Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name________________________________________Teacher_______________________ Chapter 5 Study Guide (Pages156-173) ______ 1. Unlike kinetic energy, potential energy is a. energy of motion. c. only found in machines. b. stored. d. not measurable. ______ 2. Exerting a force on an object that causes the object to move is called a. work b. energy c. power d. mass ______ 3. The rate at which work is done is called a. work b. energy c. power d. mass ______ 4. The energy associated with motion is called a. kinetic energy. b. elastic potential energy. c. gravitational potential energy. d. nuclear energy. ______ 5. What two factors affect kinetic energy a. mass and weight b. density and volume c. mass and speed d. height and volume ______ 6. The law of conservation of energy states that when one form of energy is transformed into another, a. energy is destroyed in the process. b. no energy is destroyed in the process. c. energy is created in the process. d. some amount of energy cannot be accounted for. ______ 7. What type of energy powers the sun? a. electromagnetic energy. b. nuclear energy. c. mechanical energy. d. chemical energy. ______ 8. You hit a drum and hear a sound. What type of energy allows you to hear the sound? a. electromagnetic energy. b. nuclear energy. c. sound energy. d. chemical energy. ______ 9. Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom is called a. electromagnetic energy. c. mechanical energy. b. nuclear energy. 10. d. chemical energy. Energy is the ability to do work or cause change. 11. A large truck and a small car are moving at the same speed. The truck has greater kinetic energy because its mass is greater. 12. A toaster transforms electrical energy into thermal (heat) energy to toast the bread. 13. The amount of energy transferred in a unit of time is called power. 14. A book sitting on a shelf has potential energy. 15. The SI unit for measuring energy is joules. 16. Ben and Tim race 1 lap around a track. Tim won even though both runners did the same amount of work. 17. Which letter represents the position at which the basketball has the greatest potential energy? Explain. Point C. At this point, which is the highest point, all of the ball’s energy is gravitational potential energy. The ball does not have kinetic energy because it is not moving at this point. 18. Which letter represents the position at which the basketball has the greatest kinetic energy? Explain. Point E. As the ball falls from C to E, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. The velocity of the ball increases as it falls, which means that the ball attains its greatest velocity, and thus its greatest kinetic energy, at E. 19. Which has the greater kinetic energy, a 10-kg object traveling at a speed of 2 m/s or a 5-kg object traveling at a speed of 4 m/s? Explain. 2 ½ X 10 X 2 = ½ X 10 X 4 = ½ X 40 = 20 Joules ½ X 5 X 42 = ½ X 5 X 16 = ½ X 80 = 40 Joules 20. Is the potential energy of the pendulum increasing or decreasing at position E? Explain. Neither. The potential energy of the pendulum reaches its maximum value at position E, and is neither increasing nor decreasing at that point. 21. Compare the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the pendulum at position A to the sum at position C. (Ignore friction.) Point A is a point of maximum potential energy and minimum kinetic energy. Point C is the point of maximum kinetic energy and minimum potential energy. According to the law of conservation of energy, the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the pendulum is constant, assuming no losses from friction. So the potential energy at A is equal to the kinetic energy at C.