paryono (2010) explained that to incorporate the three pillars, there
are many roles TVET institutions can play, for example; create a
new green technology that not only economically feasible but also
at the same time environmentally-friendly.
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HIGHER
EDUCATION
DEVELOPMENT
AND
SUSTAINABLE
Universities and other higher education institutes create bridges
between knowledge generation and application of this knowledge
in society through the process of education, outreach and service to
community and region. There are several ways for universities and
higher education institutes can contribute to sustainable
development:
(i)
By giving sustainable development a place in all university
curricular and educational and research program.
(ii)
By playing an important role as a local knowledge centers
for sustainable development in order to help society meet
the challenge of sustainable development at the local level.
(iii) By making sustainable development a leading principle in
their own logistics and managerial processes.
However, according to Calder and Clugston (2003), there are
seven critical dimensions in universities activities that need to be
addressed when considering sustainability issues, as follows:
1. Curriculum
2. Research and Scholarship
3. Operation
4. Faculty and Staff Hiring, Development & Rewards
5. Outreach and Service
6. Student Opportunities
7. Institutional Mission, Structure and Planning
METHODOLOGY
This research was pursued using quantitative research design using
survey questionnaire. A total of 20 polytechnics were involved in
this study, and using the sample size formula published by the
National Education Association (Krejcie & Morgan, 1970), 361
respondents were drawn from the 20 polytechnics.
Lecturers of polytechnics in Malaysia were chosen as
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respondents because they meet the criteria to answer the
Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) which is about the
seven dimensions of ESD (Curriculum; Research and Scholarship;
Operations; Faculty and Staff Development and Rewards;
Outreach and Service; Student Opportunities; and Institutional
Mission and Planning). Nasir A.R (2002) reported in his study that
the job scope of polytechnic lecturers are not only teaching, but
also includes clerical duties, managing, doing research and other
common duties of lecturers.
The instrument used for this study was based on The
Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) designed by the
University Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF). The
questionnaire was further modified under Malaysian context and
pretested to ascertain its validity and reliability.
The modified research instrument has undergone an expert
validation process. The research instrument was reviewed /checked
and approved by three lecturers from the Department of Technical
and Engineering, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia. After experts approved the research instrument, a pilot
study was conducted at Polytechnic Melaka with 15 respondents
that are not involved with the actual study.
To test the level of reliability of the instrument, the Internal
Consistency Method was used. This process was done by using the
statistic test Alpha-Cronbach in SPSS software. The Cronbach’s
Alpha value for the questionnaire is 0.873.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The study was initially designed to involve 20 polytechnics,
however nine polytechnics did not participate. Moreover, out of
361 questionnaires distributed, only 115 were returned, accounting
for a return rate of 31.85%. This return rate is still acceptable for
online and mail administered survey research according to
International Assessment Resources (2007) of the University of
Texas. The relatively low return or participation rate could be due
566
to: a) research fatigue among polytechnic lecturers; b) the time
allotted (three weeks) for them to accomplish and return the
questionnaires may not be enough; and c) low level of
respondents’ familiarity with the research topic (ESD and
sustainable development) as could be gleaned from their responses
to the survey questions.
Research fatigue can be said to occur when individuals and
groups become tired of engaging with research and it can be
identified by a demonstration of reluctance toward continuing
engagement with an existing project, or a refusal to engage with
any further research (Clark, 2008).
Implementation of Seven Dimension of ESD
This section will present the integration of ESD in seven higher
education sustainability education.
Curriculum Assessment
The area for curriculum assessment measured the extent to which
the polytechnics address the topic of ESD in their curriculum. The
individual item mean scores were first transformed into total mean
scores and later categorized into five levels, which formed as basis
for interpreting the data in Table 5.1: Don’t know (mean score
0.51-1.5), not included (mean score 1.51-2.5), in few courses
(mean score 2.51-3.5), in a number of courses (mean score 3.514.5) and in almost all courses (mean score 4.51-5.5).
Table 1 shows that the overall mean value is 2.83 which indicate
that ESD are included in polytechnics curriculum but only in few
courses.
Table 1: Inclusion of Sustainability in Curriculum
No
Item
Mean
Equivalent
Adjectival Rating*
SD
567
6.
Institution offer courses
3.01
related to sustainability
7.
Faculty offers
programme/courses related to
2.99
sustainability
8.
Sustainability concepts
2.46
embedded in existing courses
Overall mean
2.83
*Extent of sustainability inclusion in curriculum
In few courses
1.03
In few courses
0.96
Not included
0.99
In few courses
The findings indicate that polytechnics in Malaysia barely
addressed the topic of ESD in their curriculum. This further
affirms McKeown’s (2002) observation regarding structuring and
placing ESD in the curriculum. She pointed out that in some
communities, ESD will be ignored and in others, it will be barely
addressed. Although they are trying to teach their students about
the basic values and core assumptions that shape the content and
methods of the academic disciplines, it is still not enough.
Research and Scholarship
This area of assessment measured the participation of faculty, staff
and students in research and scholarship in areas of sustainability.
The individual item mean scores were first transformed into total
mean scores and later categorized into five levels, which formed as
basis for interpreting the data in Table 2: Don’t know (mean score
0.51-1.5), not taught and researched (mean score 1.51-2.5), taught
and researched a little bit (mean score 2.51-3.5), taught and
researched quite a bit (mean score 3.51-4.5) and fully taught and
researched (mean score 4.51-5.5).
Table 2: Teaching and Research in Sustainability Areas
No.
Item
Mean
11.
Research being done by staff in
the area of sustainability
Students research in
2.5
12.
2.2
Equivalent
Adjectival
Rating*
Not taught and
researched
Not taught and
SD
1.02
0.98
568
sustainability area
Faculty members teach or do
research on sustainability
13.
14.
Faculty members interested in
teaching and research on
sustainability area
Overall mean
2.8
3.0
2.67
researched
Taught and
researched a little
bit
Taught and
researched a little
bit
Taught and
researched a bit
1.90
1.80
* Extent to which sustainability is taught and researched
Table 2 presents the teaching and research efforts in the area of
sustainability. The overall mean of 2.67 indicates that there is little
effort being done by the polytechnics in integrating sustainability
in teaching and research.
Table 3: Weaknesses of polytechnics for implementing ESD
Weaknesses
Lack of promotion
Lack of sustainability knowledge among staff
Lack of resources
Lack of institutional support
Too little research
Total
Frequency
8
4
3
1
1
17
Research and scholarship in sustainability areas are not so popular
in polytechnics in Malaysia. The results also show that there are no
research being done by staff and students in the area of
sustainability. Results also revealed that only few faculty members
teach sustainability. This may be due to lack of knowledge in
sustainability area, lack of resources and lack of institutional
support (see table 3).
Operations
This area of assessment aimed to measure the extent to which the
institution has implemented the operational practices emphasized
569
by institution moving toward sustainability. The individual item
mean scores were first transformed into total mean scores and later
categorized into five levels, which formed as basis for interpreting
the data in Table 4: Don’t know (mean score 0.51-1.5), not
practiced (mean score 1.51-2.5), practiced a little bit (mean score
2.51-3.5), practiced quite a bit (mean score 3.51-4.5) and practiced
fully (mean score 4.51-5.5).
Table 4: Sustainability Practices Implemented in Institution
No.
Item
Mean
18
19
20
21
Water conservation
Recycling of solid waste
Green purchasing
Building construction
and renovation
Energy conservation
practices
Overall mean
22
2.3
2.7
2.0
2.1
Equivalent
Adjectival Rating*
Not practiced
Practiced a little bit
Not practiced
Not practiced
SD
1.06
1.04
1.13
1.56
3.0
Practiced a little bit
1.08
3.06
Practiced a little bit
*Extent to which sustainability is practiced
Table 4 shows the sustainability practices that are being
implemented in polytechnics. The overall mean value of 3.06
indicates that polytechnics are not fully practicing sustainability in
their institutions.
In the Brundtland report-Our Common Future; it was stated
that sustainable development requires that the adverse impacts on
the quality of air, water and other natural elements are minimized
so as to sustain the ecosystem’s overall integrity. Based on the
findings, polytechnics in Malaysia are not implementing water
conservation, green purchasing, green building construction,
renovation practices and other major ‘green’ practices in their
institutions.
Faculty and Staff Development and Rewards
This area aimed to measure practices in polytechnic to promote
570
sustainable development in faculty and staff, through staff
activities, recognition, research and development. The individual
item mean scores were first transformed into total mean scores and
later categorized into five levels, which formed as basis for
interpreting the data in Table 5.5: Don’t know (mean score 0.511.5), not promoted (mean score 1.51-2.5), promoted a little bit
(mean score 2.51-3.5), promoted quite a bit (mean score 3.51-4.5)
and promoted fully (mean score 4.51-5.5).
Based on table 5, the overall mean of 2.49 indicates that
polytechnics have no efforts to promote sustainable development
among its staff. In Agenda 21, chapter 36, one of the objectives in
reorienting education towards sustainable development is to
achieve environmental and development awareness in all sectors of
society on a world-wide scale as soon as possible. Unfortunately,
results revealed that polytechnics in Malaysia have no efforts in
promoting sustainable development among its staff. This finding
shows that the objectives of polytechnics in SD are not in sync
with the objectives of Agenda 21 in SD.
Table 5: Promoting SD in Faculty and Staff
No.
Item
Mean
23
Faculty staff and student
involved with improving
campus or local sustainability
Faculty members teaching or
doing research on sustainability
issues
Opportunities to enhance
understanding, research and
teaching in sustainability
Overall mean
2.7
24
25
Equivalent
Adjectival
Rating*
Promoted a little
bit
SD
1.07
2.3
Not promoted
1.05
2.4
Not promoted
1.08
2.49
Not promoted
Outreach and Service
This area of assessment measured the Polytechnics’ involvements
571
in issues related to ESD in its local area and the surrounding region
through partnership with schools; relationships with local
governments and business, or with international organizations. The
individual item mean scores were first transformed into total mean
scores and later categorized into five levels, which formed as basis
for interpreting the data in Table 6: Don’t know (mean score 0.511.5), not involved (mean score 1.51-2.5), involved a little bit (mean
score 2.51-3.5), involved quite a bit (mean score 3.51-4.5) and
fully involved (mean score 4.51-5.5).
Table 6: Polytechnics’ Involvement in Sustainability Related Issues
No.
Item
26
Institution involved in
sustainable community work at
local, regional, national or
international levels
Faculty involved in community
projects related to sustainability
Overall mean
27
Mean
2.52
2.59
2.56
Equivalent
Adjectival
Rating*
Involved a little
bit
Involved a little
bit
Involved a little
bit
SD
1.11
1.06
*Extent of polytechnics’ involvement in sustainability related issues
It can be deduced from the results in Table 6 that the polytechnics
have little involvement in sustainable community work at local,
regional, national or international levels as indicated by the mean
value of 2.52. The mean value of 2.59 indicates that the faculty has
little involvement in community projects related to sustainability.
To support this result, table 7 presents the significant statement
extracted from the response of item 29 of the questionnaire
regarding the local sustainability related programme in institutions.
Table 7: Local sustainability related programme in institutions
Sustainability Related Programme
Seminar on environment
Community service - oil spill beach cleaning
Frequency
1
2
572
Go green campaign
Programme 1Malaysia (1Malaysia green, 1Malaysia clean)
Recycling project
Total
No answer
4
5
8
20
95
Getting involved in programs and projects that contribute to
sustainable development is one of many ways that can be used by
universities and colleges to connect with their surrounding
communities and beyond (Calder & Clugston, 2003). However,
based on the study, polytechnics in Malaysia are not contributing
much on issues related to ESD in its local area and the surrounding
region.
Student Opportunities
This area aimed to measure the practices in the institute of higher
education to provide students with opportunities to participate in
sustainable development (SD) initiatives. The results are presented
in table 8.
Table 8: Opportunities Provided to Students to Participate in SD
Initiatives
Opportunities for students
Orientation programs with sustainability focus
Student groups with an environmental or sustainability focus
Student environment centre
Ecology house or sustainable dormitory
Others
Total
Frequency
42
35
28
3
7
115
The findings of this study show that there are several organizations
for student opportunities in SD initiatives that exist in polytechnics
in Malaysia. Student groups with an environmental or
sustainability focus and student environment centre, with
orientation programs on sustainability are the student organizations
that exist in most polytechnics.
573
Agenda 21 has proposed activities that will help students to
get involve in SD initiatives at their institutions. According to
Agenda 21 relevant authorities should ensure that every school is
assisted in designing environmental activity work plans with the
participation of students and staff. Based on the findings, results
show that although organizations for students exist in polytechnics,
there are no records of student group directly involved in
sustainability initiatives.
Institutional Mission, Structure and Planning
This area aimed to measure the commitment of Polytechnics to
promote SD at the institutional mission level. The polytechnics’
extent of formal written commitment to sustainability is presented
in Table 9. Result shows that there are no formal written
statements describing the purpose and objectives of institutions
reflecting a commitment to sustainability (mean value of 2.5).
Table 9: Polytechnics’ extent of formal written commitment to
sustainability
No.
Item
Mean
Equivalent
Adjectival
Rating*
Formal written statements
describing the purposes and
2.5
None
objectives of institution reflect a
commitment to sustainability
* Presence or absence of formal written commitment to sustainability
SD
34
0.85
Table 10 presents the sustainability related positions and
committees that were created by the different polytechnics. The
results show that the polytechnics created seven different types of
positions/committees with sustainability-related focus and/or
responsibilities. It was noted that despite the lack of formal written
statements describing the purposes and objectives of institution
reflecting a commitment to sustainability, sustainable development
positions like Head of Environmental Programs or Head of
574
Sustainability Programs, Environmental Coordinator
Environmental council do exist in a number of polytechnics.
and
Table 10: Positions and committees related to sustainability in
polytechnics
Positions and committees
Head of Environmental Programs or Head of Sustainability
Programs
Environmental Coordinator
Environmental Council or Task Force
Energy Officer
Institutional Declaration of Commitment to
Sustainability/Environmental Responsibility
Orientation programs on sustainability for faculty and staff
Green Purchasing Coordinator
Socially responsible investment practices and policies
Others
Total
Frequency
53
19
15
11
7
6
0
0
4
115
An institution’s mission statement expresses its fundamental vision
and commitment (Calder & Clugston, 2003). As the results of this
study indicates, Malaysian polytechnics’ mission statement does
not reflect sustainability, which may make the sustainability
offices/committees work doubly hard to promote and/or integrate
sustainable development in any or all of the seven dimension of
higher education.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions can be
drawn:
i) There is very little indication that the seven ESD dimensions
are being operationalised in the polytechnics under study.
ii) Sustainability practices (i.e., go green campaign,
implementation of the 3R practices) are still in its infancy
stage.
iii) There are no formal written statements describing the purposes
575
and objectives of institution reflecting a commitment to
sustainability.
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PARENTAL MONITORING ON
THE ADOLESCENCE
DEVELOPMENT
Normalis Bazid, Zainudin bin Abu Bakar
ABSTRACT
The role of parents is very important in children upbringing. Parents
are the closest individuals who influence their children emotional,
cognitive and behavioral aspects of their self-development. Along
with the passage of time, the children will go through adolescent
stage. As the children step into educational institution and spend their
school years, other influences on the students’ self-development also
increased through their peers and environment. Thus, parents are
getting more responsibilities, including monitoring their children
activities. Any shortcomings of parental monitoring would lead to
negative implications to the students. Hence, the researchers felt that
the topic studied is a critical aspect to be further analyzed in
identifying weakness issues of parental monitoring which may lead to
fatal consequences to the adolescents. Researchers find that focuses
in such issues are still scarce and insufficient in our local studies. In
fact, the constraint on scope of the study and issues in vulnerability of
parental monitoring are not clearly refined as compared to researches
from other countries. With regard to results from findings of this
work, the researchers used resources from selected literatures in
supporting the completion of this study. At the end of this research, it
is with great hope that there will be more in-depth studies to address
the issues across the board in the future and studies to change ways of
578
parental monitoring. Additionally, there should also be intervention
studies in order to overcome implications among adolescents in
schools.
Keywords : Issues; Parental Monitoring; Weaknesses; Implications;
Adolescent Students
INTRODUCTION
The role of parents is crucial in fostering their child development
whether it is healthy or otherwise on the socialization of children
(Haris, 2004). Parental role also gives impact and influence their
children. While adolescence is in school, there are more internal and
external influences exposed to teenagers as they grow and develop
their emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects. However,
researchers have noted that parents are a major factor that shapes the
personality of a child (Azizi et. al., 2012). Researchers observed that
parental monitoring of their adolescents should be given a priority in
building a healthy self-development. This aspect is also seen in line
with disciplinary problems among adolescents in Malaysia who are
often absent from school. Even in the matter of discipline in schools,
the biggest issue, and the highest in terms of frequency occurring
among adolescents is truancy problem (Mok, 2012; Azizah, 2002). In
fact, this aspect would definitely bring negative implications to
adolescent students.
It is common, that infancy and childhood stages require more
attention, care, love and upbringing. In fact, kids are very close to
their parents compared with their kids during teenage years who love
freedom and excitement (Azizi et. al., 2012). Teenage years between
13 and 17 are the most challenging stages for them, the way they
think and respond in behavior as adolescents. In fact, according to
Azlina (2005), the main task of adolescence is to resolve their
identity conflict and becoming an adult is unique in their selflearning process of becoming a mature individual. Teenagers are
open to many things for their self-learning process. Furthermore,
579
adolescents are also trying to prove themselves as individuals who
are independent and responsible for their own affairs. However, the
fact is they still need guidance, support and control of their life
aspects. Therefore, the parental role in monitoring is very important,
even better if their monitoring of children, are balanced and equal
regardless of their kids gender. However, in monitoring their daily
activities, parents are more geared to monitor their teenage girls
compared with their teenage boys. Thus, parents’ inclination in
monitoring more on their girls rather than the boys served as an early
indicator of problems that will arise later is more towards the boys
than the girls.
Generally, parental monitoring of their teens that is not
consistent may cause problems not only to the parents but also to
their teenagers and their surroundings. Shader (2009) states that
among the factors that cause a teenager guilty of misconduct and
problematic is not being monitored by their parents. Furthermore,
family system will also be affected by weakness of the parents in
monitoring their children daily activities and we concern that the
numbers of indiscipline problems in the country is on the rise.
According to the Ministry of Education (M.O.E.) (2008), for school
session in 2006 there were 66, 526 records of disciplinary problems
and the number is increasing in 2010, a total of 111, 484 students
were involved in disciplinary problems (Loo, 2010). Of these
students, more than 60% were from high school, while about 35%
were from primary schools and without parental monitoring,
students, peers, parents, schools and society may be adversely
affected.
Adolescent students, during school year would normally spent
most of their time attending educational institution. They spend about
7 hours a day at school. However, supposing there were students who
play truant, they are likely to be suspended or expelled from school.
Whether students played truant, suspended or expelled from school,
all the three cases show limitation of school inspection and
unawareness of teachers and school on the student’s misconducts.
Findings on present disciplinary problems show that there are a total
of 10 high frequency analyses being conducted and truancy problem
580
becomes the highest in number (Mok, 2012; Yusfarina, M.Y. and
Mohammed, K. K., 2000). Thus it is not surprising to find from the
analyses conducted that the most recent disciplinary problems is
truancy because they were absent or they could not simply wander
around the school. Moreover, other problems such as stealing was
ranked the second highest, followed by threatening students at
school, bullying, using abusive language, coming late to school or
late to class, making noise and disrupting lessons, damaging school
property, missing from co-curricular activities (Mok, 2012).
Therefore, if the students were outside the school, the problem of
parental monitoring becomes more dominant and critical.
Reasonably, as long as their parents are at home, they are the ones
who are always present with their kids. If the parents to monitor
activities, their children disciplinary and social problems can be
positively handled. Otherwise negative implications will certainly
bring impact to teenagers.
Apart from that, Unruh et. al., (2009) in his study found that the
students view emotional support from family as very important for
them to reduce their constant negative behaviors. As teens identify
their families’ involvement in unhealthy activities such as crime, they
feel the need to have a stable home to support positive development
in their lives. Without a stable environment, they will turn to peers
that may lead to negative behavior and unhealthy activities. Poverty
and lower socio-economic status are among the causes of students
who succeed in their academic and having disciplinary problems
(Burney & Beilke, 2008). Children who are raised in poverty are
relatively getting less stimulation in their formative years in school
compared with their peers who are wealthy living in luxurious
surroundings. (Jensen, 2009).
Therefore, researchers in this study have selected relevant
literatures from previous studies to identify issues on weakness of
parental monitoring and also to identify their implications for
adolescent students. At this early stage, researchers will study the
definition on research operational terms. This paper will then explore
the issues of parental monitoring weaknesses and look into the
implications to adolescent students. Researchers found that issues or
581
subject matter that causes shortcomings of parental monitoring is that
less attention are given on this topic in our local studies compared
with studies from other countries. At the end of this paper, the
researchers propose that there will be more comprehensive study in
the future to address issues that arise on parental monitoring of
adolescents student and studies of interventions that could bring
positive impact to the students.
DEFINITION
Weaknesses Issues Of Parental Monitoring
Kamus Dewan, Fourth Edition (2013) stated that issues refer to
subject matter that is important in a discussion. While the term
weakness means lacking. The term monitoring means to observe a
behavior in order to avoid something bad happens, the act of
monitoring, maintenance, inspection or can be defined as paying
attention by supervising that everything goes well. Parents are elders
also synonymous with mother and father. In addition, parental
monitoring can also be defined as;
“A set of correlated parenting behaviors involving attention
to and tracking of the child’s whereabouts, activities, and
adaptations” (Dishion & McMahon, 1998, p. 61).
Therefore, parental monitoring has been studied as a subject
matter or issue, which led to lack of parenting behaviors associated
with child development and behavior problems in adolescence. In a
preliminary study of parental monitoring derived from clinical
observations pointed out that parents of children with behavior
problems often fail to monitor, track and set the rules about behavior
and activities of their children (Sampson and Laub, 1994; Weintraub
and Gold, 1991; Wilson, 1980). The study also showed that parental
monitoring decreased over time, especially when children enter
adolescence (Kerr and Statt, 2003; Laird et. al., 2009; Smetana,
2008). These findings support the importance of continuous
582
monitoring as a way to prevent teens from behavioral problems.
In a study conducted by Laird et. al., (2008) from the aspect of
parental monitoring knowledge is seen to undermine the relationship
between peers of anti-social and negative behavior of adolescents. He
and his colleagues have selected a sample of 504 students in the age
group between 12 to 16 years. The empirical research results have
shown that knowledge and awareness of parents to monitor their
children can affect and reduce negative behaviors among students
and also negative influence from their peers. Parents have also shown
that girls are more likely to be protected from negative peers through
parent’s selection and awareness compared with parent’s lower
protection and awareness with their boys. This observation indicates
that female students were closely monitored on their circle of friends
compared to male students.
Previous researchers have found that girls were monitored more
than boys, and parents are more aware about social activities of their
daughters than sons (Willoughby and Hamza, 2011). This finding
may reflect the concerns of parents on high exposure of social
activities for girls to engage in problem behavior and negative
behavior (Pettit et. al., 2007). Therefore, it can be concluded that
between boys and girls, parents are more conscious and have higher
awareness on girls' outdoor activities compared with male students.
Implication To Students
According to Kamus Dewan (2013), implication can be defined as
effect of a problem, and in this research, refers to adolescents.
Adolescent refers to individuals who attend secondary schools in the
country and from the age group 13 to 17 years. Adolescent students
also refer to male and female students in school.
583
ISSUES
Poverty
Poverty often limits the level of family involvement that gives impact
to student achievement and risk for potential delinquency (Burney &
Beilke, 2008). Family with low incomes often struggle to overcome
obstacles such as lack of health benefits, constraints on family time
such as family members who are doing shift works, parent’s inability
to hire tutor to help with their children's academics and parent’s
nature of work that is also seen as being less safe (Burney and Beilke,
2008). For parents who meet the criteria for poverty status based on
per capita household income is provided in the Poverty Line Income
(PLI), 2007, is to look at households with income less than RM1,
000.00 per month in rural areas and RM1, 500.00 in city areas
(http://www.webjabatan.kedah.gov.my). In addition, children who
are raised in poverty, also deal with their parents who are cognitively
less stimulated in their formative years, compared with parents of
their peers who are more capable, or with higher income (Jensen,
2009). Parents are always busy and work hard most of the time for
their children sake. Increase in their financial income is only to serve
the needs of their children, such as food, clothes, school expenses and
others (Wan Norasiah, 2003), may result to neglect of parental
supervision. Thus, for the causes involving poverty, researchers saw
that it could also be associated with busy parents who are seeking for
an increase of their family income tend to overlook their
responsibility to supervise their children. While there are issues of
parental supervision in terms of high-income earners, poverty cause
however is the dominant aspect on issue related to parental
monitoring of adolescent students. In fact, there is also a study by
Azizi et. al., (2012) stated that due to low-income parents, children
often feels inferior at school because they could not pay the school
fees.
584
Communication
Parents who are lacking in monitor and control over their children
will affect communication and increase gap between them. The
distant relationship will cause teenagers feeling as if they are
neglected. As a result, they do not feel the importance of informing
their whereabouts or sharing their daily routines with their parents.
Apart from that, the lack of understanding between parents and
children would lead to conflict, quarrel and fight (Arieff and Wardah,
2006). The communication problem between parents and children not
only cause other problems to their teachers, peers and school but also
cause social problems among teenagers. Teenagers mostly do not like
to share their problems with their parents, especially those of
personal nature due to lack of communication and less monitoring
from their parents. They also claimed that parents are more formal in
their communication and rigid in their approach (Wan Norasiah,
2003) and such ways of communication certainly would further
aggravate their relationship, thus affecting parental monitoring and
attention to their kids.
In addition, ineffective communication would result to parents
neglect and being less affectionate to the kids. There are also parents
who give total freedom to their children without parental monitoring
and supervision with their understanding that the kids are matured
enough to think and to act accordingly (Wan Norasiah, 2003). In
reality although adolescents seem to be growing as adults physically,
the real fact is that they still need support, guidance and ongoing
monitoring of their life affairs. This is supported by Wan Norasiah
(2003) who states that parents who are not paying attention and not
being affectionate enough for their children will result to their kids
turning their attention to their peers and making them as consultants
instead of their parents for their problem-solving and decisionmaking.
Local researchers in their studies have proven that relationship
between the parents and their teenage children with communication
problems are facing relationship problem among them. Azlina et. al.,
(2005), based on a survey that was conducted jointly with colleagues
585
entitled "Kebimbangan Akademik dan Kerjaya Serta Hubungan
Kekeluargaan : Satu Tinjauan Terhadap Golongan Remaja di Luar
Bandar," shows that teenagers who are growing up are having
communication problem in their family relationships. About 76% of
adolescents in their study found that teenagers never told their secret
to their parents, while 54% of respondents indicated that teenagers
need love and 51% are looking for more freedom at home. Parents
who are unaware of activities carried out by their children or do not
monitor their activities could lead to behavior misconducts among
adolescents and involvement to social problems such as drug abuse
and promiscuity.
Parental Status
Single parents monitoring also seems to be one of the causes that lead
to parents and child relationship problems and weakness in parental
monitoring. Parents who are living together are seen as less
problematic in their monitoring compared with monitoring from
single parents. There are studies that show parents who look after
their children together could minimize the risk of behavioral
problems among adolescents compared with single parents.
According to Griffin et. al., (2000) reported that due to divorce and
being raised by a single parent, resulted that boys engaged in the
highest rates of problem behavior. Furthermore, the economic
deprivation and the lack of relationship can provide a more accurate
description for why adolescents student from single-father families
do poorly in school (Downey, 1995).
Anti-social Parents
Parents who are stucked with criminal cases are typically weak
parents in monitoring their children's activities (Shader, 2009). As
their teens find out that their parents involved in unhealthy activities
such as crime, they feel the need to have a stable home to support
586
positive development in their lives. Without a stable environment,
they will turn to peers that may lead to negative behavior that could
lead adolescents’ students to unhealthy activities.
IMPLICATIONS
In general, the researchers found that there were previous studies that
look at the result of weakness on parental monitoring that affect
several aspects of adolescents. There have been reports of previous
researches that show the impact on adolescents could lead to
symptoms of depression, lower self-esteem and lower academic
achievement. Adolescents student who are not controlled and
monitored by parents may be experiencing emotional problems when
they are in need of emotional support from their parents (Shader,
2009). In fact, there are also researchers in their clinical studies
reported the need for intervention research in changing the way
parents control their children (Crouter et al, 1990; Gil-Rivas et al,
2003).
Furthermore, weakness in parental monitoring could also lead
to students experiencing social problems through their negative
lifestyle and social practices such as truancy among adolescents
(Smelser, 1976). In addition, a survey conducted by Haris (2004)
entitled, " Masalah Sosial di Bandar Semenanjung Malaysia:
Tinjauan Daripada Perspektif Masyarakat Malaysia," reported that
one of the social behaviors among adolescent male students across a
southern zone city in Malaysia shows that smoking is the first highest
of misconducts among male teenagers, followed by drug abuse and
loitering as the third highest. For female adolescents, their highest
misconduct is concerned with disciplinary problems at school,
followed by loitering. Some findings of this data show how crucial
the parental role is in monitoring their children activities while the
teenagers are being away from home and socializing with their circle
of friends. In fact, the problems caused by adolescents’ student are
simply because of their teenage unfulfilled desires.
The lack of monitoring even with the support of parents may
587
lead to increased symptoms of bullying among adolescents at school
(Bourke and Burgman, 2010). A number of previous studies state that
in order to prevent bullying among students we need the support of
parents and helping the socio-emotional aspect of adolescents’
student. (Bronfenbrenner, 1977).
CONCLUSION
Therefore, researchers of this study hope that there will be more
comprehensive studies conducted in the future as an effort to change
ways of parental monitoring. Additionally, there should also be
intervention studies in order to overcome implications among
adolescents in schools.
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KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL
KESEDIAAN GURU DALAM
MELAKSANAKAN
PENTAKSIRAN BERASASKAN
SEKOLAH (PBS)
DI SEKOLAH MENENGAH
SEMENANJUNG MALAYSIA
Sivakkumar A/L Balakrishnan, Muhammad Sukri Saud
ABSTRAK
Artikel ini membincangkan tentang Kerangka Konseptual
Kesediaan Guru Dalam Melaksanakan Pentaksiran Berasaskan
Sekolah (PBS) di Sekolah Menengah Semenanjung Malaysia.
Dalam konteks Pendidikan Malaysia, perubahan dalam Pendidikan
Malaysia membuatkan guru perlu peka terhadap perubahan yang
berlaku. Guru perlu melengkapkan diri secara holistik dalam
melaksanakan PBS di sekolah. Kajian ini berpontensi untuk
dilaksanakan bagi mengkaji aspek kesediaan guru dalam
melaksanakan PBS berdasarkan domain Kognitif, domain Afektif
dan domain Psikomotor melalui tiga bahagian iaitu input, proses
dan output. Kajian ini adalah bersifat mix-method yang
menggunakan dua kaedah iaitu pendekatan penyelidikan kualitatif
dan kaedah kuantitatif. Adalah diharapkan dapatan daripada
592
kajian dapat diperjelaskan tentang tahap kesediaan guru dalam
melaksanakan Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah.
Kata Kunci : Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah, Kesediaan Guru,
Kognitif, Afektif, Psikomotor
PENGENALAN
Pendidikan berperanan sebagai pembentuk bangsa dengan
mengeluarkan tenaga manusia mahir, melahirkan insan harmonis,
warga negara yang cekap, beretika, berilmu dan beriman,
berkebolehan, berfikiran terbuka, kreatif dan inovatif, bijak
mencari dan menggunakan maklumat yang diperoleh dan boleh
buat kerja sendiri. Pendidikan di Malaysia digubal berdasarkan
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan yang menekankan kesepaduan
antara ilmu pengetahuan, kemahiran, sikap dan nilai murni (Pusat
Perkembangan Kurikulum,1992) Menurut Abdul Rahim (2007),
proses pengesanan kurikulum perlu dilakukan untuk mengesan
perkara-perkara yang boleh dibaiki dan meningkatkan aspek kualiti
kurikulum yang sedia ada. Pengenalan kepada kurikulum baru
adalah bertujuan untuk mengalihkan sistem pendidikan yang
berorientasikan peperiksaan kepada kurikulum yang lebih dinamik
dan progresif pada masa akan datang. ( Ngui,1993).
Pada masa era globalisasi ini, organisasi pendidikan
hendaklah bergerak seiring dengan perubahan-perubahan yang
diperlukan oleh masyarakat abad ke-21 bagi tujuan mencapai
aspirasi negara untuk mendapat taraf negara maju bertonggakkan
kepada Falsafah Pendidikan Negara dan Wawasan 2020.
Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah merupakan satu usaha untuk
membangunkan modal insan secara holistik melalui penekanan
terhadap pengusaan ilmu pengetahuan, kemahiran, pengamalan
nilai dan pembudayaan sikap progresif seperti yang terkandung
Pelan Induk Pembangunan Pendidikan (PIPP) 2006-2010.
Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah dilaksanakan mulai 1 Februari
2012 di sekolah menengah melalui surat pekeliling lembaga
593
peperiksaan No rujukan KP/LP/003.07.14 (2). Surat pekeliling ini
dikeluarkan
dengan
tujuan
memaklumkan
tentang
penambahbaikan PBS bagi penilaian menengah rendah mulai
tahun 2012. Bagi memantapkan sistem pentaksiran dan penilaian
supaya lebih holistik. Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah
diperkenalkan dalam bidang pendidikan dimana komponen
pentaksiran dikendalikan oleh pihak sekolah dan pentaksiran
dilaksanakan oleh guru-guru matapelajaran secara berterusan
dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran (Lembaga Peperiksaan,
2011). Pengajaran dan pembelajaran di peringkat sekolah
menengah menggunakan Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Menengah
(KSSM), ( Lembaga Peperiksaan 2011). Pentaksiran ini diyakini
dapat melahirkan modal insan yang holistik serta seimbang dari
segi jasmani, emosi, intelek dan rohani (JERI) seperti yang
diaspirasikan dalam Falsafah Pendidikan Negara.( Lembaga
peperiksaan 2011).
Pada tahun-tahun kebelakangan ini cara penilaian baru
mula muncul di beberapa negara. Ini adalah hasil daripada
perdebatan yang bertindan berkenaan tujuan dan kaedah penilaian,
Messick (1994) dan impak terhadap pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
Dalam
penyelidikan
berkenaan
bagaimana
guru-guru
menguatkuasakan inisiatif baru dalam kurikulum (McRobbie &
Tobin,1995; Tobin & LaMaster,1995) adalah didapati bahawa
falsafah tentang inovasi kurikulum adalah banyak berbeza daripada
teori dan kepercayaan guru. Cabaran ini memerlukan guru-guru
menstruktur semula sistem keperc