Biology 30
Module 4
Assignment 15
Copyright: Ministry of Education, Saskatchewan
May be reproduced for educational purposes
Biology 30
85
Assignment 15
Biology 30
86
Assignment 15
Biology 30
87
Assignment 15
Biology 30
88
Assignment 15
Biology 30
89
Assignment 15
Assignment 15
Values
(27)
A.
Multiple Choice: Select the best answer for each of the following
and place a check () beside it.
1.
The degree of relationships between humans, chimpanzees and
gorillas would best be determined by comparing ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
_____ d.
by chance, or randomly
to help individuals survive
in individuals living in the "wild" or under natural
conditions
to help a species to survive
Genetic drift, where there is a chance change in the gene
frequencies of a group of organisms, is more likely with ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
Biology 30
genetic drifts
adaptive radiations
selection pressures
recombinations
Generally, mutations take place ***.
_____ a.
_____ b.
_____ c.
4.
the similarities of their DNA and proteins
their brain capacities or sizes
the shapes of bones – especially the pelvic bones
jaw sizes and tooth structures
Most variations in organisms are due to mutations and ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a small population size
a large population size
an increased reproductive rate
a lower mutation rate
90
Assignment 15
5.
If mutations are to influence evolution, they must ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
_____ c.
_____ d.
enables a species to keep on reproducing
includes genetic recombination, which is a common
source of variations
enables different species to interbreed
maintains uniformity in a species’ characteristics
The area of the brain showing the most change in human and
other vertebrate evolution is the ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
Biology 30
Mutation.
Migration of individuals into the group.
Random interbreeding within the group.
Natural selection.
Sexual reproduction is significant in evolution as it ***.
_____ a.
_____ b.
9.
sterile hybrids or offspring
a wide river between two groups of land organisms
different head and body movements to attract mates
different body sizes or colors
All of the following conditions, except one, have a tendency to bring
about changes in gene frequencies of a population. The exception
is ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
8.
occur frequently
be able to change back or reverse themselves
continually improve organisms’ chances of survival
interact in some way with environments
The following represent barriers to successful interbreedings
between different groups. An example of a behavioral barrier is ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
medulla oblongata
hypothalmus
cerebellum
cerebrum
91
Assignment 15
10.
Which of the following factors would cause a population to not be
in the genetic equilibrium needed to satisfy the Hardy-Weinberg
law?
_____
_____
_____
_____
11.
a.
b.
c.
d.
simple, photosynthetic algae cells
anaerobic heterotrophs
anaerobic autotrophs
bacterial cells
a.
b.
c.
d.
on grasslands
near rivers
near seacoasts
in the forest
Of the following groups of organisms the *** are thought to have
benefited the most from the extinction of dinosaurs.
_____
_____
_____
_____
Biology 30
facial features
body size or height
hair color
how the individual died
Primate evolution most likely began ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
14.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The first cellular forms of life were thought to be ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
13.
a large population
selective mating
no mutations occurring
no individuals leaving the area
Having just (fossil) human skulls enables some scientists and
experts to determine ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
12.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
angiosperm plants
reptiles
birds
mammals
92
Assignment 15
15.
The hominoid group includes all of the following except one. The
exception is ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
16.
their environments were similar
the same mutations occurred in both
the same selection pressures acted upon both
individuals migrated between the groups
a.
b.
c.
d.
races
breeds
families
species
A genetic change appears in an organism which gives it a better
survival advantage over other members of its species. An increase
in the frequency of this particular gene or trait in a population
would most likely be due to ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
Biology 30
a.
b.
c.
d.
After being isolated from each other for a period of time, two
groups of mammals originally from one population were reunited
once more. However, interbreeding could not produce fertile
offspring. The two groups could be considered as belonging to
different ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
18.
orangutan
lemur
chimpanzee
human
A population splits into two groups which become geographically
separated by a system of hills and mountains. Those groups
would not be considered as geographically isolated if ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
17.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
more mutations of the same gene
greater use, rather than disuse of the trait
artificial selection
natural selection.
93
Assignment 15
19.
As a population becomes smaller in number, ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
20.
a.
b.
c.
d.
chances for genetic drift decrease
gene diversity in the gene pool decreases
gene diversity in the gene pool increases
variations through genetic recombination increase
The increasing numbers of humans who can more easily digest
cows’ milk is an example of ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
a.
b.
c.
d.
coevolution
cultural evolution
convergent evolution
genetic screening
Use the following information to answer questions 21 and 22.
In rabbits, the spotted-coat gene is dominant to the solid-coat gene. In a
large population, the frequency of the spotted-coat allele is 0.6, and the
frequency of the solid-coat allele is 0.4.
21.
If the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle are valid, then
the expected gene frequency of the spotted-coat allele in 10 years
would be ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
22.
0
0.36
0.6
1.0
Feral (untamed) cats were introduced to the area inhabited by the
rabbit population. Ten years later, the frequency of the spottedcoat allele increased to 0.8. Which of the following assumptions of
Hardy-Weinberg was not met?
_____
_____
_____
_____
Biology 30
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
No net mutations occur in the population.
Individuals mate randomly.
Individuals neither enter nor leave the population.
Selection does not occur.
94
Assignment 15
23.
Continued selective breeding programs with many domestic plants
and animals generally ***.
_____ a.
_____ b.
_____ c.
_____ d.
24.
The major reason for the endangerment and threat of extinction for
many species today is ***.
_____ a.
_____ b.
_____ c.
_____ d.
25.
culturing
self-pollination
random breeding
vegetative reproduction
a.
b.
c.
d.
selection pressure
research geneticist
biotechnologist
evolutionist
All of the following, except one, could face extinction because of
small genetic pools. The exception is ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
Biology 30
a.
b.
c.
d.
A livestock producer who chooses a few animals which are to be
part of a breeding program is really acting as a ***.
_____
_____
_____
_____
27.
increased incidence of new diseases
losses of natural habitats
appearance of more lethal traits due to more
mutations brought on by pollutants
loss of fertility due to increased crossing with other
species
*** does not favor genetic similarity or uniformity.
_____
_____
_____
_____
26.
makes those species more resistant to a greater variety
of adverse environmental conditions
increases the genetic diversities within those species
increases the kinds or sizes of areas those species can
inhabit
increases the dependence of those species on human
care
a.
b.
c.
d.
whooping cranes
burrowing owls
swift foxes
beaver
95
Assignment 15
(10)
B.
Matching: In the space provided in front of each item in Column A,
write the letter of the correct answer from Column B.
Column A
Biology 30
Column B
____
1.
development of new species
from pre-existing ones
a.
gene pool
____
2.
groups spread out from a
common ancestral form
b.
transgenic
c.
coevolution
____
3.
individuals which have genes
from the other species inserted
into them
d.
anthropoids
e.
speciation
f.
cultural evolution
g.
divergent evolution
h.
artificial selection
____
4.
changes in gene pools and
populations by chance events
____
5.
all possible genes within a
particular population
____
6.
human-like line
i.
genetic drift
____
7.
a change in one organism could
have a significant effect on the
other
j.
selection pressure
____
8.
a change in behaviour or
manner of living, often passed
on to future generations
____
9.
involves analysis of organisms’
genotypes
____
10.
could have a significant effect
on an organism’s chances of
survival.
96
Assignment 15
C.
(5)
(8)
Biology 30
Short Answer: Answer the questions in the spaces provided.
1.
2.
Give one example of each of the following:
a.
selection pressure
b.
cultural evolution
c.
artificial selection
d.
transgenic life form
e.
cloning
a.
Indicate the role played by each of the following in any
evolutionary changes:
i.
(Both) Mutations and genetic recombinations.
ii.
(Environmental) Selective pressures.
97
Assignment 15
b.
List four selective forces or limiting factors which could be
affecting a species at various times. (This may be better
answered if you consider a species which has not been
domesticated and “cared for” by humans.)
•
•
•
•
(5)
3.
a.
Why is reproductive isolation, by a geographical barrier for
instance, necessary for either the formation of a new species
or to keep two species separate?
b.
Reproductive isolation can occur because of geographic
barriers. List three other non-geographic forms of
reproductive isolation which keep different groups or species
from interbreeding successfully.
•
•
•
Biology 30
98
Assignment 15
(2)
a.
What has been the major difficulty in trying to trace primate,
and especially human, evolution?
(2)
b.
Scientists consider Cro-Magnons and present humans as
belonging to the same species. It is also thought that only a
small group of Cro-Magnons gave rise to all present human
races. If we use our imaginations and suppose that a small,
living population of Cro-Magnons was found somewhere on
earth just recently, how could we positively determine that
we are one species?
(6)
c.
Although humans are not the fastest or strongest animals
and do not have the best senses (hearing, sight ...), they do
have certain body features or developments giving them
advantages over other organisms. Briefly state the
advantage(s) to humans of:
Biology 30
4.
i.
being bipedal.
ii.
having a flexible, opposable thumb.
iii.
having a large brain, especially the cerebrum.
99
Assignment 15
(9)
5.
a.
Periodic extinctions have occurred more noticeably at certain
times in earth’s history. List three possible causes for these
and very briefly explain how each could have negatively
affected life. (Refer back to lesson 14.)
•
•
•
b.
(8)
Biology 30
6.
a.
Certain predators become more efficient hunters, but then
their prey evolve a better means of defense or escape.
i.
What term is applied to the preceding situation?
ii.
Give another example of this general type of situation.
i.
What general effect has the development of technology
had on the lifespan of humans?
ii.
What general effect has technology had on natural
environments and native species?
100
Assignment 15
b.
(2)
(2)
Biology 30
7.
Zero human population growth is the point at which birth
rate and death rate are equal. Some countries or areas have
reached this. Does this mean that these places are now
maintaining habitats and species numbers at present levels?
Why or why not?
“Anytime a high degree of specialization occurs or gene pool
shrinks, it makes a species susceptible to extinction.”
a.
What are factors that could cause the actual extinction of a
species? Give two examples of species close to extinction.
(Think of examples in Saskatchewan.)
b.
You are a paleontologist. A brand new fossil find of a
complete skeleton has come to your lab for you to identify.
Your first reaction is that it is a primate fossil – likely a
hominid. What characteristics would you look for to confirm
your suspicions?
101
Assignment 15
(2)
8.
Under conditions of ________________ _______________, the
frequencies of the alleles for a given trait are stable from generation
to generation. This is the _______________ law.
(6)
9.
Primate evolution has been traced back to 65-66 million years.
Give the two groups that the primate line split into. Include two
examples of each group.
1)
2)
____
(94)
Biology 30
102
Assignment 15