ROCKS & MINERALS TEST REVIEW SHEET
A mineral is… A naturally-occurring inorganic
substance with a definite chemical composition and
physical properties.
To be a mineral, a substance must be:
name:
The SEVEN properties/ characteristics used to identify minerals are
(briefly describe each):
1. color – THE FIRST THING YOU SEE WHEN YOU LOOK AT A MINERAL
2. luster – THE WAY THE MINERAL REFLECTS LIGHT
1. inorganic (nonliving)
3. streak – THE COLOR OF THE POWDER LEFT BEHIND ONA STREAK PLATE
2. occur in nature
3. be made of one or more elements
4. how it breaks (cleavage = FLAT SURFACES or fracture = ROUGH OR
CURVED SURFACES)
EXAMPLES of minerals: talc, diamond, quartz, calcite
5. density, or specific gravity – MASS DIVIDED BY VOLUME
6. hardness – MEASURED USED MOH’S SCALE
7. magnetism – WHETHER OR NOT THE MINERAL IS ATTRACTED TO OR
CAN BEHAVE LIKE A MAGNET
A ROCK is… Composed of parts of
minerals, volcanic glass, remains of
plants and animals, & other materials
Igneous:
S
Created from _magma_ (below the
surface) or _lava__ (above the
surface)
Characterized by grain
____size____.
Intrusive:
Where formed?
INSIDE THE
EARTH, LIKE
GRANITE
Created through the processes of
COMPACTION, CEMENETATION, AND
CRYSTALLIZATION.
(chemical)
Clastic/
Detrital:
Extrusive:
Where formed?
OUTSIDE THE
EARTH
Speed of
formation?
SLOW
Speed of
formation?
FAST
Grain size?
LARGE/COARSE
Grain size?
SMALL/FINE
Possibility of
being
PORPHYRITIC,
which means…
THE ROCK
COOLED IN 2
B
STAGES GIVING
IT SMALL & BIG
GRAINS
Sedimentary:
Examples:
BASALT,
PUMICE,
OBSIDIAN
Formed
through what 2
processes?
(describe them)
COMPACTION
WHICH
SQUEEZES THE
SEDIMENTS
TOGETHER
AND
CEMENTATION
WHICH USES
MINERALS
DISSOLVED INA
SOLUTION TO
GLUE THEM
SEDIMENTS
TOGETHER
Examples:
SANDSTONE,
SHALE
Metamorphic:
Created when exposed to
extreme HEAT AND PRESSURE.
Characterized by grain
___PATTERN__.
Organic:
Chemical:
Formed
through the
chemical
process of
CRYSTALLIZA
TION
Examples:
LIMESTONE
Form from the
remains of
PLANTS AND
ANIMALS.
Foliated:
GRAINS
ARE
ARRANGE
D IN
PARALLEL
BANDS OR
LAYERS
Examples:
COAL,
FOSSILIFEROUS
LIMESTONE
Examples:
SLATE,
GNEISS,
SCHIST,
MICA
S
NONfoliated:
GRAINS ARE
ARRANGED
RANDOMLY;
NO PATTERN
Examples:
MARBLE,
QUARTZITE
Answer the following questions using the diagram below.
1. How does sediment become a sedimentary rock? THROUGH COMPACTION AND CEMENTATION
2. How does a metamorphic rock become an igneous rock? MELTS TO MAGMA AND THEN COOLS TO BECOME IGNEOUS
3. Describe two ways in which an igneous rock can become a metamorphic rock.
WAY 1: IGNEOUS ROCK IS EXPOSED TO EXTREME HEAT AND PRESSURE CHANGING IT INTO METAMORPHIC ROCK
WAY 2: IGNEOUS ROCK IS WEATHERED AND ERODED TO SEDIMENTS. THEN, THE SEDIMENTS ARE COMPACTED AND
CEMENTED TO BECOME A SEDIMENTARY ROCK, AND THEN THE SEDIMENTARY ROCK IS EXPOSED TO EXTREME HEAT
AND PRESSURE AND IT BECOMES A METAMORPHIC ROCK.
4. How does magma become sediment? MAGMA COOLS TO BECOME AN IGNEOUS ROCK, AND THEN THE IGNEOUS ROCK
WEATHERS AND ERODES TO SEDIMENT
5. What happens when an igneous rock is exposed to heat and pressure? IT BECOMES A METAMORPHIC ROCK
EXTRA:
6. The processes of Weathering and Erosion create what? SEDIMENTS
7. How does an igneous rock become a sedimentary rock? IGNEOUS ROCK IS WEATHERED AND ERODED TO
SEDIMENTS. THEN, THE SEDIMENTS ARE COMPACTED AND CEMENTED TO BECOME A SEDIMENTARY ROCK
8. When a rock is exposed to heat and pressure, what type of rock is formed? METAMORPHIC
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A mineral is… A naturally-occurring inorganic substance with a

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