Compaction and
Station Number 1
Compaction: A type of ‘lithification’ (meaning conversion into rock)
in which the weight of overlying material compresses more deeply
buried sediment.
Cementation: Sedimentary rock-forming process in which sediments
are glued together by minerals deposited between the sediments from
water that percolates through - open spaces are filled and particles are
joined into a solid mass.
High Temperature
And Pressure
Station Number 2
Pressure of Earth’s layers – Pressure increases with depth
Temperature - Increases with Depth; temperature increases with
Increase in temperature and pressure as a result compression or
volcanism in an area
Station Number 3
Sediments according to size:
Largest to smallest:
 Pebbles
 Gravel
 Sand
 Silt
 Clay
Igneous Rock
Station Number 4
Igneous Rocks: rock formed when magma or lava cools, solidifies,
crystallizes, hardens.
Pumice – high in silica, low in metallic minerals, volcanic rock,
Basalt – low in silica, high in metallic minerals, volcanic rock,
extrusive igneous rock
Granite – intrusive igneous rock
To the Surface
Station Number 5
Earth’s Surface _____________________________________
Volcanoes bring magma to the surface.
Internal forces cause uplift – folding and faulting
Weathering and Erosion of overlying materials
Metamorphic Rock
Station Number 6
Metamorphic rock: rock formed from existing rock when the
temperature and or pressure increases
Gneiss – metamorphosed granite, displays medium grains, foliations
and banding
Quartzite – metamorphosed quartz sandstone, displays fine crystalline
Sedimentary Rock
Station Number 7
Sedimentary Rocks: rock formed when sediments become
compacted and cemented together due to high pressure – usually by
many layer piled above
Quartz sandstone – displays fine grained quartz sand in layers
Conglomerate – displays well rounded rock fragments in variety of
Station Number 8
Magma is generated at subduction zones where dense
oceanic plates are pushed under lighter continental plates
(sketch a copy of diagram above)
Cooling and Hardening
(Crystallization, Solidification)
Station Number 9
Slow cooling magma produces large crystals
Fast cooling magma (or lava) produces small crystals
Station Number 10
Magma is hot, liquid (molten) rock located from a few meters to
several kilometers below the earth’s surface and is a silicate melt
produced by partial melting of the mantle.
Weathering and Erosion
Station Number 11
Weathering: the breaking of rocks into smaller pieces, either
mechanically or chemically
Erosion: the process that moves weathered rocks from one
location to another; breaking up of rock as rock fragments are
transported to a new location
Agents of Erosion: Glaciers, running water, wind, waves