Instructor’s Manual
for the
Laboratory Manual
to Accompany
Hole’s Essentials of
Human Anatomy and
Physiology
Eighth Edition
Terry R. Martin
Kishwaukee College
i
Instructor’s Manual for the Laboratory Manual to Accompany
HOLE’S ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION
DAVID SHIER, JACKIE BUTLER, AND RICKI LEWIS
Published by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10020. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2003, 2000, 1998. All rights reserved.
The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form solely for classroom use with HOLE’S ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY
AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any other form or
for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or
other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
www.mhhe.com
ii
CONTENTS
Preface
An Overview
Instructional Approaches
Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Laboratory Exercises
Suggested Time Schedule
Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Exercise 1
Scientific Method and Measurements
Exercise 2
Body Organization and Terminology
Exercise 3
Care and Use of the Compound Microscope
Cells
Exercise 4
Cell Structure and Function
Exercise 5
Movements Through Cell Membranes
Exercise 6
The Cell Cycle
Tissues
Exercise 7
Epithelial Tissues
Exercise 8
Connective Tissues
Exercise 9
Muscle and Nervous Tissues
Integumentary System
Exercise 10
Integumentary System
Skeletal System
Exercise 11
Structure of Bone
Exercise 12
Organization of the Skeleton
Exercise 13
The Skull
Exercise 14
Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage
Exercise 15
Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
Exercise 16
Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
Exercise 17
The Joints
Muscular System
Exercise 18
Skeletal Muscle Structure
Exercise 19
Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck
Exercise 20
Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb
Exercise 21
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet
Exercise 22
Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb
Nervous System
Exercise 23
Nervous Tissue and Nerves
Exercise 24
The Reflex Arc and Reflexes
Exercise 25
The Meninges and Spinal Cord
Exercise 26
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Exercise 27
Dissection of the Sheep Brain
Special Senses
Exercise 28
The Ear and Hearing
Exercise 29
The Eye
Exercise 30
Visual Tests and Demonstrations
Endocrine System
Exercise 31
Endocrine System
Cardiovascular System
Exercise 32
Blood Cells
Exercise 33
Blood TestingA Demonstration
iii
v
vi
viii
ix
xi
1
2
5
6
8
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
20
22
24
26
27
28
29
31
32
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
44
45
Exercise 34
Blood Typing
Exercise 35
Structure of the Heart
Exercise 36
The Cardiac Cycle
Exercise 37
Blood Vessels
Exercise 38
Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure
Exercise 39
Major Arteries and Veins
Lymphatic System
Exercise 40
Lymphatic System
Digestive System
Exercise 41
Organs of the Digestive System
Exercise 42
Action of a Digestive Enzyme
Respiratory System
Exercise 43
Organs of the Respiratory System
Exercise 44
Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
Urinary System
Exercise 45
Structure of the Kidney
Exercise 46
Urinalysis
Reproductive Systems
Exercise 47
Male Reproductive System
Exercise 48
Female Reproductive System
Appendix 1
Materials Needed
Appendix 2
Laboratory Suppliers
iv
46
47
49
50
51
52
54
55
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
68
PREFACE
This instructor's manual is designed to assist those who are using the Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole's
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition by Terry R. Martin. It describes the purpose of the
laboratory manual and its special features, and provides suggestions for presenting the laboratory exercises to
students. The instructor's manual also parallels the laboratory manual, exercise by exercise, providing labels for
unlabeled diagrams and answers to questions that appear in the laboratory reports. For some exercises, special
instructional suggestions that propose alternative procedures, laboratory equipment, or laboratory techniques are
provided.
Most of the illustrations and labels parallel the textbook very closely, as requested by many of the users of
the laboratory manual. Many of the leader lines are arranged differently than the textbook, and several illustrations
are different than the textbook. This has been requested also by many of the users of the laboratory manual. I have
attempted to reach a balance that will be beneficial for all students and instructors.
v
AN OVERVIEW
The Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition, was written to
accompany the textbook Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition, by Shier, Butler, and
Lewis. As in the case of the textbook, the laboratory manual is planned for students pursuing careers in allied health
fields who have minimal backgrounds in the physical and biological sciences.
The manual contains forty-eight laboratory exercises that are integrated closely with the content of the
textbook. The exercises are designed to review and illustrate various anatomical and physiological facts and
principles presented in the textbook and to help students investigate some of these ideas in more detail. Four
computerized supplemental labs are available, which are physiological labs on humans.
The laboratory exercises include a variety of special features that are designed to stimulate student interest
in the subject matter, to involve students in the learning process, and to guide them through the planned experiences.
These features include the following:
Materials needed. The laboratory materials listed are those that students require to complete the exercise and to
perform the demonstrations and optional activities.
Safety. If the laboratory exercise requires special safety guidelines, this section is included. General safety guidelines
also appear inside the front cover.
Introduction. The introduction briefly describes the subject of the exercise or the ideas that will be investigated.
Purpose of the exercise. The purpose provides a statement concerning the intent of the exercise–that is, what will be
accomplished.
Learning objectives. The learning objectives list in general terms what a student should be able to do after
completing the exercise.
Procedure. The procedure provides a set of detailed instructions for accomplishing the planned laboratory activities.
Usually these instructions are presented in outline form so that a student can proceed through the exercise in
stepwise fashion. Frequently, the student is referred to particular sections of the textbook for necessary background
information or for review of subject matter presented in some previous part of the course.
The procedures include a wide variety of laboratory activities and, from time to time, direct the student to
complete various tasks in the laboratory reports.
Demonstrations. Demonstrations appear in separate boxes. They describe specimens, specialized laboratory
equipment, or other materials of interest that the instructor may want to display to enrich the student's laboratory
experience.
Optional activities. Optional activities also appear in separate boxes. They are planned to encourage students to
extend their laboratory experiences. Some of these activities are open-ended in that they suggest how a student can
plan an investigation or experiment and carry it out after receiving approval from the laboratory instructor.
vi
Illustrations. Diagrams from the textbook are often used as aids for reviewing subject matter. Other illustrations
provide visual instructions for performing steps in procedures or are used to identify parts of instruments or
specimens. Micrographs are often included to help students identify microscopic structures or to evaluate student
understanding of tissues
Some figures, such those involving the skull, are presented so that they are suitable for coloring. You may
want to have your students use colored pencils to highlight various parts of these illustrations. This activity should
enhance their ability to observe the figures more carefully and help them locate and identify important anatomical
features.
Laboratory reports. Immediately following each exercise, there is a laboratory report to be completed by the
student. These reports include various types of review activities, spaces for sketches of microscopic objects, tables
for recording observations and experimental results, and questions dealing with the analysis of such data.
As a result of these laboratory exercises, students should develop a better understanding of the structural
and functional characteristics of their bodies. In addition, their skills in gathering information by observation and
experimentation should increase.
vii
INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES
Exercise Selection
Although the laboratory manual contains forty-eight separate exercises, it may not be possible to include all of them
in any one program. However, since many of the exercises are relatively short and because the procedures of others
are divided into sections, an instructor can easily select those exercises or parts of exercises that best meet the needs
of a particular class.
These exercises also vary in the quantities of equipment needed to complete them; if necessary, an
instructor can make some selection based upon the amount of laboratory equipment available for use by a class.
Animal Dissection
In the laboratory manual, detailed instructions for dissecting certain organs, such as the sheep brain, sheep heart,
mammalian eye, and pig kidney are included.
If an instructor prefers to have students dissect some animal, appropriate sections of a specialized
dissection manual may be added.
A laboratory option is to obtain a cadaver as a demonstration specimen. If this is not possible, consider a
field trip to a location that has a prosected cadaver. A minimum of two viewings is recommendedone during
muscle study and the other near the end of the course.
The Use of Animals in Biology Education*
The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman
animals, is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use of
animals in the life science classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology
teachers also should teach about the interrelationship and interdependency of all things.
Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from observation to dissection. NABT
supports these experiences so long as they are conducted within the long-established guidelines of proper care and
use of animals, as developed by the scientific and educational community.
As with any instructional activity, the use of nonhuman animals in the biology classroom must have sound
educational objectives. Any use of animals, whether for observation or dissection, must convey substantive
knowledge of biology. NABT believes that biology teachers are in the best position to make this determination for
their students.
NABT acknowledges that no alternative can substitute for the actual experience of dissection or other use
of animals and urges teachers to be aware of the limitations of alternatives. When the teacher determines that the
most effective means to meet the objectives of the class do not require dissection, NABT accepts the use of
alternatives to dissection including models and the various forms of multimedia. The Association encourages
teachers to be sensitive to substantive student objections to dissection and to consider providing appropriate lessons
for those students when necessary.
To implement this policy, NABT endorses and adopts the “Principle and Guidelines for the Use of Animals
in Precollege Education” of the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (National Research Council). Copies of
the “Principle and Guidelines” may be obtained from the ILAR (2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20418; 202-334-2590).
*Adopted by the Board of Directors in October 1995. This policy supersedes and replaces all previous NABT
statements regarding animals in biology education.
Background Information
The procedures of many exercises begin by suggesting that students review specific sections of the textbook. If the
subject matter involved in a particular exercise has been covered recently in lecture, the students may be able to
accomplish such a review rather quickly. On the other hand, if the material has not been presented previously, this
part of a procedure may be used as a means of introducing information needed to understand the ideas presented in
the exercise.
When the procedure is used to introduce new material, an instructor may ask students to complete the first
section before coming to the laboratory. Following this, some portion of the laboratory time may be needed for class
discussion of the new material.
viii
CORRELATION OF TEXTBOOK CHAPTERS AND
LABORATORY EXERCISES
Textbook Chapters
Related Laboratory Exercises
Chapter 1
Exercise 1
Introduction to Human Anatomy
and Physiology
Exercise 2
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chemical Basis of Life
Cells
Exercise 3
Exercise 4
Exercise 5
Exercise 6
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Cellular Metabolism
Tissues
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Skin and the Integumentary System
Skeletal System
Chapter 8
Exercise 7
Exercise 8
Exercise 9
Exercise 10
Exercise 11
Exercise 12
Exercise 13
Exercise 14
Exercise 15
Exercise 16
Exercise 17
Exercise 18
Exercise 19
Muscular System
Exercise 20
Exercise 21
Exercise 22
Chapter 9
Nervous System
Exercise 23
Exercise 24
Exercise 25
Exercise 26
Exercise 27
Exercise 28
Exercise 29
Exercise 30
Chapter 10 Somatic and Special Senses
Chapter 11 Endocrine System
Chapter 12 Blood
Exercise 31
Exercise 32
Exercise 33
Exercise 34
ix
Scientific Method and
Measurements
Body Organization and
Terminology
Care and Use of the Compound
Microscope
Cell Structure and Function
Movements Through Cell
Membranes
The Cell Cycle
Epithelial Tissues
Connective Tissues
Muscle and Nervous Tissues
Integumentary System
Structure of Bone
Organization of the Skeleton
The Skull
Vertebral Column and Thoracic
Cage
Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
The Joints
Skeletal Muscle Structure
Muscles of the Face, Head, and
Neck
Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder,
and Upper Limb
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
and Pelvic Outlet
Muscles of the Hip and Lower
Limb
Nervous Tissue and Nerves
The Reflex Arc and Reflexes
The Meninges and Spinal Cord
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Dissection of the Sheep Brain
The Ear and Hearing
The Eye
Visual Tests and
Demonstrations
Endocrine System
Blood Cells
Blood TestingA Demonstration
Blood Typing
Chapter 13 Cardiovascular System
Exercise 35
Exercise 36
Exercise 37
Exercise 38
Exercise 39
Exercise 40
Exercise 41
Exercise 42
Exercise 43
Exercise 44
Chapter 14 Lymphatic System and Immunity
Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition
Chapter 16 Respiratory System
Chapter 17 Urinary System
Chapter 18 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Chapter 19 Reproductive Systems
Chapter 20 Pregnancy, Growth, and Development
x
Exercise 45
Exercise 46
Structure of the Heart
The Cardiac Cycle
Blood Vessels
Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure
Major Arteries and Veins
Lymphatic System
Organs of the Digestive System
Action of a Digestive Enzyme
Organs of the Respiratory System
Breathing and Respiratory Volumes
and Capacities
Structure of the Kidney
Urinalysis
Exercise 47
Exercise 48
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
SUGGESTED TIME SCHEDULE
Different instructional programs provide different lengths of time for laboratory preparations, work activities, and
follow-up discussions. Other factors that influence the time required for each exercise are the availability and variety
of laboratory equipment and materials. Consequently, it is difficult to make precise suggestions for the amounts of
time that should be set aside for particular laboratory exercises.
The suggested time schedule was prepared with these limitations in mind. The hours listed for each
exercise indicate the minimal time that probably will be needed for students who are acquainted with the subject
matter of the exercise to complete the laboratory work. Students who lack background information and who have to
read various sections of the textbook before beginning an exercise probably will require additional time. Similarly,
students who are expected to complete the laboratory reports in class may need more time.
Laboratory Exercise
Minimal Time
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
Exercise 4
Exercise 5
Exercise 6
Exercise 7
Exercise 8
Exercise 9
Exercise 10
Exercise 11
Exercise 12
Exercise 13
Exercise 14
Exercise 15
Exercise 16
Exercise 17
Exercise 18
Exercise 19
Exercise 20
Exercise 21
Exercise 22
Exercise 23
Exercise 24
Exercise 25
Exercise 26
Exercise 27
Exercise 28
Exercise 29
Exercise 30
Exercise 31
Exercise 32
Exercise 33
Exercise 34
Exercise 35
Exercise 36
Exercise 37
Exercise 38
Exercise 39
Exercise 40
2 hours
3 hours
2 hours
2 hours
3 hours
1 hour
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour
1 hour
1 hour
1 hour
3 hours
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour
1 hour
2 hours
1 hour
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour
1 hour
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
3 hours
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour
2 hours
3 hours
1 hour
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour
Scientific Method and Measurements
Body Organization and Terminology
Care and Use of the Compound Microscope
Cell Structure and Function
Movements Through Cell Membranes
The Cell Cycle
Epithelial Tissues
Connective Tissues
Muscle and Nervous Tissues
Integumentary System
Structure of Bone
Organization of the Skeleton
The Skull
Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage
Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
The Joints
Skeletal Muscle Structure
Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck
Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet
Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb
Nervous Tissue and Nerves
The Reflex Arc and Reflexes
The Meninges and Spinal Cord
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Dissection of the Sheep Brain
The Ear and Hearing
The Eye
Visual Tests and Demonstrations
Endocrine System
Blood Cells
Blood TestingA Demonstration
Blood Typing
Structure of the Heart
The Cardiac Cycle
Blood Vessels
Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure
Major Arteries and Veins
Lymphatic System
xi
Exercise 41
Exercise 42
Exercise 43
Exercise 44
Exercise 45
Exercise 46
Exercise 47
Exercise 48
Organs of the Digestive System
Action of a Digestive Enzyme
Organs of the Respiratory System
Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
Structure of the Kidney
Urinalysis
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
xii
3 hours
2 hours
2 hours
1 hour
2 hours
3 hours
2 hours
2 hours
xiii
LABORATORY EXERCISE 1
SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND MEASUREMENTS
CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION ANSWER
Answers and data will vary
Laboratory Report Answers
Part A
1.
(experimental results)
2.
(experimental results)
3.
Answers will vary, however many students will conclude that the data will support the original hypothesis
Part B
1—6.
Answers will vary.
1
LABORATORY EXERCISE 2
BODY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
If a dissectible torso is not available, you might want to have the students consult the figures in various sections of
the textbook, particularly the reference plates following chapter 1, to gain some understanding of the organizational
pattern of the human body.
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 2.1
1.
Thoracic
4.
Pelvic
2.
Abdominal
5.
Cranial
3.
Abdominopelvic
6.
Vertebral
Figure 2.2
1.
Frontal sinuses
4.
Oral cavity
2.
Orbital cavities
5.
Sphenoidal sinus
3.
Nasal cavity
6.
Middle ear cavity
Figure 2.3a
Figure 2.3b
1.
Visceral pleura
7.
Visceral peritoneum
2.
Pleural cavity
8.
Peritoneal cavity
3.
Parietal pleura
9.
Parietal peritoneum
4.
Visceral pericardium (epicardium)
5.
Pericardial cavity
6.
Parietal pericardium
Figure 2.4
1.
Coronal plane
2.
Sagittal plane
3.
Transverse plane
Figure 2.5a
1.
Epigastric region
6.
Left hypochondriac
2.
Right hypochondriac region
7.
Left lumbar region
3.
Right lumbar region
8.
Left iliac region
4.
Umbilical region
9.
Hypogastric region
5.
Right iliac region
Figure 2.6a
1.
Nasal
11.
Carpal
2.
Oral
12.
Palmar
3.
Cervical
13.
Digital
4.
Acromial
14.
Genital
5.
Axillary
15.
Crural
6.
Mammary
16.
Tarsal
7.
Brachial
17.
Cephalic
8.
Antecubital
18.
Frontal
9.
Abdominal
19.
Orbital
10.
Antebrachial
20.
Buccal
2
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Mental
Sternal
Pectoral
Umbilical
Inguinal
Coxal
Patellar
Pedal
Figure 2.6b
29.
Otic
30.
Occipital
31.
Acromial
32.
Vertebral
33.
Brachial
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
Dorsal
Cubital
Lumbar
Sacral
Gluteal
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
Perineal
Femoral
Popliteal
Crural
Plantar
d
a
c
a
e
11.
12.
13.
14.
d
c
d
d
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
d
e
j
g
b
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
a
2.
d
3.
a
4.
a
5.
b
Part B
1.
visceral pleura
2.
visceral pericardium
3.
parietal peritoneum
Part C
1.
c
2.
d
3.
h
4.
g
5.
j
6.
i
Part D
1.
inferior
2.
(correct)
3.
(correct)
4.
anterior
5.
(correct)
6.
(correct)
Part E (figure 2.7)
1.
Cross section
2.
Oblique section
3.
Longitudinal section
Part F
1.
f
2.
i
3.
n
4.
c
5.
k
Part G
1.
j
2.
c
3.
f
4.
k
5.
l
6.
n
7.
h
8.
o
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
4.
5.
6.
visceral peritoneum
mediastinum
diaphragm
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
e
f
k
b
a
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
distal
(correct)
superficial
(correct)
deep
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
m
o
a
l
h
d
m
i
e
a
b
g
3
Critical Thinking Application Answers
Part H
1.
LUQ
4.
RUQ
2.
RLQ
5.
LUQ or LLQ
3.
any or all quadrants
6.
LUQ
4
LABORATORY EXERCISE 3
CARE AND USE OF THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
To stimulate student interest in the use of the microscope, you may want to have the students prepare wet
mounts of pond water and observe the various forms of life present. A plankton net is a helpful device to
concentrate pond organisms. Students can be encouraged to bring samples of pond water to class in
preparation for this experiment.
You may want to provide students with prepared slides of the major human organs to examine as a way of
increasing their experience with using the microscope.
If oil-immersion objectives are available, you may want to provide students with prepared slides of various
forms of bacteria to observe using these objectives.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Answers will vary depending upon the order of the three colored threads. However, the colored thread on the top
will be in focus first, the middle one second, and the bottom one last as the student continues to turn the fine
adjustment the same direction.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
100
1,000
(sketch)
About 4.5 mm for scanning power (using 4 objective)
About 4,500 micrometers
About 2.2 mm
About 2,200 micrometers
(sketch)
About 1.7 mm (using a 10 objective)
The diameter of the scanning-power field of view is about 2.6 times greater than that of the low-power field
of view.
Student is unable to see two adjacent mm lines on the scale in the high-power field of view.
Light intensity is decreased when high-power objective is used.
(sketch)
Upside down and reversed from right to left
Left
Toward the observer
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Part D
1.
f
2.
i
3.
c
4.
a
5.
h
Part E
(sketches)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
j
d
b
g
e
5
LABORATORY EXERCISE 4
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
1.
2.
Instead of preparing cheek cell slides, you may want to have students prepare slides of plant cells using
Elodea leaves or onion skin.
If live frogs are available, you may want to pith the frogs and have students prepare wet mounts using small
samples of the ciliated epithelium that lines the oral cavity. They also can prepare smears of frog blood and
stain the cells with methylene blue, and prepare wet mounts of sperm cells from the testes of the male
frogs. You then might provide students with prepared slides of human ciliated epithelium, blood, and sperm
cells and have the students compare the frog cells with the human cells.
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 4.1
1.
Flagellum
2.
Centrioles
3.
Golgi apparatus
4.
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
5.
6.
7.
8.
Nucleus
Nuclear envelope
Mitochondrion
Ribosomes
9.
10.
Cell membrane
Cilia
Figure 4.2
1.
Globular protein
2.
Carbohydrate
3.
Fibrous protein
4.
Cholesterol molecules
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The outer body surface is the same tissue as inside the cheek, however, outer surface cells are dead from dryng out.
Light scraping of the inside of the cheek does not hurt or bleed as stratified squamous epithelial tissue is many cells
thick. Epithelial cells lack nerve endings and blood vessels between the cells that make the tissue ideal for
coverings and protection.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part C
1.
2.
b
k
a
o
p
m
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
j
e
d
g
c
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
lipids, proteins, and some carbohydrates
a double layer of phospholipids
water soluble
protein
protein
(sketch)
The stained cells made the nucleus more clearly visible.
6
i
h
l
n
f
3.
Part D
1.
2.
3.
Yes. Cells with similar structure would have a similar function.
(sketches)
They should always notice cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear envelope, and cell membrane
Answers will vary.
7
LABORATORY EXERCISE 5
MOVEMENTS THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
Instead of using human blood for Procedure C, you may want to substitute some other type of animal blood obtained
from a meatpacking house, a veterinarian, or a biological supply house.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
(experimental results)
2.
(experimental results)
3.
Answers will vary.
4.
Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration as a result of molecular motion.
Critical Thinking Application Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
yes
yes
no
no
yes
Part B
1.
Answers will vary.
2.
Answers will vary.
3.
Water entered the thistle tube through the membrane, thus increasing the volume of liquid in the tube.
4.
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration through a selectively permeable membrane
Critical Thinking Application Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
Part D
1.
2.
3.
4.
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
(sketches)
Tube 3. There was a net movement of water out of the cells.
Tube 1. There was a net movement of water into the cells.
Tube 2. There was no net movement of water into or out of the cells.
Water, glucose, and starch
The tests for glucose and starch were positive.
Gravity
Charcoal
8
5.
6.
Pores in the filter paper were too small.
Filtration is the movement of substances through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure that is
greater on one side of the membrane than on the other side.
Critical Thinking Application Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
no
yes
no
no
yes
9
LABORATORY EXERCISE 6
THE CELL CYCLE
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 6.2
1.
Chromosome (chromatid)
2.
Centromere
3.
Centriole
4.
Spindle fiber (microtubules)
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Interphase. Even in rapidly dividing cells interphase is the most prevalent because it requires the longest period of
time for growth and duplication of cell structures.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
Table:
Stage
Interphase
Prophase
Major Events Occurring
Growth, duplication of cell structures, and normal metabolism take place.
Nuclear envelope disappears; chromatin fibers condense forming chromosomes (paired
chromatids); centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell.
Chromosomes align midway between centrioles.
Microtubules pull chromosomes toward centrioles.
Chromosomes elongate and become chromatin fibers; nuclear envelopes reappear.
Cell membrane constricts, dividing cell into new cells (daughter cells).
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytoplasmic
division
Part B
(sketches)
Part C
1.
Each new cell (daughter cell) contains identical chromosomes.
2.
They may be slightly different in size and number of organelles.
3.
Mitosis involves the division of the nuclear contents and the distribution of identical sets of chromosomes
to the new cells; cytokinesis involves the division of the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles.
Part D (figure 6.5a-d)
a.
Metaphase
b.
Telophase
c.
Prophase
d.
Anaphase
Part E (figure 6.5a-d)
1.
Chromosome (chromatid)
2.
Cytokinesis (cleavage furrow)
3.
Cell membrane
4.
Nuclear envelope
5.
Centrioles/centrosome
6.
Spindle fibers/microtubules
10
LABORATORY EXERCISE 7
EPITHELIAL TISSUES
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
f
2.
d
3.
c
4.
d
5.
c
6.
d
Part B
(sketches)
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
e
f
b
a
a
e
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Stratified squamous epithelium would have excellent protection as it is several cells thick. Pseudostratified
columnar epithelium with cilia would provide good movement of mucus and trapped particles away from the
lungs.
11
LABORATORY EXERCISE 8
CONNECTIVE TISSUES
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
e
2.
a
3.
b
4.
c
5.
h
6.
d
7.
a
Part B
(sketches)
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
g
f
g
a
h
c
12
LABORATORY EXERCISE 9
MUSCLE AND NERVOUS TISSUES
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
b
2.
a
3.
d
4.
a
5.
c
6.
b
7.
c
8.
a
9.
d
10.
b
Part B
(sketches)
13
LABORATORY EXERCISE 10
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 10.1
1.
Epidermis
2.
Dermis
3.
Subcutaneous layer
4.
Hair shaft
5.
Stratum corneum
6.
Stratum basale
Figure 10.2
1.
Arrector pili muscle
2.
Region of cell division
3.
Hair shaft
4.
Sebaceous glands
5.
Hair follicle
6.
Sweat gland (eccrine gland)
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Sebaceous gland
Arrector pili muscle
Hair follicle
Sweat gland (eccrine gland)
Blood vessels
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Melanin granules are concentrated within some of the most superficial living cells of the body. Because melanin
absorbs the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, minimal damaging wavelengths reach the living cells of the dermis.
(Most of the melanin granules are oriented on the superficial side of the nucleus that serve as a protective shield of
the nucleus of the epidermal cells.)
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
k
m
a
h
c
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
d
i
e
j
g
11.
12.
13.
14.
n
l
f
b
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
Epidermal cells at the base of the hair follicle divide and grow, pushing older cells outward; as these cells
die they become the keratinized parts of the hair.
Pigment is produced by melanocytes.
4.
Part C
1.
Epidermis is the outer layer of the skin while the dermis is the inner layer; the subcutaneous layer binds the
dermis to the underlying organs.
2.
Cells of the stratum basale are living and reproduce actively; cells of the stratum corneum are dead and
keratinized and form the surface layer of the skin.
3.
It contains both elastic and collagenous fibers that give the dermis the qualities of elasticity and strength.
Part D
1.
Dermis
2.
Sebaceous glands are usually connected to hair follicles and secrete sebum into the follicles.
3.
Dermis
14
Part E
(sketch)
15
LABORATORY EXERCISE 11
STRUCTURE OF BONE
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 11.1
1.
Articular cartilage
2.
Spongy bone (red marrow)
3.
Compact bone
4.
Medullary cavity
5.
Yellow marrow
Figure 11.2
1.
Spongy bone
2.
Compact bone
3.
Osteon
4.
Periosteum
5.
Central canal
6.
7.
8.
9.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Periosteum
Proximal epiphysis
Diaphysis
Distal epiphysis
Perforating canal
Blood vessel
Nerve
Canaliculus
Osteocyte
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The closest blood supply to an osteocyte is located in the central canal of an osteon unit. Nutrients and wastes can
move from one cell to another via small cellular processes located in minute tubes in the matrix called canaliculi.
In this way, all of the osteocytes of one osteon are tied to a blood source.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
Long bones occur in the upper and lower limbs.
An epiphysis is the expanded end of a long bone, and a diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone.
Cartilage forms a coating on the outer face of an epiphysis of a long bone.
Except for its articular portions, a bone is enclosed by a covering of fibrous connective tissue called the
periosteum.
5.
Bony processes provide attachments for ligaments and tendons.
6.
The periosteum forms an outer covering, and the endosteum lines the spaces and cavities within a bone.
7.
Compact bone has osteons closely packed together, but spongy bone has large spaces between thin bony
plates.
8.
Compact bone provides strength in the shaft and along the borders of the bone. Spongy bone reduces the
weight of the bone and provides spaces occupied by marrow.
9.
The marrow in the medullary cavity of an adult is yellow, but marrow in the spaces of spongy bone is red.
Part B (figure 11.3 a and b)
1.
Epiphysis (distal)
2.
Diaphysis
3.
Epiphysis (proximal)
4.
Medullary cavity
5.
Compact bone
6.
Spongy bone
16
LABORATORY EXERCISE 12
ORGANIZATION OF THE SKELETON
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 12.1a
1.
Cranial bones (cranium)
2.
Facial bones (face)
3.
Skull
4.
Clavicle
5.
Sternum
6.
Ribs
7.
Vertebral column (vertebra)
8.
Coxa (hipbone; innominate)
9.
Carpals
10.
Metacarpals
11.
Phalanx (distal)
12.
Patella
13.
Tarsal
14.
Metatarsal
15.
Phalanx
Figure 12.1b
16. Scapula
17. Humerus
18. Ulna
19. Radius
20. Femur
21. Tibia
22. Fibula
23. Vertebral column (vertebra)
24. Sacrum
25. Coccyx
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The largest foramen in the skull is the foramen magnum in the occipital bone. The largest foramen in the human
body is the obturator foramen in the coxa.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
axial
hyoid
coccyx
thoracic vertebrae
twelve
pectoral girdle
ulna
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
carpals
sacrum
pelvis
patella
tarsals
phalanges
c
f
a
e
5.
6.
7.
g
b
d
c
a
g
b
5.
6.
7.
d
f
e
17
LABORATORY EXERCISE 13
THE SKULL
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
You might want to have the students use colored pencils to color the bones in figures 13.1 through 13.5. They
should use a different color for each of the individual bones in the series. This activity should cause the students to
observe the figures more carefully and help them to locate the various bones that are shown from different views in
the figures. The students can check their work by referring to the corresponding full-color figures in the textbook.
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 13.1
1.
Parietal bone
2.
Frontal bone
3.
Coronal suture
4.
Temporal bone
5.
Perpendicular plate (of
ethmoid bone)
6.
Infraorbital foramen
Figure 13.2
1.
Parietal bone
2.
Squamosal suture
3.
Lambdoidal suture
4.
Temporal bone
5.
Occipital bone
6.
Temporal process (of
zygomatic bone)
7.
External auditory
meatus
Figure 13.3
1.
Zygomatic bone
2.
Sphenoid bone
3.
Vomer
4.
Zygomatic arch
5.
Temporal bone
6.
Styloid process
Figure 13.4
1.
Ethmoid bone
2.
Foramen magnum
3.
Crista galli
4.
Cribriform plate
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Vomer bone
Mandible
Supraorbital foramen
Nasal bone
Sphenoid bone
Zygomatic bone
13.
14.
15.
16.
Middle nasal concha
(of ethmoid bone)
Inferior nasal concha
Maxilla
Mental foramen
8.
9.
10.
11.
Mastoid process
Styloid process
Mandibular condyle
Zygomatic process (of
temporal bone)
Coronal suture
Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Lacrimal bone
Nasal bone
Zygomatic bone
Maxilla
Mandible
Coronoid process
External auditory
meatus
Mastoid process
Occipital condyle
Maxilla
Palatine process of
maxilla
12.
13.
14.
15.
Palatine bone
Foramen magnum
Lambdoidal suture
Occipital bone
Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
Temporal bone
8.
9.
10.
Sella turcica
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
12.
13.
14.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
5.
6.
7.
18
Figure 13.5
1.
Coronal suture
2.
Frontal bone
3.
Frontal sinus
4.
Ethmoid bone
5.
Nasal bone
6.
Perpendicular plate
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Maxilla
Mandible
Temporal bone
Parietal bone
Squamosal suture
Lambdoidal suture
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Occipital bone
Sella turcica
Styloid process
Sphenoidal sinus
Vomer bone
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
d
5.
c
9.
c
2.
a
6.
f
10.
e
3.
a
7.
f
11.
f
4.
f
8.
a
12.
b
Part B
1.
coronal
2.
sagittal
3.
lambdoidal
4.
squamosal
5.
The three cranial bones containing sinuses are the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.
6.
the maxilla
Part C
1.
e
7.
h
2.
c
8.
a
3.
c
9.
d
4.
h
10.
f
5.
d
11.
b
6.
g
Part D
Figure 13.7
Figure 13.8
1.
Frontal bone
1.
Frontal bone
2.
Nasal
2.
Temporal bone
3.
Zygomatic
3.
Parietal bone
4.
Infraorbital foramen
4.
Occipital bone
5.
Maxilla
5.
Ethmoid bone
6.
Mandible
6.
Sphenoid bone
7.
Middle nasal concha
7.
Sella turcica
8.
Inferior nasal concha
8.
Foramen magnum
9.
Mental foramen
Figure 13.9
1.
Maxilla
6.
Palatine process of maxilla
2.
Zygomatic bone
7.
Palatine bone
3.
Sphenoid bone
8.
Vomer bone
4.
Temporal bone
9.
Occipital condyle
5.
Occipital bone
10.
Foramen magnum
Figure 13.10
1.
Parietal bone
4.
Zygomatic bone
6.
Frontal bone
2.
Sphenoid bone
5.
Maxilla
7.
Mandible
3.
Temporal bone
19
LABORATORY EXERCISE 14
VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND THORACIC CAGE
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 14.1
1.
Cervical
2.
Thoracic
3.
Lumbar
4.
Intervertebral discs
Figure 14.2a
1.
Facet for dens (odontoid process)
2.
Facet for occipital condyle
3.
Transverse foramen
4.
Transverse process
Figure 14.3
1.
Lamina
2.
Body
3.
Lamina
4.
Pedicle
5.
Body
6.
Lamina
7.
Superior articular process
8.
Vertebral foramen
9.
Spinous process (bifid)
Figure 14.4
1.
Superior articular process
2.
Pelvic sacral foramen
3.
Coccyx
4.
Sacral canal
5.
6.
7.
Intervertebral foramina
Sacrum
Coccyx
Figure 14.2b
5.
Dens (odontoid process)
6.
Superior articular facet
7.
Transverse foramen
8.
Body
9.
Vertebral foramen
10.
Spinous process
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Superior articular facet
Transverse foramen
Spinous process
Transverse process
Facet for rib articulation
Transverse process
Pedicle
Body
5.
6.
7.
8.
Superior articular process
Tubercle
Dorsal sacral foramen
Sacral hiatus
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The four curvatures allow more resiliency and flexibility, which will enable the vertebral column to function more
like a spring instead of a rigid rod.
Figure 14.5
1.
True ribs
5.
Body
2.
False ribs
6.
Xiphoid process
3.
Thoracic vertebra
7.
Sternum
4.
Manubrium
8.
Costal cartilage
9.
Floating ribs
20
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
spinal cord
bodies
intervertebral discs
vertebral arch
spinal nerves
arteries
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
atlas
dens (odontoid process)
lumbar
five
sacral hiatus
Part B
Vertebra
Number
Size
Body
Spinous
Transverse
Process
Foramina
Cervical
7
smallest
smallest
C2 through C5
are forked
present
Thoracic
12
intermediate
intermediate
pointed and
angled downward
absent
Lumbar
5
largest
largest
short, blunt, and
nearly horizontal
absent
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
206
floating
transverse
clavicles
a. It supports the shoulder girdle and arms.
b. It protects the visceral organs in the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities.
c. It aids breathing.
Part D (figure 14.6)
1.
Spinous process
2.
Atlas
3.
Axis
4.
Transverse process
5.
Intervertebral disc
6.
Body (of sixth cervical vertebra)
21
LABORATORY EXERCISE 15
PECTORAL GIRDLE AND UPPER LIMB
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 15.1
1.
Clavicle
2.
Rib
3.
Sternum
4.
Costal cartilage
Figure 15.2a
1.
Acromion process
2.
Coracoid process
3.
Spine
4.
Glenoid cavity (fossa)
5.
6.
7.
8.
Scapula
Humerus
Ulna
Radius
Figure 15.2b
5.
Acromion process
6.
Coracoid process
7.
Glenoid cavity
9.
10.
11.
Acromion process
Head of humerus
Coracoid process
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The clavicles brace the freely movable scapulae, helping to hold the shoulders in place. If an excessive lengthwise
force occurs on this structurally weak bone, as when a person breaks a fall with an outstretched rigid upper limb, it
is likely to fracture.
Figure 15.3
1.
Head
2.
Greater tubercle
3.
Anatomical neck
4.
Surgical neck
5.
Olecranon fossa
6.
Lateral epicondyle
Figure 15.4
1.
Trochlear notch
2.
Coronoid process
3.
Head radius
Figure 15.5
1.
Distal phalanx
2.
Middle phalanx
3.
Proximal phalanx
4.
Metacarpals
5.
Carpals
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Capitulum
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Intertubercular groove
Deltoid tuberosity
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Coronoid fossa
Capitulum
Trochlea
Medial epicondyle
Trochlea
4.
5.
6.
Radial tuberosity
Styloid process
Olecranon process
7.
8.
Head of ulna
Styloid process
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Pisiform
Triquetrum
Hamate
Phalanges
Trapezium
11.
12.
13.
14.
Trapezoid
Scaphoid
Capitate
Lunate
spine
acromion process
6.
7.
coracoid process
head
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
scapulae
2.
manubrium
3.
acromion process
4.
5.
22
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
a
b
b
b
b
Part C (figures 15.6, 15.7, and 15.8)
1.
Ulna
2.
Humerus
3.
Olecranon process
4.
Head of radius
5.
Radius
6.
Acromion process
6.
7.
8.
9.
a
b
c
e
10.
11.
12.
13.
a
a
f
d
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Head of humerus
Humerus
Clavicle
Scapula
Rib
Phalanges
13.
14.
15.
16.
Metacarpals
Carpals
Distal phalanx
Proximal phalanx
23
LABORATORY EXERCISE 16
PELVIC GIRDLE AND LOWER LIMB
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 16.1
1.
Coxa (hipbone; innominate)
2.
Sacrum
3.
Coccyx
Figure 16.2
1.
Iliac crest
2.
Anterior superior iliac
spine
3.
Acetabulum
4.
5.
6.
Obturator foramen
Pubis
Ilium
7.
8.
9.
Ischial spine
Ischium
Ischial tuberosity
Critical Thinking Application Answer
All of the features examined are wider in the female pelvis which will result in a larger pelvic cavity and must also
serve as a birth canal for a vaginal delivery.
Figure 16.3
1.
Head
2.
Fovea capitis
3.
Greater trochanter
4.
Neck
Figure 16.4
1.
Lateral condyle
2.
Head of fibula
3.
Fibula
Figure 16.5
1.
Tarsals
2.
Metatarsals
3.
Phalanges
4.
Calcaneus
5.
Talus
5.
6.
7.
Lateral epicondyle
Lesser trochanter
Lateral condyle
8.
9.
Medial condyle
Medial epicondyle
4.
5.
6.
Lateral malleolus
Medial condyle
Tibial tuberosity
7.
8.
Tibia
Medial malleolus
6.
7.
8.
9.
Navicular
Cuboid
Lateral cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
10.
11.
12.
13.
Medial cuneiform
Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Distal phalanx
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
coxae (hipbones)
acetabulum
ilium
4.
5.
6.
symphysis pubis
iliac crest
tuberosity
7.
8.
9.
pubic arch
Obturator foramen
sacroiliac
e
a
g
a
5.
6.
7.
8.
f
f
g
f
9.
10.
11.
12.
f
b
d
c
24
Part C (figures 16.6, 16.7, and 16.8)
1.
Obturator foramen
2.
Symphysis pubis
3.
Ilium
4.
Sacrum
5.
Head of femur
6.
Pubis
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Femur
Tibia
Lateral epicondyle
Lateral condyle
Head of fibula
Fibula
25
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Tibia
Talus
Calcaneus
Metatarsal
Proximal phalanx
Distal phalanx
LABORATORY EXERCISE 17
THE JOINTS
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Maximum flexion of body parts can occur when in fetal position or performing a cannon ball into
a swimming pool.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
suture
2.
cartilaginous
3.
fibrous
4.
fibrocartilage
5.
Synovial joints
Part B
1.
a
2.
b
3.
e
4.
d
5.
d
Part C (figure 17.2)
1.
Rotation
2.
Elevation
3.
Depression
4.
Supination
5.
Pronation
6.
Abduction
7.
Adduction
8.
Flexion
9.
Extension
10.
Abduction
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Synovial fluid
menisci
bursae
cartilaginous
hyaline cartilage
a
c
f
c
Adduction
Circumduction
Protraction
Retraction
Extension
Flexion
Extension
Flexion
Flexion
Extension
26
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Flexion
Extension
Flexion
Extension
Flexion
Extension
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
LABORATORY EXERCISE 18
SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 18.2
1.
Fascicle
7.
2.
Muscle fibers (cells)
8.
3.
Sarcolemma (cell membrane)
9.
4.
Tendon
10.
5.
Fascia
11.
6.
Epimysium
12.
Figure 18.3
1.
Myofibrils
6.
2.
Cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum 7.
3.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
8.
4.
Transverse tubules
9.
5.
Openings into transverse tubules 10.
Perimysium
Endomysium
Nucleus
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Myofibrils
Filaments
Mitochondria
Myofilaments (filaments)
Sarcoplasm
Sarcolemma
Nucleus
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
n
2.
k
3.
e
4.
h
5.
b
6.
a
7.
i
Part B (figure 18.4)
1.
Z line
2.
I band
3.
A band
4.
Sarcomere
Part C
1.
origin
2.
insertion
3.
two heads
4.
biceps brachii
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
5.
6.
7.
d
j
c
l
m
g
f
prime mover
synergists
prime movers
27
LABORATORY EXERCISE 19
MUSCLES OF THE FACE, HEAD, AND NECK
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 19.1
1.
Frontalis
2.
Occipitalis
3.
Masseter
4.
Sternocleidomastoid
5.
Temporalis
Figure 19.2
1.
Semispinalis capitis
2.
Splenius capitis
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Orbicularis oculi
Zygomaticus
Buccinator
Orbicularis oris
Platysma
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
zygomaticus
buccinator
orbicularis oris
close the lower jaw (as in biting)
5.
6.
7.
orbicularis oculi
sternocleidomastoid
platysma
epicranius
zygomaticus
masseter
sternocleidomastoid
buccinator
6.
7.
8.
9.
platysma
temporalis
splenius capitis
semispinalis capitis
Critical Thinking Application Answers
Part C (figure 19.3)
1.
Epicranius (frontalis)
2.
Zygomaticus
3.
Orbicularis oculi
4.
5.
Orbicularis oris
Platysma
28
LABORATORY EXERCISE 20
MUSCLES OF THE CHEST, SHOULDER, AND UPPER LIMB
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 20.1
1.
Trapezius
2.
Deltoid
3.
Latissimus dorsi
Figure 20.2
1.
Pectoralis minor
2.
Internal intercostal
Figure 20.3a
1.
Levator scapulae
2.
Supraspinatus
3.
Deltoid
Figure 20.3b
1.
Deltoid
2.
Biceps brachii
3.
Subscapularis
Figure 20.4a
1.
Biceps brachii
2.
Brachialis
3.
Supinator
4.
Pronator teres
Figure 20.4b
1.
Triceps brachii
2.
Flexor carpi ulnaris
3.
Extensor carpi ulnaris
4.
5.
6.
Levator scapulae
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
7.
8.
9.
Teres minor
Teres major
Rhomboideus major
3.
4.
Serratus anterior
Trapezius
5.
6.
Deltoid
Pectoralis major
4.
5.
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
6.
7.
Teres major
Triceps brachii
4.
5.
Coracobrachialis
Brachialis
5.
6.
Brachioradialis
Extensor carpi radialis
longus
Flexor carpi radialis
8.
9.
10.
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Pronator quadratus
Brachioradialis
Extensor carpi radialis
longus
6.
7.
Extensor carpi radialis
brevis
Extensor digitorum
7.
4.
5.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
c
h
e
k
j
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
i
m
l
a
b
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
o
n
d
g
f
rhomboideus major
serratus anterior
pectoralis minor
coracobrachialis
teres major
subscapularis
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
teres minor
brachialis
pronator teres
pronator quadratus
brachioradialis
12.
13.
14.
flexor carpi radialis
palmaris longus
extensor carpi radialis
longus
extensor carpi ulnaris
29
15.
Critical Thinking Application Answers
Part C (figure 20.5)
1. Trapezius
2. Deltoid
3. Pectoralis major
4. Rectus abdominis
5. Sternocleidomastoid
6. Biceps brachii
7. Serratus anterior
8. External oblique
9. Deltoid
10. Trapezius
11. Infraspinatus
12. Biceps brachii
13. Triceps brachii
14. Latissimus dorsi
15. Pectoralis major
16. Serratus anterior
17. Biceps brachii
18. Trapezius
19. Deltoid
20. Triceps brachii
21. Brachioradialis
30
LABORATORY EXERCISE 21
MUSCLES OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL AND PELVIC OUTLET
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 21.1
1.
Rectus abdominis
2.
Internal oblique
3.
Transversus abdominis
4.
External oblique
Figure 21.2
1.
Ischiocavernosus
2.
Bulbospongiosus
3.
Superficial transversus perinei
Figure 21.3
1.
Ischiocavernosus
2.
Bulbospongiosus
3.
Superficial transversus perinei
4.
5.
6.
Levator ani
Gluteus maximus
External anal sphincter
4.
5.
6.
Levator ani
Gluteus maximus
External anal sphincter
Critical Thinking Application Answer
An appendectomy incision would involve the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis
muscles from superficial to deep.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
linea alba
rectus abdominis
transversus abdominis
tense the abdominal wall and compress the contents of the abdominal cavity
tense the abdominal wall and flex the vertebral column
pelvic
anal canal and vagina
support the pelvic viscera
bulbospongiosus
constrict the vagina
ischial tuberosity
31
LABORATORY EXERCISE 22
MUSCLES OF THE HIP AND LOWER LIMB
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 22.1
1.
Psoas major
2.
Iliacus
3.
Tensor fasciae latae
Figure 22.2
1.
Gluteus medius
2.
Gluteus maximus
3.
Biceps femoris
4.
Tensor fasciae latae
Figure 22.3
1.
Adductor magnus
2.
Gracilis
3.
Semitendinosus
4.
Semimembranosus
Figure 22.4
1.
Tibialis anterior
2.
Peroneus (fibularis) longus
3.
Extensor digitorum longus
Figure 22.5
1.
Gastrocnemius
2.
Soleus
3.
Peroneus (fibularis) longus
Figure 22.6
1.
Gastrocnemius
2.
Soleus
3.
Flexor digitorum longus
4.
Peroneus (fibularis) longus
4.
5.
6.
Sartorius
Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
5.
6.
7.
Sartorius
Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
5.
6.
7.
8.
Gastrocnemius
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
Biceps femoris
4.
5.
Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
7.
8.
9.
Adductor longus
Gracilis
Vastus medialis
8.
9.
10.
vastus medialis
flexor digitorum longus
tibialis anterior
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
c
d
e
g
gluteus medius and
gluteus minimus
adductor magnus
sartorius
5.
6.
7.
8.
4.
5.
6.
7.
b
a
f
h
gastrocnemius
tensor fasciae latae
vastus lateralis
semitendinosus
32
Critical Thinking Application Answers
Part C (figure 22.7)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus lateralis
Sartorius
5.
6.
7.
8.
33
Vastus medialis
Tibialis anterior
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
LABORATORY EXERCISE 23
NERVOUS TISSUE AND NERVES
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 23.1
1.
Chromatophilic substance (Nissl bodies)
2.
Dendrites
3.
Nucleus
4.
Nucleolus
5.
Nodes of Ranvier
Figure 23.2
1.
Schwann cell nucleus
2.
Myelin (myelin sheath)
3.
Axon (nerve fiber)
4.
Neurilemmal sheath (neurilemma)
6.
7.
8.
9.
Axon (nerve fiber)
Schwann cell
Cell body
Neurofibrils
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
d
f
k
j
e
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
h
i
g
c
a
b
(sketch)
(sketch)
(sketch)
(sketch)
(sketch)
34
LABORATORY EXERCISE 24
THE REFLEX ARC AND REFLEXES
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 24.1
5
3
4
1
2
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
Nerve pathways
central nervous system (spinal cord)
Reflexes
muscles
sensory
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
quadriceps femoris
quadriceps femoris
upright posture
skin
Flexor
Table:
Response Observed
Effector Involved
Extension of leg
Quadriceps femoris
Plantar flexion
Gastrocnemius and soleus
Flexion of forearm or slight biceps twitch
Biceps brachii
Extension of forearm or slight triceps twitch
Triceps brachii
Plantar flexion of foot and flexion of toes
Gastrocnemius, soleus, and flexor digitorum longus
The quadriceps femoris is stretched, stimulating stretch receptors within the muscle. As a result, impulses
pass along sensory neurons into the spinal cord and synapse with a motor neuron. Motor impulses travel
out of the cord on nerve fibers that lead to the quadriceps femoris. Muscle fibers contract, and the leg is
extended.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
All of these reflexes are rapid, subconscious responses to physical stimuli.
35
LABORATORY EXERCISE 25
THE MENINGES AND SPINAL CORD
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 25.1
1.
Spinal nerve
2.
Dorsal root ganglion
3.
Gray matter
4.
Body of vertebra
5.
Epidural space
Figure 25.2
1.
Posterior horn
2.
Lateral funiculus
3.
Anterior horn
4.
Posterior funiculus
5.
Posterior median sulcus
6.
7.
8.
9.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ventral root of spinal nerve
Dorsal root of spinal nerve
White matter
Subarachnoid space
Lateral horn
Central canal
Gray commissure
Anterior median fissure
Anterior funiculus
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
b
2.
d
3.
e
Part B
1.
spinal nerves
2.
cervical enlargement
3.
lumbar enlargement
4.
posterior median sulcus
5.
horns
6.
anterior
Part C (figure 25.3)
1.
Dorsal root of spinal nerve
2.
White matter
3.
Ventral root of spinal nerve
4.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
4.
5.
6.
a
c
gray commissure
central canal
funiculi
nerve tracts (ascending and descending)
meninges
Gray matter
Dorsal root ganglion
Central canal
36
LABORATORY EXERCISE 26
THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 26.1
12
6
1
11
8
5
10
7
4
9
3
2
Figure 26.2
1.
Frontal lobe
2.
Temporal lobe
3.
Parietal lobe
4.
Occipital lobe
Figure 26.3
1.
Motor area for voluntary
4.
Cutaneous sensory area
muscle control
5.
General interpretative area
2.
Motor speech area (Broca's area)
6.
Visual area
3.
Auditory area
Figure 26.4
1.
(I) Olfactory nerve
6.
(VI) Abducens nerve
2.
(II) Optic nerve
7.
(VII) Facial nerve
3.
(III) Oculomotor nerve
8.
(VIII) Vestibulocochlear
nerve
4.
(IV) Trochlear nerve
9.
(IX) Glossopharyngeal
5.
(V) Trigeminal nerve
nerve
10.
11.
12.
(X) Vagus nerve
(XI) Accessory nerve
(XII) Hypoglossal
nerve
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
h
2.
d
3.
c
4.
a
5.
g
Part B (figure 26.5)
1.
Corpus callosum
2.
Thalamus
3.
Hypothalamus
4.
Diencephalon
Part C
1.
vestibulocochlear
2.
facial,
glossopharyngeal
3.
optic
4.
olfactory
5.
vestibulocochlear
6.
trigeminal
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
i
f
j
e
b
5.
6.
7.
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata
8.
9.
10.
Brain stem
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
trigeminal
oculomotor
oculomotor
oculomotor
oculomotor, trochlear,
abducens
12.
facial,
glossopharyngeal
accessory
vagus, accessory,
hypoglossal
glossopharyngeal,
vagus, accessory,
hypoglossal
37
13.
14.
15.
LABORATORY EXERCISE 27
DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP BRAIN
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
Rather than have the students dissect sheep brains, you might want to provide the class with samples of whole sheep
brains and sectioned brains for examination. This should extend the use of the available specimens.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
The human cerebral hemispheres are relatively larger than those of the sheep.
2.
There are more convolutions and sulci in the human cerebrum.
3.
The human cerebrum with its large size and greater number of convolutions is more complex and thus able
to carry on more complex functions.
4.
The human cerebellum is divided in the midline into two hemispheres, but the sheep cerebellum is not
divided.
5.
The olfactory bulbs of the sheep brain are larger than those of the human brain.
6.
The olfactory, optic, and trigeminal nerves seem to be the most highly developed in the sheep brain.
7.
The senses of smell and sight and the sensory functions associated with the trigeminal nerve are highly
developed.
Critical Thinking Application Answers
Part B
1—5.
Answers will vary. The sheep brain and the human brain features are more similar than different.
Therefore a complete list of similar features would be very long. Among similar features include two
cerebral hemispheres, medulla oblongata, pineal gland, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, olfactory
bulb, four ventricles, and others. (Note only 5 answers are needed.)
38
LABORATORY EXERCISE 28
THE EAR AND HEARING
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 28.1
1.
Auricle
2.
Malleus
3.
Incus
4.
Semicircular canals
5.
Stapes
6.
Cochlea
7.
Vestibulocochlear nerve
Figure 28.2
4
6
Figure 28.3
1.
Tectorial membrane
2.
Hair cells (outer)
3.
Cochlear nerve (branch)
4.
Hair cell (inner)
5.
Basilar membrane
8.
9.
10.
11.
Oval window
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Auditory tube
External auditory meatus
5
3
1
2
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The largest ear structure is the auricle which is able to trap and funnel a minute sound wave into the middle and
inner ear structures. This will allow a concentration of the vibrations making the sound detection more likely to
occur.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
c
2.
j
3.
i
4.
g
5.
b
6.
k
Part B (figure 28.7)
1.
Scala media (cochlear duct)
2.
Tectorial membrane
3.
Hair cells
4.
Basilar membrane
5.
Scala tympani
Part C
1.
(experimental results)
2.
(experimental results)
3.
(experimental results)
4.
Answers will vary.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
h
d
e
a
f
39
LABORATORY EXERCISE 29
THE EYE
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 29.1
1.
Lacrimal gland
2.
Canaliculi (superior and inferior)
Figure 29.2
1.
Superior oblique
2.
Superior rectus
3.
Medial rectus
4.
Levator palpebrae superioris
Figure 29.3
1.
Ciliary body
2.
Suspensory ligaments
3.
Iris
4.
Lens
5.
Pupil
6.
Cornea
7.
Aqueous humor
8.
Anterior
3.
4.
Lacrimal sac
Nasolacrimal duct
5.
6.
7.
Lateral rectus
Inferior rectus
Inferior oblique
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Retina
Choroid coat
Sclera
Vitreous humor
Fovea centralis
Optic nerve
Optic disc
Posterior
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The delicate retina is only located next to the choroid coat by the pressure maintained by the vitreous humor.
Any alteration of this pressure could allow the retina to detach as was easily observed during the dissection.
No connective tissue was observed between the inner and middle tunics of the eye.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
b
l
e
d
g
i
n
j
f
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
a
k
m
c
h
cornea, aqueous humor, pupil of iris, lens,
vitreous humor, retina
Answers will vary.
The outer tunic (sclera) is toughest.
Dense (fibrous) connective tissue is responsible.
The pupil of the dissected eye was probably elliptical in shape, and the human pupil is round.
Aqueous humor occurs between the cornea and the lens.
The dark pigment absorbs excess light and keeps the eye dark inside.
The lens is biconvex and transparent (a preserved lens becomes cloudy).
The vitreous humor is a transparent, jellylike fluid.
40
LABORATORY EXERCISE 30
VISUAL TESTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS
Critical Thinking Application Answer
When using both eyes for observations, if the image of a small object falls on the optic disc of one eye, the object is
still seen by the other eye. This can be confirmed because the blind-spot demonstration will not work with both eyes
open.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(experimental results)
(experimental results)
(experimental results)
(experimental results)
a. A person with 20/70 vision can see from 20 feet what the normal eye sees from 70 feet. This person
has less than normal vision.
b. A person with 20/10 vision can see from 20 feet what the normal eye sees from 10 feet. This person
has better than normal vision.
c. Astigmatism results in blurred vision because some parts of the image on the retina are in focus, while
other parts are not.
d. The elastic quality of the lens tends to decrease with age.
e. The retina is lacking cones that are sensitive to red or green wavelengths (an X-linked/sex-linked trait).
(experimental results)
The optic disc lacks receptors (rods and cones) and thus creates a blind spot in the retina.
The photopupillary reflex involves the constriction of the pupil in response to exposure to bright light.
The photopupillary reflex occurs in both eyes even when one eye is shielded from the light; however, the
shielded eye may not show as much change as the exposed one.
When an eye is focused on a close object, the pupil constricts.
When the eyes are focused on a close object, they converge toward the midline.
41
LABORATORY EXERCISE 31
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 31.1
1.
Hypothalamus
2.
Pituitary gland
3.
Parathyroid gland
4.
Testis (male)
5.
Pineal gland
Figure 31.2
1.
Anterior lobe of pituitary gland
2.
Sphenoid bone
3.
Hypothalamus
Figure 31.3
1.
Thyroid gland
2.
Larynx
3.
Isthmus
Figure 31.4
1.
Pharynx
2.
Thyroid gland
3.
Parathyroid glands
4.
Esophagus
5.
Trachea
Figure 31.5
1.
Adrenal cortex
2.
Adrenal medulla
3.
Zona glomerulosa
Figure 31.6
1.
Gallbladder
2.
Small intestine
3.
Common bile duct
4.
Digestive enzyme-secreting cells
(exocrine)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Thyroid gland
Thymus
Adrenal gland
Pancreas
Ovary (female)
4.
5.
6.
Pituitary stalk
Posterior lobe of pituitary gland
Sella turcica
4.
5.
6.
Colloid
Follicular cell
Extrafollicular cell
4.
5.
Zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis
5.
6.
7.
8.
Pancreatic duct
Pancreas
Duct (of exocrine cells)
Islet of Langerhans (endocrine)
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
Growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating
hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin
2.
Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
3.
a. antidiuretic hormone
b. growth hormone
c. thyroid-stimulating hormone
d. oxytocin
e. adrenocorticotropic hormone
f. prolactin
4.
Thyroxine, triiodothyronine
5.
Calcitonin
6.
Parathyroid hormone
7.
Bones, intestine, kidneys
42
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Epinephrine, norepinephrine
Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, rise in blood sugar concentration, increased metabolic rate,
increased breathing rate, dilation of airways, decreased activity in the digestive tract (These are seven
possible responses for five requested.)
Aldosterone
Kidneys conserve sodium ions, kidneys increase excretion of potassium ions, kidneys conserve water
(reduce urine volume) (These are three possible responses for two requested.)
Cortisol
Decreases protein synthesis, increased release and use of fatty acids, stimulates liver to produce glucose
from noncarbohydrates
Insulin, glucagon
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Glucagon stimulates change of glycogen to glucose, causing an increase in the blood glucose concentration. Insulin
causes a decrease in the blood glucose concentration by promoting the transport of glucose into cells.
Part B
(sketches)
43
LABORATORY EXERCISE 32
BLOOD CELLS
WARNING
Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood slides are
prepared in the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood slides be used in this exercise. The
instructor, however, may wish to demonstrate the procedure for preparing such a slide.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
erythrocytes
2.
biconcave
3.
transporting and exchanging gases
4.
Hemoglobin
5.
oxyhemoglobin
6.
nuclei
7.
leukocytes
8.
granulocytes
Part B
(sketches)
Part C
1.
(experimental results)
2.
Answers will vary.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
agranulocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
Basophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
megakaryocytes
nucleus
Critical Thinking Application Answer
A total white blood cell count provides the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood; a differential
white blood cell count gives the relative percentages of types of white blood cells in a blood sample.
44
LABORATORY EXERCISE 33
BLOOD TESTING−A DEMONSTRATION
WARNING
Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another during bloodtesting procedures, it is suggested that the following demonstrations be performed by the instructor.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
(demonstration results)
Part B
1.
Answers will vary.
2.
Various forms of anemia will produce a decreased red blood cell percentage.
3.
Polycythemia, due to dehydration or an excessive production of red blood cells, will produce an increased
percentage of red blood cells.
Part C
1.
Answers will vary.
2.
Iron-deficiency anemia, lack of certain amino acids or vitamin B 12, pregnancy, severe hemorrhage,
excessive menstrual flow, or excessive fluid intake may cause a decreased hemoglobin content.
3.
Polycythemia, obstructive pulmonary diseases, congestive heart failure, and living at high altitudes may
cause an increased hemoglobin content.
Part D
1.
Answers will vary.
2.
Anemia, leukemia, and severe hemorrhage may cause a decreased red blood cell count.
3.
Severe dehydration, diarrhea, exercise, living at high altitudes, rise in temperature, or polycythemia may
cause an increased red blood cell count.
Part E
1.
Answers will vary.
2.
Aplastic anemia and adverse drug reactions may cause a decreased white blood cell count.
3.
Acute infections, leukemia, infectious mononucleosis, and menstruation may cause an increased white
blood cell count.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
RBC percentage (hematocrit), hemoglobin, and RBC count are all blood tests that could indicate anemia.
45
LABORATORY EXERCISE 34
BLOOD TYPING
WARNING
Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood testing is
performed in the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood-typing kits, containing virus-free
human blood, be used for ABO blood typing. The instructor may wish to demonstrate Rh blood typing.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The anti-A serum would contain anti-A antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type A blood. The
anti-B serum would contain anti-B antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type B blood.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part D
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
red blood cell membranes
four
A
B
anti-B
anti-A
AB
O
two to eight months
(experimental results)
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
rhesus monkey
antigen D
Rh-negative
Rh-negative
agglutinate
Rh-positive
(demonstration results)
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
46
LABORATORY EXERCISE 35
STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
You may want to have the students use colored pencils to color the features of the heart and blood vessels
in figure 35.3. This activity should help them observe the illustrations more carefully and locate the
various features shown from different views in the figures. They can check their work by referring to the
corresponding figures in the textbook, which are presented in full color.
Instead of using preserved sheep hearts, you might want to provide fresh pig hearts for dissection.
To reduce the cost of the specimens used, you might provide predissected, preserved sheep hearts for
observation and save the specimens for use with other classes.
Fresh beef hearts are sometimes available from meat-packing houses. You might want to demonstrate the
dissection of this large heart. Try to make sure that the atria and large blood vessels are left attached for
this purpose.
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 35.1
1.
Aorta
2.
Superior vena cava
3.
Right atrium
4.
Right coronary artery
5.
Right ventricle
6.
Inferior vena cava
7.
Pulmonary trunk (artery)
Figure 35.2
1.
Aorta
2.
Left pulmonary artery
3.
Left pulmonary veins
4.
Left atrium
5.
Left ventricle
Figure 35.3
1.
Aorta
2.
Superior vena cava
3.
Aortic valve
4.
Right atrium
5.
Tricuspid valve
6.
Chordae tendineae
7.
Inferior vena cava
8.
Left pulmonary artery
9.
Pulmonary trunk
8.
9.
10.
11.
Left atrium
Left coronary artery
Cardiac vein
Left ventricle
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Apex of the heart
Superior vena cava
Right atrium
Inferior vena cava
Right ventricle
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Left pulmonary veins
Left atrium
Pulmonary valve
Bicuspid valve
Papillary muscle
Interventricular septum
Left ventricle
Right ventricle
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
b
i
m
k
c
l
f
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
g
h
j
d
e
a
47
Part B
1.
The tricuspid valve is composed of three relatively large flaps, or cusps; the pulmonary valve is made up of
three smaller pocketlike cusps.
2.
The cusps of the tricuspid valve moved upward into a horizontal position and closed the opening between
the right atrium and the right ventricle.
3.
The chordae tendineae prevent the cusps of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves from everting into the atria
when the ventricles contract. The papillary muscles pull on the chordae tendineae and help to open the
cusps when the ventricles are relaxing and filling with blood.
4.
The thicker wall of the aorta allows it to withstand the higher pressure of the blood pumped out from the
left ventricle. The thinner wall of the pulmonary trunk (artery) is related to the lower pressure of the blood
that leaves the right ventricle.
5.
Vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary
artery, capillary of lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The thicker wall of the left ventricle allows it to contract with greater force and create the high pressure needed to
move blood to all parts of the body (systemic circuit) except the lungs. The thinner wall of the right ventricle
creates the lower pressure needed to move blood a relatively short distance to the lungs (pulmonary circuit).
48
LABORATORY EXERCISE 36
THE CARDIAC CYCLE
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Part B
1.
2.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part D
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5
systole
diastole
closed
open
vibrations
A-V (tricuspid and bicuspid)
pulmonary and aortic
(experimental results)
(experimental results)
cardiac muscle
sinoatrial (S-A)
atrioventricular (A-V)
A-V bundle
Purkinje fibers
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
cardiac cycle
polarized
atria
ventricles
ventricles
(labeled ECG recordings)
Answers will vary.
Normal is 0.12–0.20 sec.
The P-Q (P-R) interval indicates the time it takes for the atria to depolarize and the cardiac impulse to reach
the atrioventricular node.
Since each QRS wave in the pattern indicates a ventricular contraction, the heart rate can be determined by
counting the QRS waves that occur in a minute.
(experimental results)
Critical Thinking Application Answer
36
49
LABORATORY EXERCISE 37
BLOOD VESSELS
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
If live frogs are not available for the microscopic observation of blood vessels, you might want to provide small
goldfish. The head of a fish can be wrapped loosely in wet cotton to keep its gills moist, and the fish can be placed
on a glass plate on the stage of a microscope. If its tail is spread out beneath a microscope slide, the blood vessels
can be observed with low- and high-power magnification. However, if the fish is not returned to water within a few
minutes, it is likely to die.
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 37.1
1.
Tunica interna
2.
Tunica media
3.
Tunica externa
Figure 37.2
1
4
3
2
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
endothelium
middle layer (tunica media)
outer layer (tunica externa)
vasoconstriction
vasodilation
capillaries
greater
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Precapillary sphincters
diffusion
hydrostatic
osmotic
lymphatic
Valves
Veins
(sketch)
(sketch)
The inner and outer layers are similar in the artery and vein. The middle layer of the artery contains
relatively greater amounts of smooth muscle and elastic tissue than that of the vein.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Because arteries are under higher pressure than veins, the thicker arterial walls help to maintain the strength and
elasticity necessary against their walls.
Part C
1.
The blood in an arteriole moves with a pulsating rapid flow, but blood in a venule moves with a steady,
slower flow.
2.
A capillary could be identified by its small diameter and the presence of blood cells moving in single file.
3.
Blood moves fastest in arterioles, somewhat slower in venules, and slowest in capillaries.
50
LABORATORY EXERCISE 38
PULSE RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
The following suggestions should be considered when trying to obtain an accurate blood pressure:
1.
The room environment should have a moderate temperature and be quiet (no talking).
2.
The client needs to be relaxed and comfortable. A temporary increase in blood pressure could exist from
smoking, pain, anxiety, or a full urinary bladder.
3.
Palpate the pulse first so that you are certain to pump the cuff high enough to not miss the first tapping
sound. It also assures that you do not pump the cuff so high that we alter the blood pressure when releasing
air.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Part B
1.
2.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
inner walls of blood vessels
arterial
systolic
diastolic
cardiac cycle
alternate expanding and recoiling of an arterial wall
brachial
(test results)
Answers will vary.
(test results)
(test results)
Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
A palpated pulse would be characteristic of the systolic pressure as the arterial wall is expanding at that moment
under the higher pressure.
51
LABORATORY EXERCISE 39
MAJOR ARTERIES AND VEINS
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 39.1
1.
Superior vena cava
2.
Pulmonary trunk
3.
Inferior vena cava
4.
5.
6.
Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary artery
Aorta
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The left ventricle wall is thicker which provides a more powerful contraction to force the blood through the longer
distance of the systemic circuit.
Figure 39.2
1.
Right common carotid artery
2.
Right subclavian artery
3.
Brachiocephalic artery
4.
Aortic arch
5.
Ascending aorta
6.
Right renal artery
Figure 39.3
1.
Superficial temporal artery
2.
Occipital artery
3.
Internal carotid artery
4.
External carotid artery
5.
Vertebral artery
Figure 39.4
1.
Subclavian artery
2.
Axillary artery
3.
Deep brachial artery
Figure 39.5
1.
Common iliac artery
2.
External iliac artery
3.
Deep femoral artery
4.
Popliteal artery
5.
Abdominal aorta
Figure 39.6
1.
External jugular vein
2.
Subclavian vein
3.
Internal jugular vein
Figure 39.7
1.
Internal jugular vein
2.
Axillary vein
3.
Cephalic vein
4.
External jugular vein
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Right common iliac artery
Left common carotid artery
Left subclavian artery
Coronary artery (left)
Abdominal aorta
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Thyrocervical artery
Subclavian artery
Facial artery
Common carotid artery
Brachiocephalic artery
4.
5.
6.
Brachial artery
Radial artery
Ulnar artery
6.
7.
8.
9.
Internal iliac artery
Femoral artery
Anterior tibial artery
Dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal pedis artery)
4.
5.
Vertebral vein
Brachiocephalic vein
5.
6.
7.
8.
Brachiocephalic veins
Subclavian vein
Superior vena cava
Azygos vein
52
Figure 39.8
1.
Subclavian vein
2.
Brachiocephalic vein
3.
Axillary vein
4.
Brachial vein
5.
Cephalic vein
Figure 39.9
1.
Hepatic portal vein
2.
Superior mesenteric vein
3.
Gastric vein (right)
Figure 39.10
1.
Common iliac vein
2.
External iliac vein
3.
Inferior vena cava
4.
Internal iliac vein
6.
7.
8.
9.
Basilic vein
Medial cubital vein
Radial vein
Ulnar vein
4.
5.
Splenic vein
Inferior mesenteric vein
5.
6.
7.
8.
Femoral vein
Great saphenous vein
Popliteal vein
Anterior tibial vein
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
d
i
c
a
f
b
Part B
1.
right subclavian artery
2.
aortic arch
3.
phrenic artery
4.
gonadal artery
Part C
1.
a
2.
b
3.
d
4.
e
Part D
1.
brachiocephalic vein
2.
popliteal vein
3.
common iliac vein
4.
basilic vein
Part E (figure 39.11)
1.
Common carotid artery
2.
Brachiocephalic vein
3.
Superior vena cava
4.
Femoral vein
5.
Great saphenous vein
6.
Internal jugular vein
7.
External jugular vein
8.
Subclavian artery
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
h
j
g
e
k
5.
6.
7.
left common carotid artery
brachial artery
external iliac artery
5.
6.
7.
8.
h
c
g
f
5.
6.
7.
renal vein
external iliac vein
hepatic vein
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Subclavian vein
Pulmonary vein
Inferior vena cava
Aorta
Common iliac vein
Common iliac artery
Femoral artery
53
LABORATORY EXERCISE 40
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 40.1
6
3
2
4
8
1
5
7
Figure 40.2
1
4
6
5
2
3
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
lymphatic capillaries
2.
squamous epithelial
3.
lymph
4.
veins
Part B
1.
lymphocytes
2.
hilum
3.
Nodules
4.
lymph sinuses
Part C
1.
thymus
2.
lobules
3.
immunity
4.
thymosins
5.
spleen
Part D
(sketches)
5.
6.
7.
valves
lymph nodes
thoracic
5.
6.
7.
afferent
tonsils
Peyer's patches
6.
7.
8.
9.
blood
white pulp
red pulp
macrophages
54
LABORATORY EXERCISE 41
ORGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 41.1
1.
Lip
2.
Hard palate
3.
Soft palate
4.
Uvula
Figure 41.2
1.
Parotid gland
2.
Masseter muscle
3.
Submandibular gland
Figure 41.3
1.
Enamel
2.
Dentin
3.
Root
Figure 41.5
1.
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
2.
Opening of auditory tube
(eustachian tube)
3.
Nasopharynx
4.
Oral cavity
5.
Palatine tonsils
Figure 41.6
1.
Esophagus
2.
Cardiac region
3.
Pyloric sphincter (valve)
4.
Duodenum
5.
Pyloric canal
Figure 41.7
4
2
5
6
Figure 41.9
1.
Cystic duct
2.
Gallbladder
3.
Duodenum
4.
Hepatic duct (common)
5.
6.
7.
Palatine tonsils
Tongue
Vestibule
4.
5.
Tongue
Sublingual gland
4.
5.
6.
Crown
Gingiva
Root canal
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Oropharynx
Lingual tonsils
Epiglottis
Laryngopharynx
Esophagus
Trachea
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Pyloric region
Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)
Fundic region
Body region
Rugae
1
3
7
5.
6.
7.
Common bile duct
Pancreatic duct
Hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi)
55
Figure 41.10
10
1
3
7
2
6
9
8
5
4
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The small intestine, which is much longer than the large intestine and contains villi, provides more surface area for
absorption than the large intestine.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part D
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
d
m
g
h
j
n
l
k
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
f
i
o
e
a
c
b
nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
The soft palate is raised; the hyoid bone and larynx are elevated; the tongue is pressed against the soft
palate; the longitudinal muscles of pharyngeal wall contract, pulling the pharynx upward; muscles in the
inferior pharynx relax, opening the esophagus; a peristaltic wave forces food into the esophagus.
Mucus
25
The esophagus provides a passageway for food from the pharynx to the stomach.
cardiac, fundic, body, and pyloric regions
pyloric sphincter (valve)
mucous, chief, and parietal cells
chief cells
parietal cells
d
b
e
g
a
6.
7.
8.
9.
6.
7.
8.
9.
f
i
c
h
56
pepsin
intrinsic factor
gastrin
The stomach receives food from the esophagus,
mixes it with gastric juice, initiates the
digestion of protein, does limited amount of
absorption, and moves food (chyme) into
the small intestine.
Part E
1.
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
2.
A mesentery supports and suspends organs. It contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves that
supply the organs.
3.
lacteal
4.
intestinal glands
5.
peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, and intestinal lipase
6.
ileocecal sphincter (valve)
7.
vermiform appendix
8.
The small intestine receives secretions from the pancreas and liver, completes digestion of nutrients,
absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the residues to the large intestine.
9.
The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes, and forms and stores feces.
57
LABORATORY EXERCISE 42
ACTION OF A DIGESTIVE ENZYME
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
For this experiment to work, it is very important to obtain amylase that is free of any sugar. Most of the amylase
sold by laboratory suppliers in 2002 contained sugar, as can be determined by the control in tube 1 of this
experiment. Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., does handle amylase (alpha amylase from Bacillus subtilis;
catalog #39 W 0058) that is free of sugar and several other companies plan to add this product to their catalogs. If in
doubt, call the supply company and consult with the person in technical support. Keep any of the unused amylase
frozen.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
Expected experimental results:
Tube
Starch
Sugar
1
0
0
2
+
0
3
(varies)
+
2.
a. Testing the amylase solution for the presence of starch and sugar demonstrates the negative results of
the tests.
b. Tube 2 demonstrates that starch will not change to sugar when warmed to 37C (98.6F).
c. The change of starch to sugar is a result of the action of the amylase in tube 3.
Part B
1.
Expected experimental results:
Tube
Starch
Sugar
4
+
varies
5
(varies)
+
6
+
0
2.
a. Amylase is slow to act or inactive at either a low temperature or a high temperature. Its optimum
temperature is near 37C (98.6F).
b. The tubes in which digestion failed to occur could be placed in the 37C (98.6F) water bath. If
digestion occurred at this temperature, the enzyme was not destroyed by the previous treatment.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The test would show a positive result for sugar. The experiment would not be valid as it would not show a change
from starch to sugar when sugar is already present. (Note: some amylase sold is contaminated with sugar.)
58
LABORATORY EXERCISE 43
ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 43.1
1.
Nostril
2.
Oral cavity
3.
Epiglottis
4.
Larynx
5.
Bronchus (right)
6.
Right lung
Figure 43.2
1.
Epiglottic cartilage
2.
Thyroid cartilage
3.
Cricoid cartilage
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
4.
5.
6.
Frontal sinus
Nasal cavity
Pharynx
Trachea
Left lung
Epiglottic cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
h
b
i
a
e
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
d
j
f
g
c
(sketch)
(sketch)
The sticky mucus is secreted into the upper and lower respiratory tract, which will trap particles of dust and
microorganisms.
The cilia create a current of mucus toward the pharynx. The mucus contains entrapped particles that are
usually swallowed.
If the smooth muscle of the bronchial tree relaxes, the air passages dilate, which allows a greater volume
of air movement.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
The simple squamous epithelial cells allow for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and
the alveolar air.
59
LABORATORY EXERCISE 44
BREATHING AND RESPIRATORY VOLUMES
AND CAPACITIES
Critical Thinking Application Answer
Aging results in some natural loss of elasticity of the lungs as well as the muscles (diaphragm and intercostal
muscles) used in breathing. This can be measured by a vital capacity test.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
Part C
1.
2.
3.
ventilation
atmospheric
760
atmospheric pressure
phrenic
increases
a
g
e
f
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
5.
6.
7.
8.
external intercostal
visceral pleura
surfactant
elastic recoil
internal intercostal muscles
abdominal wall
d
h
c
b
(experimental results)
a. Answers will vary.
b. Answers will vary.
c. A measurement of the residual volume is needed.
Answers will vary.
60
LABORATORY EXERCISE 45
STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 45.1
1.
Minor calyx
6.
2.
Major calyx
7.
3.
Renal pelvis
8.
4.
Renal papilla
9.
5.
Ureter
10.
Figure 45.3
1.
Glomerular capsule
2.
Proximal convoluted tubule
3.
Glomerulus
4.
Efferent arteriole
5.
Descending limb of the nephron loop
6.
Ascending limb of the nephron loop
Renal pyramid
Renal column
Renal capsule
Renal medulla
Renal cortex
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Interlobular vein
Afferent arteriole
Distal convoluted tubule
Peritubular capillary
Collecting duct
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
e
a
h
f
b
6.
7.
8.
9.
i
c
d
g
A renal corpuscle is the cluster of capillaries (glomerulus) and the saclike structure (glomerular capsule)
that surrounds it; a renal tubule is the coiled tube that leads away from the glomerular capsule and empties
into a collecting duct.
3
5
2
4
1
6
Blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole and leaves through the efferent arteriole. Since
the afferent vessel has a somewhat greater diameter than the efferent one, blood pressure is increased in the
glomerulus.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a structure located where the distal convoluted tubule contacts the afferent
and efferent arterioles. It is composed of epithelial and smooth muscle cells and plays a role in regulating
blood flow through renal vessels.
Part C
(sketch)
Part D
(sketch)
61
LABORATORY EXERCISE 46
URINALYSIS
WARNING
While performing the urinalysis, students should wear disposable latex gloves so that skin contact with urine is
avoided.
INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
Since most student urine will produce negative results for glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin, you
may want to provide samples of “artificial urine'' (distilled water that contains weak concentrations of some of these
substances). By performing the urinalysis tests on such samples, the students will be able to obtain some positive
results.
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
(test results)
2.
Answers will vary.
Critical Thinking Application Answer
If urine is not refrigerated, substances within it will begin to change as a result of bacterial action, and the
composition of the urine will be altered.
Part B
1.
(sketch)
2.
Answers will vary.
62
LABORATORY EXERCISE 47
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 47.1
1.
Vas deferens
2.
Urethra
3.
Penis
4.
Glans penis
5.
Prepuce
6.
Seminal vesicle
Figure 47.2
1
5
4
3
7
2
6
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Ejaculatory duct
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral gland
Epididymis
Testis
Scrotum
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
seminiferous tubules
epididymis
spermatogenic
spermatogonia
Spermatogenesis (meiosis)
23
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
acrosome
epididymis
fructose
alkaline
bulbourethral
glans penis
(sketch)
(sketch)
(sketch)
a. The supporting cells support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells.
b. Spermatogenic cells give rise to sperm cells by meiosis (spermatogenesis).
c. Interstitial cells produce and secrete male sex hormones.
d. The epididymis stores sperm cells while they mature and propels them into the vas deferens.
e. The corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum form three columns of erectile tissue that contain
vascular spaces that become engorged with blood during an erection.
63
LABORATORY EXERCISE 48
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
FIGURE LABELS
Figure 48.1
1.
Uterine tube
2.
Ovary
3.
Uterus
4.
Clitoris
5.
Labium minus
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Labium majus
Vaginal orifice
Fimbriae
Cervix
Vagina
Figure 48.2
5
8
10
1
9
2
4
7
3
6
Figure 48.3
1. Areola
2. Nipple
3. Lactiferous duct
4. Alveolar glands (mammary glands)
5. Adipose tissue
LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pelvic
ovarian follicles
follicular
first polar body
FSH
Ovulation
fallopian tubes or oviducts
infundibulum
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
cervix
endometrium
smooth muscle
hymen
vulva
mons pubis
clitoris
vestibular glands
(sketch)
(sketch)
(sketch)
(sketch)
a. A mature follicle swells and ruptures under the influence of certain hormones. As this happens, the
oocyte and follicular fluid escape from the ovary.
b. The cilia that line the uterine tube beat toward the uterus and help to draw the oocyte into the
infundibulum of the tube.
c. The glandular endometrium thickens throughout the menstrual cycle until it culminates in menstrual
bleeding (menses).
64
APPENDIX 1 MATERIALS NEEDED
This is a composite list of materials needed for the entire lab manual. The amount or number of each item will
depend upon the laboratory size and the number of students working as a group. The laboratory manual has the
materials needed listed at the beginning of each lab, as some of these materials might not be needed if certain labs,
demonstrations, or optional activities are not attempted. Items indicated with an (*) are either demonstration or
optional materials.
PREPARED MICROSCOPE SLIDES
Three colored threads
Mitosis (whitefish blastula)
Human chromosomes from leukocytes in mitosis*
Simple squamous epithelium (lung)
Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)
Simple columnar epithelium (small intestine)
Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelium
(trachea)
Stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)
Transitional epithelium (urinary bladder)
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
Dense connective tissue
Adipose tissue
Elastic connective tissue
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Bone tissue
Blood smear (Wright's stain)
Skeletal muscle tissue (cross section and
longitudinal section)
Smooth muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue
Nervous tissue (spinal cord smear and cerebellum)
Human scalp or axilla
Heavily pigmented human skin*
Dorsal root ganglion (section)
Neuroglial cells (astrocytes)
Peripheral nerve (cross section and longitudinal
section)
Spinal cord cross section with spinal nerve roots
Cochlea (section)*
Pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland
Adrenal gland
Pancreas
Pathological blood, such as eosinophilia,
leukocytosis, leukopenia, and
lymphocytosis*
Artery cross section
Vein cross section
Lymph node section
Human thymus section
Human spleen section
Parotid gland (salivary gland)
Esophagus
Stomach (fundus)
Small intestine (jejunum)
Large intestine
Trachea (cross section)
Lung, human (normal)
Lung tissue (smoker)*
Lung tissue (emphysema)*
Kidney section
Testis section
Epididymis, cross section
Penis, cross section
Ovary section with maturing follicles
Uterine tube, cross section
Uterine wall section
Uterine wall, early proliferative phase*
Uterine wall, secretory phase*
Uterine wall, early menstrual phase*
65
APPARATUS/SUPPLIES/EQUIPMENT
Safety equipment (first aid kit, disposable latex
gloves, safety glasses, laboratory coats, and
disinfectant solution)
Compound microscopes
Micrometer scale on compound microscope*
Stereomicroscopes (dissecting microscopes)
Oil immersion objective on compound microscope*
Lens paper
Microscope slides
Coverslips
Transparent plastic millimeter ruler
Medicine dropper
Dissecting needle (needle probe)
Toothpicks (flat)
Single-edged razor blade*
Petri dish
Forceps
Thistle tube
Molasses (or Karo dark corn syrup)
Dialysis tubing of 1 5/16 inch diameter or greater
Ring stand and clamp
Beakers (assorted sizes)
Rubber bands
Test tubes
Marking pen
Test-tube rack
Graduated cylinder (10 mL)
Glass funnel
Filter paper
Hand magnifier
Radiographs (X-ray films) of skeletal structures and
joints*
Rubber percussion hammer
Anatomic charts of various systems
Dissection instruments (scalpel, probe, scissors, and
forceps)
Dissecting trays
Long knife
Watch that ticks
Tuning fork (128 or 256 cps)
Sterile cotton
Meterstick
Audiometer*
Ophthalmoscope*
Snellen eye chart
3" x 5" cards
Astigmatism chart
Pen flashlight
Ichikawa's color plates or other color-blindness test
Water bath with temperature control
Laboratory thermometer
Sterile disposable blood lancets*
Slide staining rack and tray*
Heparinized microhematocrit capillary tube*
Sealing clay (or Critocaps)*
Microhematocrit centrifuge*
Microhematocrit reader*
Hemoglobinometer*
Hemolysis applicator*
Hemocytometer*
Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting red
blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier
of Unopette systems)
Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting
white blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a
supplier of Unopette systems)
Hand counter (tally)*
ABO blood-typing kit
Anti-D serum*
Slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or view
box)*
Stethoscope
Electrocardiograph (or other instrument for
recording an ECG)
Cot or table
Electrode cream (paste)
Plate electrodes and cables
Lead selector switch
Paper towels
Frog board
Dissecting pins
Thread
Masking tape
Ice
Hot plate
Clock with second hand
Sphygmomanometer
Pulse pickup transducer or plethysmogram*
Physiological recording apparatus*
Test-tube clamps
Wax marker
Porcelain test plate
Pipets (1 mL and 10 mL)
Pipet rubber bulbs
Spirometer, handheld (dry portable)
Disposable mouthpieces for the spirometer
Disposable urine-collecting container
Urinometer cylinder
Urinometer hydrometer
pH test paper
66
Reagent strips (individual or combination) to test for
the presence of glucose, protein, ketones,
bilirubin, and hemoglobin/occult blood in
the urine
Centrifuge
Centrifuge tubes
Normal and abnormal simulated urine specimens*
Paper cups
MODELS/SKELETONS
Dissectible torso (manikin) with musculature
Animal cell
Animal mitosis
Human long bone, sectioned longitudinally
Articulated human skeleton
Disarticulated human skull (Beauchene)
Human skull, sagittal section
Fetal skull*
Disarticulated human skeleton
Vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar examples)
Male and female pelves*
Synovial joints (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee)
Skeletal muscle fiber model
Muscular model of the upper limb
Muscular model of the lower limb
Muscular models of the male and female pelves
Neuron
Spinal cord
Dissectible human brain
Dissectible ear
Dissectible eye
Dissectible human heart
Teeth, sectioned
Tooth model, sectioned
Larynx model
Thoracic organs model
Kidney model
Model of male reproductive system
Model of female reproductive system
Mechanical model of the respiratory system*
PRESERVED MATERIALS
Spinal cord with meninges intact*
Human brain
Sheep brains
Beef or sheep eyes
Sheep or other mammalian hearts
Pig or sheep kidneys
Animal lung with trachea*
LIVING SPECIMENS/FRESH MATERIAL
Amoeba culture*
Paramecium culture*
Plant materials such as leaves, soft stems, fruits, and
vegetables*
Uncoagulated animal blood
Fresh chicken bones (radius and ulna from wings)*
Fresh animal bones, sectioned longitudinally and
transversely
Fresh round beefsteak*
Fresh animal joint (knee joint preferred)*
Frog
CHEMICALS, REAGENTS, AND BIOLOGICALS
(This includes any ingredients needed to mix solutions described in Appendix 1 of the laboratory manual).
Distilled water
0.5% starch solution
Methylene blue (dilute)
Sedi-stain
Iodine-potassium-iodide (IKI) stain
Bacterial amylase powder (store in a freezer) (see
Appendix 2 for a supplier of amylase that is
Potassium permanganate crystals
free of any sugar)
0.9% NaCl (aqueous solution)
Glucose
3% NaCl (aqueous solution)
Sodium chloride
Powdered charcoal
Cornstarch
1% glucose solution
Potassium iodide
1% starch solution
Iodine
Benedict's solution
95% ethyl alcohol
Vinegar*
Potassium hydroxide
Wright's stain*
Sodium bicarbonate
70% alcohol
Potassium chloride
Frog Ringer's solution
Calcium chloride
0.5% amylase solution (must be free of any sugar)
67
APPENDIX 2 LABORATORY SUPPLIERS
This list is not complete, but it does contain well-established names recognized by most anatomy and physiology
instructors. Additional suppliers often advertise in scientific journals or have booths at scientific association
meetings. Some of these companies also have regional offices.
Bio Corporation
3911 Nevada Street
Intelitool/Phipps & Bird
Alexandria, MN 56308
P.O. Box 7475
http://www.biologyproducts.com
Richmond, VA 23221
http://www.intelitool.com
Carolina Biological Supply Company
2700 York Road
Nasco, Inc.
Burlington, NC 27215
901 Janesville Ave.
http://www.carolina.com
Fort Atkinson, WI 53538
http://www.nascofa.com
Central Scientific Company (CENCO)
3300 CENCO Parkway
Nebraska Scientific
Franklin Park, IL 60131
3823 Leavenworth St.
http://www.cenconet.com
Omaha, NE 68105
http://www.nebraskascientific.com
Connecticut Valley Biological Supply Co.
82 Valley Road, P.O. Box 326
Sargent-Welch Scientific Company
Southampton, MA 01073
P.O. Box 5229
http://www.ctvalleybio.com
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089
http://www.sargentwelch.com
Cynmar Corporation
21709 Route 4 North
Science Kit & Boreal Laboratories
P.O. Box 530
777 East Park Drive
Carlinville, IL 62626
P.O. Box 5003
http://www.cynmar.com
Tonawanda, NY 14151
http://www.sciencekit.com
Fisher Scientific
U.S. Headquarters
Southern Scientific
2000 Park Lane
P.O. Box 368
Pittsburgh, PA 15275
McKenzie, TN 38201
http://www.fisheredu.com
http://www.southernscientific.com
(Fisher Scientific is a supplier of Becton Dickinson
Unopette blood counting systems. For cases of 200,
the RBC Unopette system catalog number is 13-68023, and the WCB Unopette system catalog number is
13-680-1.)
The Scope Shoppe
113 Read St., P.O. Box 1208
Elburn, IL 60119
http://www.scopeshoppe.com
Flinn Scientific
P.O. Box 219
Batavia, IL 60510
http://www.flinnsci.com
Ward’s Natural Science Establishment, Inc.
5100 West Henrietta Road
P.O. Box 92912
Rochester, NY 14692
http://www.wardsci.com
Frey Scientific
P.O. Box 8101
Mansfield, OH 44901
http://www.freyscientific.com
(Ward’s Natural Science Establishment is a supplier
of the enzyme amylase that is free of sugar. The
catalog number is 39W0058.)
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69
70
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Laboratory Report Answers - Mrs. Della