Chapter 17
THE AGE OF PILGRIMAGES
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
The most venerated pilgrimage shrine in the West, outside Rome or Jerusalem, was the
_____________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
tomb of Lazarus at Autun
tomb of Saint Foy at Conques
tomb of St. Martin at Tours
tomb of the Apostle James at Santiago de Compostela
Answer: d
2.
Which of the following encouraged the growth of towns and cities?
a.
b.
c.
d.
a sharp increase in trade
the pilgrimage routes
a consolidation of power within the papacy
the end of the power of the Vikings
Answer: a
3.
There is a diversity of regional styles in Romanesque church architecture. Which of the
following is characteristic of the Northern French style found in St.-Étienne at Vignory?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It used small brick-like stones.
It used poured cement.
It used large sawn blocks of stone.
It used a wooden superstructure.
Answer: c
4.
St.-Sernin at Toulouse has been called a “pilgrimage” type church. Which of the following accounts for this
designation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It added perimeter buildings to house pilgrims.
It attached the ambulatory to the nave.
It had radiating chapels attached to the transept and ambulatory.
It narrowed the main aisle to create a dignified progress for viewing the relics.
Answer: c
5.
The plan of St.-Sernin is extremely regular and geometrically precise. It is based on a module seen in earlier
church architecture. Which of the following churches is the prototype for this refined and rational structural
approach?
a.
b.
St. Michael, Hildesheim
Monastery Church, St. Gall
442
c.
Sta. Maria Maggiore, Rome
d.
St. Cyriakus, Gernode
e.
Answer: b
6.
Which of the following churches was the largest in Europe until the new St. Peter’s in Rome was constructed
in the 17th century?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Third Church at Cluny (Cluny III)
St.-Sernin, Toulouse
Speyer Cathedral
Sant’Ambrogio, Milan
Answer: a
7.
Church interiors now became impressive acoustical settings for church services. Which of the following
architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the radiating chapels of the ambulatory
the upper galleries or tribunes along the nave
the radiating chapels attached to the transepts
the continuous barrel-vaulted naves
Answer: d
8.
The one important requirement often missing from these church interiors is light. Which of the following did
not allow for interior lighting?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Barrel-vaults exerted great outward thrust making a clerestory difficult to construct
Light not considered an important spiritual ingredient for church services
The massive walls would not support a tribune and clerestory
It was considered too expensive to fund the construction of a clerestory
Answer: a
9.
How did 11th century Romanesque masons construct monumental groin vaults?
a.
b.
c.
d.
By using ashlar blocks joined by mortar
By using ashlar blocks
By using concrete
By using rubble blocks jointed by mortar
Answer: a
10.
Which church was the burial place of the Holy Roman Emperors until the 12 th century?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Palatine Chapel, Aachen
Speyer Cathedral
Sant’Ambrogio, Milan
St.-Étienne, Caen
Answer: b
11.
A more complex and efficient type of vaulting was needed that would admit light and at the same time be
aesthetically pleasing. Which of the following systems would allow this adoption?
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a.
b.
c.
d.
By elevating the side walls with additional buttressing
By eliminating the upper galleries or tribunes
By covering the nave with groin vaults
By eliminating the ambulatory from the apse
Answer: c
12.
Of the following characteristics, which is not relevant to Italian church architecture?
a.
b.
c.
d.
verticality
thick, massive walls
continuous barrel-vaulting
groin-vaulting
Answer: a
13.
It is said this structure’s design is simple and serenely classical. It is a descendant of the Pantheon, the imperial
mausoleum, such as Diocletian’s, and the Early Christian Sta. Costanza. Which of the following is being
described?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Sant’Ambrogio, Milan
San Giovanni Baptistery, Florence
San Miniato al Monte, Florence
Modena Cathedral
Answer: b
14.
St. Trophîme at Arles has a rich Roman heritage. Which of the following most accurately describes the frieze
above the freestanding columns of the portal?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It recalls the medallions from the Arch of Constantine.
It recalls the sculptured fronts of late antique sarcophagi.
It recalls the narrative bands from the Column of Trajan.
It recalls the panels from the Arch of Titus.
Answer: b
15.
Saint-Savin is a hall church with paintings on the continuous vault of the nave. Which of the following allows
for this?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It has low aisles and tribune galleries
The aisles are approximately the same height as the nave
It has a series of windows in the apse
It has low aisles but no tribune galleries
Answer: b
16.
How is the initial R from the Moralia in Job typically Romanesque?
a.
b.
c.
d.
By the absence of a salutation
By exceeding the boundaries of the frame
By following Hiberno-Saxon carpet page patterns
By the banding of the torso and the partitioning of the folds of the costumes
Answer: d
444
17.
18.
The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It depicted an actual event in full detail shortly after it occurred.
It depicted a tale from the First Crusade.
It depicted the Mission of the Apostles in full detail.
It depicted the clash between the Knights Templar and the Saracens.
Answer:
a
Which of the following describes the Stavelot reliquary of St. Alexander?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It is a combination of multiple sources as well as stylistic diversity.
It follows a strict adherence to the Meuse River region formula for figural representation.
It illustrates the imperial workshops of Byzantium.
It illustrates the impact of the Crusades in Belgium.
Answer: a
19.
The Throne of Wisdom, sedes sapientiae is the western European freestanding version of which of the
following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Islamic Throne
Byzantine Theotokos
Carolingian Throne
Ottonian Throne
Answer: b
20.
Which of the following supports Eadwine’s claim to self-importance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
He likened his image to the Abbot of a monastery.
He likened his image to an Evangelist writing his Gospel.
He likened his image to the Master Builder.
He likened his image to Bernard of Clairvaux.
Answer: a
21.
Which of the architectural elements below was used for the exterior supports on Romanesque buildings?
a.
b.
c.
d.
pendentives
flying buttresses
buttresses
diaphragm buttresses
Answer: c
22.
On the right face of the trumeau is a prophet, displaying his scroll containing his prophetic vision. He is placed
immediately below the depiction of Christ the Judge. This is another instance of the pairing of the Old and
New Testament themes. This iconographic tradition was established during which of the following periods?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Early Christian
Early Byzantine
Carolingian
Hiberno-Saxon
Answer: a
445
23.
The Norman defeat of the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 united all of England and most of
France under one rule. The battle leading to this momentous occasion was the topic for the Bayeux Tapestry.
Who commissioned this work?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Duke William of Normandy
Bishop Odo
Harold, Earl of Wessex
Mathilda of Normandy
Answer: b
24.
Tall towers are integrated into the west front of which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Pisa Cathedral
St.-Étienne, Caen
St.-Sernin, Toulouse
Sant’Ambrogio, Milan
Answer: b
25.
The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
groin vault
pendentive
buttress
rib vault
Answer: a
26.
An important aspect of Romanesque manuscript illumination was based on which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the subordination of the figure to the frame
the aggrandizement of man
Polykleitos’ canon of proportions
the techniques used in metalwork
Answer: a
27.
The Romanesque church that had a wooden ceiling like those found in Early Christian basilicas was which of
the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
San Miniato, Florence
St.-Pierre, Moissac
Durham Cathedral
Sant’Ambrogio, Milan
Answer: a
28.
One suggestion for the resurgence of stone sculpture on churches was the changing role of churches. Now due
to the pilgrimage routes, the churches served an increasingly large lay public. Which of the following supports
this suggestion?
a.
b.
c.
Churches served a largely illiterate audience and needed visual Christian symbols and stories.
Strong Muslim influences provided symbols and stories.
A large group of Byzantine artists were now being employed creating church programs.
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d.
Bernard of Clairvaux supported the use of stone sculpture to convey the Christian stories and
symbols.
Answer: a
29.
Which architectural device was not used by Romanesque architects?
a.
b.
c.
d.
domes
flying buttresses
ribbed vaults
clustered piers
Answer: b
30.
The frieze from the façade of Modena reminded the faithful of Original Sin and that the path to salvation is
through the Christian Church. Which of the following subject matter of the frieze?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The frieze depicts the Crucifixion.
The frieze depicts the Last Judgment.
The frieze depicts the Temptation of Adam & Eve.
The frieze depicts the Ascension.
Answer: c
31.
The Bayeux Tapestry is the conqueror’s version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle sequences as
well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all Romanesque art works. Which of
the following supports this contention?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It has often been likened to the Column of Trajan.
It has often been likened to the frieze from the Arch of Constantine.
It has often been likened to the panels from the Arch of Titus.
It has often been likened to the Column of Marcus Aurelius.
Answer: c
32.
During the Romanesque period the vision of Christ’s Second Coming was often depicted on which of the
following?
a.
b.
c.
d.
jambs
the tribune
the tympanum
the trumeau
Answer: c
SHORT ANSWER
33.
Define the term Romanesque. How was it applied to the period?
Answer: It means “Romanlike” and was first applied in the early nineteenth century to describe European
architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
34.
Contrast the focus of life in the early Early Medieval period with the focus during the Romanesque period.
447
Answer: In the early Early Medieval period the focus was on the manor or estate of the landholding lord. This
lord might grant a portion of his land to his vassals, who, in turn, swore their allegiance to him. They provided
military service to this lord not only for their land but also for the promise of protection. During the
Romanesque period a sharp increase in trade encouraged the growth of towns and cities. This growth
gradually displaced feudalism as the form of governance. The feudal lords granted these towns and
communities their independence, when economic circumstances dictated such, via a charter with their rights
and obligations enumerated.
35.
Briefly describe the impact pilgrimage routes had on Romanesque Europe.
Answer: These routes provided increased funding via the pilgrims to the monasteries and churches that held
the venerated relics of saints. This increased funding also sparked an enormous investment in ecclesiastical
buildings and furnishings in order to reflect “glory of God.” It also reflected the competition among the
monasteries to provide the most magnificent settings for the displays of the relics.
36.
How was a pilgrimage a conspicuous feature of public devotion?
Answer: It proclaimed the pilgrim’s faith in the power of saints and the hope for their special favor. The
pilgrim braved grim roads and conditions as well as perilous routes. Often the pilgrimage became an act of
repentance. The greater the distance and the hardships endured became measures of the devotion and sincerity
of the pilgrim.
37.
How does this statement, “other factors probably played a greater role in the decision to make the enormous
investment in stone masonry” relate to church architecture in the Romanesque period?
Answer: They were a desire to provide a suitably majestic environment for the display of relics as well as
competing for pilgrims and their donations. Stone masonry also enhanced the acoustics and created a more
spiritual and magnificent atmosphere for the liturgy and the accompanying music.
38.
Describe a pilgrimage church.
Answer: The pilgrimage church increased the length of the nave and doubled the side aisles. The pilgrimage
church added transept, ambulatory, and radiating chapels in order to accommodate the increased numbers of
pilgrims following the route in order to view the relics.
39.
What role did the tribune play in church architecture?
Answer: The tribune buttressed the continuous semicircular cut-stone barrel vaults.
40.
How did groin vaults change the weight shift in structures?
Answer: Groin vaults in the tribune galleries as well as in the ground-floor aisles absorbed the pressure of the
nave’s barrel vault along the entire length of the nave. The groin vaults served as buttresses for the barrel vault
and transferred the main thrust to the thick outer walls.
41.
Briefly evaluate the Cluniac Order and its contribution to architecture.
Answer: The order was convinced that a magnificent setting for the Christian liturgy was a fitting tribute to the
Lord. The Cluniac Order was responsible for the construction of beautiful and richly appointed churches.
These projects were equated with piety.
42.
Explain the significance of the pointed arches that were used in Cluny III.
Answer: This structural device would permit later architects (Gothic period) to increase the height of the nave
dramatically. Pointed arches transfer the thrust of the vaults more directly downward to the piers and require
less buttressing on the sides.
448
43.
What were the technical problems encountered by the Romanesque masons when constructing cut stone groin
vaults? How did they solve the problems?
Answer: Unlike the Romans who had concrete, the Romanesque masons encountered difficulties when
building groin vaults of cut stone and heavy rubble. These vaults had very little cohesive quality, and because
of this they were limited to covering small areas such as individual bays of the aisles. However, the 11 th
century masons began using ashlar blocks joined by mortar and they were then able to build groin vaults on a
monumental scale.
44.
The Romanesque period has been credited with the revival of stone carving. Briefly explain the reasons for
such a revival.
Answer: There is no doubt that Rome itself provided the inspiration for such a revival from the abundant
remains found throughout Europe itself. These Roman sculptures provided powerful inspiration and
observable examples of the art of stone carving. This revival added significantly to church sculptural
programs, and they also contributed as a “teaching” tool for the faithful by providing visible pictures for
instruction.
45.
Explain the relationship between the Crusades and the Mission of the Apostles from the Vezelay tympanum.
Answer: Vezelay was closely associated with the Crusades. Urban II had intended to preach the launch of the
First Crusade at Vezelay. Bernard of Clairvaux called for the Second Crusade from Vezelay, and the Third
Crusade was started at Vezelay. The iconographic implications of the tympanum, itself could read as a mission
of the “apostles” in the guise of the crusaders who would bring Christianity to the Infidel.
46.
The Crusades achieved little in the East, other than petty, unstable kingdoms in the Holy Land. However, in
Europe it could be argued that the impact was more positive. Describe the positive elements.
Answer: The Crusades increased the power and prestige of the towns. Many communities were able to
purchase their charters from barons who needed funds to initiate their own campaigns to the Holy Land. A
middle class of merchants and artisans arose to respond to the needs of the communities and Crusaders.
Commercial opportunities also came about as a result of the Crusades as well as the significant growth in trade
and cities of the Romanesque period.
47.
What was the essential core value of the work of Romanesque artists, whether they were anonymous or
recognized?
Answer: Their work existed not for its own sake but for God’s. The artists, recognized or unknown declared if
their work had value, it would be an acceptable gift to offer to God. They were not yet aware of the concepts
of fine art and fine artists.
48.
What did the Pilgrim’s Guide to Santiago de Compostela detail?
Answer: It was a guidebook, which provided information about saints and shrines, and also practical
information regarding roads, accommodations, food, and drink. This particular guidebook described the four
roads leading to the church and because of the fierce competition for relics; the guidebook also included
comments on authenticity.
SAMPLE ESSAY QUESTIONS
49.
Describe the evolution of mural painting in the Romanesque period. What were the influences? How did these
influences shape the evolution of mural painting? Use examples to support your essay.
Answer: pages 444-445.
449
50.
Compare and contrast the development of Romanesque manuscripts. How did regional styles affect this
development? What other factors also contributed to this development? Use examples to support your essay.
Answer: pages 443-448.
51.
Explain the effect the pilgrimage routes had on the dissemination of regional architectural styles of church
architecture. Use examples to support your essay.
Answer: pages 433-443.
52.
Describe the development of the portal sculptural programs for Romanesque churches. How did these
programs reflect their respective regions? How were they similar and how were they different? Use examples
to support your essay.
Answer: pages 437-441.
53.
Describe the role the Crusades played in the development of Romanesque art and architecture. Use examples
to develop your essay.
Answer: pages 440-443.
54.
Contrast the major differences between an Early Christian basilica and a Romanesque church. Include
Romanesque solutions to the basilican plan and the reasons for these solutions. Use examples to support your
essay.
Answer: pages 433-455.
55.
Compare and contrast two regional styles of Romanesque churches and characterize the style of each. Include
the reasons for these developments. Use examples to support your essay
Answer: pages 434-452.
SLIDE IDENTIFICATION
56.
(Figure 17–35)
a.
Battle of Hastings
b.
Battle of Poitiers
c.
Battle of Verdun
d.
Battle of Jerusalem
Answer: a
57.
(Figure 17–6)
a.
barrel vault
b.
ribbed vault
c.
groined vault
d.
oval vault
Answer: c
58.
(Figure 17–28)
a.
Rainer of Huy
b.
Giselbertus
c.
Wiligelmo
d.
Antelami
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Answer: c
59.
(Figure 17–18)
a.
German
b.
French
c.
Italian
d.
English
Answer: b
60.
(Figure 17–24)
a.
chest
b.
casket
c.
reliquary
d.
wedding chest
Answer: c
61.
(Figure 17–16)
a.
St-Sernin, Toulouse
b.
Speyer Cathedral
c.
San Miniato al Monte
d.
St-Savin-sur-Gartempe
Answer: d
62.
(Figure 17–29)
a.
Benedetto Antelami
b.
Giselbertus
c.
Rainer of Huy
d.
Wiligelmo
Answer: a
63.
(Figure 17–25)
a.
French
b.
English
c.
German
d.
Italian
Answer: d
64.
(Figure 17–33)
a.
Sant’Ambrogio, Milan
b.
Durham Cathedral
c.
San Miniato, Florence
d.
St.-Étienne, Caen
Answer: b
65.
(Figure 17–7)
a.
Vézelay
b.
Autun
c.
Moissac
451
d.
Toulouse
Answer: d
66.
(Figure 17–8)
a.
Pisa Cathedral
b.
Cluny III
c.
Speyer Cathedral
d.
St.-Sernin
Answer: b
67.
(Figure 17–22)
a.
Vision of Hildegarde
b.
Vision of Bridget
c.
Vision of Margaret
d.
Vision of Scholastica
Answer: a
68.
(Figure 17–36)
a.
Scivias
b.
Moralia in Job
c.
Eadwine Psalter
d.
Bury Bible
Answer: d
69.
(Figure 17–13)
a.
Christ with the Elders of Apocalypse
b.
Moses Expounding the Law
c.
Ascension of Christ and the Mission of the Apostles
d.
The Last Judgment
Answer: c
70.
(Figure 17–19)
a.
barrel vault
b.
dome on pendentives
c.
squinches
d.
groin vault
Answer: d
71.
(Figure 17–17)
a.
Santa Maria de Mur
b.
Bayeux Tapestry
c.
Apocalypse of Saint Sever
d.
La Madeleine, Vézelay
Answer: a
72.
(Figure 17–15)
a.
Moralia in Job
b.
Bury Bible
c.
Eadwine Psalter
452
d.
Scivias
Answer: a.
Moralia in Job
SLIDE QUESTIONS
73.
Compare these two figures. How are alike and how are they different?
Answer: Benedetto Antelami King David from Fidenza Cathedral (Figure 17-29) and Rainer of Huy
Baptismal font from Notre-Dame-des-Fonts, Liege, Belgium (Figure 17–23) Both works are by identified
artists, indicating a slow and gradual movement towards recognizing the artist or craftsman creating the work.
However the work is still of primary importance as it is a gift offered to God. Both works favor the classical,
the King David figure is still confined by the frame, yet the artist has done much to free the figure. The tilted
head and the arm still close to the body suggest movement. The relief from the font is strictly twodimensional. The artist has softened and rounded the figures echoing the classical past. He has also idealized
the bodies and the faces. The figure of Christ is depicted naked in the water.
74.
In what way do these figures embody Romanesque sculptural style?
Answer: Jeremiah (Isaiah?) from trumeau of St.-Pierre, Moissac (Figure 17–11) and Reliquary of St.
Alexander, Stavelot Abbey, Belgium (Figure 17-24). The trumeau figure expressed the emotionalism of the
period. The figure is also confined to its frame. The flowing lines of the figure’s drapery show its origins in
manuscript illumination. The flowing, moving locks of the figure’s hair frame the image of a mystic. The
placement of the figure beneath the Christ figure also echoes the tradition of pairing Old and New Testament
themes. The prophet is foretelling salvation and salvation itself as represented by Christ. The reliquary
illustrates the rich diversity of style and the multiple sources the artist had to work with and from, the head of
the figure is reminiscent of youthful portraits of Roman emperors. The dragons harkened to the fantastic
animals of the Early Medieval period and also show the influence of the cloister. The enamels indicate a
Byzantine connection as well. This work illustrates, visually, the diversity, sources, and intercommunication
that existed during this period.
75.
How do these two churches prefigure Gothic architecture?
Answer: Interior, St.-Étienne, Caen (figure 17-31) and Interior, Durham Cathedral, England (Figure 17-33).
St.-Etienne shows the alternating rhythm of compound piers with simple engaged half columns and piers with
half-columns attached to pilasters and groined vaults that allowed enough room to insert a clerestory for
windows. These large windows reduce the interior wall surface and create a light and airy interior, which will
later be maximized by Gothic architecture. Durham Cathedral, also a Norman church, has groined vaults as
well. It was conceived with this vault style at the very beginning of its construction. Included in the
architecture of this church are quadrant arches, which are the ancestor of the Gothic flying buttress.
76.
How do these churches reflect the regional character of Romanesque architecture?
Answer: Aerial view, St.-Sernin, Toulouse (Figure 17–4) Aerial view, Sant’Ambrogio, Milan (Figure 17-20).
St.-Sernin shows the long nave and apsidal area, with the double side aisles and the transept with ambulatory
and radiating chapels. It shows an organized, coherent unity, which is a characteristic of the “pilgrimage” type
church and the region. Sant’Ambrogio is characteristic of the Italian regional style of favoring the Early
Christian basilica: low and broad proportions. Sant’Ambrogio does not have the verticality of St.-Sernin
rather the stress is on the broad and low.
77.
Contrast these two buildings. How do they each recall earlier traditions?
Answer: Baptistery San Giovanni, Florence (Figure 17-26) and Interior of San Miniato al Monte, Florence
(Figure 17–27). Both structures are echoes of earlier traditions. The Baptistery is simple and classical in
design. It is reminiscent of the Roman tradition seen in the Pantheon and Mausoleum of Diocletian, as well as
453
the Early Christian Sta. Costanza. The interior of San Miniato shows the timbered ceiling of its Early Christian
antecedents. But it also has compartmentalization so favored by the Romanesque.
78.
How does each of these images fail to meet the reforming spirit of the Cistercian Order and St. Bernard of
Clairvaux in particular?
Answer: Cloister, St.-Pierre, Moissac (Figure 17-9) and Initial R from Moralia in Job (Figure 17-15). Both
images are the antithesis of the rule Bernard of Clairvaux set. He felt these decorated cloisters with images of
fantastic animals, as well as biblical scenes or scenes from the lives of the saints distracted the monks from
their prayers and meditations. The manuscript was completed before the rule had been set at the primary
Cistercian monastery of Cîteaux. Both the Cistercians and Bernard would have rejected manuscript as too
luxurious and distracting.
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