CHAPTER 13.1 STUDY GUIDE 1. What are ocean currents? 2. Name 3 factors that influence currents. 3. Define surface currents. 4. How deep can surface currents reach? 5. How long can surface currents stretch? 6. The Gulf Stream is one of the ________ surface currents on Earth. 7. Name 3 factors that control surface currents. 8. Different winds cause currents to flow in _________ directions. 9. Near the equator, the winds blow mostly ______ to _______. 10. Between ____ south latitude and ____ south latitude, winds blow mostly west to east. 11. Where on Earth does the sun heat the air the most? 12. Warmer air is ______ dense than surrounding air. 13. Why does warmer air rise up? 14. When warmer air rises up near the equator, what kind of pressure is created there? 15. ________________ in the atmosphere cause wind to blow? 16. The ____ causes winds to blow, and winds cause __________________ to form. 17. Define Coriolis effect. 18. How is speed related to the Earth’s rotation? 19. What happens to the direction of currents in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere because of Earth’s rotation? 20. How do continents change the course of surface currents? 21. How do surface currents distribute heat? 22. Define deep currents. 23. The movement of deep currents depends on what? 24. The density of ocean water is affected by ___________ and __________. 25. How is salinity measured? 26. Is water with high salinity or low salinity denser? 27. Is cold water or warm water denser? 28. Name 3 ways in which water becomes denser. 29. Define convection currents. 30. What 2 important materials are transported by global circulation?