```《In the Beginning (Vol. 4)》(Walt
Brown)
Compelling Evidence for Creation and the
Flood


Technical Notes
Index
Technical Notes
Calculations That Show Comets Began Near Earth
If the most clocklike comets can be shown to have begun near Earth with a very
high probability (>99%), one can also directly conclude with a high probability that:
 The hydroplate theory is basically correct.
 Beginning in about 3290 ± 100 B.C., a powerful catastrophe launched
massive amounts of rocks and water from earth into space. Some of that
material later merged by known forces to become comets.
If these conclusions are shocking to some individuals, here is their challenge:
Find the error in the calculations outlined below, or accept the mathematical
conclusions. For more details, see "When Was the Flood?" on pages 459–461.
Step 1: Download from the internet the two papers referenced in Endnote 5 on
page 461. They are located at
and
After reading both papers, set up a workbook in Excel 2007 (or higher) with the
following worksheets:
a. Most Clocklike Comets
b. True Deviations Squared
c. Random Deviations Squared
Data and calculations from worksheets a–b will feed into subsequent worksheets.
Set up a table in the “Most Clocklike Comets” worksheet similar to Table 34 and
fill in all 49 rows. Some cells will require simple calculations. Select any Julian
date converter on the internet and become comfortable converting from calendar
dates to Julian dates and vice versa.
Table 34. Comet Convergence, Most Clocklike Comets (Step 1)
A
B
C
D
1 Comet Halley
2 Perihelion Julian Date
Date
(Calendar
Date)
E
F
G
H
True
Period
Based
on Julian
Date
(years)
C
in
P
(y
Comet Swift-Tuttle
True
Period
Based
on Julian
Date
(years)
Change
in
Period
(years)
Perihelion Julian Date
Date
(Calendar
Dates)
3 -1403 Oct 1208900.181090
15.68109
-702 Apr 1464744.786850
3.28685
4 -1333 Aug 1234416.005850 69.860013
-573
25.50585
Aug 1511981.912880 129.330965
1.41288
5 -1265 Sep 1259263.895890 68.031268 1.83
5.39589
-446 Jun 1558308.646010 126.838391 2.
2.14601
6 -1197 May 1283983.732520 67.680670 0.35
11.23252
-321 Sep 1604082.158030 125.323722 1.
27.65803
... ...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
47 1910 Apr 2418781.677710 74.423873 2.26
20.1785
1862 Aug 2401375.922278 125.186982 2.
23.42278
48 1986 Feb 2446470.958343 75.810738 -1.39
9.4589
1992 Dec 2448968.823940 130.305046 -5
12.32394
49 Sample Standard Deviation of Period 1.56
Changes (years):
Sample Standard Deviation of Period 2.
Changes (years):
1 year
=
365.2422 days
Step 2: Set up a table in the “True Deviations Squared” worksheet similar to
Table 35. Designate a row in column B for each of the past 4,000–6,000 years. In
column C, calculate the corresponding Julian dates. In columns D and E (for
comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle, respectively), calculate the number of days until
(or since) that comet’s nearest perihelion. Square that number, and place the sum
of those two squared numbers in the corresponding row in column G. Place the
minimum of the numbers in column G in cell G1 and the corresponding row
number (or year) and calendar date in cells G2 and G3. That is the year in which
the three bodies (Halley, Swift-Tuttle, and Earth) were closest to each other.
However, the degree of closeness may not be statistically significant. That
significance will be determined in Step 3. Plot column G vs. column B (time), as
shown in Figure 233.
Table 35. Comet Convergence, True Deviations Squared (Step 2)
A
1
B
C
D
E
F
G
Comet Halley
Comet
Swift-Tuttle
Minimum 1,210
Sum of
Squares
in
Column
G:
2
Oldest
Known
Perihelion
(Julian
1208900.181090 1464744.786850 Julian
Date:
519968
Date)
3
4
Oldest
Period
(Julian
Days)
25515.82
47237.13
Years Julian Deviations
from
Perihelion
2
Ago Date
Squared (Julian Days)
Calendar 3290 B.C.
Date:
Sum
of
Columns
D and E
5
4000 995513 85,717,656
9,870,112
95,587,768
6
4001 995148 92,614,162
7,708,570
100,322,733
7
4002 994783 99,777,472
5,813,833
105,591,305
8
4003 994417 107,207,586
4,185,899
111,393,484
...
...
...
...
2004
5999 265394 377,999
339,907,280
339,656,279
2005
6000 265029 46,714
352,907,638
352,954,352
...
...
Excel spreadsheets have built in functions that can save you a great deal of time.
Consider using the functions: SQRT (square root), STDEV (sample standard
deviation), MIN (minimum), and RAND (random number). Also macros can repeat
complex operations in milliseconds.
Step 3: In the “Random Deviations Squared” worksheet, repeat Step 2, but begin
each comet’s backward march from a random point on its oldest known orbit
instead of its perihelion. With a macro, repeat this process 1,000,000 times (for
the time interval 4,000–6,000 years ago) and see what percent of those random
trials produced a clustering at least as tight as you got in Step 2. Your answer
should be only about 0.6 of 1%. Alternatively, if we began each comet’s backward
projection from a random point on its oldest known orbit, we would have to search
333,333 years, on average, to find one clustering that was at least as tight.
[2,000/(0.006)= 333,333]
Step 4: Calculate the expected error for each comet individually. Those errors
can be determined by three different methods: A, B, and C. All give the same
answer. Method A, a simple, intuitive approach, will now be explained using
comet Halley as an example.
Method A: Geometric. Visualize a timeline extending back in time from Halley’s
oldest known perihelion in 1403.80 B.C. If we tick off exactly 27 69.86-year
increments on that timeline, we will be at 3290 B.C.—our best estimate for the
time of the flood, but an estimate with some uncertainty on either side of 3290 B.C.
We will now find how large that uncertainty is.
Our best guess for all 27 time increments was the oldest known period (69.86
years), but there is an unknown error, x1, in the first unknown orbital period. That
first period, now with a known but slightly different length of 69.86 + x 1, becomes
our best guess for all earlier periods, making the total error in our 3290 B.C. date
for the flood, based just on the length of the first unknown period, 27 times x1.
(The random number, x1, will be drawn from a normal distribution with a mean of
zero and a standard deviation of 1.56 years.) With that first unknown period now
known, we can repeat these steps for the next unknown period. That adds an
error of 26 times x2. Generalizing, the expected error for either comet becomes:
Total Error = N x1 + (N-1)x2 + (N-2)x3 + ... + 3xN-2 + 2xN-1 + xN
where N, the number of periods a comet must take in going from its oldest known
perihelion back to the best estimate for the time of the flood. For comet Halley,
N=27.000. For comet Swift-Tuttle, N=20.000. Because the Total Error above is
the sum of N independent random variables, such as Nx1 and (N-1)x2, the
standard deviation of the Total Error is
For comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle, these values are 130 years and 159 years,
respectively.
Method B: Algebraic. For a particular comet:
t0: the Julian date for the oldest known perihelion
ti : an estimate of the Julian date for the ith unknown perihelion
P0: the oldest known period
Pi: an estimate for the ith unknown period
xi : the ith random variable from a [0, ] normal distribution of the changes in
successive orbital periods of a comet
t1 = t0 - P0 + x1
P1 = t0-t1 = P0-x1
t2 = t1 - P1+ x2 = (t0 - P0+ x1) - (P0- x1) + x2 = t0 - 2P0 + 2x1 + x2
P2 = t1-t2 =
P1-x2 = (P0-x1) - x2 = P0-x1 - x2
t3 = t2 - P2+ x3 = (t0 - 2P0 + 2x1 + x2) - (P0-x1 - x2) +x3 = t0 - 3P0 + 3x1 +2x2 +
x3
P3 = t2-t3 = P2-x3 = (P0-x1 - x2) - x3 = P0-x1 - x2 -x3
...
tN = t0 - NP0 + Nx1 + (N-1)x2 + (N-2)x3 + ... + 3xN-2 + 2xN-1 + xN
Methods A and B produce identical results and have probability distributions that
depends on only and N.
Method C: Simulation. Instead of working with the long summations in Method B,
a computer can generate each xi as a random number from a [0, ] normal
distribution and substitute them in the equations:
t1 = t0 - P0 + x1
P 1 = t 0 - t1
t2 = t1 - P1 + x2
P 2 = t 1 - t2
t3 = t2 - P2 + x3
P 3 = t 2 - t3
...
tN = tN-1 - PN-1+ xN
Each sequence of N random numbers (x1, x2, ..., xN ) will give one simulated date
for the flood, which will, in general, differ from 3290 B.C. Thousands of those
simulated dates will give us the error estimates for each comet individually (of 130
and 159 years) that were found exactly in Methods A and B. Adding the additional
information that both comets formed at about the same time—based on the
statistical significance of >99%—allows the combined error estimate for the date
of the flood to be reduced to ± 100 years.
Figure 233: Comet Clustering. The tight clustering of comets Halley and
Swift-Tuttle with Earth in 3290 B.C. (as shown above) does not mean that
was the year of the flood. It simply means that 3290 B.C. is the most likely
year of the flood, based on these calculations. As shown by the red normal
distribution, the flood could have occurred within a hundred or so years of that
date. The depth of this downward spike in 3290 B.C., however, is quite
unusual. Had the backward projection of Halley and Swift-Tuttle started at a
random point on their oldest known orbits instead of at their perihelions, it
would take, on average, 333,333 years before a similar tightness of clustering
of these three bodies (Earth and comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle) would be
found. Is it merely a coincidence that we found a one-in-333,333-year event
very near the time of the historical global flood—after a backward search of
only 1290 years?
Also, basic physics tells us that gravitational perturbations are as likely to
increase a comet’s period as to decrease a comet’s period; that is, a
gravitational body, such as a planet, is as likely to pass in front of an orbiting
comet at a certain distance as to pass behind it at that distance. While we
may not know how the unknown periods changed, the statistical mean of
those changes will be zero; therefore, the mean of the possible dates for
the flood is 3290 B.C.
Figure 234: Probabilities for Perihelion Passage Dates. We have shown that
if comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle had been projected back in time from their
oldest known perihelions and with their oldest known periods, both comets
would pass perihelion in the year 3290 B.C. Halley would have taken exactly
27 orbits and Swift-Tuttle exactly 22 orbits.
We also showed how unusual it is for both comets to be so close to Earth in
any single year in the 2,000-year window in which almost all Bible scholars
place the flood. Such a tight convergence would only happen 0.6 of 1% of the
time. Nevertheless, the hydroplate theory explains why they were so close in
the year of the flood.
Of course, each comet’s period would have changed slightly with each orbit,
so while the year 3290 B.C. might be our best guess if we had to pick only
one year for the comet’s simultaneous convergence with Earth, other years
for the three-body convergence are also possible on either side of 3290 B.C.
Projecting Halley back 27 orbits and allowing planetary perturbations similar
to those seen with Halley’s most recent 45 orbits give us the distribution of
possible years shown in Figure A above. Likewise, Figure B above gives the
probability distribution of the possible years in which Swift-Tuttle passed
perihelion on its 22nd orbit back in time from where we know it was on 702.30
B.C.
Finally, we have one other piece of information. Given that we are 99.4%
confident that Halley and Swift-Tuttle were both near Earth in the same year,
we will add the constraint to Figures A and B above that Halley made its 27th
perihelion pass in the same year Swift-Tuttle made its 21st perihelion pass.
It can be shown, with some calculus and probability theory, that distribution C
gives the probabilities—for each of the years on either side of 3290
B.C.—that both comets were simultaneously near Earth on a single year.
That distribution has a standard deviation ( c ) of
where Halley’s and Swift-Tuttle’s standard deviation in Figures A and B above
were 130 years and 159 years, respectively.
How Long Would It Take the Moon to Recede from Earth to Its Present
Position?
Evolutionists believe (1) the Earth and Moon are 4.6 billion years old, and (2) with
enough time bacteria will change into people. We have all heard some
evolutionists say, “Given enough time, anything can happen.” This simplistic
attitude overlooks two things. First, most conceivable events will not happen,
because they would violate well-established laws of science.1 Second, if 4.6
billion years have elapsed, many things should have occurred that obviously have
not. Instead of time being “the hero of the plot,” as one prominent evolutionist
stated,2 immense amounts of time cause problems for evolution, as you will now
see.
Most dating techniques, including the majority that indicate young ages, make the
three basic assumptions given on page 37. The following dating technique has
few, if any, major assumptions. It relies basically on only the law of gravity and
one undisputed and frequently repeated measurement. We will look at the forces
causing the Moon to spiral farther and farther from Earth. Then, we will see that
this spiraling action could not have been happening for the length of time
evolutionists say the Earth and Moon have been around.
It will be shown that if the Moon began orbiting very near the Earth, it would move
to its present position in less than 1.2 billion years. Stated another way, if we
could run time backwards, in 1.2 billion years the Moon would be so close to Earth
that ocean tides would sweep over all mountains. Astronomers who are aware of
this problem call it “the lunar crisis.”3 Notice that this conclusion does not say the
Earth-Moon system is 1.2 billion years old; it only says that the Earth-Moon
system must be less than 1.2 billion years old. If the Moon began orbiting Earth
slightly inside the Moon’s present orbit, its age would be much less. Obviously,
something is wrong with either the law of gravity or evolutionists’ belief that the
Earth-Moon system is 4.6 billion years old. Most astute people would place their
confidence in the law of gravity, which has been verified by countless
experiments.
What causes tides? If the Moon’s gravity attracted every particle in and on
Earth with equal force, there would be no tides. Tides are caused by slight
differences in the Moon’s gravitational forces throughout Earth. 4 As shown in
Figure 235, the Moon pulls more on ocean particle A, directly under the Moon,
than it does the center of Earth, C, because A is closer to the Moon. Therefore, A,
pulled with slightly more force, moves proportionally farther toward the Moon than
C, creating a tidal bulge. Likewise, water particle B, on the far side of Earth, is
pulled with slightly less force than C. This difference pulls Earth away from B,
creating the far tidal bulge.
Figure 235: Why the Moon Produces Tides on Earth.
How does the height of ocean tides relate to the Earth-Moon separation
distance (R)? According to Newton’s law of gravitation, the Moon’s gravitational
force pulls on Earth’s center of mass (C) with a force proportional to 1/R 2. Water
particle A directly under the Moon is one Earth radius (r) closer, so it is pulled by a
force proportional to 1/(R-r)2. The difference between these forces is proportional
to
Because r is much less than R, the numerator on the right is almost 2rR and its
denominator is almost R4. Therefore, the force difference producing tides and tide
heights is approximately proportional to
Because Earth’s radius (r) is constant, we can conclude that the height of the
tides is proportional to 1/R3. For example, if the Earth-Moon distance suddenly
doubled, tides caused by the Moon would be only 1/8 as high.5
How do tides affect the Moon’s orbit and the Earth’s spin rate? Surprisingly,
the tidal bulges do not line up directly under the Moon as shown in Figure 235.
This is because the spinning Earth carries the bulges out of alignment as shown
in Figure 236. If Earth spun faster in the past, as we will see, the misalignment
would have been even greater.
Let’s think of Earth as composed of two parts: a spherical portion (gray in
Figure 236) and the tidal bulges—both water and solid tides.6 Gs is the
gravitational force the Moon feels from the spherical portion of Earth. Because Gs
is aligned with the centers of Earth and Moon, it does not alter the Moon’s orbit.
However, the near tidal bulge, because it is offset, pulls the Moon in a direction
shown by Gn, with a tangential component, Fn, in the direction of the Moon’s
orbital motion. Fn accelerates the Moon in the direction it is moving, flinging it into
an increasingly larger orbit. The far tidal bulge has an opposite but slightly weaker
effect—weaker because it is farther from the Moon. The far bulge produces a
gravitational force, Gf, and a retarding force on the Moon, Ff. The net strength of
this accelerating force is (Fn - Ff). It can also be thought of as a thrust pushing the
Moon tangential to its orbit, moving the Moon farther from Earth. This accelerating
force allows us to calculate an upper limit on the age of the Moon. Today’s
recession rate has been precisely measured at 3.82 cm/yr,7 but as you will see, it
was faster in the past.
Notice, the Moon’s net gravitational pull acting on the tidal bulges steadily slows
Earth’s spin. In other words, the Earth spun faster in the past.
Figure 236: Rotated Tidal Bulges.
How does (Fn - Ff) relate to the Earth-Moon separation distance (R)? Using
similar triangles,
where y is the misalignment distance of each tidal bulge, m b is the mass of each
tidal bulge, m is the Moon’s mass, and G is the gravitational constant. Solving for
(Fn - Ff)
Equation 1b showed that the mass of a tidal bulge, m b, is approximately
proportional to 1/R3, that is
where C1 is the constant of proportionality. Therefore
The velocity of the Moon (or any body in a circular orbit) is
where M is Earth’s mass (or the mass of the central body).
Differentiating both sides with respect to time (t) and solving for
Because the Moon’s tangential acceleration,
, is equal to
gives
, which
is known from equation (2)
The slight displacement of the tidal bulge (y), as mentioned earlier, is proportional
to the difference in the Earth’s spin rate ( ) and the Moon’s angular velocity ( L).
In other words,
Substituting (4) into (3) and replacing the product of all constants by C gives
C is found by using today’s values (subscript t)
Kepler’s third law shows how (
-
L)
varies with R:
Applying the law of conservation of angular momentum gives
where the constant L is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, and P
is Earth’s polar moment of inertia. Combining (7) and (8) gives
Substituting (6), (7), and (9) into (5) gives us the final equation. Because it has no
closed-form solution, it will be solved by numerical iteration. The steps begin by
setting the clock to zero and R to its present value of 384,400 km. Then, time is
stepped backwards in small increments (dt) until the centers of the Moon and
Earth are only 15,000 km apart. Had this happened, ocean tides would have
steadily grown to a ridiculous 12.8 km (8 miles) high and left marks on Earth that
obviously don’t exist.8
The QuickBasic program that solves this system of equations (shown on
page 544) gives 1.2 billion years as the upper limit for the age of the Moon. (If the
Moon began moving away from Earth 1.2 billion years ago, the Earth would have
rotated once every 4.9 hours.)
Two complicated effects were neglected that would further reduce this upper limit
for the Moon’s age.9
1. Evolutionists believe that the Earth formed by gravitational accretion of
smaller bodies. If so, the impacts would have left a molten Earth. The
Earth, throughout its history, would have been less rigid than it is today.
Therefore, tidal bulges would have been larger, causing the Moon to spiral
away from the Earth even faster than we calculated here.
2. Internal friction from tidal stretching of the solid Earth reduces Earth’s
spin velocity. This greater spin velocity in the past would have increased
the tidal misalignment, so the Moon’s recession would have been greater
than calculated above.
Incorporating these effects into the above analysis would make the upper limit on
the Moon’s age much less than 1.2 billion years.
One might argue that 1.2 billion years ago the Moon was captured by the Earth or
blasted from the Earth by an extraterrestrial collision.10 These events would have
placed the Moon in a very elongated orbit. Today, Earth’s Moon and most of the
almost 200 other known moons in the solar system are in nearly circular orbits.11
Those many circular, or nearly circular, orbits are difficult for evolutionists to
explain with any rigor.12 Therefore, it is highly unlikely that the Moon (1) was
captured, (2) was blasted from Earth by an extraterrestrial collision, or (3)
somehow began orbiting Earth 1.2 billion years ago. Its orbit is too circular.
(Other problems with evolutionary theories on the Moon’s origin are discussed
under “Origin of the Moon” on page 31.)
Besides mountain-eroding tides, what other implications would a
1.2-billion-year-old Moon have for organic evolution and the age of Earth?
Evolutionists claim that certain fossils are 2.8–3.5 billion years old. Had the Moon
begun orbiting Earth 1.2 billion years ago, such fossils would have been
pulverized by the havoc of gigantic tides. Evidently, the Moon did not originate
near Earth. This further reduces the maximum age of the Moon.
All other dating techniques must assume how fast the dating clock has always
ticked and how the clock was initially set. For example, radiometric techniques
ignore the accelerated decay that produced earth’s radioisotopes, and never
consider how each radioactive isotope originated. [See “The Origin of Earth’s
Radioactivity” on pages 357–405.] The analysis on the Moon’s recession only
assumes that the law of gravity has existed since the Earth and Moon began.
Neither assumption can be proven, but there is no doubt which assumptions
scientists would favor. If Newton’s law of gravitation did not hold in the past, our
scientific foundations would crumble. However, if the Moon is less than 1.2 billion
years old, a few evolutionary preconceptions must be discarded. But that’s
progress.
PROGRAM
DEFDBL A–Z ‘DOUBLE PRECISION
dt = 1 ‘TIME INCREMENT (yr)
G = 6.64E-08 ‘THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT (km3 gm-1 yr-2)
LOP = 13486.23 ‘ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF EARTH-MOON SYSTEM / P
(1/yr)
ME = 5.97E+27 ‘MASS OF THE EARTH (gm)
mm = 7.35E+25 ‘MASS OF THE MOON (gm)
P = 8.068E+34 ‘EARTH’S POLAR MOMENT OF INERTIA (gm km2)
R = 384400 ‘TODAY’S EARTH-MOON SEPARATION DISTANCE (km)
Rdot = 0.0000382 ‘TODAY’S RATE OF CHANGE OF R (km/yr)
= 2301.22 ‘TODAY’S ANGULAR VELOCITY OF THE EARTH’S SPIN (rad/yr)
L = 83.993 ‘TODAY’S ANGULAR VELOCITY OF THE MOON’S ROTATION
t = 0 ‘TIME, THE NUMBER OF YEARS AGO (yr)
a = SQR(G * (ME + mm))
b = ME * mm * SQR(G / (ME + mm)) / P
C = Rdot * R ^ 5.5 / ( - L) ‘FROM (6)
‘marching solution begins
DO
R = R - (C * ( - L) / R^5.5) * dt ‘FROM (5)
IF R < 15000 THEN LPRINT “The upper limit on the Moon’s age is”; t; “years.”:
END
= LOP - b * SQR(R) ‘FROM (9)
L= a * R ^ -1.5 ‘FROM (7)
t = t + dt
LOOP
OUTPUT
The upper limit on the Moon’s age is 1,198,032,532 years.
References and Notes
1. If you disagree, hold a rubber ball at arm’s length and release it. Of the many
possible paths the ball could conceivably take (actually an infinite number), it will
follow only one. As another example, compress the ball between two surfaces. Of
the many possible ways the ball might deform, it will deform in a way that
minimizes its stored energy. These are consequences of physical laws. Most
things will not happen, even with an infinite amount of time. Protons will not turn
into planets, plants, or people.
2. George Wald, “The Origin of Life,” Scientific American, Vol. 191, August 1954, p.
48.
3. Two international conferences have tried to address this problem. [See P. Brosche
and J. Sündermann, editors, Tidal Friction and the Earth’s Rotation (New York:
Springer-Verlag, 1978) and P. Brosche and J. Sündermann, editors, Tidal Friction
and the Earth’s Rotation II (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982).] The studies
presented were of mixed quality; none considered the effect described in
equations 4–9, and all left this recognized problem somewhat “out of focus.”
4. We will consider only the Earth-Moon interaction. The Sun’s tidal effect is about half
that of the Moon.
5. If a force (or a change in force) is small, the displacement it produces is proportional
to the force if all states passed through are equilibrium states. For example, a
small displacement of an extension spring is proportional to the force causing the
displacement. This doesn’t hold if the spring breaks or stretches beyond its elastic
limit. Tidal forces and displacements at a particular location are quite small.
Once R is fixed, the tide’s height at a specific location depends on many other
factors, especially the shape of the coastline and seafloor. When high tides arrive
at a coastline with a narrow, funnel-shaped bay, tide heights increase. At the Bay
of Fundy in eastern Canada, tides rise and fall up to 48 feet twice daily. The
average tidal amplitude on the open ocean is about 30 inches. Inland lakes have
small tides. For example, Lake Superior has 2-inch tides.
Tides also occur in the atmosphere and solid Earth. Relative to the center of the
Earth, the foundation of your home (and everything around it) may rise and fall as
much as 12 inches (relative to the center of the earth), depending on your latitude.
6. Earth’s mountain ranges and equatorial bulge can be disregarded in this analysis,
because their effects on the Moon’s recession cancel over many orbits.
7. Laser beams have been bounced off arrays of corner reflectors left on the Moon by
three teams of Apollo astronauts and the Russian Lunakhod 2 vehicle. Knowing
today’s speed of light and the length of time for the beam to travel to the Moon
and back gives the Moon’s distance. This has been successfully done more than
8,300 times since August 1986. Adjusting for many other parameters that affect
the Moon’s orbit gives its recession rate: 3.82± 0.07 cm/yr. [See J. O. Dickey et
al., “Lunar Laser Ranging: A Continuing Legacy of the Apollo Program,” Science,
Vol. 265, 22 July 1994, p. 486.] This recession was first recognized in 1754 by
observing the Moon’s increasing orbital period. [For details see Walter H. Munk
and Gordon J. F. MacDonald, The Rotation of the Earth (Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 198.]
8. How high would tides be if the Earth-Moon distance (R) were 15,000 km? (Whether
the Moon would be pulled apart if it were ever that near Earth will be bypassed. It
depends on many factors, including the Moon’s tensile strength, its rotation rate,
and a subject called Roche’s limit.)
From equation 1b, the tidal height varies as 1/R3. The average height of tides on the
open ocean today (with R = 384,400 km) is 30 inches or 0.76 meter. [See
Endnote 5, above.] Therefore, if R were ever 15,000 km, the tidal height would be
Tides more than a mile high would occur if R < 30,000 km = 18,606 miles.
9. Touma and Wisdom conducted a more detailed study of the moon’s recession than
my study. However, they arrived at a similar answer.
The evolution of the lunar semimajor axis presents the well-known time scale
problem; the lunar orbit collapses only a little over a billion years ago. Jihad
Touma and Jack Wisdom, “Evolution of the Earth-Moon System,” The
Astronomical Journal, Vol. 108, November 1994, p. 1954.
They then ignored the problem by saying, “Presumably, the tidal constants have
changed as the continents have drifted.”
Another problem they uncovered, but did not resolve, is that as the Moon
approaches the Earth, its orbit becomes highly inclined to Earth’s equator. All
evolution theories for the Moon have it beginning in the plane of Earth’s equator.
We are presented with an unresolved mystery. All theories of lunar formation
require that formation take place in the equator plane, yet models of tidal evolution
do not place the Moon there. Touma and Wisdom, p. 1955.
Recognizing that the Moon did not evolve eliminates both problems.
10. The other evolutionary theories on the Moon’s origin require it to have an age of
4.6 billion years. Because we have seen that the Moon cannot be older than 1.2
billion years, and it may be much younger, these other theories can be rejected.
11. Today, the Moon’s orbital eccentricity is 0.0549. A perfect circle has zero
eccentricity. An extremely elongated elliptical orbit has an eccentricity of slightly
less than 1.000. The ellipse in Figure 164 on page 294 has an eccentricity of
12. Most people, even scientists, do not appreciate the difficulty of placing a satellite in
a nearly circular orbit. For an artificial satellite to achieve such an orbit, several
“burns” are required at just the right time, in just the right direction, and with just
the right thrust. Most planets and many moons have nearly circular orbits. How
could this have happened?
Rocket Science
Figure 237: Jetting. Shown (not to scale) is a cross section of the earth’s crust
and the jetting supercritical water (SCW) hours to weeks after the rupture.
The left and right dashed lines are the vertical center lines of a hydroplate and
the rupture, respectively. A mirror image of this figure (not shown) would lie to
the left and right of each center line. Because of this symmetry, the dashed
lines can be thought of as barriers beyond which matter will not flow. The
Moho marks the bottom of the porous, spongelike region, about 3 miles below
the chamber floor.
Here, SCW acts like a rocket’s propellent escaping with a velocity ve to the
right of the rocket’s nozzle (represented by the vertical, yellow line). The
“rocket” (shown in silhouette) cannot move to the left, since an identical jetting
rocket (because of symmetry) is pushing to the right with an equal force.
For centuries before the flood, the powerful ability of SCW to dissolve certain
minerals opened up a myriad of twisting, spaghetti-thin channels throughout the
chamber’s floor and ceiling. Once the flood began, weeks of steady heating from
nuclear reactions in the fluttering crust continuously pressurized the SCW in those
miles of long, thin, interconnected channels. That, in turn, greatly elevated the
pressure in the subterranean chamber, thereby accelerating the escaping
subterranean water even more, not just while it was under the crust but also as it
was accelerating upward in the fountains.
Today, SCW is still coming out of what was the porous floor of the subterranean
chamber. [See Figures 54 and 55 on pages 124 and 124.] The hot water in the
spongelike pockets, which absorbed much of the nuclear energy, also heated the
adjacent rock. Today, that heat accounts for much of the geothermal heat and
increasing temperatures as one descends into deep caves or drills into the earth.
The Moho, explained in Figures 54 and 67 on pages 124 and 130, lies at the base
of that global, porous layer, which was about 3 miles thick.
Jet fuel in a high-performance aircraft contains about 20,000 BTU of chemical
energy per pound. Greater aircraft speeds might result if the energy content could
be increased or the metals containing the hot gases could be strengthened to
withstand even higher combustion temperatures and pressures. In comparison,
SCW has many orders of magnitude more energy per pound, and its container
(earth’s thick crust) was much stronger than an aircraft’s combustion chamber.
Obviously, the exit velocities, expansion rates, and mass of the fountains of the
great deep were vastly greater than any jet expelled by an aircraft.
The next time you see contrails in the sky, recognize that escaping, hot,
high-pressure gases (primarily water vapor) from a jet aircraft expand
downstream so much that they cool, condense and sometimes freeze. The
fountains of the great deep experienced much greater expansion and cooling in
an environment a few hundred degrees colder than where jet aircraft fly. Recall
that billions upon billions of tons of supercold ice crystals suddenly fell from the
fountains and buried and froze many mammoths—and much of Alaska and
Siberia, and, no doubt, other places (at least temporarily). [See pages 255–284.]
The temperature, T, in an expanding supersonic flow is determined by the Mach
number, M, stagnation temperature, T0, and the ratio of specific heats, k, which for
a perfect gas is about 1.4.1
The stagnation temperature for the situation in Figure 236 is the temperature in
the subterranean chamber. Iron-nickel meteorites exceeded 1,300°F. [See
Figure 174 on page 329]. Because meteorites are broken-up rocks launched from
the subterranean chamber, T0 was about 1,300°F. Launch velocities of at least 32
miles per second were required to place near-parabolic comets in retrograde
orbits.2 [See page 303.] If the sonic velocity in the downstream flow was 0.2 miles
per second, then
where absolute zero on the Fahrenheit scale is -460°F. Although M, T0, and the
effective sonic velocity can only be estimated, after the expansion the
temperature of the flowing gas was so cold, it was almost absolute zero!
The fountains, unlike a jet aircraft’s exhaust, did not collide with and transfer much
of their kinetic energy to the atmosphere. Seconds after the rupture, only the thin
boundary layer (shown in blue) made contact with the atmosphere. The thinness
of that boundary layer must be compared with the great width of the rupture. As
explained in Endnote 93 on page 401, the rupture was initially about 6 miles wide,
and then, because of erosion and the crumbling walls adjacent to the rupture,
grew to hundreds of miles. Most of the heat transferred into that boundary layer
would have ended up at the top of the atmosphere—lifted by both natural
convection and entrainment.
The fountains split and spread the atmosphere, allowing most of the water and
rocks to escape into the vacuum of outer space. Some water within the boundary
layer was slowed enough to fall back to earth as rain or ice. However, rocks
carried much more momentum than water droplets, so their trajectories were less
deflected by the boundary layers. Therefore, few rocks (and very few larger rocks)
fell back to earth. Almost all the energy in the rocks and SCW launched from earth
became kinetic energy, not heat. Much of that energy was electrical (as explained
in Endnote 53 on page 140); its release and the acceleration of the fountains
probably continued outside the atmosphere.
Notice that the mechanism for accelerating the fountains to supersonic velocities
is not the same as in a standard supersonic jet aircraft or rocket propulsion
system. There, a high pressure combustion chamber is upstream of the entire
flow, having to push all the fluid downstream through a converging-diverging
nozzle. No matter how high the combustion chamber’s pressure, its pressure
pulses (which only travel at the velocity of sound) cannot outrun the converging
flow which, if properly designed, reach the velocity of sound at the nozzle’s throat.
However, in the fountains of the great deep, every fluid bundle, throughout the
entire column, expanded continuously because of the properties of supercritical
water and its vast energy content. The column’s expansion was extreme, because
the surrounding pressure dropped, in less than 2 seconds, from the enormous
pressure in the subterranean water to almost zero pressure in the vacuum of
space.
A closer analogy than that of a standard propulsion system is a bullet traveling
down a gun tube. A propellant burns and generates gas throughout the expanding
gas behind the bullet, steadily accelerating the bullet until it leaves the gun tube.
Some pistols, many rifles, and most artillery pieces steadily accelerate their
projectiles to supersonic velocities while in relatively short gun tubes. [See “Paris
Gun,” Figure 199 on page 376.] The fountains were in an approximately
10-mile-long “gun tube,” not to mention the hundreds-to-thousands of miles of
acceleration before and after reaching that “tube.” Back pressure from the
escaping SCW (like the recoil of a gun or the thrust of a rocket) retarded the flow
of SCW trying to escape from the chamber.
At every location on earth where the visibility of falling rain permitted, the
fountains of the great deep would have been seen in the daytime—days and
weeks after the rupture—as dark curtains rising above the horizon at two or more
locations. At night, those curtains would have glowed from reflected sunlight and
internal lightning. The undulations of the fluttering crust must have been even
more terrifying.
Once the momentum of the escaping flow from under the crust dropped below a
certain threshold, the sagging edge of the plate (fluttering at about one cycle
every 10 minutes, as explained on page 564) slammed into the chamber floor for
the last time. The flood water above the crust then began falling back into the
10-mile-deep chasm, shutting off the jetting of the fountains. Within minutes “the
floodgates of the sky were closed,” but “the rain from the sky was restrained.”
(Genesis 8:2) Fluttering and jetting ceased, but the rain diminished gradually. By
suddenly stopping the jetting fountains, few large rocks fell back to earth.
However, the smaller, less dense water droplets slowed by the boundary layer
drifted and fell back through the atmosphere for days. The huge amounts of water
that were still trapped under the crust came out slowly and raised the flood waters
until they covered all preflood mountains on the 150th day of the flood. [See also
"The Water Prevailed" on page 467.]
References and Notes
1. This standard derivation assumes one-dimensional flow, a perfect gas, and
negligible entropy increase—all fairly reasonable assumptions. See, for example,
Ronald W. Humble et al., Space Propulsion Analysis and Design (New York:
The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc., 1995), p. 101.
Ascher H. Shapiro, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid
Flow, Vol. 1 (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1953), p. 80.
2. One might question whether launch velocities of 32 miles per second were possible.
The Paris gun, shown in Figure 199 on page 376, launched 210-pound rounds at
one mile per second after accelerating over a distance of only 92 feet. Imagine
what nuclear powered accelerations over a 10-mile distance might have achieved.
The fluttering crust also produced cyclic water hammers.
How Much Dust and Meteoritic Debris Should the Moon Have If It Is
4,600,000,000 Years Old?
Figure 238: Cumulative Meteoritic Flux vs. Particle Mass.
In 1981, I had a conversation with Dr. Herbert A. Zook of the U.S. National
in estimating the thickness of the dust layer on the Moon before the first Apollo
Moon landing. He also helped analyze the lunar material brought back from the
Moon. Of the many interesting things he told me and gave me, one is critical in
NASA did not realize until the Moon dust and rocks were analyzed that only one
part in 67 (or 1.5%) of the debris on the Moon came from outer space. The rest
was pulverized Moon rock. In hindsight, this makes perfect sense. Meteorites
striking the Moon travel about 10 times faster than a bullet—averaging 20 km/sec.
They are not slowed down by an atmosphere (as on Earth), because the Moon
has no atmosphere. Suddenly decelerating a meteorite traveling 20 km/sec to a
“dead stop” would compress every atom in it and raise each particle’s
temperature to many hundreds of thousands of degrees Celsius. Therefore, each
projectile, regardless of size, instantly fragments and vaporizes upon impact,
kicking up a cloud of pulverized Moon rocks. Vaporized portions of the meteorite
then condense on the pulverized Moon rocks. This was discovered by slicing
Moon rocks and finding them coated by meteoritic material—material rich in nickel.
Pure Moon rocks have little nickel. In this way, NASA arrived at the factor of 67.1
The Data
How much meteoritic material is striking the Moon? More specifically, how many
particles (N) greater than a certain mass (m) pass through a square meter on the
Moon’s surface each second? This is called the cumulative flux. The data are
usually reported on a logarithmic coordinate system as shown in Figure 238,
because so many more smaller particles strike the Moon than larger particles.
Particle sizes vary widely. Solar wind blows most particles smaller than 10-13 gram
out of the solar system. At the other extreme are large crater-forming meteorites.
Measurements exist for the influx of meteoritic material in three regions across
this broad range. The first will be called Region A; the second will be called
Region C; and the last will be called Point E. Regions B and D are interpolated
between these known regions and are shown as the blue dashed lines in
Figure 238.
Region A is based on impacts registered on a satellite 0.98–1.02 astronomical
units from the Sun.2 The curve for Region A is
log NA = –10.08 – 0.55 log m
(10–13 < m < 10–6 gm)
Seismometers placed on the Moon provided the data for Region C.3 The results,
again where NC is the number of particles per square meter per second that are
greater than mass m, were
log NC = –15.12 – 1.16 log m
(102 < m < 106 gm)
The equation for Region B is obtained by finding the line that joins the far right
point in Region A with the far left point in Region C. That equation is
log NB = –14.77 – 1.33 log m
(10–6 < m < 102 gm)
Point E is based on the fact that “there are 125 structures [craters] on the Moon
with diameters greater than 100 km.”4 The diameter of a large meteorite,
impacting at typical velocities, is about 12% of its crater’s diameter. If the density
of meteorites is 3 gm/cm3, then the mass of a meteorite that could form a crater
100 km in diameter would be
The Moon’s surface area is 3.8 × 1013 m2. If the largest 125 meteorites struck the
Moon during the last 4.6 × 109 years, then the average cumulative flux at Point E
is
Point E connects to Region C by the curve
log ND = -18.91 - 0.53 log m (106 < m < 2.7 × 1018 gm)
The task now is to integrate the total mass of meteoritic material in Regions A, B,
C, and D. To do this, we must convert these cumulative flux curves to the
thickness of meteoritic material.
Integration
The general form of the cumulative flux curves is
log N = a + b log m
which is equivalent to
where n(m) is the distribution function of the number of particles of size m.
Differentiating both sides of the right equation above with respect to m gives
10a (b) mb-1 = -n
Multiplying the number of particles (n) in a narrow mass range (dm) by the mass
m and then integrating between m1 and m2 gives the total mass within that size
range [m1 – m2] that accumulates per square meter per second.
Within this mass range, the thickness (t) of pulverized meteoritic material that will
accumulate on the Moon’s surface in 4.6 × 109 years, if the influx has always
been at today’s rate, is
where
and the density of the pulverized lunar crust is 2 gm/cm 3.
The total thickness of meteoritic material and pulverized Moon rock during
4.6 × 109 years is
(tA + tB + tC + tD) 67
where 67 is the ratio of the pulverized Moon rocks to meteoritic material. Table 36
gives the calculated values for the various thicknesses.
Table 36. Computed Thickness of Lunar Dust
Region
a
b
Mass Range
(gm)
A
-10.08
-0.55 10-13 to 10-6
0.98
B
-14.77
-1.33 10-6 to 102
3.17
C
-15.12
-1.16 102 to 106
0.01
D
-18.91
-0.53 106 to 2.71 × 1018
310.86
Total Thickness =
67 × tA–D
(meters)
315 . 02 m
We will disregard debris contributed by the region to the right of Point E.
Discussion
The lunar surface is composed of a powdery soil, an inch or so thick, below which
are 4–10 meters of regolith.5 The Moon’s regolith consists of a range of particle
sizes from fine dust up to blocks several meters wide. Meteoritic impacts overturn
and mix this soil-regolith, each time coating the outer surfaces with very thin
layers of condensed meteoritic material.
The expected thickness of the soil-regolith, as shown in Table 36, exceeds by
about 50 times its actual thickness. (That table assumes that the Moon has been
bombarded for 4.6 billion years at only today’s rate.) Most of this calculated
thickness comes from Region D—meteorites larger than 106 grams but smaller
than meteorites that can form craters 100 km in diameter. Why are the
contributions from Regions A, B, and C so much smaller?
We made two faulty assumptions. First, we assumed that the influx of meteoritic
material, for Regions A, B, and C, has always been what it is today. Obviously, the
influx decreases over time, because moons and planets sweep meteoritic
material up or expel it beyond the Earth-Moon neighborhood. In other words, the
influx of smaller dust particles in the past was much greater than satellite and
moon-based seismometers have detected recently. Only Point E, which strongly
influenced Region D, did not have that assumption. Point E is based on rocks that
we know struck the Moon sometime in the past. Removing this assumption
increases the expected thickness in all regions6 and partly explains why Region D
contributes so much to our total expected thickness.
Second, Table 36 assumes that the impactors fell steadily from outer space as
they do today. However, Figure 160’s description on page 291 explains why most
large lunar impactors probably originated from Earth and struck the Moon within a
few years after the flood began. Heat flow measurements on the Moon are also
consistent with a recent cratering event. [See “Hot Moon” on page 41 and the
corresponding endnote on page 104.]
What if all lunar impactors were of two types: primary and secondary? The
primary impactors were large, extremely high-velocity rocks launched from Earth
by the fountains of the great deep. Those impacts, perhaps after a few years of
orbiting the Sun, formed the Moon’s giant, multiringed basins. The resulting debris
and other space debris were secondary impactors. Consequently, primary
impactors account for Point E, and secondary impactors account for much smaller
and slower impactors. Therefore, Region D received less impactor mass than our
interpolation assumed.
Conclusion
The relative small amount of debris on the Moon is inconsistent with what we
would expect if the solar system and Moon evolved over 4.6 × 109 years. It
appears that two types of impacts have occurred:
a. a brief and recent interval of very high-velocity impacts by rocks
launched from Earth, many of which were large, and
b. a diminishing number of smaller impacts, distributed today as shown in
Regions A–C.
Several individuals have published attempts to answer the question of this
technical note. Those efforts have usually (1) neglected the factor of 67, (2)
ignored the large impacts shown by Point E, (3) assumed that the influx rate has
always been what it is today, and (4) overlooked the relatively recent event that
produced meteorites, pummeled the Moon, and provided secondary impactors.
References and Notes
1. This number has also been published.
The content of meteoritic material in mature lunar soils is about 1.5 percent. Stuart
Ross Taylor, Lunar Science: A Post-Apollo View (New York: Pergamon Press,
Inc., 1975), p. 92.
2. David W. Hughes, “Cosmic Dust Influx to the Earth,” Space Research XV, 1975,
pp. 531–539.
More recent work has confirmed the cumulative mass flux in the 10 -9 to 10-4
gram size range. [See S. G. Love and D. E. Brownlee, “A Direct Measurement of
the Terrestrial Mass Accretion Rate of Cosmic Dust,” Science, Vol. 262,
22 October 1993, pp. 550–553.]
3. Taylor, p. 92.
4. Ibid., p. 84.
5. Ibid., p. 58.
6. Evolutionists admit that the flux rate has decreased, at least in Region C, by about a
factor of 10.
This flux is about one order of magnitude less than the average integrated flux over
the past three aeons, calculated on the basis of crater counts on young lunar
maria surfaces. Ibid., p. 92.
Did the Preflood Earth Have a 30-Day Lunar Month?
Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to
separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for
seasons, and for days and years and let them be for lights in the
expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. And
God made the two great lights, the greater light [the Sun] to govern the
day, and the lesser light [the Moon] to govern the night;
Genesis 1:14–16a
Genesis 7:11, 7:24, and 8:3–4 tell us that exactly 5 months elapsed during the
first 150 days of the flood. Having months of equal length obviously simplifies time
keeping, so did the preflood Earth have 30-day months? Page 159 and Endnote
38 on page 179 explain why the preflood Earth probably had a 360-day year. This
would make 30-day lunar months an ideal way to divide a year. The changing
phases of the Moon would clearly show each month’s progression to everyone on
Earth.
The problem with this idea is that today the average time between successive full
Moons is 29.531 days—not 30.000 days. If preflood months were 30 days long,
but today are 29.531 days long, then lunar impacts resulting from the flood
probably removed enough of the Moon’s energy to pull it closer to Earth.
(Satellites travel faster the closer they are to the body they orbit. A satellite
orbiting very close to Earth completes one orbit in about 90 minutes.)
The energy (E) of a body of mass m (such as the Moon) orbiting a much larger
body of mass M (such as the Earth) is
where G is the gravitational constant and a is the semimajor axis of the orbiting
body. The orbiting body’s period (P) is
Solving
for
E
in
terms
of
P
gives
As explained on page 159, before the flood (bf), a day was probably 365.256/360
times longer than a day is after the flood (af). If the Moon had a 30-day period
before the flood, it would have lost 2.0% of its orbital energy as a result of the
flood.
The cratered Moon has been severely bombarded. [See Figure 160 on page 291
and Item 12 on page 306.] Did the debris (rocks, ice, and water molecules),
launched into space during the flood, remove 2% of the Moon’s energy? While
these particles would have a wide range of orbits, the greatest concentration of
debris would initially travel near to and roughly parallel with Earth’s orbit. Half the
time, the Moon would have traveled generally in the same direction as this dense
debris, so collisions would have been few and of low velocity. During the other
half of the Moon’s orbit, orbiting debris would have opposed the Moon’s motion;
many high-velocity collisions would have removed energy from the Moon’s orbit.
The Moon would have been analogous to a massive truck that every 15 days
traveled in the proper lane (with the flow of traffic). On alternate 15-day periods,
this “truck” traveled in the wrong lane (facing oncoming traffic), experienced many
collisions, and lost some of its energy.
Ice and water vapor hitting the Moon would contribute to a thin lunar atmosphere.
That atmosphere, especially on the side of the Moon facing the Sun where
temperatures reach 260°F, would steadily escape the Moon’s gravity. Escaping
water molecules would then be available for additional collisions with the Moon on
future orbits. Therefore, water particles in the inner solar system would have been
used multiple times in removing energy from the Moon’s orbit. (Although a water
particle’s mass was small, the water’s total mass and momentum were large.)
Eventually, these particles would have been scattered, and most would have
been absorbed by the Sun and planets.
The Apollo 17 crew discovered that the Moon has an extremely thin atmosphere,
about 10-14 that of Earth. These gases come from several sources, but the
relatively large amount of oxygen probably comes from dissociated water vapor
that collided with the Moon. Today’s lunar atmosphere may be a remnant of what
existed on the Moon soon after the flood. Water recently discovered on the Moon
falsifies theories on the Moon’s evolution, but is consistent with the hydroplate
theory. [See Endnote 48g on page 89 and Endnote 63 on page 317.]
If the preflood Earth had a 30-day lunar month, as appears likely, people living
then would have had a marvelous system for telling calendar time. The
“moon-clock,” simple and free, would have been easily seen by all people, fixed
with respect to the seasons, and standardized worldwide.
At the end of the creation week, “God saw all that He had made, and behold, it
was very good.” (Genesis 1:31) Seldom are we able to understand how much
better things were then. However, we now can better imagine how “very good” the
preflood system was for measuring time.
Does Subduction Really Occur?
Figure 239: A Plate Trying to Subduct.
A plate, which may or may not be subducting, has a length L, thickness t, density
below the horizontal and is
2, and a unit depth. It is inclined at an angle
pushed by a compressive stress
through rock whose density is
1.
Solid-to-solid friction, with a coefficient of , acts to a depth h on both the top and
bottom of the plate. The lithostatic pressure at a depth z is the mean density 1
times z times the acceleration due to gravity g. A drag force F opposes movement
at the leading—and very blunt—edge of the plate.
To make subduction as likely as possible, we must assume that:
 The thrusting force,
t, is perfectly aligned with the subduction angle
.


The thrusting force is the maximum possible, but does not exceed the
crushing strength of the subducting plate.
The plate is denser than the mantle surrounding it. (Without this
assumption, the plate would not sink. Actually, the mantle, through which
the plate must push, is much denser than the plate.)
For the plate to subduct, the sum of the forces down and to the left must exceed
the sum of the forces up and to the right. That is:
{Net Thrust} + {Body Forces} >
{Friction on Top and Bottom Surfaces}
In dimensionless form, this simplifies to
The coefficient of static friction for rock against rock is about 0.6 and is largely
independent of mineralogical composition and temperature up to about 350°C.
Typical values for the above inequality are shown below.
To make subduction much more likely, let’s assume that F = 0. Substituting
these values in the above inequality gives the false statement that
0.04 + 0.09 > (2.000 + 1.894) 0.6
Because the inequality cannot be satisfied, a pushing force will not cause
subduction. Remember, we made the very generous assumption that F=0. In
other words, the blunt end of a plate 30–60 miles thick, and hundreds of miles
wide, experiences no resistance as it is pushed through the Earth’s rock crust.
(Even if the coefficient of friction were only 0.031, one-nineteenth of the above
value and F=0, subduction could still not occur!)
Some believe that a pulling force causes subduction. They say, for example: “at a
given depth, the subducting plate is colder, and therefore denser, than the mantle.
The plate sinks through the mantle, like a dense rock falling through mud. As it
falls, it pulls the rest of the plate.”
This proposal overlooks the weak tensile strength of rock. If the pushing force,
described above, cannot cause subduction, a much weaker pulling force certainly
will not. Therefore, subduction will not occur.
Can Overthrusts Occur? Can Mountains Buckle?
Figure 240: Frictional Locking of Two Slabs.
Slab A has a length, height, width, and density of L, h, w, and
respectively. It
rests on horizontal surface B and is pushed from the right. The pressure or force
trying to move slab A over surface B exerts the maximum compressive stress,
on the right end of slab A.
Let us make the very generous assumption that slab A is not bonded to slab B.
Resisting the movement is the static friction at their interface having a coefficient
of . For motion to occur, the pushing force must exceed the resisting force, that
is:
The values for g,
, and
are taken from page 552, and
Therefore, Slab A will move only if
In other words, if a slab of rock is longer than 12.6 km (8 miles), the compressive
stress would exceed the rock’s maximum strength, so the right end would crush
before movement could begin. This result holds regardless of the slab’s other
dimensions.
Conclusion: A rock slab longer than 8 miles cannot be pushed over
unlubricated rock, so overthrusts would not occur in this fashion, and
mountains would not buckle. Because both happened (for example, see
Figure 49 on page 115), something lubricated the movement.
Unlike the “applied force” above, gravity applies a “body force” that acts on every
atom in the rock. If downhill gravity-sliding accelerated a lubricated slab, crushing
and buckling could occur (1) where the slab was relatively weak or thin, (2) near
the points where the lubricant was first depleted, or (3) where an obstacle is
encountered. Therefore, mountains could form within a continental-size plate, and
overthrusting could occur.
Tidal Pumping: Two Types
The water layer under earth’s preflood crust largely decoupled it from the mantle.
That gave the crust (a spherical shell), much greater flexibility than if it had been
anchored and bonded over the entire mantle’s surface as it is today. In other
words, almost no shearing stresses acted on the base of the crust, allowing it to
flex more easily from a sphere to a prolate ellipsoid during each tidal cycle. Also,
as the Moon’s gravity lifted the crust at 12 o’clock, the crust was depressed
(pinched in) at 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock. So, confined subterranean water was
always pumped by increasing pressure from low to high tide. (Today, the crust is
tightly anchored to the mantle, so only small ocean tides are produced by a very
slight gravity gradient. Before the flood, this gravity flow in the subterranean
chamber also lifted the crust at 12 o’clock.)
Figure 241. Tidal Pinch. (Not to scale.) Before the flood, the Moon’s gravity
not only lifted the largely decoupled (and, therefore, relatively flexible) crust at
12 o’clock and 6 o’clock, it pinched the crust inward at 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock.
Both actions pumped the confined subterranean water toward high tide.
Twice a day for centuries, tidal pumping also generated immense amounts of
heat as the massive crust compressed the pillars near 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock
and stretched those near 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock.These pillars were portions
of the sagging crust that touched the chamber floor, not tall cylindrical pillars
used today in buildings. [See pages 449–455.]
On page 487, the Hebrew word raqia, which means a hammered-out or
pressed-out solid, was identified as the earth’s crust. As one visualizes
centuries of tidal pumping—and pillars compressing (being hammered or
pressed out) twice a day—raqia seems an apt, descriptive word.
The pillars were compressed and stretched twice a day—a second form of tidal
pumping. What force compressed the pillars, and how much strain occurred? The
pillars were compressed by a sizable fraction of the gigantic weight of the crust.
Today, even without a decoupling layer of subterranean water, the Global
Positioning System can measure solid tides on Earth up to 0.4 meters (1.31 feet).1
At mid-latitudes, solid tides are about a foot,2 but with a decoupling layer of water,
the crust’s preflood deflections would have been greater. If the average pillar’s
strain were only a foot, repeatedly compressed and hammered pillars would have
produced enormous amounts of heat.3
Some energy expended in compressing pillars was recovered elastically during
the expansion half-cycle. However, a fraction of that energy was dissipated as
heat and would have steadily raised the water’s temperature, although some of
the water’s heat would have been lost by conduction into the chamber’s floor and
ceiling. (Later, we will combine these fractions into an “efficiency factor,” e.)
How rapidly did the subterranean water become supercritical? Let Q be the heat
generated in pillars that raised the subterranean water’s temperature. Two tidal
cycles occur for each of N days. The subterranean water’s mass, volume, and
density are m, Vw, and w, respectively, and the granite crust’s volume and
density are Vg and g. Let the specific heat of water at the pressure in the
subterranean chamber be cp and the temperature rise needed for that water to
become supercritical be T. The pillars are compressed by an average of
centimeters and e is the efficiency factor mentioned above. Therefore,
If
Vg / Vw = 12.33,
g/ w = 2.7 / 1.14 = 2.37,
cp = 0.9 cal / gm C,
d = 30.48 cm (1 foot),
T < 374°C,
g = 980 cm/sec2,
e = 0.25,
and because 1 cal = 41,868,000 gm cm2/sec2, the water became supercritical in
less than
The greatest uncertainty in these numbers is the variable e.4 However, even if e
were an order of magnitude smaller, the subterranean water would become
supercritical long before the flood began.
Mention has been frequently made in this book about how the supercritical water
steadily dissolved the quartz crystals which constituted about 27% of the granite
in the chamber’s floor and ceiling. As these spongelike regions thickened and
filled with water from the chamber, the chamber’s volume diminished, which in
turn reduced and the rate of heat production by tidal pumping. At some point
the increasing loss of heat by the water rising through the porous crust equaled
the decreasing heat generated by tidal pumping. At that point, steady state is
reached and temperatures and pressures do not change.
Two moons in the solar system, Saturn’s Enceladus and Jupiter’s Europa, are
unusual, because they emit so much heat—far more heat than can be explained
by radioactive decay.5 Enceladus’ heat produces a jet of water plasma that the
orbiting Cassini spacecraft passed through and measured several times. [See
Figure 179 on page 334.] A layer of water under the crusts of both moons explains
the great heat produced.6,7 Other evidence also supports the presence of those
layers of liquid water.8 [See page 334.]
Heat on Enceladus and Europa is generated by the flexing of their floating ice
crusts. Because Earth’s preflood crust was composed not of floating ice, but
granite, pillars would have been present. [For details on why, how, and when
pillars formed, see pages 449–455.] Therefore, the second form of tidal pumping
would have acted continuously on pillars before the flood and produced much
more heat than that produced in the deflecting crust.
By understanding how tidal pumping produced supercritical water (SCW),
perplexing questions can now be answered, including:
 the source of the SCW that has been discovered still jetting up in black
smokers on the ocean floor,
 the origin and nature of the Moho,

the origin of vast salt, limestone, and dolomite deposits,
 the source of the cementing agents that hold sedimentary rocks together,
and
 the origin of most ore bodies.
For a few details, see pages 117–126.
Without knowing that SCW was present before the flood or how SCW was
produced, these rarely addressed topics would continue to seldom be discussed,
and the gigantic energy released by all the fountains of the great deep would not
be understood.
References and Notes
1. “... the solid Earth tide can account for displacements up to ~0.4 m [1.31 feet]” C.
Watson et al., “The Impact of Solid Earth Tide Models on GPS Coordinate and
Tropospheric Time Series,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, 22 April 2006,
p. L08306-1.
2. “Tidal effects could reach up to 30 cm [0.98 feet] in Denmark and
Greenland ...” Guochang Xu and Per Knudsen, “Earth Tide Effects on
Kinematic/Static GPS Positioning in Denmark and Greenland,” Physics and
Chemistry of the Earth (Part A: Solid Earth and Geodesy), Vol. 25, 2000, p. 409.
3. An additional amount of heat would have been generated in each pillar’s expansion
half-cycle. For simplicity, and to be conservative, this heat will be neglected.
Alternatively, the heat generated during a complete compression-expansion cycle
would equal the mechanical hysteresis losses, sometimes called the tidal
dissipation. If the pillars were purely elastic (or could be considered as a perfect
spring), the hysteresis losses would be zero. Because granite is partially elastic,
the hysteresis losses must be experimentally determined for the particular (but
unfortunately unknown) geometry of the granite pillars. For rocks at tidal
frequencies, tidal dissipations of 50% are often used.
4. If half the thermodynamic work expended in compressing (hammering-out or
pressing-out) pillars twice a day was dissipated as heat, and half of the water’s
heat was lost by conduction into the subterranean chamber’s floor and ceiling, the
“efficiency factor,” e, would be 0.25.
5. “The question arises as to the present state of the H2O mantle [on Europa]—is it
primarily [liquid] water or ice? Calculations of the transport of heat by subsolidus
convection in ice indicate that it would be completely frozen if normal solar system
abundances of radioactive elements were the only heat sources
present.” P. Cassen et al., “Is There Liquid Water on Europa?” Geophysical
Research Letters, Vol. 6, September 1979, p. 731.
“... radiogenic heating alone cannot explain the huge heat power observed at the
south pole [of Enceladus].” G. Tobie et al., “Solid Tidal Friction above a Liquid
Water Reservoir as the Origin of the South Pole Hotspot on Enceladus,” Icarus,
Vol. 196, August 2008, p. 642.
6. “The heating rate in the ice crust is greater than in a completely solid body because
the unsupported crust is subject to greater deformation.” P. Cassen et al.,
p. 731.
“...only interior models with a liquid water layer at depth can explain the observed
magnitude of dissipation rate and its particular location at the south pole.” G.
Tobie et al., p. 642.
“... when a globally decoupling liquid layer is included, the total dissipation power
is strongly enhanced and it reproduces the observed [heat flow].” Ibid., p. 644.
“... models with no internal liquid layer cannot generate a hotspot at the south
pole.” Ibid., pp. 644-645.
“The only known way Enceladus could generate heat is for Saturn to raise tides
in solid parts of the moon the way Earth’s moon raises tides in the oceans.”
Richard A. Kerr, “Enceladus Now Looks Wet, So It May Be Alive!” Science,
Vol. 332, 10 June 2011, p. 1259.
7. Jupiter’s moon, Io, has many volcanoes, some ejecting material 500 kilometers into
space—farther than from any other volcanoes in the solar system. Tidal pumping
also generates Io’s heat, but the ejected material is sulfur dioxide, not water.
8. For example, see Steven W. Squyres et al., “Liquid Water and Active Resurfacing
on Europa,” Nature, Vol. 301, 20 January 1983, pp. 225–226.
Energy in the Subterranean Water
Extremely large explosions are often the result of a chain reaction—a rapid
sequence of stages, each triggering the next stage and releasing greater
magnitudes of energy. For example, a gun is fired by first applying energy to pull a
trigger. That, in turn, releases the greater energy stored in a compressed spring
that accelerates a firing pin into a percussion cap. Its explosion ignites the
propellent that rapidly burns and generates gases that accelerate a bullet down a
gun barrel.
A second but tragic example would be a large aircraft crashing into a tall building
and releasing 5 × 1016 ergs of kinetic energy. The impact ignites the plane’s fuel.
Within an hour, 5 × 1018 ergs of chemical energy are released. That heat weakens
the building’s structure, causing it to collapse, releasing 1019 ergs of potential
energy (about 25% of a small atomic bomb).
Likewise, the explosion of a hydrogen bomb is the end result of a rapid series of
smaller explosions. First, a relatively tiny chemical explosion compresses nuclear
fuel into a supercritical mass. This produces an atomic explosion, a fission
reaction. That heat initiates a thermonuclear, or fusion, reaction—a thousand
times the energy of an atomic bomb.
An astounding, literally earth-shaking amount of energy accumulated in stages in
the subterranean water before the flood. All that energy was finally released when
the powerful fountains of the great deep launched water and rocks into space.
Most of the rocks and water later merged and became comets, asteroids, and
TNOs.1 The four sequential energy sources were:
 tidal energy from Earth’s spin and the gravitational attraction of the Sun
and Moon
 chemical energy from combustion in the supercritical water (SCW)
 potential energy residing in the dense preflood crust that lay above water
 nuclear energy as explained in the chapter “The Origin of Earth’s
These four energy sources will be briefly described. But first, we will estimate the
total energy that had to be in the subterranean water to launch all the matter that
escaped Earth’s gravity.
Energy Required
The launched material—comets, asteroids (including the irregular moons2
captured by the giant planets), and TNOs—totaled about 3% of Earth’s mass.
Table 37 estimates the magnitude of this energy. Some factors were derived in
the comet and asteroid chapters (pages 289–353).
Table 37. Three Energy Requirements
Comets
Asteroids
Total
Mass
M
(gm)
Average
Velocity
v
(km/sec)
Launch Kinetic
Energy
E = 1/2 M v 2
(ergs)
5.8 × 1021
32.0
3.0 × 1034
(excluding 2.6 × 1024
11.2
1.6 × 1036
TNOs)
Irregular Moons
1.3 × 1023
11.2
8.2 × 1034
TNOs
1.8 × 1026
11.2
1.1 × 1038
Note: Earth’s escape velocity
is 11.2 km/sec or 7.0 mi/sec.
TOTAL:
1.1 × 1038
Perhaps twice this energy was needed because (1) a small amount of other mass
(such as meteoroids and water) was launched besides that listed in Table 37, (2)
the launch mechanism was inefficient, and (3) some heat was held in the
chamber’s ceiling and floor. Let’s assume that the total energy required was
2.2 × 1038 ergs.3 Since this energy was released over many weeks, it is more
accurately described as coming from an “engine”—an “Earth-size nuclear engine”
(as you will see)—not an explosion.
Notice in Table 37 that much more energy is needed to launch into space the
rocks and water that later became TNOs than that needed to form comets, the
irregular moons, and asteroids in the inner solar system. Unfortunately, great
uncertainty exists on the total mass of all TNOs. [See Endnote 129 on page 353.]
Energy Available
What provided the needed 2.2× 1038 ergs of energy? Notice that the energy
released by each of the first three sources described below is huge but small
compared to 2.2 × 1038 ergs required. Nevertheless, each would trigger the next
source. Finally, the size of the fourth source (nuclear energy) appears to have
been sufficient. As explained in Endnote 89 on page 400 (and below), just the
energy required to generate the deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in Earth’s oceans
released 7 × 1037 ergs of energy (one-third of the needed energy)! Many other
isotopes were produced which would have released additional energy.
Before proceeding further, carefully consider:
 the dozens of evidences on pages 289–355 showing that the rocks and
water launched into space became meteorites, comets, asteroids, and
TNOs—and how flawed the standard explanations for those objects are.
 the many evidences in “The Origin of Earth’s Radioactivity” chapter
(pages 357–405) showing that the fluttering crust generated, via the
piezoelectric effect, extreme voltages that exceeded electrical breakdown
voltages within rock. The resulting electrical surges (much like bolts of
lightning passing through rock) rapidly produced Earth’s radioactivity and
what would be, at today’s rates, billions of years’ worth of daughter
products. As that chapter explains and calculations and experiments show,
this is much more realistic than, and far superior to, the standard, vague
explanation for the origin of Earth’s radioactivity—an explanation without
experimental support.4
What were the four sources of energy?
Tidal Pumping. Twice a day, tides in the subterranean chamber
compressed and stretched the pillars. As pillars were heated, the water’s
temperature rose. Quartz, which occupies about 27% of granite by volume,
readily dissolves in hot water. Consequently, more and more quartz
dissolved as temperatures rose, so the weakening pillars and lower crust
increasingly looked like sponges. Hot, salty—and, therefore, electrically
conducting—supercritical water (SCW) filled these interconnected pockets
that once held quartz crystals. That SCW later removed staggering
amounts of nuclear energy that were generated in the lower crust during
the early weeks of the flood. [See page 121 and pages 553–554.]
Burning.5 There may also have been fire in the subterranean water. SCW
at high pressures and temperatures will release oxygen and, if a fuel is
present, spontaneously burn (oxidize), releasing CO2 (carbon dioxide),
CH4 (methane), and heat.6 We cannot say what fuels were present,
although the great dissolving ability of SCW and the large volume of
spongelike rock in contact with SCW raise many possibilities.7 The
products of combustion in the SCW may have produced Earth’s ores,
such as iron ore. Those ores would have been swept up to the Earth’s
surface with the escaping flood water.
Figure 242: Burning in Supercritical Water. You are looking through a thick,
sapphire window at combustion in supercritical water (SCW) at 450°C (842°F)
and 1,000 bars (14,500 psi). The tube at 6 o’clock is injecting oxygen into the
SCW at 3 mm3/sec. Oxygen unites with methane (CH4) that is dissolved in the
SCW and releases heat which, in turn, releases more oxygen in the water
(H2O --> H + OH --> 2 H + O). The resulting spontaneous combustion
produces CO2 and excess heat as long as fuel (in this case, carbon) is
available.8
At slightly higher temperatures, Russian scientists have duplicated the above
without injecting oxygen and have shown how SCW, in the presence of fuel,
readily explodes from the chamber.9 Sudden jumps of 670°C (1,238°F) in
temperature and 210 bars (3,000 psi) in pressure were measured.
After the Earth’s crust ruptured, a similar, but vastly larger energy release
occurred for weeks in the subterranean chamber as the fluttering crust settled
to the chamber floor. Most of the energy came not from chemical energy (as
described above) but from nuclear energy—atomic nuclei that quickly
decayed and released their binding energy. Those who ignore the flood will
falsely conclude that all Earth’s products of radioactive decay must have
accumulated at the very slow rate they do today, so the Earth must be billions
of years old.
Potential Energy. The preflood granite crust had an average thickness, t,
and a density, g. It lay above a trapped water layer of density, w, and
volume, V. This gave the crust a potential energy, Ep, of
Ep = t V g ( g - w)
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. During the flood, that huge
energy was released as the hydroplates sank and the subterranean
waters violently escaped upward. If
t = 1.6 × 106 cm
V = 7.15 × 1023 cm3
3
g = 980 cm/sec2
g = 2.8 grams/cm
3
w= 1.14 grams/cm , then
Ep = 1.6 × 106 × 7.15 × 1023 × 980 (2.8-1.14) = 1.86 × 1033 ergs
At the high pressures in the subterranean chamber, water’s density is 1.14
grams/cm3.
Nuclear Energy. Thermal energy from tidal pumping and burning (if fuel
was present) increased the pressure in the subterranean chamber and
weakened the pillars and crust. Once the crust ruptured, the potential
energy was released, the subterranean water erupted, and dramatic
electrical events occurred that are described in “The Origin of Earth’s
Radioactivity.” As explained in that chapter and demonstrated by
experiment, new, superheavy radioisotopes rapidly formed and quickly
fissioned and decayed. In the process, gigantic amounts of heat were
released in the SCW.
How much of that nuclear energy was absorbed by the subterranean
water? Our oceans have 1.43 × 1024 grams of water. For every 18 grams
of water (1 mole) there are 6.022 × 1023 (Avogadro’s number) water
molecules—each with 2 hydrogen atoms. One out of every 6,400
hydrogen atoms in our oceans is heavy hydrogen. Each fast neutron
produced by the various nuclear reactions delivered about 1 MeV of
energy as it was thermalized (slowed down) by water. (1 MeV =
1.602 × 10-6 ergs) A hydrogen atom (1H) that absorbed a fast neutron
released 2.225 MeV of binding energy and became heavy hydrogen ( 2H),
also called deuterium. The comet chapter (pages 289–322) explains why
Earth’s heavy hydrogen was concentrated in the subterranean chamber
as the flood began. Therefore, the amount of nuclear energy that was
added to the subterranean water over several weeks was:
the subterranean water, and much water was expelled from Earth, so the
above is a conservative estimate of the nuclear energy that was added to
the subterranean water in weeks.
Those who try to estimate the total energy that has been released by
radioactive decay on Earth often make two errors. Some assume that
most geothermal energy flowing up to the Earth’s surface is from nuclear
decay over billions of years. As the radioactivity chapter explains,
relatively little geothermal heat is from slow nuclear decay. Most
geothermal heat is due to electrical surges and accelerated nuclear decay
at the beginning of the flood and tectonics at the end of the flood. [The
tectonic events are explained on pages 151–185.] A second error is
assuming the total heat released by accelerated decay equaled the
annual radioactive heat generated in the Earth’s crust today multiplied by
hundreds of millions of years.
Of course, many uncertainties exist that make exact calculations impossible. For
example, What were the initial and final temperatures in the subterranean
chamber? How far below the Earth’s surface was the chamber, and what was its
volume? What were the sizes, shapes, and numbers of the pillars? How much
combustion occurred in the SCW? How much energy was supplied to the
escaping subterranean water by all nuclear reactions, including fissions, captures,
and gamma, alpha, and beta decay? Further research should narrow these
uncertainties. Nevertheless, the energy released was clearly sufficient.
Supporting Evidence
While it is shocking at first to consider—and try to grasp—the vast amount of
energy in the subterranean chamber, one should also reflect on the answers it
provides.
1. Comets, Asteroids, and TNOs. Pages 289–353 cite dozens of
evidences showing that the material that merged in the years after the
flood to become comets, asteroids, and TNOs was launched from Earth.
The energy in the chamber was sufficient for that task.
2. Hot Origin for Cold Comets. Tiny rocks and dust recovered from
comet Wild 2 (pronounced “Vilt 2”) in 2004 were found to have been
forged in white-hot heat. This contradicts the standard story, taught since
1950, that comets formed in the coldest portion of the solar system. 10 (In
2005, the Deep Impact space mission made similar discoveries in comet
Tempel 1.) These rocks should not have been crystalline, and yet they
were crystalline and earthlike, as I predicted they would be in the 7th
edition (2001, page 201). The subterranean chamber provided not only
the white-hot heat and launch energy, but also the crystalline material for
comets, asteroids, and meteoroids. [See “Deep Impact Mission” and
“Stardust Mission” on page 295 and Item 7 on page 305.]
3. Heavy Hydrogen. A hydrogen nucleus contains one proton. Most
hydrogen nuclei have no neutrons, but some of these nuclei (one out of
every 6,400) have absorbed a neutron. They are called deuterium;
hydrogen that has absorbed two neutrons is tritium.
Comets generally contain 20–100 times the concentration of heavy
hydrogen as interstellar space and the solar system—and twice the
concentration as Earth’s surface waters. Therefore, comets did not
provide Earth with its water. [See “Heavy Hydrogen” on page 296.]
Only nuclear reactions produce heavy hydrogen.11 Therefore, Earth’s
water (as opposed to water or hydrogen in the rest of the universe) must
have been exposed to extreme nuclear reactions. Furthermore, for comets
to have so much heavy hydrogen, the water that ended up in comets must
have been exposed to a high flux of neutrons. How did that happen?
Actually, all the water in comets and about half the water in our oceans
came from the subterranean chamber—a chamber that absorbed a high
flux of neutrons from nuclear reactions as the flood began. Therefore, our
oceans contain considerable heavy hydrogen, and comets have twice that
concentration.
4. Irregular Moons. Most astronomers recognize that irregular moons are
captured asteroids. But, how were so many captured? (Invoking long
periods of time will not work, because those moons are being rapidly
destroyed or stripped from their planets.) The same energy that launched
water and rocks that later merged to become comets and asteroids also
scattered an “ocean” of water vapor into the solar system. That gas
provided the aerobraking that allowed planets, asteroids and TNOs, and
perhaps comets to capture moons. Today, too little water vapor is in
interplanetary space, to make aerobraking possible. This baffles
astronomers, but is explained by the hydroplate theory.
5. Ore Deposits. Conventional geologists have difficulty explaining the
origin of Earth’s ore deposits. “Ores of sufficient richness to be extracted
have required very special geologic processes to come into existence.” 12
Those special conditions and processes that concentrated large ore
deposits are never explained.13 Beyond vague references to
“hydrothermal solutions,” evolutionists can only say that ores must have
formed slowly in the distant past. However, diverse ore deposits are not
forming today—even slowly. Spontaneous combustion in the SCW under
the crust may have produced Earth’s ores. If so, escaping flood waters
swept those ores up to the Earth’s surface.
6. Gold Deposits. Why are gold veins at the Earth’s surface? If extremely
hot water (932°F or 500°C) circulated under and through the lower crust,
gold in high concentrations would go into solution. If the solution then
came up to the Earth’s surface fast enough, most gold would precipitate at
the Earth’s surface. About 250 cubic miles of water must have burst forth
to account for the gold found in just one gold mining region in Canada. 14
With less-extreme pressure-temperature conditions, even more water
must come up faster to account for the Earth’s gold deposits. These are
hardly the slow, uniformitarian processes that evolutionists visualize.
When the hydroplates crashed, vast amounts of hot water still under the
crust burst up through faults and deposited concentrated minerals,
including gold.
About 40% of all gold mined in the world is from the Witwatersrand Basin
in South Africa. This gold, deposited in compressional fractures (gold
veins) within the basin, precipitated from water whose temperature
exceeded 300°C.15
7. The Quartz Problem. Geologists acknowledge their inability to explain
where enough silica could come from to cement most of the Earth’s
sediments into rocks. This is called “the quartz problem.” [See page 247.]
SCW dissolved much of the quartz in the rocks bordering the
subterranean chamber. That dissolved silica, cooling at the Earth’s
surface soon after the flood, cemented rocks—and petrified wood.
8. Salt Deposits. Thick salt deposits on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean
were not formed by evaporation but by hot brines deep in the Earth.
Among the many reasons for this conclusion are the absence of organic
remains in those deposits and the presence of ore minerals that are not
found in evaporating basins today.16 Again, hot, erupting, mineral-rich
subterranean water explains what we see.
9. Geothermal Heat. As one descends deeper into the Earth,
temperatures increase. Many scientists and laymen believe that Earth’s
geothermal heat is left over from the formation of the Earth by meteoritic
bombardment. A few simple calculations show that if Earth formed that
way, too much heat would have been released; the entire Earth would
have melted several times over. [See Endnote 45a on page 87 and
"Melting the Inner Earth" beginning on page 561.] Others believe that
billions of years of radioactive decay produced the temperature patterns
we see inside the Earth. The flaws in this thinking are explained in “The
Origin of Earth’s Radioactivity” on pages 357–405.
10. Understanding Accelerated Decay. For more than 20 years, I, along
with a few other creationists, have cited evidence that rates of radioactive
decay were much faster sometime in the past. In 2005, some creationists,
citing several additional evidences, correctly reached the same conclusion.
However, they did not know what produced Earth’s radioactivity, what
caused accelerated decay or when either happened (during the creation, 17
the fall, or the flood). They realized that the decay, whenever it happened,
would have produced a vast amount of heat—enough, they thought, to
melt much of the Earth and evaporate all the oceans. Because this did not
happen, they believe that a miracle occurred or some strange, new
physics removed the heat. (Miracles should not be invoked to solve a
scientific problem. See Figure 231 on page 526.)
In fact, normal physics was involved. These researchers never addressed
the larger question: What was the origin of Earth’s radioactivity? They
were also unaware of all the preflood subterranean water and why it
became electrically conductive SCW and increasingly permeated the
lower crust. That SCW absorbed most of the nuclear energy and
converted it primarily to kinetic energy, without a huge rise in
temperature. Furthermore, the extremely powerful fountains of the great
deep expelled most of that energy into outer space. Some of these
researchers completely missed the cataclysmic nature of the flood’s
beginning—saying that when, “on the same day all the fountains of the
great deep burst open” (Genesis 7:11), the fountains were simply like
geysers. These individuals also did not realize that the hydroplate theory
explains the accelerated decay and energy removal, and places that
decay at the beginning of the flood.18
Final Thoughts
The origin and consequences of so much energy in the subterranean water are
startling new ideas. Grasping and interrelating the many evidences that show this
will require a period of thoughtful reevaluation and reflection by each reader. Put
aside intuition, and follow the evidence.
References and Notes
1. Large rocks ejected from Earth had correspondingly large spheres of influence that
expanded as other matter—aided by water vapor and aerobraking—gently
merged around those “rock seeds.” This allowed the capture of even more matter,
eventually forming “fluffy” comets, very low density asteroids, and TNOs.
[Spheres of influence are explained on page 292.]
2. Irregular moons have high eccentricity and inclination and very low mass. Most
astronomers recognize that irregular moons are captured asteroids, but admit that
captures are too improbable. So, how did they occur?
Pages 325–353 explain how, for years after the flood, the radiometer effect and
aerobraking (from the abundant water vapor in the solar system) produced those
captures. At least 43 moons in the solar system are irregular; one of the largest is
Saturn’s Enceladus, whose “strange behavior” is explained on page 334. Mars’
two tiny moons, Phobos and Deimos, are probably captured asteroids.
3. A 1-megaton hydrogen bomb releases 4.184 × 1022 ergs of energy. Therefore, it
would take the explosion of 400 trillion hydrogen bombs to release 1.7 × 1037 ergs
of energy!
However, most of the energy in the subterranean water was generated continually
over many weeks (not one big explosion) and was focused up through the rupture
and expelled into space. Comets, asteroids, TNOs, irregular moons, and
meteoroids have great kinetic and potential energy.
4. See "Why Do We Have Radioactivity on Earth?" on page 119, and Endnote 30
on page 138.
Earth’s polar moment of inertia is 8.068 × 1044 gm cm2. Of course, we do not know
how much Earth’s spin slowed during this period of tidal pumping. However, if the
Earth rotation slowed by 3 minutes (from a 23 hours and 57 minutes per day to
today’s 24 hours per day), the energy lost from Earth’s rotational kinetic energy
and gained as heat in the subterranean water would have been
This heat would raise the subterranean water’s temperature to the critical point in 88
years, as explained on pages 553–554.
5. “Burning,” in this context, is defined as the rapid chemical reaction of oxygen with a
fuel, releasing heat and light.
6. A. A. Vostrikov et al., “The Effect of Thermal Explosion in a Supercritical Water,”
Technical Physics Letters, Vol. 27, 2001, pp. 847–849.
7. Burning hydrogen (H) to produce water (H2O) did not result in a net increase in
energy, because the energy gained (57.8 kcal/mole) equaled the energy spent in
dissociating the oxygen in the first place.
8. E. U. Franck, “Experimental Studies of Compressed Fluids,” High Pressure
Chemistry and Biochemistry, editors R. van Eldik and J. Jonas (Dordrecht,
Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1987), pp. 93–116.
E. U. Franck, “Fluids at High Pressures and Temperatures,” Pure & Applied
Chemistry, Vol. 59, No. 1, 1987, pp. 25–34.
9. “It was established that water participates in the conversion process on a chemical
level: in particular, oxygen from water molecules is involved in the formation of
carbon oxides. Even in the absence of added molecular oxygen, the process of
naphthalene [C10H8] and bitumen in a certain temperature interval exhibited an
exothermal character. Upon adding O2 into SCW, the oxidation reaction may
proceed in a burning regime with self-heating [spontaneous combustion] of
mixture. Under certain conditions, the self-heating process may lead to
thermal explosion effect accompanied by ejection of the substance from
reactor, which is explained by the high rate of hydrocarbon burning in SCW.”
the
the
the
A.
A. Vostrikov et al., “The Effect of Thermal Explosion in a Supercritical Water,”
Technical Physics Letters, Vol. 27, No. 10, 2001, p. 847.
10. “Scientists analyzing the first samples returned from a comet announced startling
news this week. They are finding not the unprocessed [noncrystalline] ‘stardust’
thought to have glommed together in the frigid fringes of the early solar system,
but bits of [crystalline] rock forged in white-hot heat.” Richard A. Kerr, “Minerals
Point to a Hot Origin for Icy Comets,” Science, Vol. 311, 17 March 2006, p. 1536.
11. “Because stars consume large amounts of [deuterium] and no process creates it in
significant amounts, the amount of deuterium in the universe declines steadily.”
Ron Cowen, “Too Much Deuterium?: A Chemical Mystery in the Milky Way,”
Science News, Vol. 170, 9 September 2006, p. 172.
12. Arthur N. Strahler, Physical Geology (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1981),
p. 551.
13. Before the flood, some men learned how to forge implements of bronze (about
88% copper and 12% tin) and iron. This noteworthy achievement (Genesis 4:22)
involved more than just isolating copper, tin, and iron from rocks; it also involved
combining them in solid solutions to achieve superior chemical, mechanical, and
physical properties. Today, we have very large, already concentrated ore deposits
of many other metals besides copper, tin, and iron.
14. Robert Kerrich, “Nature’s Gold Factory,” Science, Vol. 284, 25 June 1999,
pp. 2101–2102.
15. A. C. Barnicoat et al., “Hydrothermal Gold Mineralization in the Witwatersrand
Basin,” Nature, Vol. 386, 24 April 1997, pp. 820–824.
Robert R. Loucks and John A. Mavrogenes, “Gold Solubility in Supercritical
Hydrothermal Brines Measured in Synthetic Fluid Inclusions,” Science, Vol. 284,
25 June 1999, pp. 2159–2163.
16. “Salt deposits in deep oceanic areas are considered to be deposits from hot brine
originating at great depths in the earth during tectonic movements.” V. I.
Sozansky, “Origin of Salt Deposits in Deep-Water Basins of Atlantic Ocean,” The
American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 57, March 1973,
p. 589.
“Salt is not an evaporitic formation or a derivative from volcanic rock; it is a
product of degasification of the earth’s interior. The salt precipitated from juvenile
hot water which emerged along deep faults into a basin as a result of change in
thermodynamic conditions. ... the water-salt composition of the ocean and
atmosphere is the product of degassing of the earth’s interior.” V. B. Porfir’ev,
“Geology and Genesis of Salt Formations,” The American Association of
Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, Vol. 58, December 1974, p. 2544.
17. From a biblical perspective, harmful radioactive decay did not exist at the end of
creation, because all God made was “very good” (Genesis 1:31).
18. Larry Vardiman, Steven A. Austin, John R. Baumgardner, Steven W. Boyd,
Eugene F. Chaffin, Donald B. DeYoung, D. Russell Humphreys, and Andrew A.
Snelling, “Summary of Evidence for a Young Earth from the RATE Project,”
Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth, editors Larry Vardiman, Andrew A.
Snelling, and Eugene F. Chaffin (El Cajon, California: Institute for Creation
Research, 2005), pp. 735–772. [This was a highly publicized, \$1,500,000, 8-year
research project. Because these researchers mistakenly say there is a heat
problem, some people believe that the Earth required millions of years to cool.]
Two coauthors of the above study apparently were unaware that the hydroplate
theory explains this heat removal.
“I also pointed out that heat is not merely a problem for accelerated decay, but
also for all Creation or Flood models I know of.” D. Russell Humphreys, “Young
Helium Diffusion Age of Zircons Supports Accelerated Nuclear Decay,” Ibid.,
p. 68.
“All creationist models of young earth history have serious problems with heat
disposal.” Andrew A. Snelling, “Radiohalos in Granites,” Ibid., p. 184.
Melting the Inner Earth
Today, the Earth’s density at any depth, z, is well known. Some values are given
in column G of Table 39.1 Based on those values, the mass, acceleration due to
gravity, polar moment of inertia, and gravitational potential energy are calculated
in columns H–K for successive spherical shells. The potential energy of a shell of
mass m and radius r is
where G is the gravitational constant, g is the acceleration due to gravity at r, and
Mi is the mass inside the shell.
Preflood values of density (column B) can be estimated at all depths by the
formula
density = a + bz + cz2 + dz3
where a = 2.840, b = 1.6362 × 10-3, c = 5.4000 × 10-8, and d = -1.1587 × 10-11.
These coefficients were selected to satisfy the following constraints: the flood did
not appreciably change the mass of the Earth,2 the preflood density at the Earth’s
surface and center was what it is today (2.840 and 12.460 gm/cm 3, respectively),
pressure and, therefore, density increased smoothly with depth, and the polar
moment of inertia allowed the Earth to rotate 360 times per year. (Endnote 38 on
page 179 presents some of the evidence for a 360-day year before the flood.)
Other functional relationships for preflood density vs. depth that satisfied these
same constraints would not greatly alter the following conclusions.
As explained on pages 151–185, during the flood, mass shifts within the Earth
generated internal friction, heating, and melting. Melting, especially near the
center of the Earth where pressures (and thus frictional heating) were greatest,
was followed by gravitational settling of the denser minerals and chemical
elements. Rock that melted below the crossover depth contracted. [See “Magma
Production and Movement” on page 155.] This produced further mass shifts
(faulting), frictional heating, melting, and gravitational settling. Most of the
potential energy lost by the Earth—the difference in the sums of columns F and
K—was converted to heat by gravitational settling.3
(2.489 × 1039 – 2.460 × 1039) = 29.0 × 1036 ergs
Slippage began at the center of the earth, as shown in Figure 95 on page 180.
The potential energy lost by frictional melting eventually generated about 5 times
more heat energy in the Earth’s growing core through gravitational settling. 4 This
created a diminishing5 runaway situation: more slippage and melting produced
more heating by gravitational settling, which then produced additional (but lesser
amount of) slippage, melting etc. Within months, most of the inner earth melted.
That melting, gravitational settling, and compression of magma in the outer core is
shown by the sharp density discontinuity in Table 39 (column G) and by Earth’s
extremely strong magnetic field. [See "The Origin of Earth’s Powerful
Magnetic Field" on page 175 for an explanation.]
All this heat, released within months6 inside Earth, could provide almost 3 billion
years’ worth of the present heat flux at the Earth’s surface (1.0 × 1028 ergs/year).
How does the heat released by gravitational settling (almost 29.0 × 1036 ergs)
compare with the heat needed to form Earth’s present-day core? It partly depends
on the initial temperatures of the denser particles inside the Earth before they fell
toward the Earth’s center to become the inner and outer core. However, before
gravitational settling could begin, those temperatures would have been raised to
near the local melting temperatures. Particles that melted after they fell added to
the liquid outer core; denser particles that did not melt or that solidified under the
great pressure near the Earth’s center formed the solid inner core.
Anderson gives the following estimates for the thermal properties of the inner and
outer core. (The masses for inner and outer core are derived from Table 39.)
Table 38. Some Properties of the Earth’s Core7
Property
Inner Core Outer Core
Mass (gm)
0.132 × 1027 1.831 × 1027
Mean Melting Temperature (K) 6,575
Specific Heat (erg/gm/K)
5 × 106
3,800
5 × 106
4 × 109
Heat of Fusion (erg/gm)
To form today’s inner core requires approximately
[5 × 106 × (6,575 – 3,800)] × 0.132 × 1027 = 1.832 × 1036 ergs
To form today’s outer core requires approximately
(4 × 109 ) × (1.831 × 10 27 ) = 7.324 × 1036 ergs
Therefore, the heat released by gravitational settling (almost 29.0 × 1036 ergs)
exceeded that needed to form the Earth’s inner and outer core (9.156 × 1036 ergs).
Temperatures quickly rose near the center of the Earth. Notice that the heat
released by gravitational settling, if evenly distributed throughout the Earth, might
melt the entire Earth, whose mass is 5.976 × 1027 grams.
29.0 × 1036 ergs > (~ 4 × 109 ) × (5.976 × 1027 ) ergs
Table 39. Energy Released by Gravitational Settling
BEFORE FLOOD
A
B
depth density
AFTER FLOOD
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
mass
gravity
inertia
potential
energy
density
mass
gravity
z
(gm/cm3) (gm)
(km)
(cm/sec2) (gm cm2) (ergs)
(gm/cm3) (gm)
(cm/sec
Crust 0
2.840
982.2
2.840
982.2
15
2.865
2.18E+25 983.2
5.88E+42 -1.36E+37 2.840
2.17E+25 983.2
60
2.938
6.58E+25 986.2
1.76E+43 -4.10E+37 3.332
7.54E+25 984.7
100
3.004
5.91E+25 988.8
1.56E+43 -3.67E+37 3.348
6.64E+25 986.1
200
3.169
1.50E+26 994.9
3.87E+43 -9.26E+37 3.387
1.64E+26 989.6
300
3.335
1.53E+26 1,000.2
3.83E+43 -9.35E+37 3.424
1.60E+26 993.4
350
3.419
7.76E+25 1,002.6
1.89E+43 -4.70E+37 3.441
7.88E+25 995.5
400
3.502
7.82E+25 1,004.8
1.87E+43 -4.70E+37 3.775
8.44E+25 996.4
413
3.524
2.04E+25 1,005.4
4.84E+42 -1.22E+37 3.795
2.20E+25 996.6
500
3.670
1.38E+26 1,008.8
3.21E+43 -8.19E+37 3.925
1.48E+26 997.5
600
3.839
1.60E+26 1,012.0
3.61E+43 -9.40E+37 4.075
1.70E+26 998.6
650
3.923
8.05E+25 1,013.4
1.77E+43 -4.68E+37 4.150
8.53E+25 998.7
Mantle 800
4.178
2.43E+26 1,016.4
5.17E+43 -1.39E+38 4.380
2.58E+26 997.8
984
4.491
3.01E+26 1,017.9
6.02E+43 -1.68E+38 4.529
3.09E+26 996.0
1,000 4.519
2.62E+25 1,017.9
5.06E+42 -1.43E+37 4.538
2.64E+25 995.8
1,200 4.861
3.28E+26 1,016.4
6.07E+43 -1.76E+38 4.655
3.21E+26 994.3
1,400 5.205
3.25E+26 1,012.1
5.58E+43 -1.67E+38 4.768
3.05E+26 993.7
1,600 5.549
3.21E+26 1,004.7
5.08E+43 -1.58E+38 4.877
2.88E+26 994.5
1,800 5.893
3.14E+26 994.4
4.57E+43 -1.46E+38 4.983
2.70E+26 997.1
2,000 6.236
3.05E+26 981.1
4.06E+43 -1.35E+38 5.087
2.53E+26 1,002.1
2,200 6.578
2.94E+26 964.8
3.58E+43 -1.22E+38 5.188
2.36E+26 1,010.2
2,400 6.918
2.81E+26 945.5
3.11E+43 -1.09E+38 5.288
2.18E+26 1,022.3
2,600 7.256
2.67E+26 923.3
2.67E+43 -9.66E+37 5.387
2.01E+26 1,039.3
2,800 7.590
2.51E+26 898.1
2.26E+43 -8.41E+37 5.487
1.84E+26 1,062.6
2,878 7.720
9.36E+25 887.5
7.79E+42 -2.95E+37 5.527
6.73E+25 1,073.8
3,000 7.922
1.41E+26 869.9
1.11E+43 -4.26E+37 10.121
1.81E+26 1,046.7
3,200 8.249
2.17E+26 838.9
1.55E+43 -6.08E+37 10.421
2.76E+26 999.6
3,400 8.572
1.99E+26 804.9
1.26E+43 -5.03E+37 10.697
2.50E+26 949.5
3,600 8.890
1.81E+26 768.1
9.96E+42 -4.09E+37 10.948
2.24E+26 896.7
3,800 9.202
1.62E+26 728.5
7.74E+42 -3.24E+37 11.176
1.98E+26 841.4
Outer 4,000 9.507
1.44E+26 686.2
5.86E+42 -2.51E+37 11.383
1.73E+26 783.9
Core
4,200 9.806
1.25E+26 641.2
4.32E+42 -1.89E+37 11.570
1.49E+26 724.4
4,400 10.098
1.07E+26 593.6
3.08E+42 -1.37E+37 11.737
1.26E+26 663.0
4,600 10.382
9.02E+25 543.5
2.11E+42 -9.59E+36 11.887
1.04E+26 600.0
4,800 10.657
7.39E+25 491.0
1.38E+42 -6.39E+36 12.017
8.40E+25 535.6
4,982 10.899
5.41E+25 441.1
7.94E+41 -3.73E+36 12.121
6.05E+25 475.9
5,000 10.923
4.70E+24 436.1
5.97E+40 -2.85E+35 12.130
5.22E+24 469.9
5,121 11.079
2.87E+25 401.9
3.30E+41 -1.58E+36 12.197
3.18E+25 429.6
5,200 11.179
1.62E+25 379.2
1.58E+41 -7.66E+35 12.229
1.78E+25 403.1
5,400 11.426
3.27E+25 320.3
2.54E+41 -1.22E+36 12.301
3.55E+25 335.4
5,600 11.662
2.21E+25 260.0
1.14E+41 -5.59E+35 12.360
2.36E+25 267.1
Core 5,800 11.886
1.34E+25 199.5
4.18E+40 -2.07E+35 12.405
1.41E+25 198.2
6,000 12.099
6.79E+24 143.7
1.08E+40 -5.49E+34 12.437
7.03E+24 129.0
6,200 12.299
2.35E+24 139.6
1.41E+39 -9.03E+33 12.455
2.40E+24 59.5
6,371 12.460
2.59E+23 0.0
3.03E+37 -1.55E+32 12.460
2.61E+23 0.0
SUM
5.976E+27
8.14E+44 -2.460E+39
5.976E+27
Inner
Table 39 allows two other important conclusions. Evolutionists claim that the
Earth formed by meteoritic bombardment, sometimes called gravitational
accretion. If so, the 2.489 × 1039 ergs of potential energy lost by these meteoroids
(sum of column K) would become heat after impact with the growing Earth. This
is 86 times greater than the heat released by gravitational settling.
It is also 104 times the heat needed to melt the entire Earth.
Even if the bombardment were spread over millions of years, the entire Earth
should have melted, as experts have noted.8 Had this happened, we would not
find heavy, nonreactive chemical elements, such as gold, at the Earth’s surface,
nor would granite exist. [See “Molten Earth?” on page 87 and Endnote 21 on
page 177.]
Conclusion
By assuming a uniform density distribution throughout the preflood Earth (altered
only by the compression that increases with depth), the hydroplate theory and
gravitational settling answer the many questions raised in “Volcanoes and Lava”
on page 115 and “Geothermal Heat” on page 115. This also explains why the
inner core spins faster than the rest of the Earth (page 159), and why George
Dodwell found that the tilt of the Earth’s spin axis has steadily changed during the
last 4,000 years. [See page 118 and Endnote 76 on page 143.] Finally, the
hydroplate theory and gravitational settling explain the following unusual
characteristics of today’s Earth:
 the huge density discontinuity at the core-mantle boundary, [See Table 39
on page 562.]
 Earth’s liquid outer core and solid inner core,





“oceans” of flood basalts found worldwide, especially in and surrounding
the Pacific and Indian Oceans,
oceanic trenches and the Ring of Fire (explained on (pages 151–185),
the 40,000 volcanoes (all taller than 1 kilometer) on the floor of the Pacific
Ocean,
the great variability of the temperature gradient under the Earth’s surface
(discussed on page 115), and
Earth’s powerful magnetic field—2,000 times greater than the combined
magnetic fields of all the rocky planets. [See "The Origin of Earth’s
Powerful Magnetic Field" on page 175.]
References and Notes
1. See, for example, Frank D. Stacey, Physics of the Earth (New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1969), pp. 281–282.
2. The mass expelled from Earth during the flood was probably less than 2.8 × 1024
grams, less than 1/2,000 the mass of the Earth. [See Table 37 on page 555.]
Therefore, that lost mass can be neglected. Even if it could not be neglected, it
would have only a secondary effect, because the loss of that mass would not alter
Earth’s spin rate.
For example, the ice skater shown in Figure 81 on page 152 will spin faster as she
pulls her arms in toward her spin axis. However, if her arms ever flew off her
spinning body, her spin rate would immediately stop increasing.
3. Only a very small fraction of the preflood Earth’s potential energy was expended in
increasing the Earth’s rotational kinetic energy. The Earth’s angular velocity today
is
This faster spin rate increased the Earth’s rotational kinetic energy despite Earth’s
lower polar moment of inertia. However, this increase was relatively trivial and can
be
neglected.
4. This factor of 5 can be estimated by calculating the ratio of the energy released by
gravitational settling just within the outer core (
g V h) to the energy
expended in melting (L V av), where
= the average density difference between particles that sink to the particles
that float,
g = the average acceleration of gravity in the core,
V = the volume of melted rock in the outer core,
h = the average “fall distance” (about half the radius of the outer core),
L = the heat of fusion in the outer core, and
av = average density of the melted particles.
If
g 500 cm/sec2
h
1,750 × 105 cm
L
4 × 109 ergs/gm
then this dimensionless ratio is about 5.
Any ratio that is much greater than 1.0 will produce runaway heating near the center
of the Earth. (Other minor effects are being omitted.) Clearly, this factor is large
because h (the “fall distance”) is so large. With about 5 times more heat in the
core than it takes to melt the outer core, heat within the outer core should be
conducting today into and melting the base of the mantle and the top of the
inner core.
5. As shown in Figure 95 on page 180, the runaway melting diminishes, because the
solid mantle’s radial movement diminishes as the core’s radius increases. At the
exact center of the Earth, that movement—and the resulting friction, melting, and
shrinkage of magma—was a maximum.
6. To understand why most of this heat was released within months, see “Why Did
the Flood Water Drain So Slowly” on page 476.
7. Don L. Anderson, Theory of the Earth (Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications,
1989), p. 68.
8. “The kinetic energy (~5 x 1038 ergs) released in the largest impacts (1.5 x 1027 g
at 9 km/sec) would be several times greater than that required to melt the entire
Earth.” George W. Wetherill, “Occurrence of Giant Impacts during the Growth of
the Terrestrial Planets,” Science, Vol. 228, 17 May 1985, p. 879.
Frequency of the Fluttering Crust
Method 1. We can approximate the fluttering frequency of the crust by modeling a
narrow section of the crust as a frictionless piston of mass M and
density
g compressing water of density
w . The piston, a narrow section of
the granite crust with horizontal area A and thickness t, is free to vibrate up and
down, much like a massive ship bobbing up and down on the sea.
Figure 243: Vibrating Crust. While the fluttering crust would look like a flag
held horizontally in a strong wind, its chaotic movement can be simplified by
looking at the narrow section shown above. Its movement would primarily be
up and down, driven by the oscillating pressure below.
The piston’s mass is
M = At g
A downward displacement of the crust by distance +x will produce an unbalanced
restoring force (F), in the negative direction, of
F = - ( w g x) A
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, using Newton’s second law,
the equation of vertical motion is
The solution to this differential equation can be written as
x = a sin
t - t0)
where “a” is the amplitude, t is the time at any instant, t0 is the time when the crust
is at its equilibrium position and moving downward, and the natural frequency is
Therefore, the period (P) is
From the steam table mentioned in Endnote 13 on page 200, the density of
supercritical water (
g
) at 4,270 bars and 3,000°F is about
.If
the vibrational period is 11 minutes per cycle. Other factors, such as water
hammers, the partially removed pillars, and the stiffness of the crust could greatly
alter this period.
Method 2. Analyses exist for the vibration of flat plates. [See for example Carl
Roger Freberg and Emory N. Kemler, “Vibration of Thin Flat Plates,” Elements of
Mechanical Vibration, 2nd edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949, pp.
147–148.] While these models have the advantage of incorporating a plate’s
thickness and stiffness (modulus of elasticity), one must know the distance
between supports, which for hydroplates requires knowing the number and
spacing of the preflood pillars. While any estimate would be hard to justify, I will
assume there were 18,000 evenly spaced pillars before the flood—the estimate
previously used in Endnote 2 on page 454. With this spacing, these models give
vibrational periods slightly greater than 7 minutes per cycle. Although
uncertainties exist with both methods, the vibrational periods will be considered to
Rapid Attraction
Two electrical charges (Q1 and Q2 statcoulombs, one positive and the other
negative) are attracted toward each other by a force of F dynes when they are
separated by a distance of x centimeters in a medium with permittivity k.
For a vacuum, k = 1. One statcoulomb is the charge of 2.08 × 109 electrons.
Stokes’ law gives the terminal velocity of a sphere of mass m and radius r which is
acted upon by a force F in a fluid whose viscosity is . That velocity is
The sphere’s density,
, is
These equations simplify to
Integrating this from an initial separation distance of x0 until the charged particles
collide (x = 0) at time t gives:
What does this mean? Consider trillions of radon-222 (222Rn) atoms flowing for
weeks between sheets of mica that are growing, because the mineral-rich water’s
temperature and pressure are dropping. If 222Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) ejects an
alpha particle (charge = +2), the radon instantly becomes 218Po with a charge of
Q1 = –2 and a radius r = 5 × 10-8 centimeters. That polonium ion will recoil with
enough energy to remove hundreds of hydroxide ions (OH-)—each with a
negative charge—from near the impact point in the mica. [For an explanation of
dehydroxylation, see Endnote 118 on page 402.] While the water might absorb
some recoil energy, or the polonium might be deflected off a mica sheet, some
recoiling 218Po will crash into and become embedded in the mica, removing
hundreds of hydroxide ions. This will give the impact point a large positive
charge—both from the impact and the greater heating minutes later when the
embedded 218Po decays by emitting an alpha particle.
Let’s conservatively say that the first impact in the mica produces a charge of Q2 =
+100. For water,
Other flowing
222Rn
into it within one
atoms that decay near that +100 point charge will be pulled
218Po
half-life (3.1 minutes) if
This is more than twice the radius of a 218Po halo. As more radon decays near the
impact point and as more 218Po, 214Po, and 210Po are pulled into the impact point
and then decay, the heating and recoil pressure remove more hydroxide ions,
increasing the electrical charge Q2. That, in turn, increases the distance, x0 and
the rate at which polonium is pulled in. A runaway situation quickly develops.
The formula for biotite is K(Mg,Fe)3(Al,Fe)Si3O10(OH,F)2. Approximately 17/400 of
its mass is OH- (highlighted in bold above). A typical inclusion at the center of a
polonium halo has a radius of about 0.00005 cm. Therefore, that tiny volume of
OH- ions.
If dehydroxylation removed only 1/20th of these ions, about a billion polonium ions
could be attracted and concentrated, enough to form a sharp halo.
PREDICTION 50: A sensitive mass spectrometer will show about a 5%
deficiency in hydrogen within the inclusions at the center of isolated polonium
halos.
Highly Compressed Solids
A granite cliff on earth could never be higher than 5 miles. Granite typically has a
crushing strength of 2.11 × 108 newtons/meter2 and weighs 26,400
newtons/meter3. Dividing the first number by the second gives 8,000 meters (or 5
miles)—the maximum height before the granite at the base of the cliff is crushed
by the load above. (If the entire cliff were under water, buoyancy would allow the
cliff to be about 60% higher.)
Let’s examine a more general case and then apply it to several specific examples
including the one above. If a tiny cube of any solid is compressed on all six sides
by equal pressures (stresses) that exceed the solid’s crushing stress, would the
cube be crushed into tiny pieces? No. The confinement pressure is so large and
uniform that no tiny fragment of the cube could slip relative to an adjacent
fragment. With no shearing stresses in the cube, it would only shrink uniformly,
according to Hook’s law: by an amount proportional to the stress. (The subjects of
Poisson’s ratio and Mohr’s circle can be skipped with no loss of generality.)
Therefore, a fragile glass goblet, or any solid, would not break or be penetrated by
water if it were gently placed at the deepest point on an ocean floor, where
compressive stresses are gigantic but uniform. Indeed, many of us have seen
pictures of delicate, unbroken china in the deep ocean wreckage of the Titanic.
Figure 244: Hydrostatic Compression. Hydrostatic compression occurs when
a tiny cube of material (solid or liquid) is compressed equally and uniformly on
all six sides, and no stresses lie in the faces of the six sides. Because liquids
can sustain no shear stresses, this is automatically true for pressurized
liquids. Thus the name “hydro-static” compression. Nevertheless, the term is
also used for solids, especially rocks deep in the earth.
The imaginary cube usually has boundaries that are visualized as lying within
a larger mass of the same material. Under hydrostatic conditions, no shear
stresses exist within the cube. However, with rocks, the compressive forces
on the sides of the cube are often unequal, so shear stresses will develop
within the cube to try to balance the differences. Those stresses deform the
cube to some degree.
For deep rocks, compressive deformations are primarily puttylike, not elastic
(or springlike).The greater the compressive deformations, the more the rock
deforms and shear stresses disappear—as in a liquid.When drilling into the
earth, hydrostatic rocks are encountered at depths of about 5 miles. As drills
approach those depths, dense liquids must be added to the drill hole to keep
it from collapsing.
Why is a solid not crushed if the compressive stresses exceed the crushing
strength and are equal in all directions? The crushing strength of a solid is defined
as the axial compression required to fracture a test cylinder of that material.
Because there is no external compression on the sides of the test cylinder,
internal shearing stresses must develop to try to counter that axial compression.
Those shearing stresses, comparable to the axial stresses in magnitude, cause
mineral grains to slip at grain boundaries, the weakest part of solids.
If each side of a tiny, confined cube is compressed by large, unequal stresses,
internal shearing stresses will develop and deform the original cube. Within the
cube are countless grain boundaries between adjacent crystals. If the stresses on
the sides of the cube are large and sufficiently different, internal shearing stresses
at grain boundaries will break the weakest atomic bonds, produce slippage
(dislocations) at grain boundaries, and make the internal stresses nearly
hydrostatic. This is putty-like—or plastic—deformation by compression.
The side of a tiny granite cube that was part of a cliff face (or the inside wall of a
deep drill hole) would have no compressive stress acting on it. Therefore, internal
shearing stresses would try to compensate. If at least 5 miles of granite were
loaded above the cube, those shearing stresses would fracture the granite cube,
and the pieces would spill out of the cliff face, or into the drill hole.
Other variables affect the compressive strength of solids and the point where
plastic deformation by compression begins. The higher the temperature, the
weaker the compressive strength. Also, the mere process of deforming a solid
generates internal friction that heats and weakens the solid. Defects within
crystals are sources of weakness and may produce an early onset of puttylike
deformations. Nevertheless, as a general rule, granite 5 miles or more below the
earth’s surface will tend to deform until the compressive loads are almost
hydrostatic—equal in all directions and without shear stresses. Any liquid below
that solid, hydrostatic seal (such as the preflood subterranean ocean) will be
trapped, unless forces rupture the seal. High-pressure fluids are often sealed in
solids.
Most advocates of plate tectonics think of the mantle as a highly viscous liquid.
(Textbooks and young minds are filled with this error as well as the belief that the
mantle circulates like a liquid.) No, the mantle is almost entirely a solid—a highly
compressed solid. [See Figure 92 and “Reasonable Driving Mechanisms”
(Items 37 and 38) on page 168.]
Christian Men of Science: Eleven Men Who Changed the World
The following is one chapter from Christian Men of Science by George Mulfinger
and
Julia
Mulfinger
Orozco,
Emerald
International,
2001,
reproduced with permission.
Other chapter biographies in this book include Johannes Kepler, Robert Boyle,
Michael Faraday, Lord Kelvin, Samuel F. B. Morse, James Clerk Maxwell, and
Henry Morris. These easily readable accounts contain human-interest events,
struggles, failures, and accomplishments.
Dr. Walt Brown
(1937- )
Mechanical Engineer
Air Force Colonel
Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord,
and in the power of his might. Put on the whole armor of God,
that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
Ephesians 6:10,11
The doctor pulled the stethoscope out of his ears and left it dangling around his
neck. He told fourteen-year-old Walt to button his shirt and come to his desk. He
looked at Mr. and Mrs. Brown and then at Walt before he spoke. “Yes, I hear the
murmur,” he said. “But we heart specialists see these cases. You can still have a
full life, Walt, just not as active as the rest. Why, we have similar cases on record
of people who have lived to be thirty-six years old!” he said, trying to encourage
them. But his words fell flat. The Browns had hoped for better news than this.
Well, Walt thought to himself as they left the doctor’s office, at least I have about
twenty years left. His heart murmur had been diagnosed when he was a toddler
and he was tired of the restrictions that had gone on ever since. He had always
had to sit out of physical education classes at school. When he played baseball
with his friends, he was allowed to swing the bat, but someone else had to run the
bases for him. Sometimes, when he thought his parents wouldn’t find out, he
would run the bases himself. The most vigorous activity that his parents allowed
him was a game of golf, which he played often and well.
Walt enjoyed competition and had found he could compete in other areas besides
sports. He became a good public speaker and won several state contests while in
high school. At first he was so scared when he spoke in front of people that he
had to wear baggy pants to hide his shaking legs.
While the other boys were spending their time at sports practice, Walt participated
in the high school Chess Club. He had taught himself to play chess when he was
in fifth grade. He had been too sick to go to school one day, so he sat in bed,
thumbing through the World Book Encyclopedia. He stopped when he came to
the “Chess” entry and saw the picture of the chessboard.
After reading about chess, he figured he could play it. He got a piece of paper and
made a crude chess board by drawing eight columns and eight rows. Then he
tore out pieces of paper and made pawns, kings, queens, knights, rooks, and
bishops. Now in high school, chess was his passion. He would spend Friday and
Saturday evenings playing chess with friends. He wasn’t much of a reader, but he
often went downtown to the library to find chess books so that he could improve
his strategy.
The chess coach was also the geometry teacher, and Walt was his top math
student. This teacher pushed Walt with extra challenges. He also encouraged his
bright students to go on to one of the military academies. But that was out of the
question for Walt because of his heart condition.
When Walt was seventeen, he went for his annual checkup with Dr. Miller. “I can’t
hear the murmur!” the doctor said. So he lifted the restrictions on sports. After
seventeen years of little physical activity, Walt reveled in the freedom. He tried
boxing and running and found to his surprise that he was a good runner. He could
easily run five miles and leave his athletic running partners huffing behind him.
Now he realized that he just might be able to go to a military academy.
Walt's Family
Walt was born in Kansas City, Missouri, the oldest of three children. When Walt
was in elementary school, the family moved to Toledo, Ohio. Mr. Brown was a
salesman for Hallmark greeting cards and later a real estate agent. Walt’s family
was a typical American family of the mid 1900s. Mr. and Mrs. Brown, both
graduates of a Methodist college, were well read and well liked by all. They
encouraged their children to pursue their individual talents.
The Browns attended a Methodist church each week and brought their two sons
and daughter up with Biblical ethics and attitudes. When Walt was a teenager, he
met people who were preaching the gospel and their words slowly registered with
him. His decision to follow Christ was actually made over a period of time. As time
passed, his conviction and faith in Christ grew stronger.
Applying to the Military
One Saturday when Walt was a senior in high school, he was walking downtown
with his friend Dave. They had just stopped by the library and Walt had checked
out a few more chess books.
Dave and Walt were headed back home when they walked by the office of
Congressman Frazier Reams. They suddenly remembered an announcement at
school that Congressman Reams was accepting applications to the military
academies. “Let’s check it out,” Dave said.
So, a month later, they were taking several tests with another hundred applicants.
With the combination of the written and oral tests, Walt ended up in first place. So
he got to choose which military academy he wanted to attend—Army, Navy, Air
Force, or Coast Guard.
For Walt the choice was obvious. The challenge and prestige of West Point, the
Army’s academy, had always attracted him. He wanted to go to West Point
because he felt it was the best, the most rigorous and most challenging. But he
still had to pass West Point’s physical test, mental test, and medical test. The
mental test was no problem for him; he worried, though, that the military might not
accept him because of his history with the heart murmur. Walt informed the
military doctors of the earlier diagnosis, but they thoroughly checked him and said
it was no problem.
West Point
Walt Brown entered West Point on July 5, 1955. After he had been there for one
hour, he thought he had made the biggest mistake of his life! What a shock this
was for a seventeen-year-old boy who had never been away from home. Where
was the “glory and the honor of the Corps” that he had heard so much about? He
wished he could just walk away from this “nightmare.” What am I doing here? he
wondered. Whenever the question arose, he reminded himself that he was here in
the military to help his neighbors—those who were subjected to bullies.
The first two months were called “Beast Barracks”—a fitting name, he found out,
for the two months of drills and grueling physical workouts before academics
began. He had so much to learn and couldn’t seem to do anything right. Taking
apart a rifle was a mystery. And he had to do it quickly in total darkness.
Even marching was difficult. Sometimes he couldn’t react to the commands fast
enough and was left behind. “Mr. Brown, get with it, dumb smack!” the
upperclassman barked. “You need more practice, so instead of having free time, I
want you to report to my room, and we will work on it.”
There was never enough time to do what he needed to do. His math courses
came easily, but he had difficulty with the courses that involved long reading
assignments. He had to read the New York Times every day and keep current
with the news in case he was asked to recite the news at meals. If he didn’t know
the news, he would have to visit each upperclassman who sat at his table and
recite the news.
This plebe system was a merciless plan to heap stress on the new cadets, or
“plebes” as they were called. (Plebe means “common people” in Latin, and it was
used in a derogatory sense at West Point.) The upperclassmen would make a
plebe feel inadequate and clumsy. If he did something wrong, then everyone
would look at him and would find something else wrong. It was a vicious snowball
effect, and inexperienced plebes found themselves sleep deprived and buried in
demerits.
Walt racked up demerits right and left—having lint in his rifle, not getting a haircut
that week, failing room inspection, having dusty shoes or dirty fingernails, hiding
clean laundry instead of taking the time to fold it neatly and stack it in his locker.
Later Walt realized this constant nit-picking was good preparation for what was
ahead in the Army, because there would be situations in which he would have to
function under even greater stress.
Plebes were allowed a certain number of demerits each month, but after that,
each demerit meant one hour of walking “punishment tours.” Many times Walt had
to walk tours—walking back and forth in a lane, one hour at a time, in his full
uniform carrying his rifle. At one point he had thirty hours of tours to walk.
Fortunately, a visiting European prince saved his skin by pardoning all cadets’
serving punishments.)
He wanted so badly that first semester to resign or be kicked out. He watched with
envy when a classmate failed or resigned and had to leave. One thousand cadets
had started in his class, but only six hundred would finish four years later. He was
sorely tempted to deliberately fail Russian, his worst subject, so that he would be
sent home. He knew he could do well in all other subjects, but if he failed one
subject, he was out. As much as he wanted to go home, though, Walt could never
bring himself to put down a deliberately wrong answer. When his grades were
posted at the end of the first semester, he was very disappointed to see that he
wrong answer and he might have been sent home.
A Welcome Rest
Late in his first semester, Walt was helping build a “Beat Navy” sign for the
upcoming Army-Navy football game. The makeshift platform he was standing on
gave way, and he fell ten feet onto a concrete porch, fracturing his pelvis.
The doctor determined that he didn’t need a cast, but he would have to spend two
months in bed. Normally, two months in bed would have been torture; but Walt
found they were a blessing, a welcome vacation from the oppressive plebe
system. Now he could get plenty of sleep and eat peaceful meals. He didn’t have
to worry about eating properly—sitting on the first three inches of his chair, his
back perfectly straight, looking down at his plate unless he was being spoken to.
And he finally had time to study, because he wasn’t earning demerits and walking
tours. His professors were surprised that he now did better in his schoolwork even
though he couldn’t attend classes. Walt’s stay in the hospital refreshed him, and
when he got out, he could keep up with his academics, and he wasn’t
overwhelmed by the plebe system.
A Paratrooper and a Ranger
After he graduated from West Point, Walt had his heart set on being an Air Force
pilot. But he failed the eye exam. It was a huge disappointment when he wasn’t
allowed to fly, and he had to settle for going into the Army. Months later, he found
out that his vision had improved considerably. He had just been suffering
eyestrain from all the studying, and it disappeared when he was away from the
books. But God used this disappointment with the eye test to change the course
of Walt’s life. Naturally, he couldn’t see through the disappointment into the future,
to see how God would use him in the Army and prepare him to serve Him in a
different capacity.
Fresh out of West Point, Walt went to Fort Benning in western Georgia and
learned to be a paratrooper—to jump out of a plane in full fighting gear with a
parachute on his back. He started out jumping off thirty-four-foot towers with a
harness attached to him. He learned the crucial tuck position so that he wouldn’t
get whiplash when he jumped out of a plane and the winds hit him at one hundred
miles an hour. But that was an easy course compared to what followed.
Next he went to Ranger School. There Walt learned hand-to-hand combat and
went through challenging obstacle courses. The Rangers are the Army’s most
elite, trained to act and react effectively under intense combat stress. The goal of
Ranger School is to develop leaders who are mentally and physically tough and
self-disciplined. Surrender is not a word in the Ranger vocabulary. The training is
so realistic that a trainee might lose his life. Several rangers drowned during
training a year after Walt was there.
Whenever a dangerous mission needs to be accomplished swiftly, the Army calls
on the Rangers. A Ranger mission is typically behind enemy lines. It is obviously
dangerous and might involve raids, ambushes, prisoner snatches, or disrupting
enemy communications and supplies. The classic WWII Ranger mission was to
scale the cliffs of Normandy and knock out guns that would be firing on the Allied
landing craft.
After the classroom training came the jungle phase and then the mountain phase
of Ranger School. For the jungle phase, they went to northern Florida to learn
how to fight and survive under harsh conditions. It was winter and temperatures
were sometimes below freezing. Walt got an average of two hours of sleep a night
and half a meal a day during the three-week jungle phase. Rangers had to
function far beyond their natural stamina and abilities.
During the jungle phase, Rangers learned to cross rivers using a special
technique. Each six-man team picked its best swimmer to cross the river with a
rope tied around his waist. He found the tallest, sturdiest tree and tied the rope as
high as he could. Then the men on the other shore pulled the rope tight and tied it
around another tree. These team members then “monkeywalked” across the rope,
carrying the swimmer’s clothes and weapons to him.
Walt, unfortunately for him, was the best swimmer of his team. He had swum
competitively at West Point and had turned down an opportunity to train with the
Olympic team in the Pentathlon event. But right now, northern Florida was
experiencing a sudden cold spell, and the wind-chill temperature was seventeen
degrees. Standing in front of the swiftly flowing Yellow River, he suddenly wished
he weren’t such a good swimmer.
It was an exhausting swim as he bucked the current and hauled the rope, but he
completed it successfully. His only comfort was knowing that one of his
teammates would do the return swim when it came time to repeat the technique
back across the river.
But when the time came, all his teammates insisted they couldn’t make the swim.
“I’m no good, Walt. I’d never make it,” they all said. So again, Walt started
swimming across the Yellow River—believing he would probably be killed.
By this time, he had been in the freezing water for five hours, and he was
overcome by the cold current and exhaustion. He was swept down river where
another team was doing the same drill. This is it, he thought. I’m going to die. But
at that moment he saw the other team’s rope. He reached up, grabbed it, and
slowly worked his way to shore.
An instructor, immaculately dressed, was standing on the shore, waiting to chew
him out for doing the drill incorrectly. As Walt stood shaking in the freezing water,
relieved to be alive, the instructor yelled, “Ranger, stop shivering! It’s all in your
mind!”
Marriage
Walt was beginning to think girls were a nuisance—they were silly and just took
up one’s time. But that changed suddenly and permanently when he met Peggy
Hill during his last year at West Point. Walt married Peggy twenty months later, in
June of 1960. They went to live at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. She was a Christian
and had grown up in a military family. Her father, an Army Colonel, was in charge
of Army Space Projects at the Pentagon.
Peggy understood the nature of Army life, and she cheerfully accompanied Walt
on the frequent moves. They moved fourteen times in seventeen years. Meeting
so many interesting people and experiencing new things more than compensated
for the inconveniences of moving so often.
People think of the Army as a place for hard-drinking, loose-living men. But the
Browns always found themselves in a wholesome environment, living near other
Army families who were friendly and supportive, even if they weren’t Christians. At
most bases where they lived, there was a good group of Christians they could
fellowship with. Walt found that his policy of never drinking alcoholic beverages
was not a hindrance in the Army. It brought him a certain respect, not disdain.

Getting a Masters Degree
Brown chose to transfer into a technically oriented branch of the Army—the
Ordnance Corps. This branch dealt with the Army’s equipment, and he felt sure
he could find interesting things there.
He was excited to learn that the Ordnance Corps would send him to get a
master’s degree. Engineering fascinated him, so he went to study mechanical
engineering at New Mexico State University. At New Mexico State, he found that
his mechanical engineering courses were interesting but not difficult, so he also
took many physics and math courses.
Although technical courses came easily to him, he had always been bogged down
by courses that demanded a lot of reading. While he was at New Mexico State, he
stopped by the reading laboratory and took a free reading test that he saw
advertised. They told him, “Young man, you will have trouble finishing college.”
Brown laughed and told them he had already finished college. But he realized
running start on the weekends.
He also found that he was very weak in vocabulary because he had avoided
reading in the past. With his characteristic self-discipline, he overcame this
his vocabulary by studying the dictionary.1
White Sands Missile Range
Right after he got his master’s degree, Brown went to White Sands Missile Range
to oversee testing of three of the Army’s missile systems. It was located just over
a mountain pass, about forty miles from New Mexico State. Before he arrived, the
testing at White Sands had revealed a horrible problem with the Littlejohn missile.
Every tenth missile or so would fall several miles short. Of course, it was
intolerable to have a nuclear weapon miss its target by a couple of miles,
especially falling short, because it might fall on the heads of your own troops.
At the time, the Littlejohn missile was the Army’s best hope of blunting a Soviet
attack. This was the early 1960s, and tensions in Europe were mounting.
Something had to be done to keep Russian tanks from rolling across Germany.
And it seemed that the Littlejohn would keep them at bay. But until the “short
round” problem was fixed, the missile could not be used. Over the last two years
the Army had spent millions of dollars trying to figure out the cause of the short
rounds. All the civilian scientists and engineers that had been called in to help
were baffled. It seemed that millions more would be needed for testing different
possible causes.
One morning Brown was on the firing range a few hours early because he was in
charge of firing that day. He noticed two men setting up an elaborate camera
system. Out of curiosity, he went over to talk to them and found that they were
part of a civilian engineering firm that was developing a new type of camera. They
explained their photographic technique to Brown and invited him to come by their
office and look around.
A few weeks later, he walked by their office and remembered their invitation to
stop by. As they were showing him around, they mentioned in passing that
something strange had shown up on the film they took that day—some fuzzy stuff
was below the missile.
Brown asked them to enlarge the picture. He took into account the distortion from
the experimental film and was able to calculate the size of the largest fragment of
the fuzzy stuff. It was a hexagonal nut that must have fallen from the missile’s
shoe. The shoe was a big block of metal that guided the missile along the launch
rail. When the missile ignited and shot off the rail, the shoe was supposed to kick
off.
He called his office and had them look in the records to find out whether anything
strange had happened that day. It turned out that the photographed missile was
one of the short rounds. As he walked back to his office, he wondered what the
relationship between a short round and a missing nut was. Brown called in his
chief engineer, who explained how losing the nut would keep the missile’s shoe
on. If the nut were missing, the spring that ejected the shoe wouldn’t activate. The
shoe would stay attached. Brown thought maybe the missile was carrying this
shoe downrange, causing the missile to fall several miles short of its target.
He had his office look back at the records of the recovery crew to see whether
shoes had been found for the short rounds. (Shoes were generally found about a
hundred feet downrange whenever the missile flew correctly.)
Just as he thought, whenever there was a short round, they didn’t find a shoe.
The next day Brown had a crew dig the short round out of the ground at the point
of impact. Was the shoe still attached? No. But everyone could see the hole in the
missile’s skin where the shoe had been attached. It had been ripped by the great
aerodynamic forces that tore the shoe off during flight.
So in less than two days, Brown solved the problem, and the two-year testing
program was terminated. He had found that when the Littlejohn missile was
shipped in a crate from the manufacturing plant, vibrations sometimes loosened
the nut. If the nut fell off, the shoe didn’t eject. The missile then had to carry this
nonstreamlined hunk of metal downrange, and the extra drag caused the
Littlejohn to fall miles short.
The fix was so simple that it cost less than a nickel per missile. When the nut was
screwed on at the manufacturing plant, they had to make sure it could never come
loose. They took a hammer and “pinged” the nut so that it was permanently
attached. As a double check, launch crews checked the shoe and its nut just
before launch.
The Littlejohn missile was returned to the troops in Europe immediately. Brown
didn’t think much about solving the short round problem because it happened so
fast. But his superiors noticed how quickly he had solved this problem that had
stumped the best engineers for two years. And they saw that he had saved the
Army a good deal of money. The short round incident went on his Officer
Efficiency Report and the Army would later reward him with an early promotion to
Major.
Ph.D. in the Army?
One day the thought occurred to Brown that he could get a Ph.D. in engineering.
He didn’t care about the degree or the prestige, but the subject matter fascinated
him. He knew that the two best science and engineering schools were
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and California Institute of
Technology (Cal Tech). He wanted to study at one of them.
But the Army had never assigned an officer to get a Ph.D. The Air Force and the
Navy had, but not the Army. The Army’s philosophy was that when a Ph.D. was
needed, they would hire a civilian. Brown figured that if he got a fellowship that
paid for the schooling and was accepted at one of the world’s two best graduate
schools, then the Army couldn’t refuse. As required, he asked for permission from
the Army to apply for the National Science Fellowship. 2 This fellowship, while not
as prestigious as the Rhodes scholarship, was far more valuable financially.
This was such a new idea for the Army—an officer asking to get a Ph.D. using a
National Science Fellowship—that they sent out a high-ranking official from the
Pentagon to interview Brown. This official liked the idea and decided to approve.
So Brown applied and scored in the 99.9 percentile in the quantitative part of the
National Science Fellowship test. Fellowships were awarded based on ability, and
Brown certainly had the ability to handle the subject matter. Meanwhile, both MIT
and Cal Tech had accepted him. Brown picked MIT because he thought it was the
best science and engineering school in the world.
MIT
The Army gave the final permission, and the Browns moved to Boston so that
Brown could study at MIT. They arrived with two children; two years later another
baby was born.
He finished his Ph.D. in record time—two and a quarter years. Most people took
three to five years to finish a doctorate. Brown was in a hurry because he knew
the Army was losing patience with him. A Pentagon personnel officer would often
call and say, “Brown, when are you going to finish up there? We are having to
send some officers back to Vietnam for the third time. Here you are having a nice
time going to school. We want to send you to Vietnam. You need to get back into
a proper career pattern.”
“I’ll do the best I can, sir,” he promised. “I’m working as hard as I can.” And he was.
Ever since arriving at MIT, he had stopped watching television and reading the
newspaper and worked at an intense pace.
Vietnam
When he finished at MIT, he knew he was going to Vietnam. It was the only
assignment in his career he didn’t get to pick. But he didn’t mind going. He
realized how terrorized the South Vietnamese people were. Much controversy
surrounded America’s involvement there, but Brown saw it as a simple question of
helping his neighbor. He knew the atrocities that the Viet Cong soldiers were
inflicting on innocent villagers.
Brown was stationed at Cu Chi, thirty-five miles northwest of Saigon. But the Army
didn’t know what to do with a Ph.D. in the middle of Vietnam. Brown had little
actual experience in the Ordnance Corps because he had been going to school.
They scratched their heads and ended up giving him a staff position—being a
Division Material Officer.
When Brown reported to his unit, the Colonel commanding his brigade
interviewed him. The Colonel looked up after reading Brown’s record. “I have
never in my life seen anyone so ill-prepared to take the job you’ve got!” he said,
unable to hide his disgust. “You have no experience at all. I can’t understand why
you were sent here. Brown, you better hit the ground running hard!”
Brown did his job well, and this Colonel quickly became one of his biggest
supporters. As the Division Material Officer, Brown had five captains and several
other men working for him. Their job was to make sure that all the equipment of
the division worked. They had to keep everything in repair—tanks, rifles, artillery,
parts shipped over so that few pieces of equipment would be sidelined for a lack
of spare parts.
One morning, the division commander called him in and showed him a dozen
muddy rifles on the floor. “We had a patrol out last night. They were ambushed,
and eight men were killed because their rifles did not work. This is happening all
over Vietnam. Fix this problem, Brown!”
And so Brown, the cadet who had trouble taking a rifle apart, would have to
identify the problem. He did a lot of testing. He found that the rifle was actually a
good weapon, but different cleaning techniques were needed. Brown conducted
dozens of classes for key maintenance people who then taught their soldiers
these cleaning techniques. Reports of jammed rifles ceased.
Each day there were new problems for Brown to solve. He found that Vietnam
was a demanding assignment. The first several months he got four hours of sleep
a night and ended up in the hospital with pneumonia. While recuperating, he
noticed what an outstanding hospital they had—much like the M.A.S.H. unit that
was popularized by the television series. These doctors and dentists are usually
underutilized, Brown thought. Why not use them to help the local people?
He mentioned it to his boss who was enthusiastic about the idea. So, every
Wednesday that year, Brown gathered a group of doctors and several soldiers for
security, and they headed down the road to the village of Phouc Hiep.3
At night the Viet Cong terrorized this village. The village chief had to sleep in a
different bed every night because he was never safe. His son had been killed one
night—his throat slit while he was sleeping in bed.
Only one young man in the village spoke English, a grade school teacher named
Lam Van Hai. (In Vietnam, the names run backwards, so his first name was “Hai.”)
The villagers looked forward to the weekly visit from the Americans, and Hai,
Brown’s translator, organized little programs for the kids to perform for the
soldiers. Hai and Brown became friends, and Peggy wrote several letters to Hai
so that he could practice his English.
One day the doctors were busy with other patients and asked Brown to help a little
girl with a fever. “Here, take this little girl and give her a cold bath,” a doctor said.
Brown picked her up and gently lowered her into the cool water. She screamed,
and her cry sounded just like his daughter’s when he had given her a cool bath for
a fever. As he held this little girl, he thought, We are just like these people. We
laugh alike, and we cry alike.
As Brown got to know the Vietnamese people, he came to love them. He saw that
racial distinctions were artificial. He realized that there is only one race—the
human race.4 And he found that the stereotypes about Southeast Asians were
false. It was completely false that they thought life was cheap, that they somehow
didn’t hurt as much as we did when one of their own died.
Inventions
The Viet Cong soldiers would hide underground in tunnels, and this was a serious
problem in Vietnam. Cu Chi, where Brown was stationed, was famous for its
tunnels. The Americans were afraid the Viet Cong soldiers would tunnel into their
compound at night. The tunnels were such a problem that Brown spent a lot of
time thinking about it and came up with a way to detect them.
It was such a simple idea that anyone could learn to do it in five minutes. He took
about fifteen feet of long, skinny cleaning rods for rifles. (Thousands of them were
sitting in the warehouses he supervised. They were about a foot long and could
be screwed together to any length desired.) At the end of this fifteen-foot rod, he
had machinists fabricate a large, sharp tip. A soldier would push the rod into the
ground, and if a tunnel was underneath, there would suddenly be no resistance
and the rod would pop through. A tunnel was confirmed by squirting in water from
a hand-operated fire extinguisher and listening for the splash of water on the
bottom of the tunnel. If the water squirted back in your face, it wasn’t a tunnel.
Another invention of Brown’s was an anti-mine device. He saw the gruesome
destruction from the mines that the Viet Cong planted in the roads. He was
haunted by the sight of an armored personnel carrier blowing up with eleven men
inside and seeing the flesh hanging from the walls of the wreckage. Something
had to be done about the mines, Brown thought. With the help of some welders in
the unit, he built a device to be pushed by a tank recovery vehicle. The mine was
set off by the device—not a tank or person. The device was heavy enough to set
off a mine, but weak enough to break cleanly at a few joints so the mine damaged
only part of the device. Then the soldiers could rebuild it quickly with spare parts
that they carried.
This anti-mine device was getting better with each prototype Brown built. But a
new commander came in and told him to stop his side projects. Brown wasn’t
neglecting any of his duties, and he felt that this mine detector was very important.
But the commander thought Brown was eating up resources and needed to focus
on his assigned duties.
It was a great disappointment for Brown to give up those projects. Sometimes he
felt he should have stayed in Vietnam and perfected his anti-mine device and
taught more units to detect tunnels. Some encouraged him to volunteer for a
second year and go to a unit that did nothing but scientific work. But Peggy was
home with the three little children, and Brown needed to go home. He also
wondered how many other superiors would squelch anything innovative or want
him to do only what made them look good.
So he left Vietnam after his one-year assignment, but he could never get the
people out of his mind. Later when America pulled out of Vietnam, Brown was
troubled. He worried about Lam Van Hai because he had been friendly to the
Americans. Brown knew about the concentration camps for those who helped the
United States. He would often talk to Peggy about Hai and wonder what had
happened to him. Year after year he couldn’t get him out of his mind. But there
wasn’t any word from Hai.
Bible Study
After coming home from Vietnam, Brown spent a year at the Command and
General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas—a school for Majors and
Lieutenant Colonels who were expected to advance. He was one of the youngest
officers selected for this school. Here, for the first time, the Bible came alive for
him. There had usually been a strong Christian influence on the bases where the
Browns lived, and they had always attended church and Bible studies; but Brown
when he was growing up, and he had not formed the habit of personal Bible study.
When he did read the Bible for himself, he usually read the New Testament. He
felt comfortable in the New Testament, but the Old Testament troubled him, so he
One of the things that stirred his interest in the Bible was a sermon he heard a
classmate preach at the base chapel. The sermon, entitled “It is Written,”
described many of the Bible’s fulfilled prophecies. This impressed Brown, and he
began to study the Bible. The chaplain there encouraged him in his Bible study
and gave him a set of commentaries.
As he studied, Brown became fascinated with the Bible. It was no longer a dry
book, but the vibrant, life-changing Word of God. A few years later he began
teaching an adult Sunday School class.
Benét Labs
After Fort Leavenworth, he was invited to be the Director of Benét Laboratories
near Albany, New York. This was one of the Army’s research, development, and
engineering laboratories that was responsible for developing complex armament
systems. As the supervisor of 450 people, Brown had to make sure these civilian
scientists and engineers were doing work helpful to the Army. Many of them,
because of the highly technical nature of their work, were not used to being
supervised. It was a busy, challenging job that he enjoyed.
But one day Brown decided he wanted to try teaching. He had always thought that
he would enjoy teaching, but he had never had a chance to do it. He called a
friend at the Air Force Academy and asked whether there were any openings. The
next day he got a call from the personnel director of the math department saying
that he was hired. Usually they would have flown him out for an interview, but they
recognized that his background was very appropriate. So the Browns moved to

Whenever the family moved, Peggy would take the kids to visit grandparents.
Then Brown would report to the next assignment, sign in, begin work, and wait for
quarters. It would have been too difficult and expensive to live in motels with the
children.
So in 1970, he put Peggy and the kids on a plane and drove from Albany, New
York, to the Air Force Academy in Colorado. Driving across Kansas, he was
getting sleepy and bored. The roads were flat and straight, and there was nothing
to grab his interest in the passing scenery. He turned on the radio and flipped
through the stations. He stopped the dial when he found a Christian station talking
about Noah’s Ark. The program featured interviews with people who claimed that
Noah’s Ark had been sighted on Mount Ararat, which rises almost 17,000 feet
above sea level. As he listened, he thought, How in the world could Noah’s Ark
reach that elevation?
The Rocky Mountains were just beginning to come into view as he drove along.
He tried to imagine an object large enough to fill a football stadium sitting up there
on one of the summits because it had floated there. Impossible! When the
program ended, he pulled off the road and jotted down the name and address of
The very first night he was at the Air Force Academy, he wrote a letter to the radio
station asking who their sources were and how he could reach them. Within a few
weeks, they wrote back and gave him names and addresses. He called one of the
contacts on the list, Jim Lee, a man who traveled across the country giving
lectures about the effort to find Noah’s Ark.5 Brown invited him to stay at his home
whenever he was passing through.
Jim Lee visited the Browns several times. He and Brown would stay up late into
the night talking about the possibility that the Ark could be there. The logistics of it
all stumped Brown’s engineering mind. “Where did all that water come from?”
Brown asked Jim. “You’ve got to be lame in the head to think that all the
mountains were really covered with water.”
“Well, I don’t know,” Jim said. “Maybe the water came from outer space.” “Maybe
so.” Brown said. “But then where did all the water go afterwards?”
Brown saw other problems. How could so many animals fit in the Ark? How could
the freshwater fish survive if the flood waters were salt water? And how did the
plants survive?6
Why, that part of the Bible had to be wrong, he thought. The Old Testament
troubled him because there were parts of it that didn’t seem scientifically sound.
The New Testament made a lot of sense to him, and he heartily accepted Christ’s
teaching. (It never dawned on him, though, that Christ himself had talked about
Noah as a literal historical figure.)
For the next two years, he read everything he could find about the Ark and talked
to many “Ark hunters.” The possibility that Noah’s Ark was actually buried on
Mount Ararat and that the global flood had occurred was growing in his mind.
He had always thought the fossil record was the strongest evidence for
evolution—which he had passively accepted. But now he began to wonder
whether perhaps the flood laid down the fossils. If water sloshed all over the earth
for a year, that would explain why fossils of sea life are at the tops of all the major
mountain ranges—something geologists had known for more than two hundred
years. If fossils had been laid down rapidly in Noah’s flood, then fossils were no
longer evidence for evolution. (In fact, fossils must be buried rapidly or else the
animal or plant’s shape won’t be preserved.)
What then was the evidence for evolution? he wondered. The more he struggled
with this question and studied it, the more amazed he became at the lack of
evidence supporting evolution. To his surprise he found that the scientific
evidence actually supported creation. By 1972, Brown was convinced that
creation and a global flood were the only logical positions.

The Bible's Accuracy
The first eleven chapters of Genesis, which had been so discredited by the world,
and even unfortunately by some modern Christians, were now firmly established
as truth in Brown’s mind. He now saw Genesis as accurate history, describing
major events and real people.
He believes that the entire Bible, in the original, is accurate in every detail and that
God put every detail there for a purpose. He is fascinated by the analogies to
Christ throughout the Bible. His favorite is the parallel between Christ and the Ark.
They were both designed by God and freely available to sinful people. And they
both provided the only refuge from a terrible judgment. Tragically, though, people
scoff today at their need of salvation in Jesus Christ, just as the people scoffed in
Noah’s day at the thought of water falling out of the sky.7
Completing the Family
While in Vietnam, Brown had seen orphans sleeping on the street on pieces of
cardboard. His heart had gone out to them. Later, when he and Peggy decided
interviews, the home study, the paper work. They initially thought God would lead
them to a child from Southeast Asia. But God had other plans for them and gave
them a baby girl from Colorado.
The adoption process never troubled the Browns. They knew they were not at the
mercy of a social worker or government agency. They were confident that God
would give them the child He wanted for them. They saw how God orchestrated
every amazing detail, and, through their move to the Air Force Academy in
Colorado, He put their family together.
As a Teacher
At the Air Force Academy, Brown was an Army major teaching on an exchange
program. (The Army had lent him to the Air Force.) After a year, the Air Force
Academy invited him to stay on as a tenured professor. He quickly accepted. The
family was very happy there even though their living quarters were cramped with
four children and a dog. This was a wholesome place to raise a family, and they
enjoyed good Christian fellowship.
But there was a hitch to the offer. He would have to leave the Army and be
permanently assigned to the Air Force. This required an interservice transfer and
high-level maneuvers in the Defense Department. If Brown had initiated it, it
would have never gone through. But the Air Force Academy had clout and
generally got what it wanted. So one day Brown was told to hang up his green
uniform and start wearing a blue uniform. Soon he was placed in charge of
thirty-five professors who were teaching calculus to freshmen. He felt at home in
the Air Force because the two services were similar.8
Three years later, the Air Force sent him off to the Air War College for a year so
that they could get him current with what the Air Force was doing. He was wearing
a blue suit now and had an impressive background, but how much did he really
know about the Air Force? The officers who are sent to the War College are the
ones they think might become generals. Brown finished at the War College as a
The next year the Air War College invited Brown back to give a lecture on
operations research, sometimes called systems analysis. These are the
mathematical techniques that the military was starting to use to make important
decisions. (This is not to say that all decision making is purely mathematical, but
there are often quantifiable aspects that can be worked through before experience
and subjective factors are considered.)
Brown was now in charge of the Operations Research Division at the Air Force
Academy, and he understood these techniques and their applications well. The
War College liked his lecture so much that he was invited to join the faculty. So
after five happy years in Colorado, he left his tenured position at the Air Force
Academy and moved the family to the War College at Maxwell Air Force Base in
Alabama. Peggy’s father had died recently, and this move would bring the Browns
closer to Peggy’s mother.
Air War College
The Air War College was one of five war colleges in the United States. Their
mission was to prepare the world’s best strategic leaders by stimulating innovative
thinking on critical military issues. All military services sent their best senior
officers to one of the five. Also present were senior officials from other federal
agencies and outstanding officers from forty other nations. Each student brought
diverse experiences and backgrounds. National figures lectured each day—a
Marine general, a senator, the Deputy Secretary of Defense. These lectures were
followed by thought-provoking discussion groups.
Brown was thirty-nine when he came to teach at the Air War College. Almost all
the students were older than he. Brown was in charge of the curriculum
concerning science, technology, and decision making. He also lectured on
operations research and taught an elective course in computers. He had never
had a course in computers, but he had always kept current with computer
technology. Brown had often had to learn a new computer system because he
could see how it would help him at a new job.
Getting into the Creation Movement
In the evenings when supper was over, Walt and Peggy would stay at the table
talking. Walt would share with her the amazing things he was discovering in his
search for the truth about creation. Peggy listened quietly, but didn’t share Walt’s
enthusiasm about his new hobby, even though she could see how compelled he
was by the scientific evidence.
She knew many fine Christians who believed in evolution. In fact, she and Walt
had believed in theistic evolution all these years, assuming that God had used
evolution to create the universe. Theistic evolution had been a comfortable
compromise. It gave a sense of scientific respectability and, at the same time, it
satisfied an inward conviction that there must be a Creator.
After one of their evening conversations, she asked “What difference does it really
make?”
So Walt addressed the theological implications. “Why do we need a savior?” he
Peggy replied, “To save us from our sin.”
Then Walt explained, “If evolution happened, death was already occurring before
man evolved. But if death came before man, and was not a consequence of
Adam’s sin, then sin is a fiction. And if sin is a fiction, then why do we need Christ
to save us from our sin?”
Suddenly, it made sense to Peggy. It seemed so obvious, but she had never
considered it before. Like many others who had passively accepted theistic
evolution, she had not realized the theological implications. But now she saw how
evolution completely undermined the need for a Savior. And she saw what an
unsatisfactory compromise theistic evolution is. If the Genesis account is not a
factual depiction of events, then the entire Bible was not completely true, and that
means that it is not the ultimate authority. From then on, Peggy was an eager
supporter of Walt’s creation study.
Brown had been teaching at the War College for several years and was offered a
splendid job as the Director of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory near Boston.
He seriously considered this job because it would put him around experts in
geology and geophysics, even if they were evolutionists. Brown was now very
interested in geology because of his study of the global flood. His investigation of
creation and the flood had started as scientific curiosity, but as he saw the
implications, it grew into a passionate hobby.
Unexpectedly one day, Brown’s superior, a two-star general, called him into his
office to sign papers that would send him to the laboratory. Brown had to think fast.
He had reached full colonel rapidly.9 But he wanted more time to devote to his
creation study, and he wanted to help get the creation message out. He politely
turned down the offer to go to the Geophysics Laboratory and asked to get out of
the military at the first opportunity. So in 1980, after twenty-one years in uniform,
he retired from the Air Force as a full colonel.
Dr. Brown was astonished to see that much scientific evidence was poorly
disseminated and that young people were taught such erroneous science about
origins. He saw that critical thinking skills were not being fully developed in our
classrooms. Students were being told what to think, not being taught how to think.
Science lost its excitement in this stifling atmosphere. Dr. Brown had seen for
himself that the scientific evidence overwhelmingly favored creation and a global
flood. If thinking people were allowed to see all the evidence, they could reach
their own logical conclusions.

Dr. Brown's Hydroplate Theory
As Dr. Brown thought about the feasibility of the flood, he realized that the
Genesis flood was literally an earthshaking event, far more catastrophic than
almost anyone had imagined. He was startled by the violence of the event.
When he first thought about the flood, he had been stumped by the mechanism of
it all. Yet he saw that the geological evidence corresponded to a devastating,
worldwide flood. So where did so much water come from? And where did it go?
As he pondered these questions and studied the Biblical and scientific details, a
theory for the mechanism of the flood began to gel in his mind. It became clear to
Dr. Brown how the gigantic flood of Noah’s day would explain many mysterious
features on earth—features that few people realize are not explained by current
science. Many of these major features fit into place beautifully if the flood waters
came from under the earth’s crust—from worldwide, interconnected chambers
that erupted violently as “the fountains of the great deep.”
Dr. Brown calls his theory of the flood the hydroplate theory. It is a mature and
detailed theory, complete with many predictions of what science should uncover
in the future if his theory is correct. Some of Dr. Brown’s published predictions
have already come true. He believes that successful predictions are the best test
of a theory’s strength and fruitfulness; scientists who are unwilling to make and
publish predictions show a lack of scientific rigor and confidence. “A weak theory
will produce few predictions,” he says. “If theories could not be published unless
they included numerous details and specific predictions, we would be mercifully
spared many distractions and false ideas.”
In 1993 Dr. Brown was asked to narrate a five-minute animation of his hydroplate
theory for CBS television. CBS television executives had noticed the interest that
the public has in Noah’s Ark, and they aired a two-hour special on Noah’s Ark.
That program was seen by 43 million Americans and Canadians. Feedback from
Dr. Brown’s portion of that program was overwhelmingly positive.
Seminars and Debates
After retiring from the military, Dr. Brown moved to the Chicago area and began
giving creation seminars and debating evolutionists. He prepared strenuously for
his seminars and debates. He always assumed that several people in the
audience knew more about a topic than he did, and he didn’t want to disappoint
them. He forced himself to be very broad because people would ask questions
concerning the Bible, genetics, astronomy, physics, geology, or chemistry. Dr.
Brown’s training as an engineer gave him the tools to explore many disciplines.
Engineers ask questions and look for realistic solutions. By definition,
engineering—sometimes called applied science—deals with making science
useful to people. And that is exactly what Dr. Brown did in his seminars.
His main challenge was to present technical matters understandably to a general
audience. He applied the same techniques he had used when he taught math and
walked his students through complicated equations. He used demonstrations and
simple thought experiments to get his points across.
Dr. Brown’s purpose in debating evolutionists is to try to get the real scientific
evidence aired. A month ahead of time he sends a summary of everything he
plans to say so that the evolutionist will be prepared. If necessary, Dr. Brown is
willing to be embarrassed in a public forum if an opponent can catch him saying
something wrong. Then he will be able to correct it, and his case is strengthened.
Dr. Brown does not have contempt or disdain for those who believe in evolution.
On the contrary, he has great compassion for them, because he was once in their
shoes.
In his debates, he never uses the word prove. Unlike mathematics, science
cannot prove something because all the evidence is not in. But he can raise or
lower the plausibility of an idea. So the debate topic is simply “Does the scientific
evidence favor evolution or creation?”
For seminars, Dr. Brown traveled across the United States and Canada driving a
van and pulling a trailer full of seminar props. He received hundreds of invitations
to speak at schools or on radio and television, but to save travel time, he generally
accepted only those in the city hosting the seminar. One school appearance near
Seattle was vigorously opposed by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), an
organization famous for its antibiblical efforts. His appearance generated a media
ruckus throughout the western United States. When Dr. Brown showed up to
speak and saw the reporters gathered, he smiled at the many TV cameras and
said, “I want to thank the ACLU for doing such a good job of promoting this
program.”
The seminar work was encouraging. Dr. Brown was surprised to see what an
effective preevangelistic tool the creation science topic is for unbelievers. Many
people have told him they had a real problem with origins, and they did not believe
the Bible was credible. But the seminars removed those obstacles. For some, this
confidence in the Bible leads to the understanding that Scripture is reliable and
pertinent. For others, it leads to salvation.
The seminar program was gaining ground until another creationist organization
published an inaccurate account of Dr. Brown’s work. Unfortunately, there has
been much division within the creation movement and instead of concentrating
their criticism on the opposition—the theistic evolutionists and the atheistic
evolutionists—they have splintered into factions and often undermine each other’s
work. This hostility from fellow creationists has baffled Dr. Brown. It usually turns
out that these critics have not bothered to study his hydroplate theory. They are
just repeating what they heard someone else say.
Since the interest in seminars was waning, Dr. Brown saw no need to remain in
Chicago. He was there because it was centrally located for his seminar travels. So
in 1985, he moved his family to Phoenix, Arizona, where they could be closer to
his parents. This was a discouraging time in his life as he wondered how he would
support his family and what he would do next.
He decided to devote himself to studying geology from the evolutionists’
perspective. He realized that most creationists don’t study what the evolutionists
are saying—seeing their reasoning and going through their calculations. He knew
that a good lawyer knows the other case as well as the opposing lawyer knows it.
A solid knowledge of geology would help him build a stronger case for creation.
So Peggy found a teaching job and Walt signed up to study geology at Arizona
State University. Dr. Robert S. Dietz, one of the world’s leading geologists, taught
there. Several years earlier in 1981, Dr. Brown had given a lecture on creation at
Arizona State after the university had been unable to find an evolutionist debater.
Days before the lecture, Dr. Dietz asked if he could comment after the lecture. He
talked for ten minutes giving his reasons why he thought Dr. Brown was wrong.
Then Dr. Brown challenged him to a written, purely scientific debate—no religion
allowed. Earlier that day when Dr. Brown had lunch with Dr. Dietz, Dr. Dietz had
flatly refused to participate in a written debate. But now that he was in front of this
large audience, he agreed. The audience applauded and the newspaper featured
the upcoming written debate.
Dr. Brown and Dr. Dietz exchanged a few cordial phone calls, working out the
rules of the written debate. A month later, though, Dr. Dietz called. “I’ve tried
writing something on this,” he said, “and there is no way you can avoid religion. I
can’t do it.”
“Are you backing out, Dr. Dietz?”
“I guess so,” he said. “You can’t deal with the subject without getting into religion.”
“You sure can,” Dr. Brown said. “I will.” But Dr. Dietz backed out. (Since then, no
evolutionist has taken up Dr. Brown’s well-known offer for a written, publishable,
purely scientific debate.)
Learning Geology
Now that Dr. Brown would be walking the halls of the geology department, he
decided he had better say hello to Dr. Dietz. By now, Dr. Brown knew exactly who
Robert S. Dietz was. He was the leading atheist of the Southwest, completely
hostile to creationists. He was also a world-famous geologist, one of the founders
of the plate tectonic theory—one of the most significant theories of the twentieth
century in the opinion of most scientists.
Dr. Brown went to Dr. Dietz’s office and told him he was there to learn geology
from Dr. Dietz’s perspective. Oddly enough, that was the beginning of their
friendship. Dr. Dietz offered to meet with Dr. Brown each Wednesday afternoon
for several hours of discussion. They spent hundreds of hours discussing geology,
comparing Dr. Dietz’s plate tectonic theory and Dr. Brown’s hydroplate theory.
After their private sessions, they went down to the Wednesday afternoon geology
forum and listened to a visiting geology speaker. Sometimes Dr. Dietz would
invite Dr. Brown out to eat with the guest speaker.
In private, Dr. Dietz would give straight, honest answers. He would say things that
he would never repeat publicly. When he saw a draft of Dr. Brown’s book, he went
through every point and acknowledged, “Yes ... that’s a problem for evolution.
Well, we might have an answer to this point. Yes ... there are gaps in the fossil
record.”
But when they were on radio programs together as creationists verses
evolutionists, Dr. Dietz couldn’t be trusted. Once Dr. Brown brought up the gaps in
the fossil record. “Oh, that’s not a problem at all,” Dr. Dietz said. “We’ve got lots of
intermediate forms.”
During the commercial break, when Dr. Brown reminded Dr. Dietz that he knew
there were many gaps, Dr. Dietz just laughed.
Geology
Dr. Brown spent several years studying geology. His background in engineering
gave him a strong grasp of the math and physics involved in geological processes.
He found that while geologists are skilled at describing what they see, most don’t
pause to figure out the mechanics and the feasibility of their theories. They talk
about long periods of time and think that the sheer amount of time glosses over
the mechanical difficulties of what they are describing. They don’t concentrate on
energy, forces, causes, and effects. But Dr. Brown brought a fresh mindset to his
study of geology. He thought as an engineer, a mathematician firmly grounded in
physics.
There is also a not-so-subtle arrogance in the entrenched geology establishment.
They resent an “outsider” intruding in their field. This sounds similar to the
criticism that Lord Kelvin received when he waded into the geological age
controversy with the geologists of his day. Interestingly, the founders of modern
geology, men who have contributed greatly to conventional geological thinking,
were not even trained as geologists.10
Since the 1800s, geologists have tried to rule out all global catastrophes. Actually,
they were opposed to the Bible, but they didn’t want to seem closed-minded by
disallowing only a global flood; so they ruled out all catastrophes. They proposed
going on today could tell us about the past. But by ignoring the possibility of a
global catastrophe, they have stifled true study of the facts.
Grand Canyon
Dr. Brown lived near the Grand Canyon and frequently took trips to study it. He
also studied the Grand Canyon with a leading expert at Arizona State, but this
professor preferred not to deal with the origin of the canyon. Dr. Brown often
pondered the mechanism that must have formed this great canyon, one of the
seven wonders of the natural world. He studied maps of Utah and Arizona and
suspected that a huge lake, or a series of lakes, had breached their natural
boundaries and carved the canyon in a few weeks. He realized that a fault had to
be in a certain place if he was correct, but the state geologist, a man Dr. Brown
once had supper with, checked his files and found no fault was there. (A fault is a
crack in the ground along which the opposite sides have slipped in relation to
each other.)
“This Is Going to Ruin Meg’s Wedding”
Dr. Brown became very excited when he found an obscure geologic map that
showed a fault there—“19-mile fault” it was called. (Now, some jokingly call it
“Walt’s Fault.”) He wanted to go right away and see the fault and trace it from one
cliff system to the other. The family was preparing for his daughter’s wedding, so
no one could go with him. His son begged him not to go alone. He had been in
this area before with his dad and knew it was a dangerous, unforgiving place.
But Dr. Brown wouldn’t listen. He had to go see this fault right away. He kissed
Peggy goodbye early the next morning and told her to ask the park rangers to
send out a search aircraft if he wasn’t back by noon the third day. He arrived at
the canyon at sunrise and stopped at the park ranger’s office where he filled out
the forms to get permission to go into the “backcountry.”
He parked his van near the rim of Ryder Canyon, a remote side canyon of the
Grand Canyon. He soon found the fault he was looking for, but he wanted to trace
it from one cliff system, down across the Colorado River, through Ryder Canyon,
and up to the cliff system on the other side. He worked his way along the fault,
down a deep slit in the ground, and descended into Ryder Canyon. He was
loaded with his backpack, his camera, and his drinking water. He had brought
gallons of water—more than the park rangers recommended. He spent a
strenuous day taking pictures and exploring along the dangerously steep side of
the canyon.
Late that hot June afternoon, he decided to head back. He had taken longer than
he intended because he was so fascinated by what he was discovering. His water
had run out hours before, and he was very thirsty. He turned around, found the slit,
and headed back up. But after half a mile, the slit came to a dead end. It was a
box canyon, not the incline he remembered coming down. What went wrong? he
thought. How did I ever get here?
Several times he retraced his steps and tried to find where he had made the
wrong turn, but he couldn’t figure out what had happened. Am I losing my mind?
he asked himself. He walked back and forth in the box canyon, wondering how he
was going to get out.
It seemed that he was not going to find where he had made the wrong turn. So he
considered two options. Should he lie down in the shade, try to minimize his
growing dehydration, and spend the night in the canyon, hoping that the rescue
aircraft would spot him late the next day? Or should he try to retrace his path
along a very strenuous, steep slope and risk falling off a cliff? By now, his tongue
was sticking to the sides of his cheeks, and his legs were shaking from
dehydration.
He thought about his daughter’s wedding in a couple of days. If I don’t get out of
here, this is really going to mess up Meg’s wedding. He thought of Psalm 23 as he
paced back and forth, and the words “Yea, though I walk through the valley of the
shadow of death” began to take on a grim reality. He went through the Psalm
many times and found comfort in the phrase “for thou art with me.”
I need to find a way out, he decided. In his backpack was fifty feet of rope that he
had purchased at a hardware store several days before. He took the rope out to
see whether he could use it to get out of this canyon. He saw an overhanging rock
and thought that perhaps he could hook the center of the rope around it. After
several throws, the rope finally hooked around the rock. Then he grabbed both
ends of the rope, put his feet on the side of the canyon, and “walked” up the
vertical side. When he got out of the box canyon, he looked around, and
everything made sense. Thirty feet away was the parallel slit he had gone down.
An hour later, he rested by his van, drinking water and thanking the Lord for
making a way out of this valley of the shadow of death.
He got home in the wee hours of the morning. Peggy woke up and asked how it
went. When he told her what had happened, she said, “Walt Brown! You have to
promise me that you will never do that again!”
“I promise,” he said solemnly. He knew that he had been unwise to go exploring
buddy system, always to be with a friend in case one needs help. But his other
Ranger training had helped him get out.
In 1988, Dr. Brown confirmed his theory about the origin of the Grand Canyon
with other field studies. The huge lakes, whose waters suddenly broke through
their natural dam and carved the Grand Canyon after the flood, no longer exist.
But northeast of the canyon Dr. Brown found unmistakable traces of the water and
its rapid escape.11
In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood
Dr. Brown’s move to Phoenix was a crucial turning point in his life. If he had
continued with the seminar work full-time, as he had originally hoped, he wouldn’t
have had time to study geology and work on his book. Although his seminars had
been useful in getting out the creation message, Dr. Brown’s book has reached a
much wider audience.
His book, In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood,
more closely resembles an encyclopedia than any other kind of book. Here he
summarizes the evidences for creation and explains his hydroplate theory of the
flood. Based on this theory, he has found that twenty-five major features of the
earth can be explained logically. Scientists who have taken the time to understand
the theory have often converted to flood geology, because Dr. Brown gives them
a scientifically acceptable approach that is intellectually satisfying. Scientists are
struck by diverse problems the hydroplate theory solves.12
Dr. Brown plays a vital function in the creation ministry. He keeps current with the
latest scientific data and analyzes the implications for creation and publishes it in
a format that lay readers can understand. Early on he decided not to write a lot of
books. He felt he needed to improve and expand his original book that had started
out as a guide for those attending his seminars. In this guide he had summarized
the evidences for creation and against evolution so that people weren’t frantically
taking notes. Then people who hadn’t been to the seminar started asking for
copies. So every few years, Dr. Brown has had to publish a new edition. Each
edition has been larger and more popular.
In the Beginning has now reached the seventh edition and is widely in demand
because it is the most complete reference work covering the broad subject of
origins from a scientific standpoint.13 For scientists who want to follow his
calculations, he has included technical notes explaining how he arrived at his
conclusions. But the pictures and graphics make it interesting for young people,
and the explanations are understandable to lay people. The entire book is
meticulously footnoted so that a reader can delve into the sources and not just
take Dr. Brown at his word.
His book is on his website, and anyone can access the complete volume from
there or print it out at no cost.14 When people ask Dr. Brown how he can earn any
money if he makes his book free to everyone, he replies, “My purpose is not to
make money. My purpose is to get the information out. Nothing could make me
happier than if this evolution problem ended and I was unemployed. I would
probably take up golf again.”
Dr. Brown receives much mail from people who have read his book or visited his
website. About five percent of the feedback is negative, and Dr. Brown carefully
considers each hostile letter to see whether it is pointing out an error of his. If it
does, he is grateful for the helpful criticism. But the vast majority of the mail is
encouraging and motivates him to continue with his ministry.
One day while opening the mail, Dr. Brown found a letter from Hai Lam, his friend
from Vietnam! Thirty-three years after Walt Brown left Vietnam, Hai found him! He
had suffered a great deal because of his involvement with the Americans. After
two failed attempts to escape Vietnam, Hai did finally make it to America and was
living in California with his wife and three children.
In his letter to the Browns, Hai enclosed a water-stained picture that he had kept
all those years. It was a picture of himself and Dr. Brown standing in the village of
Phouc Hiep. A few months later, Hai sat in the Brown’s living room, smiling at his
long lost friend, saying, “I so happy. I so happy.”
Too Busy to Retire
Dr. Brown is the proud grandfather of eight grandchildren and enjoys a close
relationship with his four children, his parents, and his large extended family. He
lives in Phoenix, Arizona, the home of many retirees. He is at the age when he
could retire and spend his time traveling or playing golf like many of his generation.
But he is much too busy to sit back and relax. Every day he is in his office, reading
science journals, researching, corresponding, and meeting with visitors. He is
always adding to his book, strengthening and clarifying his case.15
His wife Peggy has always been a supportive companion, but now she has
become his most valuable asset in his work. When she saw that he was getting
buried by his correspondence and not having time to devote to study, she
resigned her teaching job to take care of his office work.
A Different Battle
Where is the creation-evolution controversy headed? According to Dr. Brown,
“The battle will be won by ‘grass roots’ science education, not in courts,
legislatures, boards of education, or church councils. Yes, today evolutionists
generally control higher education, science journals, and the media. But the
scientific evidence overwhelmingly supports creation and a global flood.
Throughout the history of science, whenever controversies have raged, the side
with scientific evidence has always prevailed. Our task, then, is educating the
public. What we have to do to win this battle, is not to preach to people who
already believe as we do, but to people who have questions, people who
disagree.”16
Dr. Brown continues to “fight the good fight of faith.” He marvels how God uses
every experience in our lives to equip us for His service. Looking back, he realizes
that West Point, Ranger School, and MIT each taught important lessons for his
present work. Who would have ever thought that infantry training had anything to
do with telling the world about the Creator? Yet the skills and discipline he learned
from his military training have prepared him to be a soldier in a different battle. He
is a living example of God’s warrior in Ephesians 6, strong in the Lord and in the
power of His might, equipped with the whole armor of God so that he can stand
against the wiles of the devil.
References and Notes
1. He bought Thorndike's Most Frequently Used Words, a book that categorized
words by how frequently they appeared in print. With it, Walt quickly spotted the
most frequently used words that he didn't know, and he marked them in his
unabridged dictionary with a paper clip. He kept 100 paper clips in his dictionary,
and every day he flipped to each paper clip and studied the words. He added new
words as soon as he mastered the old ones.
2. National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowships are awarded to study physical,
biological and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and the history and
philosophy of science. The fellowships lead to a master's or doctoral degree that
is research-based.
3. Pronounced “Fu-KEP.”
4. Walter T. Brown, Jr., In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the
Flood, seventh edition (Phoenix, Arizona: Center for Scientific Creation, 2001),
p. 491.
5. Jim Lee was a Seventh-Day Adventist. The Adventists were very strong in the
creation movement, long before it became popular in mainstream Christianity.
They were also active in the hunt for Noah's Ark.
6. See Dr. Brown's book, In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the
Flood, for answers to these questions.
7. For more parallels between Christ and the Ark, see In the Beginning, p. 521.
8. The Army is more manpower oriented and the Air Force is more technically oriented.
The Air Force grew out of the Army. It was the Army Air Corps during WWII.
9. The Army and Air Force have the same rank designations. Typically, an officer is a
second lieutenant for a year and a half, first lieutenant for two and a half years,
captain for four to seven years, major for six to nine years, then lieutenant colonel
until he or she retires sometime between their twentieth and thirtieth year of
service. About 30 percent of the lieutenant colonels make full colonel before their
thirtieth year of service. A few full colonels make general before their thirtieth year.
few make three, and some four. Only in wartime will there be a five star general.
10. James Hutton, considered the father of uniformitarian geology, trained as a
medical doctor. Sir Charles Lyell, who popularized the idea of long geological
ages, studied law.
11. For over a hundred years, geologists have known that if a large lake begins to
erode a point on its rim, canyons can be carved in days. Another geologist had
similar ideas. He published Dr. Brown's data on the elevation, name, location, and
breach point of the Grand Lake without proper crediting, and then backdated his
publication to a year before Dr. Brown's publication. This geologist also claimed
that an even earlier, obscure publication of his contained this explanation for the
Grand Canyon. It does not contain this explanation. The claims of this geologist
have caused confusion as to who first published the data and who first set forth
this explanation for the formation of the Grand Canyon. Careful examination of the
evidence indicates that Dr. Brown was the first.
12. Brown, p. i from endorsement page and p. v from the Preface.
13. Brown, p. i from endorsement page.
14. Dr. Brown's website is www.creationscience.com. Brad Anderson, a science
education major and now a computer expert, set up the website because he
wanted more people to know about Dr. Brown's work.
15. Dr. Brown has a tremendous range of contacts. He met many influential people
when he worked at the Air Force Academy, the Air War College, and Benét Labs.
He finds that other scientists are happy to talk to him when they see his interest,
even though he is a creationist.
16. Brown, p. v from the Preface and personal communication with the author
Illustration Credits
Figure 1: Walt Brown, page 1
Figure 2: Aristo Graphics, page 3
Figure 3: design by Bradley W. Anderson using Corel Professional Photos by
Jeanne White, page 6
Figure 4: Bradley W. Anderson, page 7
Figure 5: Natural History Museum, London, page 9
Figure 6: NASA, page 10
Figure 7: Bradley W. Anderson, page 12
Figure 8: courtesy of Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Fort Hays State
University, Hays, Kansas, page 12
Figure 9: Natural History Museum, Washington D.C., photo by Bradley W.
Anderson, page 12
Figure 10: Natural History Museum, Washington, D.C.; photo by Bradley W.
Anderson, page 12
Figure 11: used with permission of the Creation Research Society, P.O. Box 8263,
St. Joseph, MO 64508-8263, page 13
Figure 12: Natural History Museum, London, page 14
Figure 13: D. L. Cramer, page 14
Figure 14: G. Elliot Smith, Illustrated London News, 24 June 1922, p. 944,
page 15
Figure 15: copyright William Zittrich, page 20
Figure 16: Corel Professional Photos, page 20
Figure 17: copyright Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, photo by Lennart
Nilsson, The Incredible Machine, National Geographic Society, page 22
Figure 18: Arctic Tern from Corel/migration route by Bradley W. Anderson/cockpit
photo by Walt Brown, page 22
Figure 19: drawing of microphotograph by Bradley W. Anderson, page 22
Figure 20: Image excerpted from the video "A Question of Origins," Eternal
Productions, www.eternal-productions.org. Used with permission, page 22
Figure 21: Life Art Collections, TechPool Studios, page 24
Figure 22: NASA, page 29
Figure 23: NASA, page 30
Figure 24: composition by Bradley W. Anderson using NASA photos, page 31
Figure 25: NASA, page 33
Figure 26: PhotoDisk, Vol. 34, Spacescapes, page 37
Figure 27: U. S. Naval Observatory, page 37
Figure 28: Walt Brown, page 38
Figure 29: used with permission of the Creation Research Society, P.O. Box 8263,
St. Joseph, MO 64508-8263/composition by Bradley W. Anderson, page 38
Figure 30: courtesy of Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany,
page 39
Figure 31: composition by Bradley W. Anderson using NASA photos, page 40
Figure 32: NASA, page 41
Figure 33: L. A. Frank, The University of Iowa, page 42
Figure 34: PhotoDisk, Vol. 34, Spacescapes, page 42
Figure 35: composition by Bradley W. Anderson using pictures copyright by Aris
Multimedia Entertainment, Inc., page 46
Figure 36: Walt Brown, page 47
Figure 37: John J. McIntosh, page 48
Figure 38: Charles R. Hazard, Insight on the News, page 49
Figure 39: Ethel R. Nelson. For details see her book, The Discovery of Genesis, p.
xii, page 50
Figure 40: Ark sketch by Walt Brown/photo by U.S. Air Force Academy, page 51
Figure 41: Steve Daniels, page 108
Figure 42: copyright-LANDISCOR INC., page 110
Figure 43: World Ocean Floor, Bruce C. Heezen and Marie Tharp, 1977,
copyright by Marie Tharp 1977, reproduced by permission of Marie Tharp, 1
Washington Ave., South Nyack, NY 10960, page 111
Figure 44: U.S. Navy SEASAT satellite photo, page 112
Figure 45: Walt Brown, page 112
Figure 46: Bradley W. Anderson, page 113
Figure 47: Bradley W. Anderson, page 113
Figure 48: John Pinkston and Laura Stern, USGS, page 114
Figure 49: courtesy Geological Survey of Canada (photo no. GSC180345),
page 115
Figure 50: illustration by Allen Beechel, page 117
Figure 51: Bradley W. Anderson, page 117
Figure 52: *Bradley W. Anderson, page 118
Figure 53: Walt Brown, page 120
Figure 54: Bradley W. Anderson, page 124
Figure 55: NOAA Photo Library, page 124
Figure 56: Bradley W. Anderson, page 124
Figure 57: Steve Daniels, page 125
Figure 58: Bradley W. Anderson, page 125
Figure 59: *Bradley W. Anderson, page 125
Figure 60: Walt Brown, page 126
Figure 61: Bradley W. Anderson, page 126
Figure 62: Steve Daniels/Bradley W. Anderson, page 127
Figure 63: *Steve Daniels, page 127
Figure 64: computer animation by Bradley W. Anderson, page 128
Figure 65: Bradley W. Anderson, page 129
Figure 66: Bradley W. Anderson, page 130
Figure 67: Bradley W. Anderson, page 130
Figure 68: Walt Brown, page 132
Figure 69: Walt Brown, page 132
Figure 70: Chile’s Paleontological Museum of Caldera, page 134
Figure 71: copyright WorldSat International Inc., 1999; www.worldsat.ca; all rights
reserved, page 136
Figure 72: Walt Brown, page 136
Figure 73: Walt Brown, page 140
Figure 74: Walt Brown, page 141
Figure 75: Bradley W. Anderson, page 142
Figure 76: Bradley W. Anderson, page 142
Figure 77: Walt Brown, page 142
Figure 78: Walt Brown, page 143
Figure 79: Walt Brown, page 144
Figure 80: Digital Wisdom, Inc.; inset map by USGS; labels by Walt Brown,
page 150
Figure 81: photo of Ashley Wilcox by Walt Brown, page 152
Figure 82: Walt Brown, page 154
Figure 83: drawn by Walt Brown after Satoru Urakawa, page 155
Figure 84: Calvin Hamilton, used with permission, page 156
Figure 85: Walt Brown, page 157
Figure 86: drawn by Walt Brown after Cliff Frohlich, page 157
Figure 87: NASA, page 157
Figure 88: Walt Brown, page 160
Figure 89: Walt Brown, page 161
Figure 90: NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, page 168
Figure 91: *Walt Brown, based on data taken from "Episodic Tremor and Slip on
the Cascadia Subduction Zone," Science, 20 June 2003, Vol. 300, p. 1943,
page 168
Figure 92: Jim McDowell, page 169
Figure 93: Jim McDowell, page 170
Figure 94: Walt Brown, page 172
Figure 95: Walt Brown, page 180
Figure 96: George W. Housner, page 188
Figure 97: George W. Housner, page 188
Figure 98: Walt Brown, page 192
Figure 99: Walt Brown and Bradley W. Anderson, page 192
Figure 100: Walt Brown, page 193
Figure 101: Bradley W. Anderson, page 196
Figure 102: Jim, Sean, and Ryan McDowell, page 197
Figure 103: Walt Brown, page 197
Figure 104: Bradley W. Anderson, page 197
Figure 105: Walt Brown, page 197
Figure 106: Bradley W. Anderson, page 197
Figure 107: Walt Brown, page 198
Figure 108: Corel Professional Photos, page 198
Figure 109: Walt Brown, page 198
Figure 110: Walt Brown, page 198
Figure 111: *Walt Brown, page 199
Figure 112: Lupus Animation, LLC, page 204
Earth; captions and outline by Walt Brown, page 207
Figure 114: Walt Brown, page 207
Figure 115: *Heinrich Balduin Mollhausen, page 208
Figure 116:
R
Scott
Cherba,
website:
http://cherba.com/wcs/features/030420/index.html, page 209
Figure 117: computer-generated map by Bradley W. Anderson, page 211
Figure 118: computer-generated illustration by Bradley W. Anderson, page 212
Figure 119: U.S. Geological Survey, page 212
Figure 120: Walt Brown, page 212
Figure 122: Photo by (c) Vadim Aristov–www.aristov.com, page 213
Figure 121: Walt Brown, page 213
Figure 123: Walt Brown, page 214
Figure 124: Walt Brown, page 214
Figure 125: Walt Brown, page 215
Figure 126: Walt Brown, page 215
Figure 127: Walt Brown, page 216
Figure 128: copyright Creatas, 2006, page 216
Figure 129: Corel Professional Photos, page 217
Figure 130: Lupus Animation, LLC, page 217
Figure 131: Walt Brown, page 217
Figure 132: courtesy California Imperial Sand Dunes, page 218
Figure 133: Walt Brown, page 220
Figure 134: courtesy of Dr. Larry Sobel, page 222
Figure 135: The Wave, Coyote Buttes, Arizona; Symon Byrne, page 223
Figure 136: Walt Brown, page 224
Figure 137: Marine Geoscience Data System, page 224
Earth; captions and outline by Walt Brown, page 229
Figure 139: Walt Brown, page 232
Figure 140: Walt Brown, page 232
Figure 141: Walt Brown, page 236
Figure 142: (above) Corel Professional Photos; (below) copyright Churchill &
Klehr, page 246
Figure 143: Corel Professional Photos, page 249
Figure 144: Walt Brown, page 249
Figure 145: courtesy Zoological Museum of St. Petersburg, page 254
Figure 146: Natural History Museum, London, page 254
Figure 147: map drawn by Bradley W. Anderson, page 255
Figure 148: courtesy of Richard B. Firestone et al., page 257
Figure 149: N. A. Transehe, “The Siberian Sea Road,” The Geographical Review,
Vol. 15, 1925, p. 375, page 258
Figure 150: N. A. Transehe, “The Siberian Sea Road,” The Geographical Review,
Vol. 15, 1925, p. 375, page 258
Figure 151: Steve Daniels, page 259
Figure 152: courtesy of Adrei Sher, page 262
Figure 153: B. Willis et al., Research in China, Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie
Institution, 1907), page 262
Figure 154: Steve Daniels, page 264
Figure 155: Steve Daniels, page 264
Figure 156: Comet Linear: NASA; All others: PhotoDisk, Vol. 34 Spacescapes,
page 288
Figure 157: PhotoDisk, Vol. 34, Spacescapes, page 289
Figure 158: NASA, page 290
Figure 159: NASA, page 290
Figure 160: Apollo 16, NASA, page 291
Figure 161: NASA, page 292
Figure 162: Walt Brown, page 293
Figure 163: Jim McDowell, page 293
Figure 164: Walt Brown, page 294
Figure 165: Walt Brown, page 295
Figure 166: Walt Brown, page 302
Figure 167: *Artist: Lieve Verschuier, page 304
Figure 168: Walt Brown, page 305
Figure 169: NASA, page 306
Figure 170: NASA/JPL, page 324
Figure 171: drawn by Walt Brown after Erik Asphaug, page 326
Figure 172: Walt Brown, page 327
Figure 173: Walt Brown, page 327
Figure 174: Walt Brown, page 329
Figure 175: Marvin Killgore, Southwest Meteorite Laboratory, page 330
Figure 176: Walt Brown, page 331
Figure 177: NASA, page 333
Figure 178: ISAS/JAXA, page 333
Figure 179: NASA. The Cassini Program, page 334
Figure 180: Walt Brown, page 336
Figure 181: NASA, page 337
Figure 182: NASA/JPL/MSSS, page 339
Figure 183: *Walt Brown, page 341
Figure 184: U.S. Naval Observatory, page 356
Figure 185: Randy Montoya, Sandia National Laboratory, page 356
Figure 186: Jon Schoenfield and Walt Brown, page 358
Figure 187: Joshua B. Spencer and Walt Brown, page 360
Figure 188: Stanislav Adamenko, page 361
Figure 189: Stanislav Adamenko, page 361
Figure 190: Walt Brown, page 365
Figure 191: drawing by Walt Brown, based on Figure 16 in referenced paper by
Paul A. Ramdohr, page 367
Figure 192: Walt Brown, page 368
Figure 193: Walt Brown, page 368
Figure 194: Walt Brown, page 369
Figure 195: Walt Brown, page 369
Figure 196: drawing by Peggy Brown, page 369
Figure 197: *Walt Brown, page 374
Figure 198: Jim McDowell, page 375
Figure 199: Henry W. Miller, The Paris Gun, page 376
Figure 200: NASA, page 380
Figure 201: photograph by R. Pelisson, Sahara meteorite from Hammada al
Hamra Plateau, Libya, page 385
Figure 202: redrawn from Briere and Scanlon, Figure 4, U.S. Geological Survey,
page 387
Figure 203: Jim McDowell, page 388
Figure 204: Walt Brown, page 399
Figure 205: Walt Brown and Jim McDowell, page 408
Figure 206: Walt Brown, page 410
Figure 207: NASA, page 414
Figure 208: Courtesy of Indiana University, page 416
Figure 209: *Walt Brown, page 417
Figure 211: PhotoDisk, Vol. 34 Spacescapes, page 423
Figure 212: (A) (B) (D) (E) (F) National Optical Astronomy Observatories, W.
Schoening/N. Sharp, (C) T. Boroson; composition by Bradley W. Anderson,
page 423
Figure 213: NASA, page 429
Figure 214: Gerhard Heilmann, The Origin of Birds, p. 168, page 431
Figure 215: courtesy of N. Chandra Wickramasinghe from Archaeopteryx: The
Primordial Bird; design by Bradley W. Anderson, page 431
Figure 216: courtesy of N. Chandra Wickramasinghe from Archaeopteryx: The
Primordial Bird, page 431
Figure 217: courtesy of N. Chandra Wickramasinghe from Archaeopteryx: The
Primordial Bird, page 432
Figure 218: composition by Bradley W. Anderson using T-Rex from the Natural
History Museum, London, and bird from Corel Professional Photos, page 432
Figure 219: Adventures Unlimited Press, page 440
Figure 220: Michihimo Yano, page 446
Figure 221: Walt Brown, page 449
Figure 222: *Walt Brown, page 467
Figure 223: Walt Brown, page 472
Figure 224: *Walt Brown and Bradley W. Anderson; inset by Donald Wesley
Patton, page 478
Figure 225: Bradley W. Anderson and Walt Brown, page 480
Figure 226: design by Peggy Brown and Bradley W. Anderson using Corel
Professional Photos and photo by Bradley W. Anderson, page 491
Figure 227: Tom Moore, page 497
Figure 228: based on an earlier drawing by George Mulfinger, page 511
Figure 229: Bradley W. Anderson, page 515
Figure 230: Walt Brown, page 523
Figure 231: ScienceCartoonsPlus.com, page 526
Figure 232: The White House, page 533
Figure 233: *Walt Brown, page 540
Figure 234: *Walt Brown, page 541
Figure 235: Walt Brown, page 542
Figure 236: Walt Brown, page 543
Figure 237: Walt Brown, page 546
Figure 238: Bradley W. Anderson, page 548
Figure 239: Walt Brown, page 552
Figure 240: Bradley W. Anderson, page 552
Figure 241: Walt Brown, page 553
Figure 242: Drawn by Diego Rodriguez based on photo by E. U. Franck,
page 556
Figure 243: Walt Brown, page 564
Figure 244: Walt Brown, page 566
Index

Numerics
19-Mile Fault 1, 2
360-day year 1
90°E Lake 1
A
A. S. W. 1
A’Hearn, M. F. 1, 2
Aardsma, Gerald E. 1, 2
Abas-Abas (searching for Ark) 1
Abel, David L. 1, 2, 3, 4
Abell, George (1927–1983) 1
Abelson, Philip H. 1
Abert squirrels 1
abortion 1
Abraham 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
absolute zero 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
accelerated radioactive decay 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 1, 2
accretion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
accuracy vs. precision 1, 2, 3
Ackerman, Paul D. 1
acquired characteristics 1, 2
active galactic nuclei 1
Adam 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Adamenko, Stanislav 1, 2, 3, 4
aerobraking 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Africa 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Agafonov, A. V. 1
Agassiz, Louis (1807–1873) 1
age of universe 1, 2, 3, 4
Agee, Carl B. 1
Ager, Derek V. 1, 2
Agerter, S. 1
aging 1, 2
Agrawal, Anurag A. 1
Aitchison, Jean 1
Akridge, G. Russell 1
Alaska 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
Albee, Arden L. 1
albinism 1
Albrecht, Andreas 1
Alcorn, Randy 1, 2
Aldrich, L. T. 1
Alemseged, Zeresenay 1
Aleutian Trench 1, 2
Alexander, H. S. 1
Alexander, Richard D. 1, 2
Alfonsi, Laura 1
Alfven, Hannes (1908–1995) 1, 2
Algodones Sand Dunes 1
Alice Springs, Australia 1
Allen, John Eliot 1
Aller, Lawrence H. 1
Allmon, Warren D. 1
alpha particles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Alpher, Ralph A. 1
Altamimi, Z. 1
altruism 1, 2, 3
Alvarez, J. M. 1
Alvin, the deep-sea submersible 1
Amazon Canyon 1
amber 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
amino acids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
building blocks for proteins 1
in meteorites 1
left-handed 1, 2
measure of genetic distance 1
right-handed 1
too complex 1, 2, 3, 4
ammud (Hebrew for pillars) 1
Ampere’s Law 1
amphibians 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
anaerobic bacteria 1
Anasazi Indians 1
ancient historians (claimed Ark’s existence) 1, 2
Anders, E. 1
Anderson, Charles A. 1
Anderson, Don L. 1, 2, 3
Anderson, George E. 1
Anderson, John D. 1
Andert, T. P. 1
Andes Mountains 1
andesite line 1, 2
Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C. 1
Aneshansley, Daniel J. 1
angiosperms 1, 2
angular momentum 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
animal behavior in humans 1
Anisimova, O. V. 1
anomalies 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Answers in Genesis (AiG) 1, 2
Antarctic lakes 1
Antarctica 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Anthony, Harold E. 1
anthracite coal 1
antibiotics 1, 2
antibody production 1
antimatter 1
Antonucci, Robert 1
ape-men 1, 2, 3
australopithecine 1, 2, 3, 4
Cro-Magnon man 1
Heidelberg man 1
Java man 1, 2
Lucy 1, 2, 3
Neanderthal man 1
Peking man 1
Piltdown man 1
Ramapithecus 1, 2
apes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
aphelions 1, 2
Apollo spacecraft 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Appalachian Mountains 1, 2, 3
appendix (human organ) 1, 2
Appennines Mountains of Italy 1
aquifers 1, 2, 3
Arago, Dominique Francois Jean (1786–1853) 1
Ararat Anomaly 1
Archaeopteryx 1, 2, 3, 4
Archaeoraptor, a fraud 1
Archimedes’ principle 1
arcs and cusps 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Arctic Circle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Arctic latitudes 1
Arctic Tern 1
argon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
excess in comets 1, 2
argon-argon dating 1, 2
Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) 1, 2
Arizona 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
Arizona’s Meteor Crater 1
Ark of Noah 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
1
Ark of the Covenant 1
Armstrong, Carol 1
Armstrong, Harold L. 1
Armstrong, Neil 1
Arnett, Bill 1
Arnold, Carrie 1
Arnold, Chester A. 1
Arp, Halton M. 1, 2, 3, 4
Arrhenius, Gustaf 1, 2
arthritis 1
arubbah (Hebrew for floodgates) 1
Aryan people 1
asexual reproduction 1
Ash, Richard 1
Ash, Sidney 1
asha (Hebrew for made) 1, 2
Ashworth, Allan C. 1
Asia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Asimov, Isaac (1920–1992) 1, 2
Asphaug, Erik 1, 2, 3, 4
Assyrians, 360-day year 1
asteroids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
belt 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
claimed source of space dust 1, 2
exploded-planet theory 1, 2
extinctions caused by 1
failed-planet theory 1, 2
impacts with Earth 1, 2
iridium, claimed source of 1
moons of 1, 2, 3
named
3753 1
617 Patroclus 1
Ceres 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Chariklo 1
Cybele 1, 2
Hermes 1
Itokawa 1, 2
Menoetius 1
Themis 1, 2
Vesta 1
thrust and drag 1
total mass of all 1
asthenosphere 1
astronomical unit (AU) 1
Atlantic Ocean 1, 2, 3, 4
atmosphere 1, 2
limited carbon in 1, 2
of early earth 1, 2, 3, 4
of earth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
of Sun 1
of Venus 1, 2, 3
part of biosphere 1
planetary 1, 2, 3
preflood 1
atomic clock, time 1, 2
atomic mass units (AMU) 1, 2
Atreya, Sushil K. 1
Audouze, J. 1
Auldaney, Jeremy 1
Aumann, H. H. 1
Austin, Steven A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Australia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
australopithecine 1, 2, 3, 4
Australopithecus afarensis 1, 2
Austronesian languages 1
Axel Heiberg Island 1, 2
Axelrod, Daniel I. 1
axial rift 1, 2
axis change 1, 2, 3, 4
axis of rotation 1
axis, change 1, 2
Ayala, Francisco J. 1, 2, 3
Ayers Rock, Australia 1
Azar, Larry 1
Aztecs, 360-day year 1
B
Babbitt, Bruce 1, 2
Babel 1, 2
Babylon 1
Babylonians, 360-day year 1
Bacillus 1
background radiation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
backward orbits 1
backward-spinning planets 1
Bacon, Francis (1561–1626) 1, 2
bacteria 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27
anaerobic 1
bioluminescence in 1
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) 1
in space 1, 2, 3, 4
bacterial motors 1, 2, 3
bacterial resistances 1, 2
Baeza, A. Arellano 1
Baffin Island 1, 2
Bahamas Bank 1
Bahn, Paul 1, 2
Bailey, M. E. 1
Bailey, Vanessa 1
Baker, Joanne 1
Bakker, Robert T. 1
Balick, Bruce 1
Balsiger, David W. 1
Balter, Michael 1, 2
Bandfield, Joshua L. 1
baptism 1
baqa (Hebrew for burst open) 1, 2, 3
baqia (Hebrew for breaches) 1
bara (Hebrew for create) 1
barbed canyons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Barber, D. J. 1
Barbi, Mauricio 1
Barinaga, Marcia 1
Barkana, Rennan 1
Barker, William A. 1, 2, 3, 4
Barnard’s Star 1
Barnes, Deborah M. 1
Barnes, Joshua 1
Barnes, Lawrence G. 1
Barnicoat, A. C. 1, 2
Barr, James 1
Barraclough, S. H. E. 1
barriers, buffers, and chemical pathways 1, 2
Barrow, John 1
Bartek, Jiri 1
Barth, Amy 1
Barto-Kyriakidis, A. 1
Baryshnikov, G. F. 1
basalt
Curie point for 1
flood 1, 2, 3, 4
on ocean floor 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
photo of 1
Basri, Gibor 1, 2
Bass, Arnold 1
Bassler, Bonnie L. 1
Bate, Roger 1
Bates, Robert L. 1, 2, 3
batholiths 1, 2, 3, 4
bats 1, 2
Batten, Roger L. 1, 2
Baugh, Albert C. 1
Baugh, Carlton 1
Baum, Edward M. 1, 2, 3, 4
Baumgardner, John R. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Beardsley, Timothy M. 1
beasts of the
earth 1
field 1, 2
Beck, Charles B. 1
Beck, William S. 1
Beckenbach, Andrew T. 1
Becker, George F. 1
Becquerel, Henri (1852–1908) 1
Beers, Timothy C. 1, 2
bees 1, 2
beetles 1, 2
Behe, Michael J. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Behemoth 1, 2
Behling, Ed 1
Bell, Robin E. 1, 2
Bellissent-Funel, M. C. 1
Benard cells 1
Benioff zones 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Benkendorf mammoth 1, 2
Bennett, Charles H. 1
Bennett, Willard H. 1, 2, 3
bent rocks 1
Benton, Thomas H. 1
benzene ring, discovery of 1
Berezovka mammoth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Berg, Howard C. 1
Berger, Eve 1
Bergman, Jerry 1, 2, 3
Bering Strait 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Berk, J. Edward 1
Berkley, John L. 1
Berlitz, Charles (1914–2003) 1, 2, 3
Berman, Bob 1
Bermuda Rise 1
Bernstein, Max P. 1
beryllium 1, 2, 3, 4
beta decay 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Bethe, Hans 1
Bethell, Tom 1
Beus, Stanley S. 1, 2
Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit 1, 2, 3
Bible References
Genesis 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Genesis 1: 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
1: 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
1: 3 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1: 4 1
1: 4–5 1
1: 6 1
1: 6–7 1, 2, 3, 4
1: 6–8 1, 2, 3, 4
1: 7 1, 2
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
1: 8 1, 2, 3, 4
1: 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
1:10 1, 2
1:11 1, 2
1:11–12 1, 2
1:11–13 1
1:11–23 1, 2
1:12–16 1
1:13 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
1:14 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1:14–15 1, 2
1:14–16 1, 2
1:14–17 1
1:14–18 1
1:14–19 1
1:14–20 1
1:16 1, 2, 3
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
1:17 1
1:19 1
1:20–21 1
1:20–22 1
1:20–23 1
1:20–24 1
1:20–25 1
1:20–30 1
1:21 1, 2
1:21–22 1
Genesis 1:23 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
1:24 1, 2, 3
1:24–25 1
1:26 1, 2
1:26–30 1, 2
1:27 1, 2
1:28 1, 2
1:28–30 1
1:29–30 1, 2, 3
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
1:30 1, 2, 3
1:31 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
1– 2 1
1– 3 1
1–11 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
21
2: 1 1, 2
2: 1–3 1
2: 2 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
2: 2–3 1
2: 4 1, 2
2: 4–25 1, 2
2: 5–6 1, 2, 3
2: 6 1
2: 7 1, 2, 3, 4
2: 9 1
2:10–14 1, 2, 3
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
2:14 1
2:15 1
2:16 1
2:17 1, 2, 3, 4
2:18 1
2:18–24 1
2:19–20 1
2:20 1, 2
2:21–23 1
2:22 1, 2
Genesis 2:23 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
2:24 1, 2
3 1, 2, 3
3: 1 1
3: 1–24 1
3: 4 1, 2
3: 5 1
3: 8–9 1
3:13 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
3:14 1, 2
3:14–24 1
3:15 1
3:16 1, 2, 3
3:16–19 1, 2, 3
3:17 1, 2
3:17–18 1
3:18 1, 2, 3
3:19 1, 2
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
3:20 1
3:22 1, 2
3:23 1
4: 2 1
4: 3–5 1
4: 4 1
4: 8 1
4:10 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
4:16 1
4:21–22 1, 2
4:22 1
4:25 1
5 1, 2, 3
5: 1 1, 2
5: 2 1
5: 3 1, 2
5: 4 1
5: 5–7 1
Genesis 5:15 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
5:21–24 1
5:32 1, 2
6: 1 1
6: 5 1, 2
6: 5–12 1
6: 8 1
6:11 1, 2
6:13 1, 2
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
6:14–16 1, 2
6:17 1, 2
6–8 1
7: 1 1, 2
7: 1–24 1
7: 4 1, 2
7: 4–23 1
7:10 1, 2
7:11 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
7:11–12 1, 2
7:12 1, 2, 3, 4
7:13 1
7:13–24 1
7:17 1, 2
7:19 1
7:19–20 1
7:19–24 1, 2
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
7:20 1, 2
7:21–23 1
7:24 1, 2, 3, 4
8: 1– 4 1, 2
8: 1–19 1
8: 1–22 1
8: 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
8: 3 1
8: 3–4 1
8: 3–5 1
Genesis 8: 4 1
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
Genesis
8: 5 1
8: 7 1
8: 8–9 1
8:10–11 1
8:12 1
8:13–14 1
8:14 1
8:15–19 1, 2
Genesis 9: 1 1
Genesis 9: 2–3 1
Genesis 9: 3 1
Genesis 9:11 1, 2
Genesis 9:11–25 1
Genesis 9:12–17 1
Genesis 9:15 1
Genesis 9:24 1
Genesis 10 1
Genesis 10: 8–10 1
Genesis 10:21 1
Genesis 10:25 1, 2, 3
Genesis 10–11 1
Genesis 11 1
Genesis 11: 1–9 1, 2, 3
Genesis 11: 3–6 1
Genesis 11: 4–9 1
Genesis 11: 6–19 1
Genesis 11:10 1
Genesis 11:26 1
Genesis 11:32 1
Genesis 12: 4 1
Genesis 15:10 1
Genesis 17: 2 1
Genesis 26: 4 1
Genesis 27:28 1
Genesis 28:12 1
Genesis 49:25 1
Exodus 9:18 1
Exodus 9:24 1, 2
Exodus 12: 40 1
Exodus 12:37 1
Exodus 20: 4 1
Exodus 20: 8–11 1
Exodus 20:11 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Exodus 31:17 1
Leviticus 18: 6–18 1
Numbers 16:31 1, 2, 3
Deuteronomy 26:15 1
Joshua 10:13 1
I Samuel 15:29 1
II Samuel 1:18 1
II Samuel 21:10 1
I Chronicles 1 1
I Chronicles 1: 1 1
I Chronicles 1:19 1
Job 9: 8 1
Job 38: 4–6 1
Job 38: 8–11 1, 2
Job 38:16 1
Job 38:19–20 1
Job 38:25 1
Job 40:15 1
Job 40:15–18 1
Job 40:15–41:34 1
Psalm 8: 5 1
Psalm 8: 7 1
Psalm 18: 7–15 1
Psalm 18:14 1
Psalm 18:15 1, 2
Psalm 19: 1 1, 2, 3
Psalm 24: 2 1, 2, 3, 4
Psalm 33: 6 1
Psalm 33: 6–9 1
Psalm 33: 7 1
Psalm 74:14 1
Psalm 75: 3 1
Psalm 78:15 1
Psalm 90: 4 1
Psalm 104: 1–4 1
Psalm 104: 2 1, 2
Psalm 104: 3 1, 2, 3, 4
Psalm 104: 5 1
Psalm 104: 6–9 1, 2, 3
Psalm 104:26 1
Psalm 136: 5–9 1
Psalm 136: 6 1, 2, 3
Psalm 139:14 1
Psalm 148: 5 1
Proverbs 3:19–20 1
Proverbs 3:20 1, 2
Proverbs 8:22–29 1
Isaiah 11: 6–9 1
Isaiah 24:18–20 1
Isaiah 27: 1 1
Isaiah 34:15 1, 2, 3
Isaiah 40:22 1, 2
Isaiah 42: 5 1, 2
Isaiah 44:24 1
Isaiah 45:12 1
Isaiah 45:18 1
Isaiah 48:13 1
Isaiah 51: 3 1
Isaiah 51:13 1
Isaiah 59: 5 1, 2, 3
Jeremiah 10:12 1
Jeremiah 51:15 1
Ezekiel 13:11–13 1, 2
Ezekiel 28:13 1
Ezekiel 36:35–13 1
Joel 2: 3 1
Micah 1: 4 1, 2
Zechariah 12: 1 1
Zechariah 14: 4 1, 2
Malachi 3: 6 1
Mark 24: 7 1
Matthew 1:21 1
Matthew 5: 1–12 1
Matthew 12:40 1
Matthew 15:8–9 1
Matthew 18:15–17 1
Matthew 19: 4 1, 2
Matthew 19: 4–5 1
Matthew 19: 5–6 1
Matthew 23:35 1
Matthew 24 1
Matthew 24:21 1
Matthew 24:37–39 1, 2
Matthew 25:32–46 1
Matthew 28:19–20 1
Mark 2:27 1
Mark 8 :31 1
Mark 10: 6 1, 2, 3
Mark 10: 7 1
Mark 13: 8 1
Mark 13:19 1, 2
Luke 3:23–38 1
Luke 3:34–36 1
Luke 3:36–37 1
Luke 3:36–38 1
Luke 3:38 1
Luke 11:50–51 1
Luke 11:51 1, 2
Luke 17:26–27 1
Luke 17:27 1, 2
Luke 23:55 1
Luke 24:39 1
John 1: 1 1, 2
John 1: 1–3 1
John 1: 3 1, 2
John 3: 1–12 1
John 3:16 1
John 5:46–47 1, 2
John 6:53 1
John 8:44 1, 2
John 10: 9 1
John 14: 2 1
John 14: 2–3 1
John 14: 6 1
John 17:17 1
Acts 7: 4 1, 2
Acts 7: 6 1
Acts 14:15 1, 2
Acts 17:24 1
Acts 17:24–28 1
Acts 17:26 1
Romans 1:20 1, 2, 3
Romans 4:17 1
Romans 5:12 1, 2, 3, 4
Romans 5:14–15 1
Romans 5:14–19 1
Romans 6:23 1
Romans 8:10 1
Romans 8:11 1
Romans 8:18–22 1
Romans 8:20–22 1, 2
Romans 8:22 1
I Corinthians 5:16 1
I Corinthians 11: 3 1
I Corinthians 11: 7 1
I Corinthians 11: 8 1, 2
I Corinthians 11: 8–9 1
I Corinthians 11: 9 1
I Corinthians 15:21 1, 2
I Corinthians 15:21–22 1, 2, 3
I Corinthians 15:38–39 1
I Corinthians 15:39 1
I Corinthians 15:45 1, 2, 3
I Corinthians 15:45–47 1
I Corinthians 15:47 1
II Corinthians 4: 6 1
II Corinthians 11: 3 1
Ephesians 3: 9 1
Ephesians 5:30–31 1
Colossians 1:16 1, 2, 3
Colossians 3:10 1
I Timothy 2:13–14 1, 2
I Timothy 2:14 1
I Timothy 4: 4 1
Hebrews 1:10 1
Hebrews 2: 7–8 1
Hebrews 4: 1–11 1
Hebrews 4: 3 1
Hebrews 4: 4 1
Hebrews 4:10 1
Hebrews 6:17 1
Hebrews 11: 3 1, 2
Hebrews 11: 4 1
Hebrews 11: 5 1, 2
Hebrews 11: 7 1
Hebrews 12:24 1
James 1:17 1
James 3: 9 1
I Peter 3:20 1, 2
I Peter 3:20–21 1
II Peter 2: 5 1, 2
II Peter 3: 3–6 1, 2
II Peter 3: 4–5 1
II Peter 3: 5 1, 2
II Peter 3: 5–6 1, 2
II Peter 3: 6 1, 2
II Peter 3: 7 1
II Peter 3: 8 1
II Peter 3:10 1
II Peter 3:12 1
I John 3: 8 1
I John 3:12 1
Jude 11 1
Jude 14 1
Revelation 1: 8 1
Revelation 2: 7 1
Revelation 3:14 1
Revelation 4:11 1
Revelation 10: 6 1
Revelation 14: 7 1
Revelation 20: 2 1
Revelation 21: 1 1
Revelation 21: 1–4 1
Revelation 21: 4 1
Revelation 21: 6 1
Revelation 22: 2 1
Revelation 22: 2–3 1
Revelation 22: 3 1
Revelation 22:13 1
Revelation 22:14 1
biblical chronology 1
Bickerton, Derek 1
Bidahochi Formation 1
big bang 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23
big roll 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Billingsley, George H. 1, 2
binary stars 1, 2, 3
binding energy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Binzel, R. P. 1
biochemistry 1, 2
biodiversity 1
biogenesis 1, 2
biogenetic law 1
bioluminescence 1
birds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Archaeopteryx 1
Arctic Tern 1
duck 1
eggs of 1
finches 1
flight 1, 2
how to fossilize 1
hummingbird 1, 2
migration 1
modern 1
origin of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Birdsell, J. B. 1
Birney, Ewan 1
Bishop, Edwin V. 1
Bishop, J. R. 1
Black Canyon of the Gunnison 1, 2
black hole 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Black Sea 1, 2
black smokers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
black smokers (on ocean floor) 1
Blackburn, Quinn A. 1
Blackwelder, Eliot (1880–1969) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Bland, Philip 1
Blatt, Harvey 1, 2
blind test 1, 2, 3
Block, Douglas A. 1, 2
Block, Myron J. 1
blood 1, 2
Bloxham, Jeremy 1
Blyth, Edward (1810–1873) 1, 2, 3, 4
Bobrovnikoff, N. T. 1, 2
Bock, Walter J. 1
Bode, Johann (1747–1826) 1
Bode’s law 1, 2, 3
Bohlin, Raymond G. 1
Bolin, Bert 1
Bollinger, R. Randal 1
bombardier beetle 1, 2
Book Cliffs 1, 2, 3, 4
Booker, John R. 1
boron 1, 2, 3, 4
Borucki, Monica K. 1
Borucki, William 1
Bosch, Fritz 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Bose, A. 1, 2
Bosporus (strait) 1, 2
Boswell, Evelyn 1
Bottke, W. F. 1
Bouchon, Michel 1
Bouckaert, Remco 1
Bougainville Trench 1
Bouger, Pierre 1
Boule, Marcellin 1
bounded variation 1, 2
Bouse Formation 1
Bousselot, Karen 1
Bouw, Gerardus D. 1
Bowden, Malcolm 1, 2, 3, 4
Bowditch, Nathaniel 1
Bower, Bruce 1, 2, 3, 4
Bowie, Walter Russell 1
Boyarchuk, Kirill 1
Boyce, Jeremy W. 1
Boyd, Steven W. 1
Boyle, Robert (1627–1691) 1
Bozarth, G. Richard 1
Brace, C. L. 1
brachiopods 1
Braga-Ribas, F. 1
Braga-Rigas, F. 1
Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601) 1
Brahic, Catherine 1
Braille 1
brain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
branching ratios 1
Brand, Leonard R. 1
Brandt, John C. 1
Branley, Franklyn M. 1
Brauer, Oscar L. 1
breached dam
“Lake California” 1
Black Sea, Bosporus, Dardanelles 1
Grand Canyon 1, 2
Kashmir 1
Mediterranean “Lake” and Strait of Gibraltar 1
breakdown 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
breaking continents 1
Brecher, Kenneth 1
Breed, Carol S. 1
breeding experiments 1, 2, 3
bremsstrahlung radiation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Bretz, J Harlen (1882–1981) 1, 2
Brewer, Gregory J. 1
Brewer, Peter G. 1
Brewster, David 1
Breyne, John 1
Briere, Peter R. 1
Bright Angel Fault 1, 2
Bright, Richard C. 1
Brinkmann, R. T. 1
British Columbia 1
British Museum (Natural History) 1, 2, 3
Britt, D. T. 1
brittlestar 1
Broderick, Avery E. 1, 2
Brooks Daniel 1
Brooks, J. 1
Brosche, P. 1
brown dwarfs 1
Brown, Julian 1
Brown, Mike 1
Brown, Peggy 1
Brown, Robert Bayne 1
Brown, Robert H. 1, 2, 3
Brown, Walt 1
Browne, J. B. 1
Brownlee, D. E. 1
Brownlee, Donald E. 1
Brownlee, Robert R. 1
Brownlee, Shannon 1
Brush, Stephen G. 1
Bruun, Anton F. 1
Bryce Canyon 1
Bryce National Park 1, 2
Bryce, James (searching for Ark) 1
Buchanan, John 1
Buck, Roger W. 1
Buck, W. Roger 1
buckling of a beam on an elastic foundation 1
buckling of a plate on an elastic foundation 1
Budge, E. A. Wallis 1
Buffett, Bruce 1
Bullard, Edward 1
Bunker, Andrew J. 1
Burbidge, E. Margaret 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Burbidge, Geoffrey R. 1, 2, 3, 4
Burdick, Clifford (1894–1992) 1
Burke, Ann C. 1
burnout 1
Burns, Joseph A. 1
Burrows, Wes 1
Busch, Lloyd Earnest 1
butterflies 1, 2, 3
buttes 1, 2, 3, 4
Byrd, Robert 1
Byrne, Shane 1
C
Caesar, Julius 1
Cahn, Jonathan 1
Cain’s wife 1
Cainan 1
Calaveras skull 1
calcium carbonate 1, 2, 3, 4
Calder, Nigel 1
California’s Imperial Sand Dunes 1, 2, 3
Callahan, Michael 1
Callaway, Ewen 1
Calvert, Frank 1
Cambrian 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Cambrian explosion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Cameron, A. G. W. 1
Campbell, Philip 1
Campins, Humberto 1, 2
Camps, P. 1
canals on Mars 1
Cann, Rebecca L. 1, 2
Cano, Raul J. 1, 2
canopy theory 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Cantwell, J. C. 1, 2
Canup, Robin M. 1, 2
Canyon de Chelly 1, 2
canyons 1
Amazon Canyon 1
barbed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
barbed canyons 1
Black Canyon 1
Black Canyon of the Gunnison 1
Canyon de Chelly 1, 2
Congo Canyon 1
continental canyons 1, 2
formation of 1
Ganges Canyon 1
Grand Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Hidden Canyon 1
Hobble Canyon 1
Hudson Canyon 1
Indus Canyon 1
Marble Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Mid-Ocean Canyon 1
North Canyon 1
Oak Creek 1
Pierce Canyon 1
Pigeon Canyon 1
Rider Canyon 1
side canyons 1
side to Grand and Marble Canyons 1
slot 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
submarine canyons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
V-shaped canyons 1
Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline 1
capture, requirements for 1
captures in space 1, 2, 3
carbon
carbon-12 1, 2
carbon-14 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
distribution on earth 1
element of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
in atmosphere 1
in limestone 1, 2
sedimentary distribution of 1
carbon dioxide 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Caribbean 1
Carilli, Chris 1
Carnot engines 1, 2
Carpenter, Frank M. 1
Carr, Bernard 1
Carrigan, Charles R. 1, 2
Carrington, Damian 1
Carslaw, H. S. 1
Carswell, R. F. 1
Carter, J. 1
Cartlidge, Edwin 1
Cartmill, Matt 1
Cassan, Arnaud 1
Cassé, M. 1, 2
Cassen, P. 1
Cassini spacecraft 1, 2, 3
Cassuto, Umberto 1, 2
Castelvecchi, Davide 1
Castenedolo skeleton 1, 2
Castor, Stephen B. 1
catastrophic plate tectonic theory 1, 2, 3, 4
Catling, David C. 1
Cave, A. J. E. 1
caverns 1, 2, 3, 4
Caylor 1
cellulose in space 1, 2, 3
cementing agents 1, 2
limestone 1, 2
silica 1, 2, 3, 4
censorship 1
centaurs 1
Central America 1, 2
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 1
central star 1
centrifugal force 1, 2, 3
Ceres 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
cesium-133 1
Chaffin, Eugene F. 1
Chakoumakos, Bryan C. 1
Chaldeans, 360-day year 1
chalk 1, 2
Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847) 1
Chamberlain, Joseph W. 1
Chamberlin, Thomas Crowder (1843–1928) 1, 2, 3
Chandrasekharan, H. 1
Chang, Kenneth 1
Channeled Scablands 1
Chao, B. Fong 1
Chapman, Robert D. 1
Charig, Alan 1
Chatterjee, S. 1
Chatterton, Brian 1
Chekunov, A. V. 1, 2
Chemehuevi Formation 1
chemical elements
heavy elements in earliest stars 1, 2, 3
required for life 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
chemical evolution theory 1, 2
chemistry 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
of comets 1
of limestone 1
Chen, Jun-yuan 1
Cherfas, Jeremy 1, 2, 3
chert, formation of 1
chewing gum blob 1
Chicurel, Marina 1
Chicxulub, Mexico 1, 2
Chien, Paul 1, 2
childbirth 1
chimpanzee DNA 1, 2, 3
chimpanzees 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
China 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Chinese
360-day year 1
pictographs 1, 2
report of sky sinking toward the north 1
Chinle, Arizona 1
Chocolate Cliffs 1
Chocolate Mountains 1
Choi, D. R. 1
Chomsky, Noam 1, 2
chondrules 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
chordates 1
Chown, Marcus 1
Christensen, Ulrich 1
Christian, John T. 1
Christopher Columbus 1
chronology of flood year 1, 2
chrysalis 1
chuppah (Hebrew for canopy) 1
Chyba, Christopher 1
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 1
Cimatti, A. 1
Ciochon, Russell L. 1
circular reasoning 1, 2, 3
Cirlin, E. H. 1
civilization 1
Clairaut, Alexis-Claude (1713–1765) 1
Clark, Austin H. 1
Clark, Benton 1
Clark, Marlyn E. 1
Clauser, Christoph 1
Clery, Daniel 1, 2
cliffs of Normandy and Dover 1
climate 1, 2
climatic changes 1
Cline, David B. 1, 2
Clinton, William Jefferson 1
clotting, blood 1
Cloud, Preston Ercelle Jr. (1912–1991) 1, 2, 3
Clube, Victor 1
Clutton-Brock, Tim 1
CMB (cosmic microwave background) radiation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
coal
balls 1
beds 1, 2, 3, 4
cyclothems 1
formation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
formations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
fossils in 1
human artifacts in 1, 2
in Antarctica 1
under Hopi Lake 1
Coates, J. 1, 2
Cobley, L. S. 1
Cocke, W. John 1
cockpit, instruments 1
Cockrum, E. Lendell 1
Coconino Sandstone 1, 2, 3, 4
cocoon 1
Cocos Plate 1
codes and programs in DNA 1
codons 1, 2
Coe, Dan 1
Coe, R. S. 1
coelacanth fish 1, 2
Coffin, Harold G. 1
Coffin, M. F. 1
Colbert, Edwin H. 1
Colby, William 1
cold-blooded 1
Cole, Donald 1
Cole, G. H. A. 1
Coleman, Loren 1
Coles, Peter 1, 2
Colinvaux, Paul A. 1
Collard, Mark 1, 2
colliding galaxies 1
Collins, Lorence G. 1, 2, 3
collisions, required if
crust evolved 1
planets evolved 1, 2
proteins evolved 1
Colorado Creek mammoths 1, 2, 3, 4
Colorado Plateau 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Colorado River 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Columbia Plateau 1, 2
comets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
coma 1
composition 1, 2, 3
chemistry 1
crystalline dust (olivine) in 1, 2, 3, 4
heavy hydrogen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
methane, ethane 1, 2, 3
organic matter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
water 1, 2
density of 1
extinctions by 1
fear of 1, 2
formation mechanism 1, 2
gravity’s effect on 1, 2
Jupiter’s family 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
mass of 1
meteors associated with 1
named
Churyumov-Gerasimenko 1
Great Comet of 1680 1
Hale-Bopp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Halley 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Hartley 2 1, 2
Herschel-Rigollet 1, 2
Hyakutake 1, 2
Ikeya-Seki 1
Ikeya-Zhang 1
ISON 1
Kohoutek 1
Kreutz Sungrazers 1
LINEAR 1
Shoemaker-Levy 9 1
Swift-Tuttle 1, 2
Tempel 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
West 1
Wild 2 1, 2
not created 1, 2
nucleus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Oort cloud 1, 2, 3, 4
orbit
inclination 1, 2, 3
types 1
elliptical 1, 2, 3, 4
intermediate-period 1
long-period 1, 2, 3
near-parabolic 1, 2, 3, 4
short-period 1, 2, 3
hyperbolic 1, 2, 3, 4
parabolic 1
small 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
sources of light 1
strange pairs 1, 2
tail 1, 2
tidal effects 1, 2
two separate populations 1, 2
young 1, 2
Comins, Neil F. 1
common ancestor 1, 2
common designer 1, 2, 3
communication among bacteria 1, 2
communism 1
complex organism 1, 2, 3
complex organs 1, 2, 3
complexity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
compression event 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
compression of rock 1
Compsognathus 1, 2
concrete tank, floating 1
condensation nuclei 1
Congo Canyon 1
Congo, reports of living dinosaurs 1
Congress of the United States 1
conservation of
angular momentum 1, 2
energy 1, 2, 3
Constantinople 1
Constitution of the United States 1
continental
erosion 1, 2
margins 1
shelves 1, 2, 3, 4
slopes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Continental Divide 1
continental-drift phase 1, 2, 3
convection cells 1, 2
convection of heat 1
convergent evolution 1
Cook, Melvin A. (1911–1989) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Cook, William J. 1
Cooper, Bill 1
Cooper, George 1, 2
Coppedge, James F. 1, 2
Coptic language 1
coral reefs 1, 2
deposits 1
fossils in Cambrian 1
growth rates 1, 2, 3, 4
Corbin, B. J. 1
Corcoran, Thomas H. 1
core of the earth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
core of the earth, outer core of earth 1
Corliss, William R. 1, 2, 3, 4
Corner, E. J. H. 1, 2
Cornuke, Robert 1
Corti, organ of 1
Cosgrove, Mark P. 1
cosmic microwave background radiation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
cosmogenic dating 1, 2
Coulomb force 1, 2, 3
counterslab, fossil 1, 2
Cousins, Frank W. 1
Covault, Craig 1
Cowan, George A. 1, 2
Cowan, John 1
Cowen, Ron 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25
Cowie, Lennox L. 1
coyote 1, 2
Crab Nebula 1
cracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
trough-shaped 1
V-shaped 1
Craig, H. 1
crater ages, as a test of comet theories 1
crater creep 1, 2
craters, impact 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
craters, young 1
creation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
creation definition 1
creation in the classroom 1
Creation Ministries International 1
creation, date of 1
creationism, a word to avoid 1
creep, of solid materials 1, 2
Crelin, Edmund S. 1
Cremo, Michael A. 1
Crick, Francis (1916–2004) 1
criteria for evaluating theories 1
critical point (critical temperature, critical pressure) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
critical thinking skills 1, 2
Crockett, Christopher 1
Cro-Magnon man 1
Cromie, William J. 1
Cross, Richard L. 1
cross-bedded sandstone 1, 2, 3
crossover density 1, 2
crossover depth 1, 2
Crouse, Bill 1
Crow, James F. 1
Cruikshank, Dale P. 1
crustaceans 1, 2
Cruz, Maria 1
cubanite (a mineral) 1
Cummings, Violet M. 1
Cuozzo, Jack 1
Curie point 1
Custance, Arthur C. (1910–1985) 1, 2, 3
Cutler, Alan 1
Cuvier, Georges 1
Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. 1
cyanobacteria 1
Cybele 1, 2
cyclothems 1, 2
Cyr, Donald L. 1
cytochrome c 1, 2
D
D’Argenio, Bruno 1
da Vinci, Leonardo (1452–1519) 1
Dactyl, moon of asteroid Ida 1
Dall, W. H. 1, 2, 3
Dallegge, Todd A. 1
Dalrymple, G. Brent 1
Dalton, Rex 1, 2
Daly, Reginald A. 1
Dana, James Dwight (1813–1895) 1
Danes, Z. F. 1
Danish Galathea Expedition 1
Dansggaard, W. 1
Dardanelles (strait) 1, 2
dark matter 1
dark matter, dark energy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–1882) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25
Darwin, Francis (1848–1925) 1
dating techniques
assumptions 1, 2
evolutionary 1
index fossils 1, 2
Ar-Ar 1
K-Ar 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Rb-Sr 1
U-Th-Pb 1, 2
tree-ring 1
young ages 1, 2
daughter products 1
Davey, Kent 1
David, Gary A. 1
Davidheiser, Bolton 1, 2
Davidson, Charles F. 1
Davies, Keith 1
Davies, Kevin 1
Davis, Ed (1905–1998) 1, 2
Davis, William Morris (1850–1934) 1, 2
Dawkins, Richard 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Dawson, Charles 1
Dawson, George M. 1
day-age theory 1
de Bray, M. E. J. Gheury 1, 2
de Chardin, Pierre Teilhard (1881–1955) 1
De La Rocha, Christina L. 1
de la Tour, Cagniard (1777–1859) 1, 2
de Queiroz, Alan 1
de Viron, O. 1
Dean, Josh 1
debate, written 1, 2, 3, 4
deBeer, Gavin Rylands (1889–1945) 1, 2, 3
decay 1, 2
bacterial 1
of DNA 1
organic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
radioactive 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20
Deccan Plateau 1, 2
Declaration of Independence 1
deep drilling 1
Deep Impact 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Deep Impact spacecraft 1
deep-sea drilling 1, 2
dehydroxylation 1, 2, 3
Deimos 1, 2, 3
DelHousaye, Darryl 1
Delitzsch, F. 1, 2, 3
Deloule, E. 1
Delsemme, A. H. 1, 2, 3
DeMarcus, Wendell C. 1
DEMETER spacecraft 1
Deming, Drake 1
Demouchy, Sylvie 1
Den Hartog, J. P. 1
DeNevi, Don 1
Dennell, Robin 1
density
discontinuities inside earth 1
Denton, Michael 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
DeSalle, Rob 1
Desert View 1
deshe (Hebrew for plant kingdom) 1
design 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Dessler, Alexander 1
deuterium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
1, 2
Devine, Bob 1
devolution 1
Dewar, Douglas 1
DeWolf, David 1
DeYoung, Donald B. 1
Diamond, Jared M. 1
diamonds 1, 2, 3, 4
Dicke, R. H. 1
Dickerson, Richard E. 1, 2
Dickey, J. O. 1, 2
Dickey, Parke A. 1
Dickins, J. M. 1, 2, 3
Dickinson, Mark 1
Dietz, Robert Sinclair (1914–1995) 1, 2, 3
Dietz, Robert Sinclare (1914–1995) 1
Digby, Basset 1, 2, 3
digestion 1
DiGregorio, Barry 1
Dillehay, Tom D. 1
Dillow, Joseph C. 1, 2, 3, 4
Dima 1, 2
Dimroth, Erich 1
dingo 1, 2
dinosaur 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22
Behemoth 1, 2
coelurosaurian 1
Compsognathus 1, 2
DNA 1, 2
extinction 1, 2, 3, 4
fossilized footprints 1
fossils 1
growth rates 1
Leviathan 1, 2
near poles 1
ornithomimids 1
plesiosaur 1
soft tissue 1
tyrannosaurids 1
directed panspermia 1
discontinuities 1, 2, 3
disease 1
dissolved metals 1
distinct types of organisms 1, 2
division of languages 1
Dixon, Dougal 1
Dixon, Robert Vickers 1
DNA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
chimpanzee 1, 2, 3
chloroplast 1
decay 1, 2, 3
deterioration 1
dinosaur 1, 2
formation of 1
human 1, 2
insect 1
junk 1, 2
length of 1
mammoth 1, 2, 3
mummies 1
old 1, 2, 3, 4
plants 1, 2
preservation 1
production 1, 2
protein formation 1
Dobzhansky, Theodosius (1900–1975) 1, 2
Dodd, R. J. 1, 2
Dodwell, George F. (1879–1963) 1, 2, 3, 4
dog family (Canidae) 1, 2, 3, 4
Dohnanyi, J. S. 1, 2
Dolan, Thomas 1
dolomite 1, 2, 3
Dolphin, Lambert 1
dolphins 1, 2
Donahue, Thomas M. 1, 2
Donati, Giovanni Battista (1826–1873) 1
Dones, Luke 1
Donovan, Eric 1
Doppler effect 1, 2
Doran, Peter T. 1
Dörffel, Georg Samuel (1643–1688) 1
Dorit, Robert L. 1
Dose, Klaus 1, 2
Dott, Robert H. Jr. 1, 2
double-blind test 1
Douglass, John 1, 2
dove 1
Doyle, Arthur Conan (1859–1930) 1
Doyle, Laurance R. 1, 2
Dragert, Herb 1
dragon 1, 2
Drake, Michael J. 1
Dressler, Alan 1
drifting vs. shifting 1
Drosophila (fruit fly) 1
Druyan, Ann 1, 2
dry ice 1
Dubois, Eugene (1858–1940) 1, 2
Dubrovo, N. A. 1, 2, 3, 4
Duncan, Martin J. 1
Dunlop, James 1, 2
DuPuy, Dudley A. Jr. 1
Durbin, B. 1
dust
airborne 1, 2
excellent insulator 1
ground 1
interstellar 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
meteoritic 1, 2
moon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
rounded by erosion 1
storms 1, 2, 3
volcanic 1
dwarfism 1
E
E=mc2 1
Earle, Paul S. 1
Earth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
age of 1, 2, 3, 4
atmosphere 1, 2, 3
axis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
divided (by water) in Peleg’s day 1
early 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
earth sciences 1, 2, 3
evolution of 1
evolution of life on 1, 2, 3
features on 1, 2
ice on 1
magnetic field 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
molten 1, 2
moon, recession from 1, 2, 3
oceans 1
orbiting satellites 1
origin of life on 1, 2, 3
planet 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38
spin rate 1, 2, 3, 4
surface 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23
earthquake
L’Aquila, Italy (2009) 1
Sumatran (2004) 1
earthquake mechanisms
crack growth 1
phase transformation 1
plate tectonics 1
earthquake precursors 1, 2
earthquakes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
aftershocks 1
along fracture zones 1
along Mid-Oceanic Ridge 1
cause of liquefaction 1, 2
cause of tsunamis 1
causes of 1
Charleston, South Carolina (1886) 1, 2, 3
compression waves 1
consequences of 1
deep 1, 2
due to water 1
electrical activity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
events surrounding 1, 2, 3
far from plate boundaries 1
first motion 1
fracture zone occurrence 1
Haiti (2010) 1
intraplate 1
Japanese (2011) 1
Kansu, China (1920) 1
Lisbon, Portugal (1755) 1
New Madrid, Missouri (1811, 1812) 1, 2, 3, 4
Newfoundland (1929) 1
Niigata, Japan (1964) 1
plate tectonics 1
precursors 1, 2
prediction 1
San Francisco (1906) 1
San Francisco (1989) 1
shallow 1, 2
tension failures 1, 2
tension waves 1
too wide for subduction 1, 2
waves 1, 2
earthquakes precursors 1
East Kaibab Monocline 1, 2
Easter Island 1
Eber 1
Eberhart, Jonathan 1, 2, 3
Echo Cliffs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
ed (Hebrew for mist) 1
Eden, Charles H. 1, 2
Eden, Garden of 1, 2
Eden, Murray 1, 2
Eden, rivers flowing out of 1
Edey, Maitland 1, 2
Edgett, Kenneth 1
Edwards v. Aguillard 1, 2
egg shell 1
Egyptian mythology 1
Egyptian, 360-day year 1
Ehrenberg, Rachel 1, 2
Ehrlich, Paul R. 1
Einstein, Albert (1879–1955) 1, 2, 3, 4
Einstein’s
E=mc2 1
second postulate 1
theory of special relativity 1
Eiseley, Loren C. 1
Eisner, Thomas 1
El Niño 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Elan Bank 1
Eldredge, Niles 1, 2
electrical
charges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
conductors 1
electrical breakdown 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
electron capture 1, 2, 3, 4
elements, chemical 1, 2, 3
elephant in the living room 1
elephants 1, 2, 3
Ellesmere Island 1, 2
Elliott, Bev 1
Elliott, Tim 1
elliptical halos 1, 2, 3, 4
elliptical orbits 1, 2, 3, 4
Ellis, Richard S. 1
Ellsworth, William L. 1
Elsässer, H. 1
Eltringham, S. Keith 1, 2
embryology 1, 2, 3, 4
embryos 1, 2, 3
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1830–1911) 1
Emery, G. T. 1
Emery, J. P. 1
Emery, Joshua P. 1
emission spectrum 1
Emmons, Samuel Franklin (1841–1911) 1, 2, 3
Endress, Magnus 1
energy
binding 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
in the subterranean water 1, 2
kinetic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
potential 1
Engel, M. H. 1
Engels, Friederich (1820–1895) 1
England, Philip 1
Eniwetok Atoll 1, 2, 3, 4
Enoch 1, 2
entropy 1, 2
Enyart, Bob 1
epicycles 1, 2
Epstein, Samuel 1
equinox 1
erets (Hebrew for earth) 1
erg, definition 1
Erickson, Gregory M. 1
Ernst, W. G. 1
Escalante Petrified Forest 1, 2
escape velocity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Escherichia coli 1
Esdras-2 1, 2
eseb (Hebrew for plant) 1
Eskimos (Inuits) 1
Esposito, Larry W. 1
ethane, in comets 1, 2, 3, 4
Etheredge, Jason 1
Ethiopian language 1
eukaryotes 1, 2, 3
Euphrates River 1, 2
Euphrates, a preflood river 1
Europa 1
Europe 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
Evans, Rob L. 1
evaporation 1, 2, 3
Eve 1, 2, 3, 4
event horizon 1, 2, 3
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Everhart, Edgar 1, 2
evidence (measurable and verifiable) 1
evidence, defined 1
evolution 1
as a faith 1
biological 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27
chemical 1, 2
definition 1
macroevolution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
microevolution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
of comets 1, 2
of heavier chemical elements 1
of man 1
of planets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
of sexual reproduction 1, 2
of solar system 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
of stars 1, 2, 3
of the eye 1, 2, 3, 4
of the mind 1, 2
of vertebrates 1
organic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
social consequences of belief in 1
theistic 1, 2, 3, 4
theory 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
evolutionary
ancestors 1, 2, 3
tree 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Ewing, Maurice 1
excess fluid pressure 1, 2
expanding universe 1, 2, 3, 4
expanse (raqia in Hebrew) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
exploded-planet theory 1, 2
exponential decay 1
extinctions 1
Mesozoic 1
of coelacanth fish 1
of dinosaurs 1, 2, 3, 4
of interplanetary dust 1
of mammoths by man 1, 2, 3
of marine bivalves 1
reduced by genetic variations 1
extraterrestrial life 1, 2, 3
eye 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
F
failed-planet theory 1, 2
Fairbanks Creek mammoth 1, 2, 3
Falk, Dan 1, 2, 3
Falkowski, P. 1
far side of moon 1
Farallon Plate 1
Farb, Peter 1, 2
Farinella, Paolo 1
Farrand, William R. 1
fast binary stars 1, 2
fast neutron 1
fast seismic waves 1
Faulds, James E. 1
fault, geologic 1, 2
faults in the Grand Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
19-Mile 1, 2, 3
Bright Angel 1, 2
Grand Wash 1
Havasu 1, 2
Hurricane 1
Muav 1
Paunsaugunt 1
Sevier 1
Toroweap 1
faults, geologic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21
feather imprints 1
feathered dinosaur 1, 2
Fechtig, H. 1
Feduccia, Alan 1, 2, 3
Feldman, W. C. 1
Felix, Charles 1
Fellows, Larry D. 1
Fenton, Cassandra R. 1
feral children 1
Ferguson, C. W. 1
Ferguson, Mark 1
Fernández, Julio A. 1, 2, 3, 4
Ferroir, Tristan 1
Festou, M. C. 1
Field, Katherine G. 1, 2
Fields, Brian D. 1
Fields, Weston W. 1
fig trees and fig gall wasps 1
Finch, Caleb E. 1
finches, Darwin’s 1
Finkelstein, David 1
Finkelstine, S. L. 1
Finlay, Bland J. 1
fins-to-limbs jump 1
fireflies, bioluminescence in 1
Firestone, Richard B. 1
firmament 1, 2
first cell 1, 2
first law of thermodynamics 1
Fischman, Joshua 1, 2
fish 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
bioluminescence in 1
created on same day as birds 1
DNA found in 200-million-year-old 1
electrical capabilities 1
frozen in underground river 1, 2
in Cambrian 1
living fossil (coelacanth) 1
no evolutionary ancestors 1
saltwater and freshwater 1
surviving the flood 1
fish to amphibian
fossil gap 1, 2
Fish, Steven A. 1
Fisher, D. A. 1
Fisher, Donald 1
Fisher, Robert L. 1, 2
fission 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
fit of the continents 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Fix, William R. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Flam, Faye 1
flank rifts 1, 2
flatness problem 1
Fleck, John 1
Fleischer, David 1
flies 1, 2
Flint, Richard Foster 1, 2, 3
floating point operations (FLOPS) 1
flood 1
40 days and nights? 1
biblical 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
canopy theory 1, 2
continental-drift phase 1
date of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
deposits 1
disallowed as an explanation 1
features caused by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
flood phase 1, 2, 3, 4
forming fossils 1, 2
global 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
hail storm during early stage of 1, 2
legends 1
liquefaction during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
local 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
log of flood year 1
migration routes after 1
postflood 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
preflood 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
rain before 1, 2, 3
recovery phase 1
rupture phase 1
simplistic or poor explanations 1, 2
source of water 1, 2, 3
subterranean water 1
survivors 1
worldwide 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
flood basalts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
flood phase 1, 2, 3, 4
floodgates of the sky 1
flood-year chronology 1, 2
FLOPS (floating point operations) 1
Florida 1
Florindo, Fabio 1
flow surface boiling 1
flowering plants 1, 2
flutter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
flying animals: birds, insects, reptiles (pterosaurs), mammals (bats) 1, 2
folded mountains 1, 2, 3
Folger, Tim 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
food chain 1, 2, 3
footprints, fossilized 1, 2, 3
Ford, E. B. 1
Ford, John 1
Forey, Peter 1
Formisano, Vittorio 1
Forte, Alessandro M. 1
Fortey, Richard 1
fossilized
cocoons 1
footprints 1, 2, 3
nests 1
fossils 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
animals in trenches 1, 2, 3
ape-men 1, 2, 3
apes 1
Archaeopteryx 1
Cambrian explosion 1, 2
China 1, 2
collections 1
compressed 1
continental erosion 1
dating 1, 2, 3, 4
dinosaurs 1, 2, 3
DNA 1
earliest 1, 2
evolutionist interpretation 1
fish 1
flying animals 1
footprints 1
formation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
gaps 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
graveyards 1, 2
index 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
insects 1
intermediates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1
jellyfish 1
man 1, 2
marine 1
missing trunk 1
out-of-place 1, 2, 3
out-of-sequence 1, 2, 3
plants 1
polystrate 1
Precambrian 1
rapid burial 1, 2
record 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
sea life on mountains 1
sequence 1
sorted 1, 2, 3
superposition 1
termites 1
trace 1
transitional 1, 2, 3
1
tree trunks 1
vertical sequence 1
with frozen mammoths 1, 2, 3
wood 1
Foulger, G. R. 1
Foulger, Gillian R. 1
fountains of the great deep 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36
Fournier, Robert O. 1
Fowler, William A. 1
Fox, Douglas 1, 2
Fox, Maggie 1
Fox, P. J. 1
fractals 1
fracture zones 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
framework hypothesis 1, 2
Francis, Jane E. 1
Francis, Paul J. 1
Franck, E. U. 1, 2
Frank, Louis A. 1, 2, 3
Franklin expedition 1
Frazer, James George 1
Freber, Carl Roger 1
Freedman, David H. 1
Freedman, Wendy L. 1
Freeland, Stephen J. 1
Frenk, Carlos 1
freshwater fish 1
Freund, Friedemann T. 1
Fricke, Hans 1, 2
friction
heat generation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
in fluids 1
in solids
earthquakes 1
inside earth 1
prevents
breaking continents 1
forming mountains 1, 2
overthrusts 1
subduction 1, 2, 3, 4
static 1
Friedlander, Gerald 1
Friedrich, Jürgen 1
Frings, Hubert and Marie 1
Frohlich, Cliff 1
frozen mammoths 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Bering barrier theory 1, 2
crevasse theory 1, 2, 3
extinctions-by-man theory 1, 2
hydroplate theory 1, 2, 3
lake drowning theory 1, 2
meteorite theory 1, 2
mild ice age theory 1, 2, 3
mud burial theory 1, 2, 3
river transport theory 1, 2
shifting crust theory 1, 2
frozen rhinoceroses 1
fruit flies 1, 2
Fuentes, Cesar I. 1
Fujii, Naoyuki 1
Fujii, Noriko 1
Fuller, Myron L. 1
fully-developed organs 1, 2
fungi, bioluminescence in 1
furcula 1
fusion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Futuyma, Douglas J. 1
G
Gaitskell, Richard 1
Galapagos Islands 1, 2
galaxies 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
clusters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
colliding 1
distribution 1
dwarf 1
elliptical 1
formation of 1
Milky Way 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
spiral 1, 2
unstable 1, 2
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) 1, 2, 3
Galileo spacecraft 1
Gallup, George Jr. 1
Gamkrelidze, Thomas V. 1
gamma rays 1, 2
Gamow, George (1904–1968) 1, 2, 3
Gamwell, Thomas P. 1
Ganges Canyon 1
gap theory 1, 2, 3
Garcia-Castellanos, D. 1
Garden of Eden 1
Garnett, Donald R. 1
Garstang, Walter 1
Gauthier-Lafaye, F. 1
Gavin, Anne-Claude 1
Gee, Henry 1, 2
Geikie, Archibald 1
Geisler, Norm 1
Geissler, Rex 1
Geller, Margaret J. 1, 2, 3, 4
Gelling, Cristy 1
gene 1, 2
genealogy chart of patriarchs 1
genes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Genesis
in Chinese 1
New Testament support of 1, 2
genetic bottleneck 1
genetic code 1, 2, 3, 4
genetics 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
characteristics 1, 2
diseases 1
distances 1, 2, 3
information 1, 2, 3, 4
material 1, 2, 3, 4
Mitochondrial Eve 1, 2
potential 1
variability 1
Gentet, Robert E. 1, 2
Gentry, Robert V. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
geocentric theory 1
geologic
column 1, 2, 3, 4
record 1
geomagnetic jerks 1
George V. 1
George, T. Neville 1
geothermal
heat 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Geraci, Giuseppe 1
Germanic languages 1
Germany 1, 2, 3
Germany’s Deep Drilling Program 1
Gesenius, Wihelm 1
geshem (Hebrew for violent rain) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Ghez, Andrea M. 1, 2, 3
Ghosh, A. K. 1, 2
gibbon 1
Gibbons, Ann 1, 2, 3
Gibbs, Philip 1
Gibbs, W. Wayt 1
Gibraltar 1, 2
Giem, Paul 1, 2
Gihon, a preflood river 1
Gilbert, Grove Karl (1843–1918) 1, 2, 3
gill slits, interpreted by Haeckel 1
Gillespie, C. M. Jr. 1
Gilmore, Gerard 1
Giotto spacecraft 1, 2
giraffes, origin of long necks 1
Gish, Duane T. (1921–2013) 1, 2, 3
Gitt, Werner 1
glaciers
Antarctic 1, 2
compared to rock ice 1
formation of 1, 2
frozen mammoths 1, 2
global warming 1
Ice Age 1, 2, 3
in Siberia 1
Glaessner, Martin F. 1, 2
Glanz, James 1, 2, 3
Glavin, Daniel P. 1
Glen Canyon Dam 1
global “X-rays” 1, 2
Global Positioning System (GPS) 1, 2, 3
global warming 1, 2
globular clusters 1, 2, 3
Glock, W. S. 1
Gloeckler, G. 1
glycine 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
gold 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Gold, Thomas (1920–2004) 1
Goldberger, Robert F. 1
Goldblatt, Dan 1
Golden Gate Bridge 1
Goldschmidt, Richard B. (1878–1958) 1, 2
Goldsmith, Donald 1
Golenberg, Edward M. 1, 2
good vs. evil 1
Goosenecks 1
Goosenecks (meandering river) 1
Gordon, Richard G. 1
gorillas 1, 2, 3
Gorman, James 1
gosling 1
Gosnell, Mariana 1, 2
Goulay, Marcel 1
Gould, Meredith 1
Gould, Stephen Jay (1941–2002) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
GPS (Global Positioning System) 1
GRACE satellite system 1
Graham, David 1
grammar 1, 2
Grand Banks, turbidity currents 1
Grand Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
compared to ocean trenches 1, 2
compared to submarine canyons 1
cross-section 1
formation of 1
inner gorge 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
origin of 1, 2, 3
Grand Canyon Caverns 1, 2, 3
Grand Canyon Village 1
Grand Lake 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
elevation 1
location 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
map 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
petrified forests in 1
Grand Staircase 1, 2, 3, 4
Grand Wash Cliffs 1
Grand Wash Fault 1
granite
continents 1, 2
crushed 1, 2, 3
hydroplates 1, 2
never molten 1
photo of 1
under ocean floor 1, 2
Grant, Andrew 1, 2, 3
Grassé, Pierre-Paul 1, 2
gravitational accretion 1, 2, 3
gravitational attraction
forming galaxies 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
forming planets 1
inside a hollow sphere 1
of binary stars 1
of planets 1
on sea floor 1
gravitational force 1, 2
gravitational settling inside earth 1, 2, 3, 4
gravity 1
anomalies
beneath mountains 1
beneath trenches 1, 2, 3
effect on
asteroids 1, 2
comets 1, 2
earthquakes 1, 2, 3
hydroplates 1, 2
ice 1
subduction 1
of black holes 1
of Venus 1
singularity 1
Gray, Ginny 1
Gray, R. D. 1
Grayloise, Presse 1
Greally, John M. 1
Great Denudation 1
Great Salt Lake 1, 2
Great Unconformity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Great Walls, in outer space 1, 2, 3, 4
great-circle path 1, 2, 3
Greek
360-day year 1
language 1
mythology 1
Greek words
genos (family) 1
hudor (liquid water) 1
katakluzo (flooded) 1
kosmos (world, order) 1
stereoma (firm) 1
Green River Formation 1, 2
Green, David E. 1
Greenberg, E. Peter 1
Greenberg, Richard 1
Greene, George 1
Greene, Jenny E. 1
Greenfield, Mark B. 1
Greenfieldboyce, Nell 1
greenhouse effect 1, 2
Greenland 1
Greenwood, J. P. 1
Gregorian calendar 1
Gregory, Stephen A. 1
Greve, S. 1
Grey Cliffs 1
Grieve, Richard A. F. 1
Grimaldi, David 1
Gross, Richard S. 1
Grossman, Lisa 1
Grott, Matthias 1
Gubbins, David 1, 2
Gulbis, Amanda A. S. 1
Gulf of California 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Gulf of Mexico 1, 2, 3
Gunn, James E. 1
Gunnison River 1
Gura, Trisha 1
Guste, William J. Jr. 1
Guth, Alan H. 1
Guthrie, R. Dale 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Guyana 1
guyots 1
H
Haar, Lester 1
Häberlein, Ernst 1
Häberlein, Karl 1
Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich (1834–1919) 1, 2, 3, 4
Hagberg, Stephen C. 1
Hagopian, George 1, 2, 3
Hagopian, George (claimed Ark sighting) 1
Hahn, H. P. 1
Hainaut, O. R. 1
Halbrook, David 1
Haldane, J. B. S. (1892–1964) 1
half-life 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Hall, Donald N. B. 1
Hall, Stephen S. 1
Halley, Edmond (1656–1742) 1, 2, 3, 4
Halliday, Alex N. 1
Ham (son of Noah) 1
Ham, Ken 1
Hamann, F. 1
Hamilton, Warren 1
Hamilton, Warren B. 1
Hammer, William R. 1
Hammond, Allen L. 1
Han, Shin-Chan 1
Hance, John 1
Hand, Eric 1, 2, 3
handedness, left and right 1, 2
Hannay, J.B. 1
Hanor, Jeffrey S. 1, 2
Hapgood, Charles H. (1904–1982) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Harbaugh, John W. 1
Harder, Ben 1, 2
Hardy, A. C. 1
Harington, C. Richard 1
Harlan, Tom 1
Harms, A. A. 1, 2, 3
Harrison, Edward R. 1
Harrison, Edward Robert 1
Hartley 2 1, 2
Hartley, Karen 1
Hartmann, William K. 1
Harwit, Martin 1, 2, 3
Haseltine, Eric 1
Hasiotis, Stephen T. 1
Hasofer, Michael 1
Hattori, M. 1
Hatzes, Artie P. 1
Hau, Lene Vestergaard 1
Haukioja, Erkki 1
Hauri, Erik 1
Hauser, Marc D. 1
Havasu Fault 1
Havasupai legend for Grand Canyon 1
Haviv, Ari 1
Hawaiian Islands 1, 2, 3, 4
Hawking, Stephen W. 1
Hayabusa 1
hayah (Hebrew for was) 1
Hayden, Erika Check 1
Haymes, Robert C. 1
headward erosion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
heat conduction 1, 2
heat during the flood 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
heat sink 1
heavens stretched out 1, 2
heavy elements 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
heavy hydrogen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Hebrew
360-day year 1
language 1, 2, 3, 4
Hebrew words
ammud (pillars) 1
arubbah (floodgates) 1
baqa (burst open) 1, 2, 3
baqia (breaches) 1
bara (create) 1
chuppah (canopy) 1
deshe (plant kingdom) 1
ed (mist) 1
erets (earth, land) 1
eseb (plant) 1
geshem (violent rain) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
hayah (was) 1
kaal (all) 1
kopher (pitch, ransom) 1
matar (normal rain) 1
mayim (liquid water) 1
mikveh (gathering) 1
natah (stretched) 1
peleg (divide by water) 1
raah (appear) 1
raqia (expanse) 1, 2, 3, 4
shamayim (heaven) 1, 2
shaphrur (canopy) 1
siach (shrub) 1
sukkah (canopy) 1
tavek (within) 1
tebah (Ark, box, chest) 1
tehom (surging subterranean water) 1
yom (day) 1
Hecht, Jeff 1
Hecht, Max K. 1
Hedman, M. M. 1
Heezen, Bruce C. 1
Heide, Fritz 1
Heidelberg man 1
Heirtzler, J. R. 1
Heisler, Julia 1
Heitzig, Skip 1
helium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
helium-2 nebulas 1
Hellemans, Alexander 1
Helmick, Larry S. 1
Helou, George 1
hematite 1
hemoglobin 1
hemophilia 1
Henderson, G. H. 1, 2, 3, 4
Henry’s Law 1
Henze, Katrin 1
Herd, Christopher D.K. 1
Hereford, Richard 1
Hermes 1
Herschel, William (1732–1822) 1
Herz, Otto F. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Hess, Harry Hammond (1906–1969) 1, 2
Hester, J. Jeff 1
heteroplasmy 1
Hevelius, Johannes 1
Hickerson, William J. 1
hidden assumptions 1, 2, 3
Hidden Canyon 1
Hill, Harold 1
Hill, William Charles Osman 1
Hills, Jack G. 1
Himalayan Mountains 1, 2, 3, 4
Himmelfarb, Gertrude 1
Hinchliffe, Richard 1
Hindu, 360-day year 1
Hinton, Martin A. C. 1
His, Wilhelm 1
Hishita, S. 1
histones 1
Hitching, Francis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Hobble Canyon 1
Hodge, Paul W. 1, 2
Hogan, Jenny 1, 2
Hogarth, James 1
Holden, Constance 1, 2
Holm, Richard W. 1
Holman, Matthew J. 1
Holme, R. 1
Holmes, Francis S. 1
Holroyd, Edmond W. 1, 2, 3
Homo erectus 1
Homo ergaster 1
Homo habilis 1, 2, 3
homologous structures 1
honeybee 1, 2
Honthaas, Christian 1
hoofprints, fossilized 1, 2
Hooke, Robert (1635–1703) 1, 2, 3
Hooker, Dolph Earl 1
Hoover, Richard B. 1
Hopi Lake 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
elevation of 1
location of 1, 2, 3
petrified forests 1
Hopi migration to Americas 1, 2
Hopkins, Michelle 1
Hoppe, Kathryn 1
horizon problem 1, 2
horizon, between layered strata 1, 2
Hornbacher, Dwight 1
Horner, J. 1, 2
Horner, Jack R. 1
horse 1, 2
hot moon 1, 2
hot planets 1, 2
hotspot hypothesis
genetics 1
geology 1, 2, 3
Housley, R. M. 1
Housner, George 1
Hovland, Martin 1, 2
Howard, Alan D. 1
Howe, George F. 1, 2
Howorth, Henry H. 1, 2, 3, 4
Hoyle, Fred (1915–2001) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 18, 19
Hsieh, Henry H. 1, 2, 3
Hsu, Kenneth J. 1
Hualapai legend for Grand Canyon 1
Hualapai Limestone 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Hubble Deep Field North 1
Hubble Space Telescope 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889–1953) 1
Huc, M. 1
Huchra, John P. 1, 2
Hudson Canyon 1
Huggins, William (1824–1910) 1, 2
Hughes, David W. 1, 2
Hughes, Jennifer F. 1
Hughes, Malcolm 1
Hughes, T. McKenny 1
Huh, Chih-An 1
Hull, D. E. 1
human
artifacts in deep rock 1, 2, 3
brain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
jaw 1, 2
longevity 1, 2, 3
races 1, 2
skeleton 1
tools 1
humanlike footprints, fossilized 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Utah, Kentucky, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Laetoli 1
Humble, Ronald W. 1
hummingbird 1, 2
Humphreys, D. Russell 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Hunt, C. Warren 1
Hunt, Charles B. (1906–1997) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Hunt, Will 1
Hurlbut, Terry 1
Hurricane Fault 1
Hurst, Laurence D. 1
Hurtley, Stella 1
Hutcheon, Ian D. 1
Hutchinson, Axex 1
Hutton, James (1726–1797) 1
Huxley, Julian (1887–1975) 1, 2
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895) 1
Huyghe, Patrick 1, 2
hydrogen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
hydrogen and helium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
hydrolic lift 1
hydroplate 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22
acceleration of 1
compression of 1, 2
crushing and thickening 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
frictional heating at base of 1, 2
hydroplate theory ??–1, 2
assumption 1
consistent with Bible 1, 2
events of 1
explanation for
asteroids, meteoroids 1, 2, 3
coal, oil 1
comets 1, 2
earth’s magnetic field 1
earth’s radioactivity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
fossils 1
fracture zones 1
frozen mammoths 1, 2, 3
geothermal heat 1, 2
global warming 1, 2
Grand Canyon 1, 2, 3
Ice Age 1
inner and outer core 1, 2
jigsaw fit of continents 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
limestone 1, 2
magnetic anomalies 1, 2
metamorphic rock 1
methane hydrates 1
Mid-Oceanic Ridge 1
mountains 1
ocean trenches 1, 2
plateaus 1
seamounts, tablemounts 1
strata, layered fossils 1, 2
submarine canyons 1
explanation of
comets 1
jigsaw fit of continents 1
limestone 1
ocean trenches 1
strata, layered fossils 1
phases
continental-drift 1
flood 1
recovery 1
rupture 1
recent build up of ice on Antarctica 1
spring analogy 1
hydrosphere 1, 2, 3
hydrostatic compression 1
Hylonomus (early reptile) 1
Hyman, Libbie Henrietta 1
Hyndman, R. D. 1
Hynek, J. A. 1, 2
hyperbolic orbits 1, 2, 3, 4
Hyperion 1
hypothesis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
I
IAU (International Astronomical Union) 1
Ibba, Michael 1
ice 1, 2, 3
on Moon, Mercury 1
rock ice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Ice Age 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Bering barrier theory 1, 2
comet impact theory 1
gap theory 1
hydroplate theory 1, 2, 3, 4
mammoths 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
meteorite theory 1, 2
shifting crust theory 1
ichthyosaur 1
Ides, E. Ysbrants (1660–1705) 1, 2, 3
Idso, Sherwood B. 1
immune system 1, 2
Imperial Sand Dunes 1
improbabilities 1, 2, 3
Inca, 360-day year 1
incest 1
inclined orbits 1
index fossils 1, 2, 3
India 1, 2, 3, 4
Indian Ocean 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Indo-European languages 1, 2
Indonesia 1
Indus Canyon 1
infection 1
inflation 1
information 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Ingersoll, Andrew P. 1
Ingersoll, Leonard R. 1, 2
inheritance, human characteristics 1
inner core of Earth 1
inner core of earth 1
inner gorge of the Grand Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
insects 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
flight 1, 2
metamorphosis 1
Institute for Creation Research (ICR) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
intelligence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
intelligence, thoughts, brain 1
Intelligent Design 1
interconnected chambers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
interconnected continents 1
intergalactic medium 1, 2
intermarriage 1
intermediate-period comets 1
International Astronomical Union (IAU) 1
interstellar
bacteria 1
cellulose 1
dust 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
gas 1, 2
intestine 1
Inuit 1
invertebrates 1, 2, 3, 4
Io 1, 2
ionization of water 1, 2
ionosphere 1
ions 1
Iorio, Lorenzo 1, 2
Ipe, N. E. 1
iridium 1, 2
Irion, Robert 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
iron 1
iron meteorites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
irregular moons 1, 2, 3
Isbell, Douglas 1
isms, negative connotations 1
ISON (International Scientific Observation Network) 1
isostatic equilibrium 1
isotopes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
anomalies 1
hydrogen 1
oxygen 1
Itoh, Shoichi 1
Itokawa 1, 2
Ivanhoe, Francis 1
Ivanov, V. V. 1
Ives, Joseph C. 1
Izu Trench 1
J
Jablonski, David 1
Jack Point 1
jackal 1, 2
Jackson, Julia A. 1, 2, 3
Jackson, Matthew G. 1
Jackson, Stephen P. 1
Jacob 1
Jacobsen, Steven D. 1
Jaeger, J. C. 1
Jahren, A. Hope 1
James, Jamie 1
Janeway, Charles A. Jr. 1
Japan 1, 2, 3
Japan Trench 1, 2
Japanese fishing ship 1
Japheth 1, 2
Jasher, The Book of 1
Jastrow, Robert 1
Jastrow, Robert (1925–2008) 1, 2, 3, 4
Java man 1, 2
Java Trench 1
Jayawardhana, Ray 1
Jeans, James H. (1877–1946) 1, 2, 3
Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826) 1, 2
Jeffreys, Harold (1891–1989) 1
jellyfish 1, 2
Jenkins, Gregory S. 1, 2
Jenkins, Jere H. 1
Jensen, Karen 1
Jerlström, Pierre G. 1
Jerusalem 1
Jewitt, David 1
Jewitt, David C. 1, 2
Jhelum River, Kashmir 1
jigsaw fit of continents 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Jochmans, J. R. 1
Johannsen, W. L. 1
Johanson, Donald C. 1, 2, 3
Johnson, Phillip E. 1, 2
Johnstown Flood 1
Jonas, J. 1
Jones, G. A. 1, 2
Jones, Nicola 1
Jordan, David Starr 1
Joseph (Egypt’s second in command) 1
Josephus, Flavius (A.D. 37–100) 1, 2, 3
Juan de Fuca Plate 1
Judson, Sheldon 1
Julian calendar 1
Jull, A. J. T. 1
Jungers, William L. 1
junk DNA 1, 2
Jupiter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
heat 1
moons 1
rings 1
Jupiter’s family 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Jupiter’s Io, volcanoes on 1
K
kaal (Hebrew for all) 1
Kahle, Charles F. 1
Kaibab
limestone 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Plateau 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
squirrel 1
Kaiser, David I. 1
Kane, Gordon 1, 2
Kang, C. H. 1
Kanipe, Jeff 1, 2
Kant, Immanuel 1
Kaplan, A. E. 1, 2
Kaplan, Martin M. 1, 2
Kargel, Jeffrey S. 1
Kasahara, Junzo 1
Kashmir 1
Kasting, James F. 1
katakluzo (Greek for flooded) 1
Kaufmann, William J. 1
Kaufmann, William, III 1
Kay, Marshall 1
Kazakhstan 1
Keane, Rick 1
Kedung-Brubus, Indonesia 1
Keil, C. F. 1, 2, 3
Keith, Arthur 1
Kekulé, Friedrich August (1829–1896) 1
Keller, Gerta 1
Kelley, Jack 1
Kelley, S. P. 1
Kelso, A. J. 1
Kemler, Emory N. 1
Kemp, Thomas S. 1, 2
Kennedy, D. James 1
Kennedy, George C. 1, 2, 3, 4
Kennedy, Kenneth A. R. 1
Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. 1, 2, 3
Kenyon, Dean H. 1, 2, 3
Kepler, Johann (1571–1630) 1
Kepler’s third law 1
Kepler-11 1
kerogen 1, 2, 3
Kerr, Richard A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
Kerrich, Robert 1, 2
Kerridge, John F. 1, 2
Keuck, Gerhard 1
Khain, V. Ye 1
Kieckhefer, R. M. 1
killifish 1
Kimberley, Michael M. 1
kin selection 1
kinetic energy 1, 2, 3, 4
King James Version 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
King, A. R. 1
King, Elbert A. 1
King, Ivan R. 1
Kingman, Arizona 1
Kirk-Davidoff, Daniel B. 1
Kirkwood, Thomas 1
Kirschvink, Joseph L. 1
Kitcher, Philip 1
Kitts, David B. 1, 2
Kivelson, Margaret Galland 1
Kleeman, Elise 1
Klein, Michael 1
Klemperer, Simon L. 1
Klotz, John W. 1
Knudsen, Per 1
Kodachrome Basin, Utah 1, 2
Koerner, R. M. 1
Koestler, Arthur 1
Kofahl, Robert E. 1
Kola Peninsula, Russia 1
Konacki, Maciej 1
kopher (Hebrew for pitch, ransom) 1
Koppel, Tom 1
Koppers, Anthony A. P. 1
Koran 1
Koronovsky, N. V. 1
Koschinsky, Andrea 1
kosmos (Greek for world, order) 1
Kozlovsky, Yevgeny A. 1
Krakatau 1
Krause, Hans 1, 2
Kreutz Sungrazers 1
Krieger, Kim 1
Kring, D. A. 1, 2
Krot, Alexander N. 1
Kruglinski, Susan 1
Kruzhilin, Y. 1, 2
krypton 1
Kuban, Glen J. 1
Kubiak, Henryk 1
Kuhn, Thomas Samuel (1922–1996) 1, 2, 3
Kuhn, William R. 1
Kuiper belt 1, 2, 3, 4
Kuiper, Gerard P. 1, 2
Kulesha, Preston 1
Kuppers, Michael 1
Kuril Trench 1
L
Labbé, Ivo 1
Labini, Francesco Sylos 1
Lachenbruch, Arthur H. 1
Lagerkvist, C. I. 1
Lagrange points 1, 2
Lagrange, Joseph Louis (1736–1813) 1, 2
LaHaye, Tim 1
Lain, Edward C. 1, 2
Laitman, Jeffrey T. 1
Lake Bonneville 1, 2, 3
Lake Cahuilla 1
Lake California 1
Lake Michigan 1, 2
Lake Missoula 1, 2, 3
Lake Titicaca 1
Lake Vida 1
Lake Vostok 1, 2, 3
lakes on Antarctica 1
Lamarckism 1, 2
Lamb, Harold 1
Lammerts, Walter E. 1, 2, 3
Lamy, P 1
Lancaster-Brown, Peter 1
land bridge 1, 2, 3
Landes, Kenneth K. 1, 2
Landsman, Zoe 1
Landy, Stephen D. 1
language 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
geographic origin of 1
multiplication of 1
origin of 1
specific languages
Austronesian languages 1
Chinese, ancient 1
Coptic 1
Ethiopian 1
Germanic languages 1
Greek 1, 2
Hebrew 1, 2, 3, 4
Indo-European languages 1
Latin 1
Romance languages 1
Vedic Sanskrit 1
Laplace, Pierre-Simon Marquis de (1749–1827) 1, 2, 3
lapse rate 1
Larsen, John 1
larva 1, 2
Lattimer, James 1
Lauretta, Dante 1
lava 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
lava lamp 1
law of biogenesis 1, 2
Lawrence, David J. 1
Lawrence, Jesse F. 1
lds 1
Leakey, Louis 1
Leakey, Mary 1
Leakey, Richard E. F. 1
Leclercq, S. 1
Leduc, Guy G. 1
Lee, Elfred (searching for Ark) 1
Lee, H. D. P. 1
Lee’s Ferry 1
Leet, L. Don 1
legends 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Lemonick, Michael D. 1, 2
lensing, during liquefaction 1, 2, 3, 4
Lerner, Eric J. 1, 2
Leslie, Mitch 1
Lester, Lane P. 1
Leviathan 1, 2
Levin, Harold L. 1
Levinton, Jeffrey S. 1
Levi-Setti, Riccardo 1
Levison, Harold F. 1, 2
Levy, Eugene H. 1, 2
Lewin, Roger 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Lewis, C. S. (1898–1963) 1, 2, 3
Lewis, John S. 1
Lewis, Richard S. 1
Lewontin, Richard 1
Ley, Willy 1
Li Chung-feng 1
Libby, Willard Frank (1908–1980) 1, 2
Liebovitch, Larry 1
life in outer space 1
life spans of patriarchs 1, 2, 3, 4
light speed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
E=mc2 1
light-gathering instruments 1
1
Lilley, J. S. 1
limestone 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
as cementing agent 1, 2, 3, 4
carbon in 1
caverns, caves 1, 2, 3
chemical reactions involving 1
formation of 1, 2, 3, 4
fossil footprints in 1
Hualapai 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
in meteorites 1
in the Grand Canyon 1
on Mars 1, 2
other forms of 1
present formation of 1
purity, implications of 1
quantity on earth 1
quarry, demonstrates upbuckling 1
Solnhofen 1
the dolomite problem 1
with mammoths 1
Lindahl, Tomas 1, 2, 3
Linde, Andrei 1
Lindgren, Johan 1
lineaments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
linguist 1, 2, 3
Linton, Ralph 1
liquefaction 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
aquifers 1, 2
breaking transatlantic cables 1
causing quicksand 1
column 1
computer simulation of 1
consequences of 1
cycle during flood 1, 2
definition of 1
demonstration of 1
during
compression event 1, 2
earthquakes 1, 2, 3
global flood 1, 2, 3, 4
local floods 1
examples of 1, 2
explaining varves 1
failed pipelines 1, 2, 3
global 1, 2, 3
lens 1, 2, 3, 4
massive 1, 2, 3
mechanics of 1
mounds 1, 2, 3
observations during 1
on a small scale 1
overturns principles of geology 1
plumes 1, 2
separating sediment layers 1
sorting
coal layers 1
limestone 1
organisms 1, 2
sediment layers 1, 2
strata and sorted fossils 1
vs. uniformitarianism 1
water lens 1
water vents 1
Lisle, Jason 1
Lissauer, Jack J. 1, 2, 3, 4
Lisse, Carey M. 1, 2
lithium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Little Colorado River 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Liu, Lin-gun 1
living technology 1, 2
lizard 1
lobe-fin fish 1
Lockyer, J. Norman (1836–1920) 1
Loeb, Abraham 1, 2
loess 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Loewe, Laurence 1
logical fallacies involving evolution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Lomax, Becky 1
Lomonosov Ridge 1
Long, Austin 1, 2
longevity, human 1, 2, 3
Longinelle, A. 1
long-period comets 1, 2, 3
Looney, Leslie W. 1
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) (1842–1919) 1
Lorenz, Ralph D. 1
Lorenzi, Rossella 1
Losos, Jonathan B. 1
Loucks, Robert R. 1, 2
Love, S. G. 1, 2
Løvtrup, Soren 1
Lowe, Christopher J. 1
Lowell, Percival (1855–1916) 1
Lowenstein, J. 1
Lowry, S. C. 1
Lucchitta, Ivo 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Lucey, Paul G. 1
Lucipara Ridge 1
Lucy 1, 2, 3
Luine, Jonathan I. 1
Luna 3 spacecraft 1
lunar crisis 1
lunar surface 1
lungfishes 1
lungs 1, 2
Lydekker, R. 1, 2, 3
Lyell, Charles (1797–1875) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Lyttleton, Raymond A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
M
Maat Mons (on Venus) 1, 2
Macbeth, Norman 1
Macchetto, F. Duccio 1
Macdonald, Gordon A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
MacDonald, Gordon J. F. 1
MacDonald, I. R. 1
Macdonald, Ken C. 1
Mackal, Roy P. 1, 2
Mackie, Richard A. 1
Macko, S. A. 1
MacLeod, Anna M. 1
macroevolution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
macromutation 1
Maddox, John 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Magariyama, Y. 1
Magellan spacecraft 1
magma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
chambers 1, 2
outpourings 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
magnetic
anomalies 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
field
Earth 1
fields
earth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
secular variation 1
stars 1, 2
minerals 1
reversal 1, 2
variations on ocean floor 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
magnetite 1, 2
magnetometer 1
Magueijo, João 1
Mahalaleel (Adam’s great, great grandson) 1
Maher, Brendan 1
Maier, Timothy W. 1
major mountain ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Makariunas, K. 1
Makovsky, Yizhaq 1
Malhotra, Renu 1, 2, 3
Malin, Michael C. 1, 2
Malmon, Daniel V. 1
mammals
Arctic 1, 2
creation sequence 1
flying (bats) 1, 2
fossil footprints 1, 2
fossils of 1
frozen in Siberia 1
marine 1
placental-to-marsupial jump 1
platypus 1
transition to sea 1
mammoths 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
baby 1
Benkendorf 1, 2
Berezovka 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Colorado Creek 1, 2, 3, 4
Dima 1
Fairbanks Creek 1, 2, 3
species of 1
tusks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Mandock, Richard E. 1
Mann, Charles 1
mantle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
maps
Arctic Tern migration routes 1
continental fit proposed by Bullard 1
continental fit to Mid-Atlantic Ridge 1
frozen mammoth locations 1
Grand Canyon, Grand Lake 1, 2
Kashmir 1
language divergence 1
Mercator 1569 1
Oronteus Finaeus 1
Piri Re’is 1, 2
unlevel sea level 1
western Pacific trenches 1
world ocean floor 1
Maran, Stephen P. 1
Marangos, Jon 1
Maranto, Gina 1
Marble Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Marchant, James 1, 2
Marchis, Franck 1
Marco Polo (1254–1324) 1, 2
Marcus, G. F. 1
Mardden, Brian G. (1937–2010) 1, 2, 3
Margot, Jean-Luc 1, 2, 3
Margulis, Lynn (1938–2011) 1, 2, 3, 4
maria (lava flows on Moon) 1, 2
Mariana Trench 1
marine animals 1
Mariner 9 and 10 spacecraft 1, 2
marriage 1, 2, 3
Marris, Emma 1
Mars 1, 2
asymmetric cratering 1, 2
buried ice at poles 1
conditions on 1, 2, 3
craters on 1
impacted by comets and asteroids 1, 2
impacts of small comets not seen 1, 2
Lander 1
Martian mythology 1
meteorites not from 1, 2, 3
methane 1
moons 1, 2
orbital speed 1
possibility of life on 1, 2, 3, 4
salt on 1, 2
spin 1
Velikovsky’s claim 1
water erosion 1, 2, 3
Marschal, Laurence A. 1
Marsden, Brian G. (1937–2010) 1, 2, 3, 4
Marsh, Bruce D. 1
Marshall, A. J. 1
Marshall, Patrick (1869–1950) 1
marsupials 1, 2
Martin, C. P. 1
Martin, Larry D. 1
Martin, P. G. 1
Martin, Roy C. Jr. 1
Martin, William 1
Marx, Jean 1
Marx, Karl (1818–1883) 1
mascons 1
Mason, Shirley L. 1
Masoretic text 1, 2, 3, 4
mass graves, fossils in 1
Masuda, A. 1
matar (Hebrew for normal rain) 1, 2
Mather, Kirtley F. 1
Mathisen, David Warner 1, 2
Matthews, Robert 1
Mattick, John S. 1
Mavrogenes, John A. 1, 2
Maxwell’s equations 1
Maya
360-day year 1
civilization 1
Mayewski, P. A. 1
mayim (Hebrew for liquid water) 1
Mayr, Ernst (1904–2005) 1, 2
McAuliffe, Kathleen 1
McCaffrey, Robert 1
McCarthy, John F. 1
McCauley, William J. 1
McConnell, Nicholas J. 1
McCrea, William Hunter 1, 2
McDivitt, James (McDivitt maneuver) 1
McDougall, Ian 1
McDowell, Jim 1
McDowell, Laney 1
McDowell, Lily 1
McDowell, Ryan 1
McDowell, Sean 1
McEwen, Alfred S. 1, 2
McGlynn, Thomas A. 1
McGranahan, Gordon 1
McGuire, Rick 1
McHardy, Gordon 1
McIlrath, Don 1
McIntosh, Gregory C. 1
McKee, Edwin D. (1906–1997) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
McLaughlin, Dean 1
McNutt, Marcia 1
McSwain, M. Virginia 1
McSween, H. Y. 1
McSween, Harry V. 1
McVean, Gill 1
McWilliam, A. 1
meandering rivers 1
meandering rivers (or streams) 1
Mech, L. David 1
Mediterranean “Lake” 1
Mediterranean Sea 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Meech, K. J. 1, 2
Meek, Norman 1, 2
Meier, Roland 1, 2
Meister footprints 1
Meister, William J. 1, 2
Melia, Fulvio 1
Melosh, Jay 1, 2, 3, 4
melting points of lead and zinc 1
melting the inner Earth 1
Menard, H. W. (1920–1986) 1, 2
Mendel’s laws 1, 2
Menoetius 1
Mercator 1569 map 1
Mercury 1, 2, 3, 4
asymmetric cratering 1
craters 1, 2
craters on 1
ice detected 1, 2
mercy killings 1
Merkel, David J. 1
Merlin, Cristine 1
Merline, W. J. 1
Merrill, G. P. 1
mesas 1, 2, 3
Mesozoic rock 1
Messenger spacecraft 1
Messerschmidt, Daniel Gottlieb (1685–1735) 1
metamorphic rock 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
formation of 1
metamorphosis 1, 2
meteor crater 1
meteor streams 1, 2
meteorites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
in coal 1
in sedimentary rock 1
internal heating of 1, 2
iridium in 1
iron 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
missing in deep sedimentary rock 1
Monahans, Texas 1
named
ALH84001 1
Murchison 1, 2, 3
Murray 1
Tagis Lake 1, 2
Zag 1
not from Mars 1, 2
only in young rock 1, 2
Poynting-Robertson effect 1
shallow 1, 2
theory for frozen mammoths 1, 2
meteorites, meteors, and meteoroids, definitions of 1
meteoritic
bombardment of Earth 1, 2, 3, 4
bombardment of Moon 1
dust 1, 2
meteoroids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
meteors 1, 2
methane 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
hydrates on ocean floor 1
in comets 1, 2, 3
on Mars 1
methane hydrates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Methuselah (oldest man on record) 1
MeV, definition 1
Mexican Hat, Utah 1
Mexico 1, 2, 3, 4
Meyer, John R. 1
Meyerhoff, A. A. 1, 2
Meyerhoff, Howard A. 1, 2
Michael, Henry N. 1
microagitation 1
microbe 1, 2
microdiamonds 1, 2, 3
microevolution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
micromutation 1
Mid-Atlantic Ridge 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Middendorff, Aleksandr Fyodorovich (1815–1894) 1, 2
Mid-Ocean Canyon 1
Mid-Oceanic Ridge 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
overridden by American hydroplate 1
Y-shaped junction 1
migration 1
of animals to Grand Canyon region 1
of Arctic Tern 1
of Darwin’s finches 1
of humans after flood 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
of mammoths 1
Mikkelsen, Tarjei S. 1
Mikulic, Donald G. 1, 2
mikveh (Hebrew for gathering) 1
mild ice age theory 1
Milgrom Mordehai 1
Milky Way Galaxy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Miller, Hugh (1802–1856) 1
Miller, Stanley Lloyd (1930–2007) 1
Millot, Jacques 1, 2
Milnes, Harold W. 1
mind 1, 2
Miner, Ellis D. 1
minerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1
miracles 1, 2, 3
Miranda, L. F. 1, 2
missing link 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
missing mass 1
missing trunk 1, 2
Mitchell, Thomas 1
Mitchell, William C. 1, 2
Mitchison, Avrion 1
mitochondria 1
mitochondrial Eve 1, 2
Mittlefehldt, David W. 1
Miyamoto, Masamichi 1
Moa, Wendy 1
Moho 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Mohorovicic, Andrija (1857–1936) 1
Mohr’s Circle. 1
mold 1
mole, definition 1
molecules-to-man theory 1
mollusks 1
Molnar, Peter 1, 2
molten earth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Monahans meteorite 1
monarch butterfly 1, 2
Monastersky, Richard 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Mondy, Terrence R. 1, 2
monocline 1, 2
Montagu, Ashley 1, 2
Montgomery, Alan 1
Montgomery, John Warwick 1
Moodley, Yoshan 1
Moon 1, 2
compared to planets 1
core 1
craters 1, 2, 3
dust 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Earth’s 1
Earth-Moon distance vs. DNA length 1
far side 1
giant basins 1
hot 1, 2
ice detected 1, 2
inclined orbit 1
near vs. far side 1, 2
near vs. far sides 1
origin 1, 2, 3
recession from Earth 1, 2, 3
rock 1, 2
search for life on 1
theories on formation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
upper limit on age 1, 2
moonquakes 1, 2, 3
moons in solar system
backward orbits 1
captured asteroids 1, 2, 3, 4
inclined orbits 1
Jupiter’s moons
Europa 1
Himalia 1
Io 1, 2
Mars’ moons
Deimos 1, 2
Phobos 1, 2, 3
of asteroids 1
of comets 1
Saturn’s moon Phoebe 1
Saturn’s moons
Hyperion 1
Moore, Carleton 1, 2
Moore, Patrick 1
Moosdorf, Niles 1
moral absolutes 1
Morales, Michael 1, 2
Morell, Virginia 1, 2, 3
Moretti, Alberto 1
Morgan, W. Jason 1
Morowitz, Harold J. 1
Morris, Conway 1
Morris, Henry M. (1918–2006) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Morris, John D. 1, 2
Morrison, Philip 1
Morse code 1
Morse, Gardiner 1
Morton, Glenn R. 1
mosaics 1
Moses 1, 2
Moss, Cynthia 1
mother salt layer 1, 2, 3
motors in bacteria 1
mounds, liquefaction
forming mechanism 1, 2
in southwest United States 1
water vents 1
Mount Ararat 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Mount Everest 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Mount St. Helens 1
mountains 1
Andes 1
Appalachian 1, 2, 3
Ararat 1, 2
biblical references to 1, 2
buckled 1, 2
covered by water 1, 2
folded 1, 2
formation of 1, 2, 3, 4
formed by flood 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
gravity anomalies beneath 1
Himalayas 1, 2
in Siberia 1
Musgrave, in Australia 1
on Venus 1, 2, 3
plateaus formed by 1
preflood 1, 2, 3, 4
Queen Maud, in Antarctica 1
Rockies 1, 2
roots 1
shells and other marine fossils on 1, 2
Table Mountain, in California 1
White Mountains, in California 1
mountains, all covered with water 1
mtDNA 1, 2
Muav Fault 1
muck 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Mueller, Kristen 1
Mulfinger, George Jr. (1932–1987) 1
Mullen, George H. 1
Muller, P. M. 1
multiplication of languages 1
Mumma, Michael J. 1
Mumma, Stanley A. 1
Munk, Walter H. 1
Murchison meteorite 1, 2
Murray meteorite 1
Murray, Bruce 1
Musser, George 1
mutation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Muyzer, Gerard 1
mycoplasmas 1
myrmekite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Myrow, Paul M. 1
mythology 1, 2, 3, 4
N
Nakamura, Tomoki 1
Nakamura, Yosio 1
Nampa image, out-of-place artifact 1, 2
Nance, Rod 1
Nankoweap
Canyon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Creek 1, 2, 3
Delta 1, 2
Mesa 1, 2, 3
nanotechnology 1
Napier, Bill 1
Napier, W. McD. 1
Narayanan, Desika 1
Narlikar, Jayant V. 1, 2
NASA 1, 2
natah (Hebrew for stretched) 1
National Geographic 1
National Institute of Standards and Technology 1
national science standards 1
Native Americans 1, 2
Natland, J. H. 1
natural environment 1
natural processes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
natural selection 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
Navajo Bridge 1
Navajo legend for Grand Canyon 1
Neanderthal man 1, 2
near-parabolic comets 1, 2, 3, 4
Nelson, Byron Christopher (1894–1972) 1
Nelson, Ethel R. 1, 2
Nemchin, Alexander A. 1
neon 1
Neptune 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
heat 1
moons 1
Nettleton, L. L. 1
neutrinos 1, 2, 3
neutron activation analysis 1, 2
neutron stars 1, 2
Neuville, H. 1
Nevins, Stuart E. 1, 2
new age movement 1
New England Seamounts 1
New Hebrides Trench 1, 2
New Mexico 1
New Orleans 1
New Zealand 1, 2, 3
Newberry, John Strong (1822–1892) 1, 2, 3
Newell, Norman D. 1
Newfoundland 1
Newton, Hubert Anson (1830–1896) 1
Newton, Isaac (1642–1727) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Niagara Falls 1, 2
Nicholson, Thomas D. 1
Nier, Alfred O. 1
Niessen, Richard 1
Niigata, Japan 1
Nilamata Purana (book of Hindu legends) 1
Nilsson, Lennart 1
Nilsson, Nils Heribert (1883–1955) 1, 2
Nimrod 1
Ninety East Ridge 1, 2, 3
Nisan 1
nitrogen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Noah 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Noah’s Ark 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Noah’s flood 1, 2
Noé, A. C. 1
Nolan, Edward J. 1
Nomura, Ryuichi 1
nonliving matter 1
Noorbergen, Rene 1, 2
Nordenskiold, A. E. 1, 2
Norman, J. R. 1
Norman, Trevor 1
Normandy, banks of 1
North America 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
North Canyon 1
North Pole, preflood 1, 2, 3, 4
Northrup, Bernard E. 1, 2
Norton, O. Richard 1, 2, 3, 4
Norway 1
Noulton, Forest 1
Novotny, Eva 1
nuclear combustion 1, 2, 3
nuclear reaction 1
nuclear reactor 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
nucleation 1, 2, 3
nucleons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
nucleotide 1, 2, 3
nucleus
of a cell 1
of a comet 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
of an atom 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
O
O stars 1
O’Connell, Patrick 1
O’Rourke, Daniel J. 1
O’Rourke, J. E. 1, 2
Oak Creek Canyon 1
Oard, Michael J. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Obolensky, Alexis Guy 1
observatory
Kitt Peak National 1
U.S. Naval 1
ocean floor 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
ocean floor map 1
ocean trenches 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Oceanic Layer 3 1
Odyssey spacecraft 1
Officer, Charles 1
offspring 1, 2
Ohlmeyer, Harold Z. 1
Ohno, Susuma 1
Ohta, K. 1
oil formation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Oklo Natural “Reactor” 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
old DNA, bacteria, and proteins 1, 2
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 1
Olgas 1
olivine 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
olivine in comets 1
Ommanney, Francis Downes 1, 2, 3
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny 1, 2
Ontong-Java Plateau 1
Oort cloud 1
Oort cloud theory 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Oort, Jan Hendrik (1900–1992) 1, 2, 3
Öpik, Ernst Julius (1893–1985) 1, 2, 3, 4
orangutan 1
orbital time 1, 2
orbits
of asteroids 1
of binary stars 1, 2
of comets 1, 2, 3
elliptical 1, 2, 3, 4
hyperbolic 1, 2, 3, 4
near-parabolic 1, 2, 3, 4
parabolic 1
of moons 1, 2
of planets 1
ore deposits 1, 2, 3
organ of Corti 1
organic evolution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Orgel, Leslie E. 1
origin of
angiosperms 1
asteroids ??–1
birds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
chemical elements 1
chordates 1
coal and oil 1
comets ??–1
earth’s magnetic field 1, 2, 3, 4
fishes 1
fossils 1
genetic code 1
geothermal heat 1
Grand Canyon 1, 2
humans 1
immune system 1
inner and outer core 1
iron meteorites 1
language 1, 2
life 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
limestone ??–1
metamorphic rock 1
meteorites ??–1
methane hydrates 1
Mid-Oceanic Ridge 1
moon 1, 2, 3
mountains 1
muck 1
ocean trenches ??–1
planets 1
plants 1
plateaus 1
solar system 1, 2
stars 1
strata and layered fossils ??–1
submarine canyons 1
vertebrates 1
water on earth 1, 2, 3, 4
zodiacal light 1, 2
origins research project 1, 2
Ornes, Stephen 1
Oronteus Finaeus map 1
Orosz, Jerome A. 1
Orville, Philip M. 1
Osborn, Henry Fairfield 1, 2
osculating period 1
osmosis 1
Osorio, M. R. Zapatero 1
Osterloo, M. M. 1
Ostro, Steven J. 1
Ostrom, John H. 1
Ott, Ulrich 1
outer core of Earth 1
outer space 1, 2, 3, 4
out-of-place artifacts 1
out-of-sequence fossils 1, 2, 3
out-salting 1, 2, 3, 4
Ovcharov, V. 1, 2
overlapping spreading centers 1, 2, 3
overthrusts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Owen, Robert 1
Owen, Tobias C. 1
Oxnard, Charles E. 1, 2
oxygen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Ozima, M. 1
ozone 1
P
p53 (a protein) 1
Pääbo, Svante 1
Pacific Ocean 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Page, Arizona 1
Page, Don N. 1
Page, Jake 1
Pakistan 1
paleontologist 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
paleontology 1, 2, 3
Paley, William (1743–1805) 1
Pallas, Peter Simon (1741–1811) 1
pallasites 1, 2
Palmer Peninsula 1
Palmer, Craig T. 1
Palmer, Ralph S. 1
Paluxy River 1
Paneth, F. A. 1
pangenesis 1
panspermia 1
Pappas, T. 1
parabolic orbits 1
parallel strata (layers) 1, 2, 3
parasite 1, 2
Paris gun 1, 2
Parker, Eric T. 1
Parker, Eugene N. 1
Parkes, R. John 1
Parkhomenko, E. I. 1
parsimony 1
Parsons, Thomas J. 1
Pascal, Blaise (1623–1662) 1
Pasteur, Louis (1822–1895) 1
patriarchs 1
Patrusky, Ben 1
Patten, Donald Wesley 1
Patterson, C. Stuart 1, 2
Patterson, Colin (1938–1998) 1, 2, 3
Paunsaugunt Fault 1
peanut-shaped asteroids 1
Pearthree, Philip A. 1
Peebles, James 1, 2
Peebles, P. J. E. 1
peer review 1
Peet, Stephen D. 1
pegmatites 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Peking man 1
Peleg 1, 2
peleg (Hebrew for divided by water) 1
peneplains 1, 2
Pennisi, Elizabeth 1, 2
Penniston, John B. 1
Penrose, Eric 1
Pentateuch 1
Penzias, Arno 1
Pepin, O. O. 1
Pepys, Samuel 1
perihelions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Perkins, Sid 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Persians, 360-day year 1
personal responsibility 1
Peru-Chile Trench 1
Peruvians, 360-day year 1
pesticide 1
petaFLOPS computers 1
Peter the Great 1
Peterson, Ivars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Petford, N. 1
Petit, Charles 1
petrified forests 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Pettit, Jean-Marc 1
Péwé, Troy L. 1, 2, 3
Pfizenmayer, E. W. 1, 2, 3
phenotype 1
Philippine Trench 1
Philippines 1
Phillips, Roger J. 1
Phillips, W. D. 1
Phobos 1, 2, 3, 4
Phoebe 1
phosphate beds 1
photosynthesis 1, 2, 3
phyla 1, 2, 3, 4
pictographs, Chinese 1, 2
Pierce Canyon 1
Pierce, Michael J. 1
Pierson, Rick 1
piezoelectric effect 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
pig’s tooth in Nebraska “man” 1
Pigeon Canyon 1
pillars in subterranean chamber 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17
Piltdown man 1, 2
ping-pong ball analogy 1
Pink Cliffs 1
Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft 1, 2, 3, 4
Piri Re’is map 1, 2
Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer 1, 2
Pishon, a preflood river 1
Pithecanthropus erectus 1
Pitman, Michael 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Pitman, Walter 1
Pixie, N. W. 1
placebo 1
placentals 1
plagioclase feldspars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Planck’s constant 1
planetary nebula 1, 2
planetary rings 1, 2, 3
planetesimals 1, 2
planets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
angular momentum of 1
backward orbits of their moons 1
backward-spinning 1
difficulty evolving 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Earth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
formation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
free-floating 1
gaseous 1
giant 1
gravitational attraction 1, 2
hot 1
inclined orbits of their moons 1
Jupiter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Mars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Mercury 1, 2, 3, 4
1
Neptune 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
nonspinning, if they evolved 1
outside the solar system 1
Pluto 1, 2
rocky 1
Saturn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
strange 1
unique 1
Uranus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Venus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Plant, J. A. 1
plants 1, 2, 3, 4
amino acids in 1
at polar latitudes 1, 2, 3, 4
biblical references to 1, 2
bioluminescence in 1
buried in flood 1, 2
carbon-14 in 1, 2
distinct types 1
DNA 1, 2
edible 1
first 1, 2, 3
flowering 1, 2, 3, 4
fossil gaps 1
fossil record 1
fossilization of 1, 2, 3
found in mammoth’s stomach 1, 2
immune system 1
in rock ice 1
in yedoma soil 1
index fossils 1
left and right handedness 1
marine 1
mutations 1
origin of 1
photosynthesis 1
poisonous 1, 2
pollen-bearing 1
reestablished after flood 1, 2
relating to canopy theory 1
sexual reproduction in 1
symbiotic relationships 1
transitional 1, 2
tropical 1
vascular 1, 2
yucca 1
plasma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
plate tectonic theory 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
coal in Antarctica 1
explanation for Grand Canyon 1
explanation for trenches 1
fracture zones 1, 2
heat as basic driving mechanism 1
lacking explanations 1, 2
magnetic anomalies 1
plate movements 1
plate thicknesses 1, 2
push, pull, and drag 1
triple junctions 1
plateaus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colorado 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
Columbia 1, 2, 3
Deccan 1, 2
definition of 1, 2
formation of 1, 2, 3, 4
Kaibab 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
problems forming 1
Tibetan 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Platt, Rutherford H. 1
platypus 1, 2
plesiosaur 1, 2
plumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Pluto 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Poinar, George O. Jr. 1
Poinar, Hendrick N. 1
Poirier, J. P. 1
Poirier, Jules H. 1
polar moment of inertia 1, 2
Poliakov, Alexei N. B. 1
poling 1, 2, 3
pollen 1, 2, 3, 4
Pollitz, Fred F. 1
Pollock, J. A. 1
polls 1, 2
polonium halos 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Polynesian Islands 1
polystrate fossils (trees) 1
pooled water under mountains 1
Popov, A. I. 1
Popov, Y. N. 1
population II stars 1
population III stars 1, 2, 3
Porco, Carolyn 1
Porfir’ev, V. B. 1
porpoise 1
Portugal 1
positrons 1
Post, Vincent E. A. 1
Postberg, F. 1
Postberg, Frank 1
postflood
carvings 1
continents 1, 2
geography 1
lakes 1, 2, 3
mountains 1
rivers 1
potassium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
potassium-argon dating 1, 2
potential energy 1
potholes 1
Powell, Corey S. 1, 2, 3
Powell, James 1
Powell, James Lawrence 1, 2
Powell, Jerry A. 1
Powell, John Wesley (1834–1902) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Powers, Pam 1
Poynting-Robertson effect 1, 2, 3
Precambrian 1, 2
fossils 1
rocks 1, 2
precession 1, 2, 3
precession of the equinoxes 1
precipitation 1
precision 1, 2, 3
precision vs. accuracy 1
predator 1, 2
predictions as test of scientific theory 1, 2
predictions of evolution
abundance of elements 1
based on the big bang theory 1
evolving new features 1
fracture zones 1
genetic distances 1
helium to hydrogen ratio 1
life on Mars 1
moon dust 1
no fossil gaps 1, 2
no soft-bodied fossils 1
planetary formation 1
too much beryllium 1
predictions of hydroplate theory
1. pooled water under mountains 1
2. salty water in very deep cracks 1
3. many fossilized whales 1
4. hidden canyons 1
5. fracture zones 1
6. magnetic intensity at smokers 1
7. earthquakes will be predicted 1
8. Earth is shrinking 1
9. granite fragments under Pacific 1
10. fossils in and near trenches 1
11. inner core decelerating 1
12. age of Hawaiian islands 1
13. wide varves not under lakes 1
14. sand from Grand Canyon 1
15. chemistry of lake basins 1
16. slot canyons, deep cracks 1
17. the inner gorge is a crack 1
18. fault under monocline 1
19. loess at bottom of ice cores 1
20. muck on Siberian plateaus 1
21. rock ice is salty 1
22. bubbles in rock ice 1
23. muck particles in rock ice 1
24. no fossils below mammoths 1
26. ice age can be demonstrated 1
27. salt on Mars 1
28. moons around some comets 1
29. mass of solar system 1
30. strange comet pairs 1
31. heavy hydrogen in deep water 1
32. salt and bacteria in comets 1
33. no Oort cloud 1
34. no incoming hyperbolic comets 1
35. argon only in comet crust 1
36. asteroids are rock piles 1
37. fast spinning asteroids 1
38. asteroid rocks are magnetized 1
39. deuterium in ice on Themis 1
40. water is inside large asteroids 1
41. mining asteroids too costly 1
42. Deimos has a very low density 1
43. air deposit of Mars’ sediments 1
44. deuterium in asteroids 1
45. comets are rich in oxygen-18 1
46. lineaments, earthquake risks 1
47. little radioactivity on Moon 1
48. carbon-14 in “old” bones 1
49. bacteria on Mars 1
50. H deficiency in halo inclusions 1
preflood
atmosphere 1, 2, 3, 4
canopy 1
crust 1
earth 1
forests 1
hilltops 1
mountains 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
patriarchs 1
rivers 1
Prevot, M. 1
Pribnow, Dan F. C. 1
Price, Huw 1
Pride, Mary 1
Priest, F. G. 1
Prigogine, Ilya 1
primates 1, 2, 3
principles of evolutionary geology
superposition 1
uniformity 1
Prior, G. T. 1
Priscu, John 1
Proctor, Richard A. (1837–1888) 1, 2
prograde orbits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
programs in genetic material 1
progressive creation 1
prokaryotes 1, 2
propellers in bacterial motors 1
proteins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Proton-21 Electrodynamics Research Laboratory 1, 2, 3
prove, a word to avoid 1
Ptolemy, Claudius Ptolemaeus (ca. A.D. 100–175) 1
public opinion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
public schools 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Pulinets, Sergey 1
punctuated equilibrium 1
Q
Quackenbush, L. S. 1
quanta 1
quarry 1
quartz 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
quartzite 1
quasars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Queen Maud Land, Antarctica 1, 2
Queitsch, Christine 1, 2
quicksand 1, 2
Qur’an 1

R
raah (Hebrew for appear) 1
Rabinowitz, D. L. 1
race, human 1, 2
racism 1, 2
radioactive decay 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 21, 22, 23
radiocarbon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
radiocarbon dating 1, 2, 3, 4
radioisotopes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
radiometric dating 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
radon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Raff, Arthur D. 1
rain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
before flood 1, 2
rainbow 1
raindrops 1, 2, 3
Ralph, Elizabeth K. 1
Rama Ridge 1
Ramapithecus 1
Ramdohr, Paul A. (1890 – 1985) 1, 2, 3, 4
Ramsayer, K. 1
Ramsköld, L. 1
Ranger spacecraft 1
Ranney, Wayne 1, 2, 3
rape 1
rapid burial 1, 2, 3
rapid cooling 1
raqa (Hebrew for spread out) 1, 2
raqia (Hebrew for expanse) 1, 2, 3
Rashi Commentary 1, 2
Rasio, frederic A. 1
Rastall, R. H. 1
rattlesnake 1
Rauch, M. 1
Raup, David M. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
raven 1
reasoning 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Reasons to Believe 1
Reck’s skeleton 1
recovery phase 1
Red Butte 1
Redmond, Ian 1
redshift 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Redwall Limestone 1
Reeh, Niels 1
Reese, Kenneth M. 1
Reeves, Hubert 1
Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus 1
regolith 1
Rehman, Ejaz ur 1
Reich, Eugenie Samuel 1
Reid, Archdall 1
Reisz, Robert R. 1
relativism 1
remanent magnetism 1
Ren, Dong 1
Renfrew, Colin 1
Rensberger, Boyce 1
Repetski, John E. 1
reproduction (see sexual reproduction) 1
reproduction cycle 1
reproductive success 1, 2, 3
reproductive system 1, 2
reptiles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
flying (pterosaurs) 1, 2
residual magnetism 1
resistance to pesticides 1
resistant bacteria 1, 2
respiration 1
Restak, Richard M. 1
restitution interpretation 1
retrograde orbits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
revelation theory 1, 2
Revelle, Roger 1, 2
reversals 1
Reynolds, Christopher S. 1
Reznick, David 1
rhinoceroses, frozen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
rhyolite 1
ribosomes 1
Rice, R. J. 1
Rich, Thomas H. 1
Rich, Vera 1, 2
Richards, Paul G. 1
Richardson, Derek C. 1
Richardson, Michael K. 1
Richardson, Randall M. 1
rickets 1, 2
Rider Canyon 1
rifts (axial or flank) 1, 2
Righter, Kevin 1
Riley, J. P. 1
Rincon, Paul 1
Ring of Fire 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
rings of planets 1, 2, 3
Rio Grande 1, 2
river delta 1, 2
river sediments 1, 2
Rivers of Eden
Euphrates 1
Gihon 1
Pishon 1
Tigris 1
rivers out of Eden 1
Rivkin, Andrew S. 1
RNA 1, 2
Roan Cliffs 1, 2, 3
Roberts, N. 1
Robertson, Stephen J. 1
Robinson, Arthur B. 1
Robinson, Leif J. 1
robot 1
Roche’s limit 1
rock ice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Rock Point, Arizona 1
Rocky Mountains 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Rodriguez, Diego 1
Rogers, Garry 1
Rohde, Douglas L. T. 1
Roman
360-day year 1
mythology 1
Romance languages 1
Romashko, Alexander 1, 2
Rose, H. J. 1, 2
Rose, Michael 1
Rosen, Meghan 1, 2
Rosenbaum, M. 1
Rosetta spacecraft 1
Roska, Botond 1
Rosnau, Paul O. 1, 2
Ross, Hugh 1, 2
Ross, Philip E. 1
Rosswog, Stephen 1
Roth, Ariel A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Rothschild, Bruce M. 1
Rouster, Lorella 1
Rowan-Robinson, Michael 1
Rowe, Jack J. 1
Roy, Mousumi 1
Roy, Robert F. 1, 2
Royal Society of London 1
Ruben, John A. 1
Rubin, Alan E. 1, 2
Rubner, Michael 1
Rudwick, Martin J. S. 1
ruin-reconstruction theory 1
ruminants 1
runaway greenhouse effect 1
rupture 1, 2
rupture phase 1, 2, 3, 4
Rusch, Wilbert H., Sr. 1, 2
Rush, David E. 1
Russell, Bertrand 1
Russell, Henry Norris (1877–1957) 1
Russia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Russian pilot (claimed Ark sighting) 1
Ryabchun, V. K. 1
Ryan, Eileen V. 1
Ryan, William 1
Ryder, Oliver A. 1
Rye, Rob 1
Rygg, J. R. 1
Ryukyu Trench 1
S
Saal, Alberto E. 1
Saey, Tina Hesman 1
Saffran, Murray 1
Safronov, Viktor 1
Sagan, Carl (1934–1996) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Sahli, Jim 1
Salisbury, Frank B. 1, 2
Salmonella 1
salt dome 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
formation of 1
Salt Lake 1, 2
Salton Sea 1
saltwater fish 1
Samaritan Pentateuch 1, 2
Sambles, Roy 1
San Andreas Fault 1, 2, 3, 4
San Francisco 1
San Juan River 1
sand dunes 1, 2, 3
Sanderson, Ivan T. 1, 2, 3
Sandford, Scott A. 1
Sandia National Laboratory 1
sandstone
cross-bedded 1, 2, 3
layered 1
plumes 1
St. Peter 1
Sanford, John C. 1, 2
Santorum, Rick 1
Sarmiento, J. L. 1
Satan 1
Sato, Mariko 1
Satterfield, Cindy L. 1
Saturn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
heat 1
moons 1, 2, 3, 4
rings 1, 2, 3
Saunders, A. D. 1
Saunders, Will 1
Sawyer, Douglas J. 1, 2
Sawyer, Kathy 1
Saxena, Surendra 1
Scalia, Antonin 1
Scanlon, Kathryn M. 1
Scarborough, R. B. 1
Schaeffer, Bobb 1
Schenk, Paul 1
Scherer, Siegfried 1
Schiaparelli, Giovanni Virginio (1835–1910) 1, 2
Schilling, Govert 1, 2, 3
Schilpp, Paul Arthur 1
Schindel, David E. 1
Schlanger, Semour O. 1
Schliwa, Manfred 1
Schmitz, Birger 1
Schneider, Stephen E. 1
Schoenfield, Jon 1, 2, 3
Scholl, David William 1, 2
Schoolcraft, Henry R. 1
Schopf, William J. 1
Schulman, Edmund 1
Schwabe, Christian 1
Schwamb, Megan E. 1, 2, 3
Schwartz, Karlene V. 1, 2
Schwarz, Dominik J. 1
Schweitzer, Mary H. 1, 2
Schwinghammer, Gregor 1
Sciama, D. W. 1
science
defined 1
education 1
fiction 1
scientific debates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
scientific evidence, defined 1
Scopes Trial 1
Scott, Donald E. 1
seafloor spreading 1, 2, 3, 4
Seager, Sara 1
seamounts, tablemounts 1, 2, 3, 4
Sears, R. L. 1
second law of thermodynamics 1, 2, 3, 4
secular humanism 1, 2
secular variation of the magnetic field 1
sedimentary
layers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
rocks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
sediments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Seelert, Holger 1
Segraves, Kelly L. 1
Segura, Teresa L. 1, 2
Seife, Charles 1
seismic tomography 1, 2, 3, 4
seismic waves 1
seismometers 1
Sekanina, Zdenek 1, 2
Selbrede, Martin G. 1
selective breeding 1
selfish behavior 1
Selim, Jocelyn 1
Selley, R. C. 1
Sellier, Charles E. 1
Sen, J. 1
Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (4 B.C.–65 A.D.) 1
separation of church and state 1
Septuagint text 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Setterfield, Barry 1, 2, 3
Setton, Dolly 1
Sevier Fault 1
sexual reproduction 1, 2, 3, 4
Seyfert, Carl K. 1
Seymouria 1
Shackleton, Ernest Henry 1
shale 1
shallow meteorites 1
shamayim (Hebrew for heaven) 1, 2
shaphrur (Hebrew for canopy) 1
Shapiro, Ascher H. 1
Shapiro, Robert 1, 2, 3
shatter cones 1
Shaw, G. 1
Shawver, Lisa J. 1
Shearer, Peter M. 1
shearing stress 1
sheet flow 1, 2
Shelah (great grandson of Noah) 1
Sheldon, Peter R. 1
Shem (son of Noah) 1, 2, 3, 4
Sheng, George 1
Sheppard, George 1
Sheppard, Scott S. 1, 2
Sheth, H. C. 1, 2
shifting vs. drifting 1
Shiga, David 1
Shigeru, Ida 1
Shinumo Altar 1, 2, 3, 4
Shipman, Pat 1
Shkolikov, P. L. 1, 2
shock collapse 1, 2, 3
Shockey, Don 1
Short, Nicholas M. 1, 2, 3
short-period comets 1
Shoshani, Jeheskel 1, 2, 3
Shreeve, James 1
Shroud of Turin 1
Shtarkman, Yury M. 1
Shu, D. G. 1
Shu, Frank H. 1
Shubin, Neil 1
siach (Hebrew for shrub) 1
Siberia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
side canyons to Grand and Marble Canyons 1, 2
siderite, missing in ancient soils 1
Sigleo, Anne C. 1, 2
Sigmund, Karl 1
Sigurdsson, Steinn 1
Sigwarth, J. B. 1
Silberman, A. M. 1
silica 1
silica, in solution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Silk, Joseph 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Simons, Lewis M. 1
Simpson, George Gaylord (1902–1984) 1, 2, 3
Simpson, Richard A. 1
Singham, Mano 1
single-cell 1, 2, 3
sink
holes 1, 2
valleys 1, 2, 3
Sirkin, Leslie A. 1
Sjogren, W. L. 1
skin color 1, 2
Skinner, Brian J. 1, 2
Skirrow, G. 1
slab 1, 2
slot canyons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
slow-slip 1, 2, 3
Sluijs, Appy 1
Slusher, Harold S. 1, 2, 3, 4
small comets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Smith, Bruce D. 1
Smith, E. Norbert 1
Smith, Homer W. 1
Smith, J. L. B. 1, 2
Smith, John Maynard 1
Smith, Peter H. 1, 2
Smith, William (1769–1839) 1
Smothers, James F. 1
Snelling, Andrew A. 1, 2, 3
snow geese 1
social consequences of belief in evolution 1
social Darwinism 1
solar eclipse 1
solar sails 1
solar system 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
mass of 1, 2
solar wind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Solomon 1
Solzhenitsyn, Alexander 1
sonar system 1
Song, Xiaodong 1
Song, Young Hun 1
Songaila, Antoinette 1
Sorensen, Herbert C. 1
South Africa 1
South America, North America 1
South Carolina 1
South Hebrides Trench 1, 2
South Pole 1
South Solomon Trench 1
Sovetskaya Lake 1
Sozansky, V. I. 1
space, time, and matter 1, 2
spacecraft
Apollo 1, 2, 3, 4
Cassini 1, 2, 3
Deep Impact 1, 2, 3
DEMETER 1
Dynamic Explorer 1
Galileo 1
Giotto 1, 2
GRACE 1
Hayabusa 1
Luna 3 1
Magellan 1
Mariner 9 and 10 1, 2
Messenger 1
Odyssey 1
Pioneer 10 and 11 1, 2, 3, 4
Ranger 1
Rosetta 1
Stardust 1, 2, 3, 4
Surveyor 1
Vega 1
Viking 1 and 2 1
Voyager 1
Spain 1
Spamer, Earle E. 1, 2, 3, 4
Spärck, R. 1
Sparks, F. W. 1, 2, 3
species, defined 1
speech 1, 2
speed of light 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Spencer, John 1
Spencer, Jon E. 1, 2
Spengler, Oswald 1
sperm 1
Spetner, Lee M. 1, 2
spheres of influence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
spinning bodies 1
spiral galaxies 1, 2
spires 1, 2, 3
Spirit Lake 1
Spitale, Joseph N. 1
sponges 1
spontaneous generation 1, 2, 3
Spoor, Fred 1
spores 1
Spudis, Paul D. 1
squids, bioluminescence in 1
squirrels, Kaibab and Abert 1
Squyres, S. W. 1
Squyres, Steven W. 1
St. Peter Sandstone 1
Stacey, Frank D. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Stainforth, R. M. 1
Stair, Ralph 1
stalactites 1, 2, 3
stalagmites 1, 2, 3
Stalin, Joseph (1879–1953) 1
Stanley, Steven M. 1, 2, 3, 4
Stansfield, William D. 1, 2, 3, 4
Stardust spacecraft 1, 2, 3, 4
Starkman, Glenn D. 1
stars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
B type 1
becoming black hole 1
beryllium in 1, 2
binaries 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
births 1, 2, 3
chemical composition 1
clusters 1
deaths 1, 2
densities 1
evolution of 1
first generation 1
formation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
globular clusters 1, 2, 3
in spiral galaxies 1, 2
light 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
low-mass 1
neutron 1
orbiting dust 1
population II 1, 2
population III 1, 2, 3
protostars 1
Proxima Centauri 1, 2
redshift 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
stellar evolution 1, 2
supernovas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
velocity 1
white dwarf 1
static friction 1
Staudigel, Hubert 1
Stearley, Ralph F. 1
Steckler, M. S. 1
Steidel, Charles C. 1, 2
Steidl, Paul M. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Steigerwald. Bill 1
Stein, Seth 1
Steinhardt, Paul 1
Steinheim fossil 1
stellar evolution 1, 2
stem cells 1
Stephano, Jose Luis 1
sterilization 1
Stern, Jack T. Jr. 1
Stern, Robert J. 1
Stern, S. Alan 1
sternum 1
Stevens, J. A. 1
Stevens, John K. 1
Stevenson, David 1, 2
Steveson, Peter A. 1
Stewart, Glen R. 1
Stewart, John Massey 1, 2, 3
stiction (static friction) 1
Stokes’ law 1, 2
Stolte, Daniel 1
Stone, Richard 1, 2
Stonehenge 1
Storz, Gisela 1
Strahler, Arthur N. (1918–2002) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Strait of Gibraltar 1
strange pairs (of comets) 1
strange pairs of comets 1, 2
strange planets 1, 2
strata 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Straus, Michael A. 1
Straus, William L. 1
Streptococci 1
stress 1, 2
concentrations at ends of cracks 1, 2
involved in earthquakes 1, 2
stretched ocean ridges 1, 2
Strickberger, Monroe W. 1, 2
strong force 1, 2, 3, 4
Strutt, Robert John (1875–1947) 1
Su, Wei-jia 1
subduction 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
submarine
canyons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
volcano 1
subsurface drainage 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
subterranean chamber 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
pillars in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
subterranean water 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20
Suess, Erwin 1
sugars (right- and left-handed) 1
Sukachev, V. N. 1
sukkah (Hebrew for canopy) 1
sulfur 1
Sullivan River 1
Sullivan, Cleo 1
Sullivan, J. W. N. 1
Sumatran earthquake 1
Summa, Lori L. 1
Sun 1, 2
angular momentum of 1
atmosphere 1
diameter 1
evolution 1, 2
faint when young 1
orbiting particles 1, 2
passing comets 1
Sunderland, Luther D. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Sündermann, J. 1
superclusters 1
supercomputer 1, 2
supercritical water (SCW) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
superheavy chemical elements 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
supernova 1
supernovas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
remnants 1, 2
superposition 1, 2
Supreme Court of the United States 1, 2, 3
surface energy 1, 2
Surveyor spacecraft 1
survival of the fittest 1
Susman, Randall L. 1
Svitil, Kathy A. 1
Svoboda, Elizabeth 1
Swanscombe skull 1
Swedenborg, Emanuel 1
Swedish-British-Norwegian Antarctic Expedition of 1949 1
Swindle, T. D. 1, 2, 3
Swinton, W. E. 1
Sykes, Bryan 1
symbiotic relationships 1, 2
T
Table of Nations 1
tables comparing evidence vs. theories
ocean trenches 1
frozen mammoths 1
tablemounts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
tables comparing evidence vs. theories
comets 1
Grand Canyon 1
trans-neptunian objects 1
Tachibana, Shogo 1
Tafforeau, Paul 1
Tagish Lake meteorite 1, 2
Taiwan 1
talus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Tambora 1
Tang, Thu 1
Tanner, William F. 1
Tanvir, N. R. 1
Tanzi, Rudolph E. 1
tar, analogy to rock deep in earth 1, 2
Tarr, W. A. 1
Taubes, Gary 1
tavek (Hebrew for within) 1
Taylor, B. N. 1
Taylor, Gordon Rattray (1911–1981) 1, 2, 3, 4
Taylor, Ian T. 1, 2
Taylor, Marilyn 1
Taylor, Porcher 1
Taylor, R. E. 1
Taylor, Richard L. S. 1
Taylor, Stuart Ross 1, 2
tebah (Hebrew for Ark) 1
Tedford, Richard H. 1, 2
tehom (Hebrew for surging mass of subterranean water) 1
tektite 1
telescope 1
Tempel 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
temperature gradient at earth’s surface 1
Templeton, Alan R. 1
Terah (father of Abraham) 1, 2, 3
Tercaso v. Watkins 1
Terebey, Susan 1
Teresi, Dick 1
termites 1
Terrance, H. S. 1
terrarium 1
Teton Flood 1
Texas A & M University 1
Than, Ker 1
The American Association for the Advancement of Science 1
The Great Denudation 1
The National Research Council 1
The National Science Teachers Association 1
The Olgas 1
The Origin of Species 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
theistic evolution 1, 2
gap theory 1, 2
thermalize, definition 1
thermocapillarity 1
thermodynamic equilibrium 1
thermodynamics
first law 1
second law 1, 2
theropod dinosaurs 1
Thieme, Hartmut 1
Thillaud, Pierre L. 1
Thomas, Lewis 1
Thomas, Michael 1
Thomas, P. C. 1, 2
Thompson, F. Christian 1
Thompson, Laird A. 1
Thompson, Richard L. 1
Thompson, W. R. 1, 2, 3
Thomsen, Dietrick E. 1, 2
Thomson, Keith Stewart 1, 2, 3
thorium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Thornhill, Randy 1
Thorson, Robert M. 1, 2
thought 1, 2
Thulborn, R. A. 1
Tibetan Plateau 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
tidal effects on comets 1, 2
tidal friction 1
tidal pumping 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
tidal wave 1
tides 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Moon vs. Sun 1
Tifft, William G. 1, 2, 3
Tigris River 1, 2
Tigris, a preflood river 1
Tikhonov, Alexei N. 1, 2, 3
Tinkle, William J. (1892–1981) 1
tipped (or inclined) orbits 1
Titius, Johann Daniel (1729–1796) 1
Titius-Bode law 1
1
Tobie, G. 1
Tobin, John J. 1
Todd, Gerald T. 1
Tolmachoff, I. P. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Tolstoy, Maya 1
Tombaugh, Clyde W. (1906-1997) 1
Tomeoka, Kazushige 1, 2
Tomirdiaro, S. V. 1
Tonga Trench 1
Toroweap Fault 1
Toroweap Formation 1
Tosca, Nicholas J. 1
toxins 1
trace fossils 1, 2
Transehe, N. A. 1
trans-Neptunian objects 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
named
2001 QW 322 1
2012 VP113 1, 2
Buffy 1
Eris 1
Sedna 1, 2, 3
Xena 1
Travis, John 1, 2, 3, 4
Treash, Robert 1
tree of life 1
Trefil, James 1, 2, 3, 4
Tregelles, Samuel 1
Tremaine, Scott 1, 2
trenches 1
trenches, ocean 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
ancient trenches 1, 2
initiation of 1, 2
undistorted layers in 1, 2
Trevors, Jack T. 1, 2, 3, 4
trilobites 1, 2, 3
Trinil, Indonesia 1
triple junctions 1
triple point of water 1
tritium 1
Trofimov, V. T. 1
Troitskii, V. S. 1, 2
Trout, Jerry 1
tsunami 1, 2, 3
Tukang Besi Ridge 1
Tully, R. Brent 1
tundra 1, 2, 3
turbidity current 1, 2
Turekian, Karl K. 1
Turkey 1, 2, 3
Turkish commissioners (searching for Ark) 1
Turkmenia 1
Turner, Edwin L. 1
Turner, J. L. 1
Turner, Michael S. 1
tusks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Tuttle, Russell H. 1
Twenhofel, William Henry (1875–1957) 1
TwinSat Project 1
two creation accounts? 1, 2
two-celled life, missing 1, 2
U
U.S. Congress 1
U.S. Constitution 1
U.S. Geological Survey 1
U.S. Naval Observatory 1
U.S. Supreme Court 1, 2, 3
U.S.Library of Congress 1
Udd, Stanley V. 1
Ukraintseva, Valentina V. 1, 2, 3
ultimate origins 1, 2
ultraviolet light 1
unconformity 1
unidentified flying objects (UFOs) 1
uniformitarianism 1, 2, 3, 4
universe 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29
age of 1, 2
expansion of 1, 2, 3
unrepeatable events
and science 1, 2
dinosaur extinction 1, 2
flood 1, 2, 3
unstable galaxies 1
Urakawa, Satoru 1
uranium 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Uranus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
heat 1
moons 1
Urey, Harold (1893–1981) 1, 2
Ussher, Archbishop James 1
Utah 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Uzbekistan 1, 2
V
vacuum 1
Vail, Isaac Newton 1
Vail, Isaac Newton (1840–1912) 1, 2, 3
Valentine, James W. 1
validity of thought 1, 2
Vallée, Martin 1
valley of stability 1, 2, 3, 4
Valley, John W. 1, 2
Vallois, Henri V. 1
van Andel, Tjeerd H. 1
Van de Graaff generator 1
van de Kamp, Peter 1
van den Bosch, Remco C. E. 1
Van der Elst, Philip 1
van der Lee, Suzan 1
van Eldik, R. 1
Van Flandern, Thomas C. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Van Gorp, Jan 1
Van Valen, Leigh 1
van Woerkom, Adrianus Jan Jasper 1, 2
Van Wylen, Gordon J. 1
van Zee, Liese 1
Vangioni-Flam, E. 1, 2
Vardiman, Larry 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
variations
among finches 1
can’t produce complexity 1, 2, 3, 4
enhance survivability 1
genetic 1
in cosmic microwave background radiation 1, 2
limited in living things 1, 2
mutations 1
within kinds 1, 2
varves 1, 2
Vasilchuk, Yu K. 1
Vedder, James F. 1, 2
Vega spacecraft 1
vegetation
reestablished after flood 1, 2
1
Velikovsky, Immanuel (1895–1979) 1
Venezuela 1
Venus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
backward-spinning 1
craters 1
hot planet 1
Maat Mons 1, 2
molten origin 1
mountains of 1, 2
no plate tectonics on 1
Vereshchagin, Nikolai K. 1, 2, 3, 4
Vermilion Cliffs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Verstelle, J. Th. 1
vertebrates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Vertesszöllos fossil 1
Vesta 1, 2
vestigial organs 1, 2
Veverka, Joseph 1
Vidale, John E. 1
Viking spacecraft 1
Virchow, Rudolf (1821–1902) 1
viruses 1, 2, 3
viscosity 1, 2, 3, 4
Vityaz Trench 1
viviparous animals 1
vocabulary 1
Vogel, Gretchen 1, 2
volcanic
debris 1, 2
eruptions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
gases 1
volcanism problems 1
volcanoes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
volcanoes and lava 1, 2, 3, 4
Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) 1
von Braun, Wernher (1912–1977) 1
von Huene, Roland 1
von Schrenck, Leopold 1, 2
von Wrangell, Ferdinand (1796–1870) 1
Vostok, Antarctic subglacial lake 1, 2, 3
Vostrikov, A. A. 1
vowel points 1
Voyager spacecraft 1
Vreeland, Russell H. 1
Vsekhsvyatsky, Sergey Konstantinovich (1905–1984) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
V-shaped bone 1
Vulgate 1
W
W. H. B. 1
Wagner, Andreas 1
Waite, J. H. Jr. 1
Wakefield, J. Richard 1, 2
Wald, George (1906–1997) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Waldrop, M. Mitchell 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913) 1, 2
Walsh, Matthew R. 1
Walther, John V. 1
Walton, John C. 1
Wanpo, Huang 1
Ward, William R. 1
warm-blooded 1, 2
Wartho, J-A. 1
Washington, H. A. 1
Wasson, J. 1
Watanabe, H. 1
water
baptism 1
compressible effects 1, 2
dissociation of 1, 2, 3, 4
hammer 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
in comets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
lens, during liquefaction 1, 2, 3, 4
lens,during liquefaction 1
on Mars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
origin on Earth 1, 2, 3, 4
planets with 1
properties 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
relationship to earthquakes 1, 2
source for flood 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
subsurface 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
supercritical 1, 2
triple point 1
vents, from liquefaction 1
water above mountains 1, 2, 3
water-balloon effect 1, 2
Waters, Frank 1
Watkins, R. S. 1
Watson, C. 1
Watson, David C. C. (1920–2004) 1, 2
Watson, John 1
Watson, Laurie Leshin 1
Watson, Lyall 1
Watson, M. G. 1
Watusi 1
Wayman, Erin 1
Weber, Renee C. 1
Weber, Stuart 1
Webster, Guy 1
Weed, William Speed 1
Wegener, Alfred (1880–1930) 1, 2
Wei, Wenbo 1
Weidenschilling, Stuart 1
Weinberg, Steven 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Weinstock, Maia 1
Weintraub, David A. 1
Weisburd, Stefi 1
Weissman, Paul R. 1, 2, 3, 4
Welles, Orson (1915–1985) 1
Wells, H. G. (1866–1946) 1
Wells, Jonathan 1
Welsh, W. F. 1
Welsh, William 1
Welsh, William E. 1
Wendt, Herbert 1, 2
Werblin, Frank 1
Wernet, Ph. 1
West, Stuart A. 1
Wetherill, George W. 1, 2, 3, 4
Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana 1
whales 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Wheatley, Henry B. 1
Whipple, Fred L. (1906–2004) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Whiston, William (1667–1752) 1
Whitby, James 1
Whitcomb, John C. Jr. 1, 2
white blood cell 1
White Cliffs of Dover 1
White Cliffs of Utah 1
white dwarf 1
White, Errol 1
White, Tim 1
Whitmore, John H. 1
Whitney, J. D. 1
Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
wide binaries 1, 2
Widmanstätten patterns 1, 2
Wieczarek, Mark A. 1
Wiegert, Arnold 1
Wiegert, Paul A. 1
Wiener, Norbert (1894–1964) 1
Wilder-Smith, A. E. (1915–1995) 1
Willerslev, Eske 1, 2
Williams, Gareth V. 1, 2, 3
Williams, George C. (1926–2010) 1
Williams, Lindsey 1
Wilson, Edward O. 1
Wilson, J. Tuzo (1908–1993) 1
Wilson, Knox 1
Wilson, Robert 1
Winchester, A. M. 1, 2
Windhorst, Rogier A. 1
Winters, Jeffrey 1
Wirth, Gregory D. 1
Wisdom, Jack 1
Wise, Kurt P. 1, 2
Wiseman, P. J. 1
wishbone 1
Witmer, Lawrence 1
Witmer, Lawrence M. 1
Witze, Alexandra 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Woehlke, Günther 1
Wolochowicz, Michael 1
wolves 1, 2
Wong, Dale W. 1
Wood, Bernard 1, 2
Wood, J. A. 1
Wood, Nathan R. 1
Wood, Richard D. 1
Woodhouse, Mitchell 1
Woodmorappe, John 1, 2, 3, 4
Woodruff, Arthur E. 1
Woodruff, David S. 1
Woodward, A. Smith 1
Woodward, John 1
Woodward, Scott R. 1
Woolfson, Michael 1
words to avoid: creationism, prove 1
Wordsworth, R. 1
working hypotheses 1
worms in Cambrian 1
Wright, G. Frederick 1, 2
Wright, Karen 1
Wright, Larry 1
Wright, Sewall 1
written debate 1, 2
Wu, C. 1
Wuchterl, Günther 1
Wyatt, Stanley P. Jr. 1
Wyoming 1
Wysession, Michael E. 1
X
xenoliths 1, 2
xenon 1, 2, 3, 4
Xianguang, Hou 1
Xing, Xu 1
X-ray resonance spectrograph 1
x-rays 1
Xu, Guochang 1
Xu, Xing 1
Y
Y chromosome 1, 2
Yap Trench 1
Yardley, Bruce W. D. 1
Yarkovsky effect 1
Yau, Kevin 1
yedoma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Yeomans, Donald K. 1, 2, 3
Yeskis, Douglas 1
Yeston, Jake 1
Yin, Qingzhu 1
Yitzchaki, Solomon 1, 2
Yockey, Hebert P. 1
yom (Hebrew for day) 1
young comets 1, 2
young craters 1
Young, Davis A. 1
Young, Erick T. 1
Young, Richard A. 1, 2, 3, 4
Young, Susan 1
Yucatán Peninsula 1
yucca moth 1, 2
Yuma, Arizona 1
Yurimoto, Hisayoshi 1
Z
Zabludoff, Marc 1
Zag meteorite 1
Zahnle, Kevin J. 1
Zhang, Jian 1
Zhang, Junjun 1
Zhou, Zhonghe 1
Zimmer, Carl 1, 2
Zimmerman, Michael R. 1
Zindler, Frank 1
Zion National Park 1, 2
zircons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Zirkle, Conway 1
Zoback, Mark D. 1
zodiacal light 1, 2, 3
Zolensky, Michael E. 1
Zoller, William H. 1
Zook, Herbert A. 1
Zoological Museum, St. Petersburg 1
Z-pinch 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Zuckerman, B. 1
Zuckerman, Solly 1, 2
Zwart, Simon F. Portegies 1
Zwicky, Fritz 1
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