Rocks and Minerals Study Guide
Minerals
Crystal structure (shape), solid, inorganic, naturally
occurring (made), definite chemical composition
Means made from materials that were never alive Inorganic
Means “no life”
Inorganic
Means never, ever, ever was alive
Inorganic
Means made in nature
Naturally occurring (naturally made)
Means NOT man-made
Naturally occurring (naturally made)
Means always made from the same materials
Definite chemical composition
The shape of a mineral
Crystal structure
Name the six properties (tests) we can do to figure Color, streak, luster, density, breakage, hardness
out which mineral it is.
How do I find the mineral’s streak?
Rub the mineral on a tile and look at the color of
its powder
How do I find a mineral’s luster?
Observe the way light is reflected off the mineral
Density = mass / volume; use a triple beam
How do I find a mineral’s density?
balance to find the mass; use a graduated cylinder
to find the volume
How do I find a mineral’s breakage?
Use a hammer to break the mineral and observe
how it breaks.
Which type of breakage has smooth, clean lines?
Cleavage
Which type of breakage has rough, jagged edges?
Fracture
How do I find a mineral’s hardness?
Try and scratch the mineral using your fingernail, a
copper penny, a steel nail, etc.
What is the name of the mineral hardness scale?
The Mohs scale
What is the hardest mineral?
Diamond
Name the five characteristics of minerals.
What are the three types of rocks?
How are Igneous rocks formed?
How are Sedimentary rocks formed?
How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
What are the two types of Igneous rocks?
Where are Intrusive Igneous rocks formed?
Where are Extrusive Igneous rocks formed?
What cools to form Intrusive rocks?
What cools to form Extrusive rocks?
Which type of Igneous rock has large crystals?
Which type of Igneous rock has small crystals?
Which stage of Sedimentary Rock formation
happens when the sediment is moving?
Which stage of Sedimentary Rock formation
happens when the sediment settles (stops
moving)?
Rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
Lava or magma that cools and hardens
Erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation
Heat and pressure deep inside the Earth
Intrusive and Extrusive
inside the Earth
outside the Earth
magma
lava
Intrusive; it cools slowly
Extrusive; it cools quickly
Erosion
Deposition
Which stage of Sedimentary Rock formation
happens when sediment is pressed together to
form layers?
Which stage of Sedimentary Rock formation
happens when sediment becomes glued together?
Where are Metamorphic rocks formed?
What does the word “morph” mean?
What is a Metamorphic rock which has bands or
layers?
Which type of rock is formed from layers of
sediment?
Which type of rock would you probably find near
water?
Which type of rock is formed from weathered
materials?
Which type of rock would you probably find near a
volcano?
Which type of rock would you find very deep inside
the Earth?
Which type of rock is formed from molten
material?
Compaction
Cementation
Deep inside the Earth
To change form
Foliated
Sedimentary
Sedimentary
Sedimentary
Igneous
Metamorphic
Igneous
Rock Cycle
All rocks can be changed into any of the rock types because of the Rock Cycle!
How would an Igneous Rock change into a
It would be pushed down deep into the Earth.
Metamorphic rock?
Then the pressure of the layers on top of it and the
heat from the mantle would make it change
How would an Igneous Rock change into a
It would be broken down by weathering and then
Sedimentary Rock?
go through erosion, deposition, compaction, and
cementation
How would an Igneous Rock change into another
It would be melted down completely by lava or
Igneous Rock?
magma and then cool and harden again
How would a Sedimentary Rock change into an
It would be melted down completely by lava or
Igneous Rock?
magma and then cooled and hardened
How would a Sedimentary Rock change into
It would be broken down by weathering and then
another Sedimentary Rock?
go through erosion, deposition, compaction, and
cementation again
How would a Sedimentary Rock change into a
It would be pushed down deep into the Earth.
Metamorphic Rock?
Then the pressure of the layers on top of it and the
heat from the mantle would make it change
How would a Metamorphic Rock change into an
It would be melted down completed by lava or
Igneous Rock?
magma and then cooled and hardened
How would a Metamorphic Rock change into a
It would be broken down by weathering and then
Sedimentary Rock?
go through erosion, deposition, compaction, and
cementation
How would a Metamorphic Rock change into
Deep in the Earth, the pressure of the layers on top
another Metamorphic Rock?
of the rock and the heat from the mantle would
make it change again
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Rocks and Minerals Study Guide Minerals Name the five

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