Simulated ABO/Rh
Blood-Typing Activities
Why is it important that your blood type be known?
Introduction
Blood typing involves identifying substances called antigens present on red blood cells (RBC) membranes.
Many different antibodies exist on human RBCs but those of clinical importance include only the ABO and Rh
groups.
A person normally produces antibodies against those antigens not present on their RBCs but does not produce
antibodies against those that are present. Thus, a person with antigen A has anti-B antibodies, etc. In the
United States, 45% of the population is type O, 39% is type A, 12% is type B, and 4% is type AB.
Blood type is determined by multiple alleles IA, IB and i. IA and IB are co-dominant and both are dominant over
i. Genotypes IA IA and IAi result in blood type A. Genotypes IB IB and |Bi result in blood type B. When both IA
and IB are present, the blood type is AB. When both alleles are i, the blood type is O.
Table 1 ABO System
Blood Type
Antigens on
Erythrocytes
Antibodies in
Plasma
A
B
AB
O
A
B
A and B
None
B
A
None
A and B
Can Receive
Blood from
Groups:
O,A
O,B
O,A,B,AB
O
Can Give
Blood to
Groups:
A,AB
B,AB
AB
O,A,B,AB
Blood typing is performed with antiserum-blood serum that contains specific antibodies. For ABO blood
typing, antibodies against A and B antigen (these antibodies are also called anti-A and anti-B antibodies) are
used. If clumping or clotting occurs in the test blood upon exposure to the A antibodies (anti-A serum), the
blood contains the A antigen. If clumping occurs in the test blood upon exposure to the B antibodies (anti-B
serum), the blood contains the B antigen. If clotting occurs with both A and B antibodies (anti-A and anti-B
sera), the type is AB, and if no clumping occurs with either serum type, the type is O.
Table 2 Agglutination Reactions of ABO Blood-Typing Sera
Reaction
Blood Type
A antibodies
(anti-A serum)
clumping
no clumping
clumping
B antibodies
(anti-B serum)
no clumping
clumping
clumping
Type A
Type B
Type AB
no clumping
no clumping
Type O
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Another antigen found on human RBCs is the Rh factor. An individual who lacks factor is designated as Rh-.
As a result, a person could be A+ or A-. Anti-Rh antibodies are produced upon exposure and sensitization to
Rh antigens. An Rh- mother carrying an Rh+ child may experience this exposure during birth when some of the
baby’s blood my enter the mother’s bloodstream. The mother will then produce anti-Rh antibodies. This
produces a potentially hazardous situation for a future Rh+ fetus carried by an Rh- mother. If the mother’s
blood contains anti-Rh antibodies they pass through the placenta and destroy the red blood cells in her baby’s
blood.
In this investigation, you will determine the blood type of four individuals. You will also examine data of blood
count, counting red and white cells in a given volume of blood. A blood count gives a physician valuable
information about a patient’s physical state. Clinically, a lowered red blood cell count, referred to as anemia,
can have several causes and impairs the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.
Gathering Data:
Determine the blood types of Brown, Jones, Green and Smith. Place 2 (two) drops of blood from one person in
each well on the blood typing slides. Each slide has 3 (three) wells one labeled A, one labeled B and one
labeled Rh. In the first well (A) add 2 (two) drops of anti-A serum. In the second well (B), add 2 (two) drops
of anti-B serum, and in the third well, (Rh), add 2 (two) drops of anti-Rh serum. Record your results below. If
clumping occurs then that antigen is present.
Blood types (record both ABO and Rh, example A+):
Ms. Brown _________O-________
Mr. Jones __________B-________
Mr. Green __________AB+________
Mr. Smith __________A+________
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Analysis
Use the following blood counts for some of the questions.
Ms. Brown
5 x 109 erythrocytes/ml
7 x 106 leukocytes/ml
2.5 x 108 platelets/ml
Mr. Jones
4.9 x 109 erythrocytes/ml
2.5 x 107 leukocytes/ml
2.4 x 108 platelets/ml
Mr. Smith
2.9 x 109 erythrocytes/ml
7 x 106 leukocytes/ml
2.5 x 108 platelets/ml
Mr. Green
5 x 109 erythrocytes/ml
7 x 106 leukocytes/ml
6 x 105 platelets/ml
1.
If Ms. Brown were serving as a donor, what blood type(s) could receive her blood safely?
Be sure to identify these as + or – in reference to Rh factor. All blood types, A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB, O+, O-
2.
Why is it necessary to match the donor’s and the recipient’s blood before a transfusion is given?
To make sure they are compatible. If not, the recipient’s blood will clot and the recipient will die.
3.
What is the difference between antigen and antibody?
The antigen is the protein found on the cell membrane and the antibody is a free-floating protein that
will attach to the antigen if it is present.
4.
What ABO antigens are present in Mr. Green’s blood? A and B antigens
5.
What ABO antibodies are present in the plasma of Mr. Green’s blood? none
6.
Explain the basis of ABO blood types. The ABO blood types are determined genetically. The IA allele
codes for the A antigen, The IB allele codes for the B antigen, and i codes for neither antigen.
7.
Could a man with AB blood father an O child? Explain. No because he is IA IB and an O child would
have to be ii.
8.
Could a man with O blood father an A child? Explain. Yes, if the child is with a woman who has AB or
A blood.
9.
What are the major cellular components of the blood and the primary function of each?
Red blood cells-carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from cells
White blood cells- help protect from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses
Platelets-help with blood clotting
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10.
Why would it be important for the percentage of the leukocytes in the blood to be considered in a
medical diagnosis? If the % of leukocytes is high, it is likely that the person is fighting an infection.
11.
Why is it necessary to have such high numbers of RBCs compared to WBCs? The RBC’s carry gases
that are constantly needed every second of every day. The WBC are used only when there are invasions that
need to be fought. Each one can fight off many invaders.
12.
Based on the data given, which of the above patients is most likely to suffer from anemia? Smith
Who is most likely experiencing an infection of some type? Jones
Who would clot the slowest? Green
13.
An Rh- mother is pregnant with her second child. The first child was Rh+ and was born healthy.
Why would a doctor have greater concern for this child? After the birth of the first child, the mother’s
Rh antibodies may have increased and could harm the second child.
14.
What three traits of a RBC make it better suited to its function of carrying oxygen than a WBC
would be? Small size, concave shape, flexibility, hemoglobin
15.
What evidence suggests that only WBCs are capable of reproducing? They have a nucleus
16.
The capture and destruction of foreign organisms, such as bacteria, is another function of blood.
What evidence suggests that white blood cells are better suited to this function than red blood cells?
They are larger and capable of engulfing particles
17.
Suppose Mr. Smith marries Ms. Brown. What are the chances for an Rh+ child? It depends. If Smith is
RR then it is 100%, but if he is Rr then it is only 50%
18.
Under what conditions might a person with Rh- blood develop Rh antibodies? Having a Rh+ baby is the
most likely, but also a transfusion with Rh+ blood (but that would have killed them)
19.
What is likely to happen to a donor’s cells if an Rh- person who is sensitive to Rh+ blood receives
a transfusion of Rh+ blood? The antibodies will attach to donor’s cells and cause them to clump up.
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20.
Examine the blood typing slides below. Write the blood type shown next to the slide.
Blood type ___B-_______
A
B
Rh
Blood type ____O+______
A
B
Rh
Blood type _____A-_____
A
B
Rh
Simulated ABO/Rh/Blood typing activities revised 2005
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Simulated ABO Rh Blood Answers