CHAPTER 3
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
 EXPANDED LEARNING OUTCOMES 
Textbook Core LO: What is stress and what are its major sources and effects?
1. Differentiate between stress and stressors, eustress and distress (p. 94-95).
2. Describe research findings related to Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating
Scale, chronic stressors, daily hassles, frustrations, and burnout (pp. 95-97)
3. Contrast the three basic conflicts (p. 97-98).
4. Describe the physiological effects of stress (pp. 99-101).
Textbook Core LO: How is stress related to serious illness?
5. Describe how stress is related to cancer (pp. 102-103).
6. Explain the relationship between stress and heart disease (p. 103).
7. Contrast Type A and Type B personalities and describe the research and treatment
regarding them (p. 104).
8. Describe hardiness and state how it is related to stress (p. 105).
9. Describe how stress is related to PTSD and gastric ulcers (pp. 105-107).
Textbook Core LO: How is health psychology involved with tobacco, alcohol, and chronic pain?
10. Define health psychology and identify major occupational options for health
psychologists (p.108).
11. Describe factors that lead to smoking, its consequences, preventions, and how to quit (pp.
108-111).
12. Discuss binge drinking on college campuses and around the world (pp. 111-112).
13. Describe the role of psychologists in helping people deal with chronic pain (p. 113)
14. Describe biofeedback and relaxation therapy for chronic pain (pp. 113-114).
Textbook Core LO: What techniques and resources are available to help people stay healthy
and cope with stress?
15. Contrast emotion-focused and problem-focused forms of coping with stress (pp. 115116).
16. List coping resources and techniques, and describe how each improves coping (pp. 116118).
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 81
 CHAPTER 3 OUTLINE 
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
Module 3.1: Understanding
Stress
 Sources of Stress
 Effects of Stress
Applying Psychology to Student
Life: Why You Shouldn’t
Procrastinate
Module 3.2: Stress And Illness
 Cancer
 Cardiovascular Disorders
 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
(PTSD)
 Gastric Ulcers
Module 3.3: Health Psychology
In Action
Applying Psychology to Work:
Would You Like to be a Health
Psychologist?
 Tobacco
 Alcohol
 Chronic Pain
Module 3.4: Health And Stress
Management
 Emotion- and Problem-Focused
Forms of Coping
 Resources for Healthy Living
Applying Psychology to Everyday
Life: Is My Job Stressful?
 ICON KEY 
A checkmark designates the first question for each new LEARNING OBJECTIVE
in the current chapter.
A key designates the first question related to a KEY TERM. All other questions for
that key term are grouped together immediately following that question.
An open book designates each REVIEW QUESTION exactly as it appears in the
Check & Review sections of the chapter.
A smiley face designates a JUST FOR FUN question. (Note: Several questions
distributed throughout each chapter contain single just-for-fun answers, but are not
marked with this icon.)
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 82
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 
UNDERSTANDING STRESS
1.
In your text, the physical and mental arousal to situations or events that we
perceive as threatening or challenging is called _____.
a.
distress
b.
eustress
c.
stress
d.
all of these options
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 94
2.
Which of the following is NOT a stressor?
a.
winning the lottery
b.
a death in the family
c.
taking a test
d.
all of these options ARE stressors
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: pp. 94-95
3.
You have a minor car accident after which you experience sweaty palms,
rapid breathing, and a racing heart. In this situation, _____ is the stressor,
and _____ is the stress.
a.
your racing heart; the accident
b.
the accident; your physical reaction
c.
your sweaty palms; your rapid breathing
d.
the accident; the accident
4.
Desmond sees an attractive woman whom he would like to meet. As he
approaches her, his heart starts racing and his pupils dilate. In this
situation, _____ is the stressor, and _____ is the stress.
a.
Desmond; Desmond’s attraction to the woman
b.
approaching the attractive woman; Desmond’s racing heart
c.
Desmond’s racing heart and dilated pupils; the attractive woman
d.
none of these options; this is an enjoyable experience
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 94
5.
According to Selye, distress is _____.
a.
positive or negative
b.
the result of internal stressors
c.
the result of external stressors
d.
unpleasant and objectionable
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 95
6.
According to Selye, pleasant, desirable stress is called _____.
a.
eustress
b.
pseudo-stress
c.
excitement
d.
happiness
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 95
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 94
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 83
7.
John was planning to ask Susan to marry him. When he saw Susan kissing
another man at a party, he was quite upset. In this situation, John’s seeing
Susan kissing another man is _____, and it illustrates _____.
a.
a stressor; distress
b.
eustress; a stressor
c.
distress; a stressor
d.
a stressor; eustress
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: pp. 94-95
8.
Which of the following situations is the BEST example of eustress?
a.
Akiko is struggling to complete the last mile of her first triathlon.
b.
Mose is performing his standard, moderate workout at the gym.
c.
Alban just sprained his ankle playing a grueling tennis match.
d.
Both Akiko and Mose best exemplify eustress.
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 95
9.
The end result of a total absence of stress is _____.
a.
euphoria
b.
eustress
c.
death
d.
nirvana
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 95
10. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale constructed by Holmes and Rahe
measures the stress in a person’s life on the basis of _____.
a.
life changes
b.
stress tolerance
c.
daily hassles
d.
the balance between eustress and distress
11. This is a TRUE statement about SRRS scores.
a.
b.
c.
d.
High scores cause an increase in illness.
They are correlated with illness.
Illness causes high scores.
Scores of 150-199 are associated with an 80% chance of illness.
12. _____ is one of the largest sources of chronic stress for adults.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Birth
Work
Christmas
Moving
13. Which of the following persons is MOST likely to experience chronic
stress?
a.
Zachary’s father died of a heart attack three weeks ago.
b.
Junko has been in labor for 10 hours so far.
c.
Wen-Ho is stuck on a Los Angeles freeway at rush hour.
d.
Paulette is shy and attending a new high school.
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 95
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 96
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 96
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 96
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 84
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
14. Small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes become a
major source of stress are called _____.
a.
hassles
b.
stressors
c.
chronic stressors
d.
frustrators
15. Compared to _____ tend to have more impairment of their immune
systems in response to hassles (Delahanty et al., 2000).
a.
students, teachers
b.
women, men
c.
fathers, mothers
d.
mothers, fathers
16. Moving to a new city is considered a _____, whereas filling out change of
address cards for all of your subscriptions and creditors is considered a
_____.
a.
distressor; eustressor
b.
stressor; frustrator
c.
stressor; hassle
d.
hassle; minor problem
17. A state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion attributable to longterm involvement in emotionally demanding situations is called _____.
a.
primary conflict
b.
technostress
c.
burnout
d.
secondary conflict
18. This is NOT among the 10 most common hassles for college students
found in a study by Karner et al. (1981).
a.
troubling thoughts about the future
b.
not getting enough sleep
c.
failing exams
d.
wasting time
19. Samsara is an idealistic person who is exposed to chronic stress in her
emotionally draining job as an air traffic controller. The BEST term to
describe what Samsara is likely to experience as a result of this situation is
_____.
a.
burnout
b.
frustration
c.
technostress
d.
work hassles
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 96
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: pp. 95, 96
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: A
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
CHAPTER 3
20. This person is LEAST likely to experience burnout.
a.
b.
c.
d.
doctor
teacher
police officer
secretary
21. _____ is an unpleasant state of tension, anxiety, and heightened
sympathetic activity that results from a blocked goal.
a.
Frustration
b.
Hostility
c.
Conflict
d.
Anger
22. Tanner wants to make his mother’s favorite dish for her birthday today but
has no cardamom, an essential ingredient. He tries, unsuccessfully, to
borrow some from three of his neighbors. He drives to several stores—
none of them have it. The negative emotion Tanner is now experiencing
_____.
a.
an avoidance-avoidance conflict
b.
the failure syndrome
c.
frustration
d.
stress-induced anger
23. According to your text, the degree of frustration you feel is related to
_____.
a.
the number of stressors in your life
b.
your level of motivation to achieve a blocked goal
c.
the ratio of intrinsic to extrinsic motivators in the situation
d.
your innate frustration threshold
24. An elevator got stuck between floors and kept its occupants trapped for
hours. Which of the occupants was likely to experience the MOST
frustration?
a.
the hyperactive child who was late for school
b.
the husband who was late for breakfast with his mother-in-law
c.
the woman who was late for her job interview
d.
the man who was late for root canal work at his dentist’s office
25. A negative emotional state caused by having to choose between two or
more incompatible goals or impulses is called _____.
a.
frustration
b.
conflict
c.
stress
d.
hostility
PAGE 85
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 97
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 86
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
26. In an approach-approach conflict, a person must choose between two or
more goals that will lead to _____.
a.
less conflict
b.
frustration
c.
a desirable result
d.
effective coping
27. In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, a person must choose between two or
more goals that will lead to _____.
a.
more conflict
b.
hostility
c.
an undesirable result
d.
ineffective coping
28. In an _____ conflict, a person must choose between two or more alternatives
that each have both desirable and undesirable results.
a.
approach-approach
b.
avoidance-avoidance
c.
approach-avoidance
d.
none of these options
29. Which of the following is an approach-avoidant conflict?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Choice A  positive result; Choice B  positive result
Choice A  positive result; Choice B  negative result
Choice A  negative result; Choice B  negative result
Choice A or B positive and negative result
30. Holmes is running for congress and has to decide whether to tell the truth
about his use of drugs in high school. This is an example of _____.
a.
politics as usual
b.
moral decay at the highest levels
c.
the problem with a democracy
d.
an approach-avoidance conflict
31. Moya really wants to study so she can pass her psychology exam tomorrow,
but she also wants to go out with her new boyfriend tonight. This is an
example of _____ conflict.
a.
an approach-approach
b.
an avoidance-avoidance
c.
an approach-avoidance
d.
all three kinds of
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: A
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
CHAPTER 3
32. Three-year-old Cory wants to stay up, but his parents gave him the
following two choices: go to bed now or in five minutes. This is an
example of _____ conflict.
a.
an approach-approach
b.
an avoidance-avoidance
c.
an approach-avoidance
d.
all three kinds of
33. The most difficult conflict to resolve is usually the _____ conflict.
a.
b.
c.
d.
avoidance-avoidance
approach-approach
approach-avoidance
none of these options
34. The fight or flight response is triggered by the _____ nervous system.
a.
b.
c.
d.
sympathetic
synthetic
GAS
parasympathetic
35. The release of cortisol during the fight or flight response occurs at the end
of the _____ pathway.
a.
Pituitary, Hypothalamus, Adrenal cortex
b.
Pituitary, Adrenal cortex, Hypothalamus
c.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal cortex
d.
Adrenal Cortex, Hypothalamus, Pituitary
36. _____ plays a critical role in the long-term effects of stress, and is the most
common measure of stress.
a.
Epinephrine
b.
Norepinephrine
c.
Insulin
d.
Cortisol
37. _____ is the interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of psychological
factors on the immune system.
a.
Psychosomatology
b.
Neurobiology
c.
Psychoneuroimmunology
d.
Biopneurosychology
38. A physiological alarm reaction to severe stress, followed by resistance, and
ending with exhaustion is known as _____.
a.
the fight or flight response
b.
the general adaptation syndrome
c.
an approach-avoidance conflict
d.
the aggression-frustration-surrender sequence
PAGE 87
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 99
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 100
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 100
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 100
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 88
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
39. In Selye’s general adaptation syndrome theory of stress, the initial response
of the autonomic nervous system to a stressor occurs in the _____ phase.
a.
resistance
b.
primary response
c.
global responsiveness
d.
alarm reaction
40. During the _____ phase of Selye’s theory of stress, considerable energy is
expended to adapt to the stressor.
a.
secondary response
b.
accelerated responsiveness
c.
resistance
d.
platonic
41. After exposure to a severe and prolonged stressor, illness and death may
occur in the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
a.
terminal
b.
stagnation
c.
tertiary depletion
d.
exhaustion
42. This is a disease of adaptation that may occur after the resistance phase of the
GAS.
a.
b.
c.
d.
asthma
high blood pressure
ulcers
all of these options
43. Than was recently laid off. His bills are piling up, he hasn’t found a new job,
yet, his wife is pregnant, and his blood pressure is rising. Which phase of the
general adaptation syndrome is he MOST likely experiencing?
a.
resistance
b.
alarm
c.
exhaustion
d.
burnout
44. As Michael watches his instructor pass out papers, he suddenly realizes this
is the first major exam and he is totally unprepared. Which phase of the GAS
is the he most likely experiencing?
a.
resistance
b.
alarm
c.
exhaustion
d.
phaseout
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
ANS: A
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
CHAPTER 3
45. Compared to non-procrastinators, research suggests that student
procrastinators _____.
a.
earn similar grades on term papers
b.
experience more stress over time
c.
experience similar health problems
d.
earn higher grades and experience less stress
PAGE 89
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
STRESS AND ILLNESS
46. Which of the following has been implicated in the origins or progression of
cancer-related diseases?
a.
heredity
b.
the environment
c.
changes in the body’s immune system
d.
all of these options
47. According to your text, most people do NOT have cancer because _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the immune system keeps cancer cells in check
they engage in essentially healthy habits
the fight or flight syndrome increases the number of natural killer
cells
the general adaptation syndrome prevents the growth of cancer cells
48. Which of the following persons is NOT adversely affecting his immune
system functioning?
a.
a new dad whose sleep is frequently interrupted by his baby’s crying
b.
a high school student who stays up all night to party
c.
a college student who stays up all night to study
d.
all of these people are adversely affecting their immune systems
49. _____ is the general term for all disorders that affect the heart muscle
which can ultimately result in heart failure.
a.
Heart attack
b.
Atherosclerosis
c.
Angina
d.
Heart disease
50. Simon is experiencing chest pain due to an insufficient blood supply to the
heart; Saul’s coronary arteries are nearly blocked, which is slowing blood
flow to his heart; and Sean has just experienced the death of some of his
heart muscle tissue. What do these men have in common?
a.
angina
b.
atherosclerosis
c.
heart attack
d.
heart disease
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 5
TEXT: pp. 102-03
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 5
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 5
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 103
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 90
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
51. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
a.
b.
c.
d.
arteriosclerosis: a thickening of coronary artery walls that reduces or
blocks blood flow to the heart
angina: a failure of the heart to pump sufficient blood to the brain
heart attack: the death of heart muscle tissue
all of these options are correctly matched
52. The two chemicals released during the fight or flight stress response that
are associated with the development of heart disease are _____.
a.
high-density and low-density cholesterol
b.
adrenaline and epinephrine
c.
cortisol and epinephrine
d.
insulin and leptin
53. Stress increases the risk of heart disease because unused fat cells released
during the stress response may _____.
a.
erode the muscles of the heart
b.
force the heart to beat too rapidly
c.
be deposited on and block coronary arteries
d.
increase HDL cholesterol levels
54. A calm, patient, relaxed attitude toward life is associated with _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
an under-achiever
a Type B personality
a cancer patient
all of these options
55. Intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical,
hostile outlook on life are associated with _____.
a.
over achievement
b.
Type A personalities
c.
most heart disease patients
d.
all of these options
56. Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics associated with
Type-A personality?
a.
time urgency
b.
patience
c.
competition
d.
hostility
57. Research suggests that this Type A characteristic is MOST associated with
heart disease.
a.
intense ambition
b.
impatience
c.
cynical hostility
d.
time urgency
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
CHAPTER 3
58. People with cynical hostility are more prone to heart disease because _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
they are nearly always in a stressful state
their hostility and suspiciousness create interpersonal conflicts
they lack social support
all of these options
59. Dr. Sidney is getting individual counseling, dietary advice, exercise,
medications, and group therapy to reduce his Type A behaviors. This is known
as the _____ approach to treating harmful Type A characteristics.
a.
an unethical
b.
a short-term
c.
the shotgun
d.
the target
60. Dr. Friedman is treating a Type A client by modifying only the cynical hostility
that is associated with heart disease. Dr. Friedman is practicing _____.
a.
the target behavior approach
b.
unethically
c.
ineffectively
d.
long-term therapy
61. People who interpret change as challenging and interesting rather than
threatening or frustrating are exhibiting _____.
a.
Type B thinking
b.
Type A thinking
c.
hardiness
d.
foolishness
62. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics associated with
hardiness?
a.
challenge
b.
competition
c.
commitment
d.
control
63. Charles is eager to start a new career, committed to solve any problems that
come his way, and believes he has control over what happens in his life. This
suggests that Charles _____.
a.
has a Type A personality
b.
is psychologically hardy
c.
is at risk for a heart attack
d.
suffers from delusions of grandiosity
64. Hardiness is _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
based on genetics
learned
undesirable
positively correlated with cancer and heart disease
PAGE 91
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
ANS: A
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 7
TEXT: p. 104
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 8
TEXT: p. 105
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 8
TEXT: p. 105
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 8
TEXT: p. 105
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 8
TEXT: p. 105
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 92
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
65. People who experience flashbacks, nightmares, and impaired functioning
following a life-threatening or other horrifying event are _____.
a.
suffering from a psychosomatic illness
b.
experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder
c.
having a nervous breakdown
d.
weaker than people who take such events in stride
66. A man was viciously beaten three months ago and is suffering from PTSD.
Which of the following symptoms is he LEAST likely to develop?
a.
nightmares and sleep disturbances
b.
withdrawal from personal relationships
c.
manic and depressive episodes
d.
severe anxiety and loss of control
67. Ulcers are associated with _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the H. pylori bacterium
an increase in stress hormones and hydrochloric acid
a decrease in blood flow to the stomach
all of these options
68. The _____ plays an important role in gastric ulcer formation.
a.
b.
c.
d.
amygdala
pons
medulla
somatosensory cortex
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 9
TEXT: p. 105
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 9
TEXT: p. 105
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 9
TEXT: p. 107
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 9
TEXT: p. 107
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION
69. _____ psychology studies how biological, psychological, and social factors
affect health and illness.
a.
Biopsychosocial
b.
Neuroc.
Health
d.
Psychosomatic
70. Which of the following is TRUE of health psychology?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It studies the relationship between psychological behavior and
physical health.
It studies the relationship between psychological behavior and
illness.
It emphasizes wellness and the prevention of illness.
all of these options
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 10
TEXT: p. 108
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 10
TEXT: p. 108
CHAPTER 3
71. Which of the following would NOT be researched by health
psychologists?
a.
work pressures
b.
broken bones
c.
life-threatening situations
d.
chronic illness
72. A health psychologist is LEAST likely to _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
study interpersonal relationships among nurses and doctors
teach people to be more assertive or less aggressive
inform patients and their families regarding what to expect during or
after surgery
educate the public regarding health maintenance
73. King James I wrote that _____ was “loathsome to the eye, hateful to the
nose, harmful to the brain, [and] dangerous to the lungs.”
a.
soap
b.
flatulence
c.
sea air
d.
smoking
74. Antismoking laws _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
have had no effect on smokers
have made it easier for most smokers to quit
may make it harder for some smokers to quit
have caused withdrawal symptoms in second-hand smokers
75. According to your text, a primary reason young people begin smoking is
_____.
a.
a desire to rebel against parents
b.
a desire to rebel against society
c.
social pressure from peers
d.
exposure to second-hand smoke, which triggers a biological need for
nicotine
76. Rewards for smoking come from ______.
a.
b.
c.
d.
the relief of withdrawal symptoms
an association with pleasant social events
a nicotine “high” within seconds of inhalation
all of these options
77. The effects of nicotine are related to the release of _____ in the brain.
a.
b.
c.
d.
acetylcholine and dopamine
norepinephrine and acetylcholine
dopamine and norepinephrine
acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine
PAGE 93
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TEXT: p. 108
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 10
TEXT: p. 108
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 108
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 109
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 109
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 110
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 111
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 94
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
78. If you are mounting a campaign to prevent young people from taking up
smoking, you are likely to get the BEST results if you emphasize the
_____.
a.
serious, unhealthy, long-term effects of tobacco use
b.
number of adults who die from smoking
c.
value of having a relatively healthy retirement
d.
short-term detrimental effects of tobacco use
79. Which two factors make it hard to quit smoking?
a.
b.
c.
d.
changes in acetylcholine and serotonin production
social rewards and physical addiction to nicotine
physical addiction and an external LOC
physical withdrawal symptoms and an internal locus of control
80. Which of the following may be the MOST effective method of quitting
smoking?
a.
cognitive strategies
b.
behavioral strategies
c.
nicotine replacement therapy
d.
a combination of all these options
81. This is NOT a behavioral strategy for quitting smoking: _____ when the
urge to smoke strikes.
a.
Chewing gum
b.
Sucking on cinnamon candy
c.
Putting on a nicotine patch
d.
Walking around the office
82. According to your text, no program to quit smoking can work without
_____.
a.
a nicotine patch or gum
b.
computer-tailored self-help plan
c.
strong personal motivation
d.
all of these options
83. On three occasions in the last two weeks, Arash consumed 5 drinks in a
row and his girlfriend consumed 4 drinks in a row. This means that _____
met the definition for binge drinking.
a.
Arash
b.
his girlfriend
c.
both Arash and his girlfriend
d.
neither Arash nor his girlfriend
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S):11
TEXT: p. 110
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 110
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 111
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 111
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 111
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 12
TEXT: p. 111
CHAPTER 3
84. If you frequently drink 4 or 5 alcoholic drinks at a sitting, this means you
_____.
a.
are a binge drinker
b.
have a better than average metabolism for alcohol
c.
have an average metabolism for alcohol
d.
are like most other drinkers your age
85. In one college survey, _____ students were the heaviest drinking and
_____ students were the mildest.
a.
female; male
b.
Native American Indian; white/Caucasian
c.
white/Caucasian; black/African-American
d.
white/Caucasian; Asian/Pacific Islanders
86. Any pain that continues or recurs for six months or more is considered to
be _____.
a.
life-threatening
b.
chronic
c.
psychosomatic
d.
caused by an incompetent physician
87. Which of the following is TRUE about the relationship between chronic
pain and psychological factors?
a.
Psychological factors are the most common source of chronic pain.
b.
Psychological factors can encourage or intensify chronic pain.
c.
both of these options
d.
none of these options
88. An increase in activity and exercise levels can be beneficial to pain patients
because exercise increases the release of _____.
a.
endorphins
b.
insulin
c.
acetylcholine
d.
norepinephrine
89. Encouraging someone with chronic pain to talk about the pain is a(n)
_____ strategy because her anxiety and pain are likely to _____.
a.
effective; decrease
b.
ineffective; increase
c.
neutral; remain the same
d.
effective; increase at first, then decrease over time
90. Today, many pain control programs “prescribe” _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
use of non-narcotic pain medications
family helpers
antianxiety medications
exercise and relaxation
PAGE 95
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
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TEXT: p. 111
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 12
TEXT: p. 112
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
91. If you wanted to help someone you know with their chronic pain
symptoms, which of the following should you do?
a.
Praise him for following doctor’s orders.
b.
Offer to do chores and run errands.
c.
Ask him how he is feeling.
d.
Express your sympathy for his pain.
92. In _____, information about physiological functioning, such as heart rate or
blood pressure, is monitored and displayed to help an individual learn to
control these functions.
a.
behavior modification
b.
electromyography
c.
biofeedback
d.
gate-control monitoring
93. The _____ measures muscle tension and provides feedback regarding a
patient’s level of relaxation.
a.
EMG
b.
EKG
c.
EGG
d.
EEG
94. EMG stands for _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
electromyography
early morning grump
every man’s gripe
excessively macho grouch
95. Biofeedback with the EMG has been effective in treating _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
tension headaches and lower back pain
sports injuries
migraine headaches
upper, lower, and middle back pain
96. Relaxation techniques are used for each of the following reasons EXCEPT
_____.
a.
to divert attention away from pain
b.
to relieve anxiety that accompanies stress and chronic pain
c.
to relieve bodily tension that contributes to pain
d.
to eliminate the pain
ANS: A
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 14
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 14
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 14
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 14
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 14
TEXT: p. 113
HEALTH AND STRESS MANAGEMENT
97. In simple terms, coping is defined in your text as _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
avoiding stress
attenuating stress
managing stress in an effective way
solving problems
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 114
CHAPTER 3
98. Emotion-focused forms of coping are based on changing your _____ when
faced with stressful situations.
a.
feelings
b.
perceptions
c.
strategies
d.
all of these options
99. Unconscious strategies used to distort reality and relieve anxiety and guilt
are called _____.
a.
defense mechanisms
b.
cognitive reappraisals
c.
juvenile thinking
d.
primary process thinking
100. Rationalization is a(an) _____ that can be ineffective or dangerous even
though it may reduce short-term anxiety or guilt.
a.
problem solving strategy
b.
extrinsic excuse
c.
defense mechanism
d.
cognitive-behavioral strategy
101. Fantasy and humor are _____ forms of coping.
a.
b.
c.
d.
emotion-focused
problem-focused
ineffective
juvenile
102. Which of the following persons is EFFECTIVELY using emotion-focused
coping?
a.
Roscoe rationalized that his poor grade on the math test was because
his teacher was boring.
b.
Logan rationalized that not making the basketball team would give
him more time to focus on his studies and finish college sooner.
c.
Evadne decided that all men were jerks after being dumped by five
guys in five years.
d.
Dolores decided to ignore the lump in her breast, telling herself that
it was probably no big deal.
103. A small plane just crashed in your neighborhood. You take a fire
extinguisher and blankets to the scene, then stand back and pray when you
realize there is nothing you can do to help. In this situation, praying is an
example of _____ coping.
a.
problem-focused
b.
emotion-focused
c.
active
d.
passive
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TYPE: FACTUAL
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ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
104. Problem-focused forms of coping strategies focus on _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
functional fixedness
decreasing or eliminating the source of stress
situational reappraisal
all of these options
105. If the circumstances that are creating your stress can be changed, _____
forms of coping are likely to be MOST effective.
a.
problem-focused
b.
emotion-focused
c.
Lazarus’s
d.
Folkman’s
106. If you want to apply a problem-focused form of coping to answering difficult
questions on this exam, your BEST strategy would be to _____.
a.
make a guess and cross your fingers
b.
argue with your teacher after class that some questions were unfair
c.
mark and return to answer them after checking other questions for
clues
d.
all of these options
107. A small plane just crashed in your neighborhood. You take a fire
extinguisher and blankets to the scene, then stand back and pray when you
realize there is nothing you can do to help. Which behavior is an example of
a problem-focused form of coping?
a.
realizing there is nothing you can do to help
b.
praying
c.
taking the extinguisher and blankets to the scene
d.
all of these actions are problem-focused
108. Which of the following situations would be MORE effectively handled with
emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping?
a.
You are too sick to make it to your final exam in chemistry, the last
class you need before graduation.
b.
Your best friend is being treated for testicular cancer.
c.
You have very little money, your dog is very sick, and your insurance
plan doesn’t cover pets.
d.
You really need a new car.
109. Many difficult problems or events in your life will require _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
emotion-focused coping
problem-focused coping
both emotion- and problem-focused coping
a belief in a higher power
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: A
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: pp. 115-16
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: pp. 115-16
ANS: C
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: pp. 115-16
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: pp. 115116
CHAPTER 3
110. Which of the following is NOT among the coping resources listed in your
text?
a.
b.
c.
d.
religious commitment
money
social skills
health and energy
111. In terms of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, coping occurs in the
_____ stage.
a.
alarm
b.
resistance
c.
exhaustion
d.
resolution
112. Research on exercise and stress has found which of the following to be
TRUE?
a.
It produces stress hormones, and can be more harmful than good.
b.
It exacerbates the muscle tension that builds up during stress.
c.
It increases strength and stamina for coping with future stress.
d.
Only mild or moderate exercise is helpful; strenuous exercise is
detrimental to coping.
113. Positive beliefs are considered a resource for coping. Such beliefs are most
closely related to the concept of _____.
a.
self-actualization
b.
emotion-focused coping
c.
intrinsic motivation
d.
the Type B personality
114. According to Lazarus and Folkman, hope comes from a belief in _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
oneself
powerful others
a higher spiritual belief
all of these options
115. Which of the following is NOT an important social skill that can help you
cope with stress?
a.
the ability to control a conversation
b.
knowledge of appropriate social behavior
c.
a repertoire of conversation-starters
d.
an ability to express what you are thinking and feeling
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TYPE: FACTUAL
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TEXT: p. 116
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 116
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 116
ANS: B
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 111
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 100
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
116. Which of the following is NOT an effective use of social support during a
stressful situation?
a.
A friend or family member can provide an ear to listen, or a hand to
hold.
b.
Friends can point out erroneous assumptions, impractical solutions,
or immoral ideas before you act on them.
c.
You can learn additional coping strategies from others with similar
problems.
d.
You can divert responsibility away from yourself and onto others.
117. Money is an important coping resource because _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
people with money seldom experience stress
it compensates for a lack of other coping resources or skills
it increases your options for eliminating stressors or reducing stress
none of these options; money is not an important coping resource
118. This term refers to a person’s belief that life’s circumstances are under
their internal, personal control or outside, external factors.
a.
localization belief
b.
locus of control
c.
attribution of control
d.
location of efficacy
119. One of the greatest threats to well-being occurs when people _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
believe they have no control over their circumstances
accumulate too much money
use meditation and exercise to cope with external stressors
take charge of their own health
120. When diagnosed with diabetes, Evelyn searched the Internet for
information about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this
disease. Evelyn’s method of coping suggests that she has an _____ locus
of control.
a.
extrinsically motivated
b.
intrinsically motivated
c.
internal
d.
external
121. When diagnosed with diabetes, Derek placed his fate in God’s hands.
Derek’s method of coping suggests that he has an _____ locus of control.
a.
extrinsically motivated
b.
intrinsically motivated
c.
internal
d.
external
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: D
TYPE: APPLIED
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: A
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: C
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
ANS: D
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
CHAPTER 3
122. Research suggests that people with a higher _____ have less psychological
stress than those with ahigher _____.
a.
external locus of control; internal locus of control
b.
internal locus of control; external locus of control
c.
emotion-focused coping style; problem-focused coping style
d.
problem-focused coping style; emotion-focused coping style
123. Which of the following is NOT part of your textbook author’s directions
for progressive relaxation?
a.
Get into a comfortable position.
b.
Begin and end the session with muscles slightly tensed.
c.
Breathe deeply and slowly.
d.
Notice the difference between muscles when they are tense and
relaxed.
PAGE 101
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: pp. 117-18
ANS: B
TYPE: FACTUAL
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 118
 TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS 
1.
Eustress is considered beneficial.
a.
true
b.
false
2.
The Holmes and Rahe scale was based on the premise that all change
(positive or negative) causes stress.
a.
true
b.
false
3.
The most stressful jobs are those that require great creativity and promote
advancement of workers.
a.
true
b.
false
4.
Hassles can be more significant than major life events in creating stress.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 96
5.
Frustration occurs in the absence of motivation.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 97
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 1
TEXT: p. 95
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 95
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 2
TEXT: p. 96
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 102
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
6.
The German soldier’s demand that Sophie choose which of her children
would die, or both would be killed was an example of an approachavoidance conflict.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
7.
Generally, an approach-approach conflict produces the least stress and is
the easiest to resolve.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 3
TEXT: p. 98
8.
Under stress the parasympathetic nervous system causes an increase in
heart rate, blood pressure, respirations, and muscle tension.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 99
9.
The fight or flight response continues to assist modern man in dealing
with highly stressful situations at work.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 100
10.
In the general adaptation syndrome, the alarm reaction occurs first,
followed by the resistance phase and finally, exhaustion.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 101
11.
Physiologic changes during stress can suppress immune system
functioning.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 4
TEXT: p. 100
12.
Because cancer is primarily genetic, there is not much one can do to
decrease their risk for cancer.
a.
true
b.
false
13.
Stress causes an increase in the circulation of fatty substances that can
block arteries and lead to heart disease.
a.
true
b.
false
14.
Cynical hostility is the most important factor in the link between Type A
personality and heart disease.
a.
true
b.
false
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 5
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 103
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 6
TEXT: p. 104
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 103
15.
Control, challenge, and contentment are the three characteristics
associated with hardiness.
a.
true
b.
false
16.
The essential feature of PTSD is experiencing flashbacks of a terrifying
event.
a.
true
b.
false
17.
Anti-smoking laws passed in the 1990’s have made it easier for most
people to quit smoking.
a.
true
b.
false
18.
Evidence shows that smoking is as addictive as heroin, cocaine, and
alcohol.
a.
true
b.
false
19.
Anti-smoking campaigns aimed at teens work best when they stress the
long-term health consequences of smoking.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 110
20.
Binge drinking is practically harmless when done infrequently.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 12
TEXT: p. 111
21.
Both acute and chronic pain serve a useful purpose.
a.
true
b.
false
22.
Asking a chronic pain patient how bad his pain is each day is one way a
family member can help the patient decrease his pain.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
23.
Biofeedback works well to reduce tension headache and lower back pain.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 14
TEXT: p. 113
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 8
TEXT: p. 105
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 9
TEXT: p. 106
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 109
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 11
TEXT: p. 110
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 13
TEXT: p. 113
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 104
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: pp. 115-16
24.
Emotion-focused coping is less effective than problem-focused coping.
a.
true
b.
false
25.
Accurate reappraisal of a difficult situation is one example of problemfocused coping.
a.
true
b.
false
26.
Hope comes from a belief in oneself, a belief in others, or a belief in a
higher spiritual power.
a.
true
b.
false
27.
Money is considered an important coping resource.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
28.
People with a high external locus of control experience less stress than
people with a high internal locus of control.
a.
true
b.
false
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: pp. 117118
ANS: B
OBJ(S): 15
TEXT: p. 115
ANS: A
OBJ(S): 16
TEXT: p. 117
TEST-TAKING TIP: Do not count on the superficial rule that says
teachers scramble answers so that there will not be a string of the same
letters in a row (e.g., 5 “d” answers). Some teachers choose NOT to
scramble the answers, and a pattern may occur by chance.
TEST-TAKING TIP: If you are not satisfied with your performance on
this exam, determine the cause and do something about it. Study more,
talk to the instructor, ask questions in class, form a study group, etc.
Your instructor will work WITH you to improve your learning.
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 105
 STUDENT STUDY GUIDE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 
PRACTICE TEST I
1.
Hans Selye defines stress as the _____.
a.
reaction of the autonomic nervous system to a specific challenge imposed from outside the
body
b.
nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it
c.
activation of the sympathetic nervous system
d.
intellectual response made to any stressor
2.
Distress _____.
a.
a stimulus that causes stress
b.
relative to each culture and everyone within a culture will experience the same stressors
c.
roughly equivalent to punishment
d.
unpleasant, objectionable stress
3.
Life changes may affect health because they _____.
a.
require adjustments in behavior and lifestyle
b.
cause us to reassess our life style
c.
are always the result of something bad happening
d.
are known to increase the level of cortisol above normal
4.
A bad marriage, poor working conditions, and an intolerable political climate are all examples of
possible _____.
a.
life changes
b.
avoidance-avoidance conflicts
c.
chronic stressors
d.
hassles
5.
Trying to decide which of two equally good concerts to attend on a Friday night is a(n) _____.
a.
approach-avoidance conflict
b.
avoidance-avoidance conflict
c.
approach-approach conflict
d.
transitory positive conflict
6.
During ongoing, chronic stress, the _____ stimulates the release of cortisol, a stress hormone
which increases energy.
a.
spinal cord
b.
autonomic nervous system
c.
thalamus
d.
HPA axis
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 106
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
7.
The three phases of the general adaptation syndrome are _____.
a.
preparation, alarm reaction, incubation
b.
alarm reaction, incubation, resistance
c.
alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion
d.
incubation, resistance, exhaustion
8.
This is NOT a factor known to contribute to the onset of cancer.
a.
heredity
b.
essential hypertension
c.
environment
d.
immune system changes
9.
A heart attack is _____.
a.
a disorder of the lining of the heart
b.
death of heart muscle tissue
c.
elevated blood pressure that leads to death
d.
elevated blood pressure because of kidney failure
10. Having a Type-A personality is associated with _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
chronic pain
cancer
smoking cigarettes
heart disease
11. Slow normal speech, relaxed and comfortable posture, and a good sense of humor are
characteristics of _____.
a.
brain disease
b.
Type-A behavior
c.
Type-B behavior
d.
Alzheimer's disease
12. Hardiness is _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
high levels of phenylalanine
a resilient personality characteristic
aerobic stamina
none of the above
13. People who survive a horrific attack or personal tragedy may develop _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
an approach-approach conflict
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a problem-focused form of coping with stress
a Type-A personality
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 107
14. _____ studies the relationship between psychological behavior and physical health/illness, with a
large emphasis on "wellness" and the prevention of illness.
a.
Environmental psychology
b.
Gestalt psychology
c.
Humanistic psychology
d.
Health psychology
15. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, what is the single most
preventable cause of death and disease in the United States?
a.
cigarette smoking
b.
lack of exercise
c.
overeating
d.
heart disease
16. Why do young people start smoking?
a.
b.
c.
d.
peer pressure
imitation of role models
want to look mature
all of the above
17. Which of the following statements about chronic pain is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Chronic pain should never last longer than a few days.
It is the most common reason why people seek medical attention.
Chronic pain is the leading cause of drug addiction in the 45- to 60-year-old age group.
Chronic pain is necessary for survival.
18. Naturally produced brain chemicals that reduce pain perception are called _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
opiates
adrenaline
endorphins
epinephrine
19. Which of the following has been used in an attempt to alleviate chronic pain?
a.
b.
c.
d.
monosodium glutamate therapy
biofeedback
epinephrine injections
complaint-catharsis therapy
20. Which of the following is a good resource for effectively coping with stress?
a.
b.
c.
d.
positive beliefs
health and energy
social skills
all of the above
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 108
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
PRACTICE TEST II
1.
In the 1800’s the major causes of death were ______, but today the major causes are _____.
a.
starvation; obesity
b.
accidents; stress-related illnesses
c.
contagious diseases; non-contagious diseases
d.
physiological; psychological
2.
Physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion attributable to long-term involvement in emotionally
demanding situations is _____.
a.
the result of a large number of hassles
b.
known as burnout
c.
the definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
d.
called “finals week”
3.
_____ is an unpleasant state of tension resulting from a blocked goal.
a.
Conflict
b.
Burnout
c.
Heart disease
d.
Frustration
4.
Having to choose between two or more incompatible goals or impulses is known as _____.
a.
frustration
b.
burnout
c.
distress
d.
conflict
5.
An approach-avoidance conflict is caused by _____.
a.
increasing life demands, hassles, and chronic stressors
b.
an inaccurate or exaggerated response to a real or perceived threat to a valued relationship
c.
having to choose between two or more alternatives, which both have desirable and
undesirable results
d.
a blocked goal
6.
The sympathetic nervous system _____.
a.
is activated by the hypothalamus during stress
b.
increases heart rate
c.
releases hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine
d.
all of the above
7.
_____ is an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of psychological factors on the immune
system.
a.
Health psychology
b.
Psychiatry
c.
Psychneuroimmunology
d.
None of the above
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 109
8.
Hans Selye described a generalized physiological reaction to severe stressors that he called the
_____.
a.
HPA axis
b.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
c.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
d.
internal locus of control (ILOC)
9.
Compared to non-procrastinators, students who procrastinate on class assignments _____.
a.
get higher grades because they work better under pressure
b.
drop out of college in greater numbers
c.
have fewer illnesses because they are less stressed
d.
receive lower grades on term papers
10. Chest pain due to an insufficient blood supply to the heart is called _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
angina
heart disease
atherosclerosis
a heart attack
11. Hardy people see challenges as _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
obstacles to self-actualization
opportunities for growth and improvement
a chance for purposeful activity and problem solving
opportunities for enlisting social support
12. _____ is the major risk factor for coronary heart disease and lung cancer.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Stress
Binge drinking
Smoking
Conflict
13. An increase in acetylcholine and norepinephrine is associated with _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
nicotine
any alcohol consumption
binge drinking
stress
14. Once you begin smoking, you continue because _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
nicotine is addictive
it increases alertness
it stimulates the release of dopamine
all of the above
15. Chronic pain from tension headaches and lower back pain has been effectively treated by _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
EMG biofeedback
EEG biofeedback
psychopharmacology
emotion-focused forms of coping
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 110
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
16. Unconscious strategies used to distort reality and relieve anxiety and guilt are known as _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
problem-focused forms of coping
emotional approaches
burnout
defense mechanisms
17. When you focus on decreasing or eliminating a stressor, you are using _____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
An emotion-focused form of coping
a problem-solving set
a problem-focused form of coping
a practical defense mechanism
18. Taking this practice test is a(n) _____ form of coping.
a.
b.
c.
d.
emotion-focused
overachiever’s
problem-focused
resource enlisted coping style (RECS)
19. A(n) _____ locus of control is associated with better coping skills.
a.
b.
c.
d.
extrinsic
internal
heightened
relaxed
20. This is NOT an effective coping resource.
a.
b.
c.
d.
an external locus of control
an internal locus of control
positive beliefs
social support
PRACTICE TEST I
1. b (p. 94)
2. d (p. 95)
3. a (p. 95)
4. c (p. 95-96)
5. c (p. 98)
6. d (p. 100)
7. c (p. 101)
8. b (p. 102-103)
9. b (p. 103)
10.d (p. 104)
PRACTICE TEST II
11. c (p. 104)
12. b (p. 105)
13. b (p. 105)
14. d (p. 108)
15. a (p. 109)
16. d (p. 109)
17. b (p. 113)
18. c (p. 113)
19. b (p. 113)
20. d (p. 116-117)
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1. c (p. 94)
2. b (p. 97)
3. d (p. 97)
4. d (p. 97)
5. c (p. 98)
6. d (p. 99)
7. c (p. 100)
8. c (p. 101)
9. d (p. 101)
10.a (p.103)
11. b (p. 105)
12. c (p. 109)
13. a (p. 110)
14. d (p. 110)
15. a (p. 113)
16. d (p. 115)
17. c (p. 115)
18. c (p. 116)
19. b (p. 117)
20. a (p. 117)
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 111
 ESSAY QUESTIONS 
1. Using your college experience, describe sources of eustress and distress in the life of a college
student (include definitions and examples of daily hassles and frustrations). State two ways you
could cope with each type of stress. (Objs. 1, 2; pp. 94-97)
2. Define conflict and describe the three basic types of conflict. Using your own life
experiences, provide an example of each of these conflicts, and discuss which was the
hardest to resolve and why. (Obj. 3; p. 97-98)
3. Contrast the fight-flight response, the HPA Axis, and the general adaptation syndrome
with regard to each of their effects on health and the immune system during stress. (Obj. 4;
pp. 99-101)
4. Define Type A and Type B personality characteristics. State the characteristics that place Type A
personalities at risk for heart disease. Briefly explain the shotgun and target behavior treatment
approaches. (Obj. 7; pp. 104)
5. Imagine that you are a health psychologist speaking to a group of eager psychology students who
want to know what you do that is so helpful to others. Define health psychology for them, and
describe one imaginary client that has benefited from your work, and two services you perform in
your community or with other professionals as a health psychologist. (Obj. 10; p. 108)
6. Imagine you are a health psychologist speaking to parents of elementary school children about
cigarette smoking. Describe to them the social, and biological factors that lead to smoking. Then
provide them with a list of things they can do to prevent their children from smoking. (Obj. 11; pp.
108-111)
7. Define binge drinking and state what you know about its prevalence on this campus. Discuss the
social reinforcers for binge drinking, and explain the consequences of this behavior. What can you
do, personally, to help reduce this social problem? (Obj. 12 pp. 111-112)
8. Contrast emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. Provide an effective and
ineffective example of each coping strategy for taking this test. (Obj. 15; pp. 115-116)
9. List and describe the six resources for coping with stress that were presented in your text. Discuss
how having each resource can affect your ability to cope if you had to move across the country in the
next 30 days. (Obj. 16; pp. 116-118)
10. Imagine you are a health psychologist speaking to a group of employees to help them reduce
stress during a major reorganization of their company. Compare exercise and relaxation as strategies
for reducing the negative effects of stress. Provide a script for progressive relaxation for participants
to use at home. (Obj. 16; pp. 117-118)
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 112
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
 ESSAY ANSWERS 
1. Using your college experience, describe sources of eustress and distress in the life of a college
student (include definitions and examples of daily hassles and frustrations). State two ways you
could cope with each type of stress. (Objs. 1, 2; pp. 94-97)
Stress: the physical and mental arousal that accompanies situations or events that we perceive as
threatening or challenging
Eustress:
pleasant or
desirable stress
Distress:
unpleasant or
undesirable
stress
List will vary: some examples = finding a lifelong friend; getting the class
schedule you really wanted; earning high grades on papers and exams;
learning a lot of new information; being on your own. Coping will vary.
Hassles: small problems of daily life that accumulate; lists will vary (some
examples = laundry room is full; best seats in class are occupied; no used
books on sale; long lines; Friday night loneliness)
Frustrations: unpleasant state of tension, anxiety, and SNS arousal due to
a blocked goal; lists will vary (some examples = not getting first choice of
college or classes; failing test you really studied for; car accident at
midterm). Coping will vary
2. Define conflict and describe the three basic types of conflict. Using your own life
experiences, provide an example of each of these conflicts, and discuss which was the
hardest to resolve and why. (Obj. 3; p. 97-98)
Conflict: a negative emotional state caused by an having to choose between two or more
incompatible goals or impulses
approach- approach conflict in which person must choose between 2 or more alternatives
that will each lead to desirable results; must choose between 2 or
more positives (personal examples will vary)
avoidance-avoidance conflict in which person must choose between two or more
alternatives that each will both lead to undesirable results; must
choose between 2 or more negatives (personal examples will vary)
approach-avoidance conflict in which a person must make a choice between alternatives
that each have both desirable and undesirable results; must choose
alternative that has both positive and negative results (personal
examples will vary)
Hardest to resolve: avoidance-avoidance is usually the hardest because all choices lead to
unpleasant results; approach-approach is generally the easiest because all choices lead to
pleasant results, and produces the least stress; approach-avoidance are usually moderately
difficult to resolve
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 113
3. Contrast the fight-flight response, the HPA Axis, and the general adaptation syndrome
with regard to each of their effects on health and the immune system during stress. (Obj. 4;
pp. 99-101)
Fight-Flight Response: A stressor triggers the hypothalamus  activates the sympathetic
nervous system  activates the adrenal medulla (central area) to release norepinephrine and
epinephrine  increases HR, BP, respirations, muscle tension and immediate increase in
energy; followed by reactivation of parasympathetic nervous system and return to relaxed
state; adaptive and necessary for survival
HPA Axis: Reacts more slowly and continues activation: hypothalamus  alerts the
pituitary  activates the adrenal cortex (outer layer) to release cortisol  prolonged cortisol
is related to a decrease in immune system functioning  decrease in ability to detect and
defend against illness; maladaptive and unnecessary for survival
General Adaptation Syndrome: A generalized physiological reaction to severe stressors
consisting of three phases
 alarm = activation of sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response)  body is
alert and ready to deal with the stressor
 resistance = body has adapted to stressor; SNS arousal declines slightly, but still higher
than normal; may develop diseases of adaptation (e.g., asthma, ulcers, high blood
pressure) – similar to HPA response
 exhaustion = energy is depleted; susceptible to illnesses which can be life-threatening
(e.g., heart attack, stroke, cancer)
4. Define Type A and Type B personality characteristics. State the characteristics that place Type A
personalities at risk for heart disease. Briefly explain the shotgun and target behavior treatment
approaches. (Obj. 7; p. 104)
A set of behavior characteristics that includes intense ambition, competition,
exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile outlook
A set of behavior characteristics consistent with a calm, patient, relaxed attitude
Type B
toward life
Type D [not in A set of behavior characteristics that includes a slow reaction to situations, and a
text]
need to suppress emotional distress
Heart disease risks:
 Type A’s cynical hostility: (5 times more likely to die from heart attack)
1. hostile, suspicious, argumentative, and competitive, which results in more interpersonal
conflicts, and leads to a decrease in social support
2. always expect problems, constantly vigilant
3. each of the above leads to heightened autonomic activation with increased blood pressure,
heart rate, and release of stress related hormones
 [not in text] Type D’s suppression of anger (4 times more likely to die from heart attack)
Type A
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 114
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
Shotgun Approach
 Change all behaviors that relate to the Type A
[or D] personality using individual
counseling, dietary advice, exercise, drugs,
and group therapy
 Problems: eliminates desirable characteristics
such as ambition and drive
Target Behavior Approach
 Change only the high-risk behavior of cynical
hostility
5. Imagine that you are a health psychologist speaking to a group of eager psychology students who
want to know what you do that is so helpful to others. Define health psychology for them, and
describe one imaginary client that has benefited from your work, and two services you perform in
your community or with other professionals as a health psychologist. (Obj. 10; p. 108)
Health Psychology: the study of the relationship between psychological behavior and physical
health and illness, with an emphasis on wellness and the prevention of illness
Possible Clients: answers  any individual who wants to improve wellness, or prevent illness
will vary
 any health professional who wants a consultant to help their patients
reduce stress or unhealthy behaviors
 any individual or health professional whose patient needs help making
critical decisions or preparing for surgery or other medical treatment
Two Community
Services: answers may
vary
 education of the public about health maintenance
 dispensing of information about hazards of stress and unhealthy
behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol, lack of exercise)
 education in assertiveness or anger management
 education regarding how to cope with chronic problems or illnesses
(e.g., pain, diabetes, high blood pressure)
6. Imagine you are a health psychologist speaking to parents of elementary school children about
cigarette smoking. Describe to them the social, and biological factors that lead to smoking. Then
provide them with a list of things they can do to prevent their children from smoking. (Obj. 11; pp.
108-111)
Social Factors
 peer pressure





pressure to fit in
imitation of role models, like parents
desire to be like celebrities
desire to look mature
association of smoking behavior with
good times (friends, eating, sex, etc.)
Biological Factors
 nicotine takes only seconds to reach the brain
and increase the levels of acetylcholine,
norepinephrine, and dopamine
 these neurotransmitters increase alertness,
concentration, memory, and pleasure
feelings
 nicotine is addictive; when supply is stopped,
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
person experiences anxiety, tension, and pain,
which can be reduced with more nicotine
CHAPTER 3
PAGE 115
Prevention List:





focus on immediate short-term problems (e.g., bad breath, interference with athletics)
educate about the social pressures and media influences to smoke
role play refusal skills; teach general social skills and personal skills for decision-making
teach alternative strategies for coping with stresses of adolescence and everyday life
[not in text: show examples of how smoking affects CURRENT appearance (aging,
wrinkles, yellowed teeth)]
7. Define binge drinking and state what you know about its prevalence on this campus. Discuss the
social reinforcers for binge drinking, and explain the consequences of this behavior. What can you
do, personally, to help reduce this social problem? (Obj. 12; pp. 111-112)
Binge Drinking: consumption of 5 or more drinks in a row for a man, 4 or more for a woman
 Prevalence: will vary, and requires that your college campus has researched this; if not,
students can use the book’s general statistics: 44% of college students admit to binge
drinking
Consequences:
Social Reinforcers:
 fitting in (erroneous belief that they are
 disrupted sleep or studying abilities
average drinkers, and everyone does it)
 more aggressive behavior (e.g. assault, child
abuse, suicide, murder)
 lack of penalties from college

injury
or death in automobile accidents
 associated with good times, friends, food,
 assaulted by others
partying, etc.
 raped by others
 wanting to imitate role models (e.g.,
alumni)
 unprotected sex  pregnancy, STDs
 death due to respiratory depression
NOTE: additional consequences in Chapter 5
Personal Responsibility:
 educate your friends and others about the definition, prevalence, and consequences
 let college administrators know that you support stronger penalties
 let fraternities and sororities know you support penalties for binge drinking and abuse of
alcohol and drugs; model responsible use of alcohol, and express displeasure if alumni
engage in irresponsible use
 attend parties and sporting events without alcohol, or with non-bingeing friends and
support each other in sticking to pre-arranged limits
 start or join a college-sponsored group or course in responsible use of alcohol
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PAGE 116
STRESS AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
8. Contrast emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. Provide an effective and
ineffective example of each coping strategy for taking this test. (Obj. 15; pp. 115-116)
Both forms of coping attempt to manage stress by focusing on different aspects of the experience: the
emotional impact of the stressor or the problem that is causing the stress
Emotion-focused: coping strategies based on changing your perception of stressful situations





used when we have no control over the situation
intended to reduce or regulate the emotional impact
examples = defense mechanisms, accurate reappraisals of the situation, fantasies, humor
Effective: taking a deep breath and telling yourself to remain calm and confident
Ineffective: trying to get it over with quickly by just guessing haphazardly
Problem-focused: coping strategies based on using problem-solving strategies to decrease or
eliminate the source of stress
 used when we think the situation can be changed
 requires the ability to identify the problem, generate possible solutions, select an
appropriate solution, and apply the solution to the problem
 Effective: marking difficult questions, looking for clues in other questions, then returning
to difficult ones
 Ineffective: obsessing and getting caught in the details
9. List and describe the six resources for coping with stress that were presented in your text. Discuss
how having each resource can affect your ability to cope if you had to move across the country in the
next 30 days. (Obj. 16; pp. 116-118)
Resource
Health and Energy: good health is
related to how long you can manage
stress during the resistance stage of
the GAS, and delay the exhaustion
stage
Positive Beliefs: positive self-image
and attitudes reduce anxiety
associated with stressful events; hope
in self, others, or god can sustain
people through adversity
Social Skills: knowing how to
express yourself helps get needs met
and decrease unwelcome situations;
knowing the appropriate behavior in
different situations and how to start
and maintain conversations prevents
anxiety
Possible Effects (answers will vary)
 Can prevent illness during the move
 Will have the energy to get all tasks done on time
 Believing that this is an opportunity rather than a
burden can reduce anxiety
 Believing that you are capable of accomplishing
the move and making new friends can increase
hope, which can get you through the ordeal
 Being able to express yourself will help you get
the assistance you need moving out and moving
in
 Being able to start and maintain conversations
will help you meet new friends
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CHAPTER 3
Social Support: friends and family
remind us to engage in healthy habits,
listen to us, make us feel important,
provide stability, and “hold our hand”
in times of stress
Material Resources: money
increases the options for coping
PAGE 117
 Having family and friends to call long-distance
(or nearby) can ease the initial loneliness
 Finding a new support network will be one of the
first things to do
 Hiring a mover to pack and relocate possessions
can decrease hassles of moving yourself
 Having the money to drive leisurely or fly, rather
than rushing, will reduce stress of the actual trip
Personal Control: feeling like you
 Changing a “have to” move into a choice to move
have some control over circumstances
(e.g., because the alternative was not to your
makes it easier to cope and less
liking) can improve your sense of control over
stressful
the move
 Finding things you can control (e.g., what to take
and leave behind), can offset some of the
uncontrollable events in a move (e.g., the
weather)
10. Imagine you are a health psychologist speaking to a group of employees to help them reduce
stress during a major reorganization of their company. Compare exercise and relaxation as strategies
for reducing the negative effects of stress. Provide a script for progressive relaxation for participants
to use at home. (Obj. 16; pp. 117-118)
Although exercise and relaxation promote opposite reactions in the body’s physical state
(e.g., raising or lowering heartbeat and respirations), both are considered active methods of
coping with stress because each one helps keep you in a stress-ready condition.
 Exercise (especially aerobic) does this by
1. using up stress hormones, helping the immune system return to normal
2. working out the tension that builds up in muscles
3. increasing strength, flexibility, and stamina for future stress
4. improving the efficiency of the cardiovascular system
 Relaxation does this by
1. relieving muscular tension associated with stress
2. [not in text: reducing blood pressure during a stressful event; reducing long-term
stress reactions through self-awareness; improving self-regulation of emotions and
pain; decreasing muscle tension]
Script: these will vary, but should include the following points
 Goal is to reduce or relieve muscle tension
 Comfortable position, use of slow, deep breathing
 Procedure is to systematically tense then relax specific muscle groups from head to toe,
or toe to head (awareness of the differences between tension and relaxation of each
muscle, with conscious relaxation)
 Recommendation: practice twice daily for 15 minutes at a time
Copyright ©2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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