Chapter 5 Subcultures
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How did the Girl Scouts change to meet the needs of Hispanic families?
A) Training focused on how to address a Hispanic woman.
B) Training focused on the importance of building a relationship.
C) Brothers were encouraged to attend some events.
D) Las Posadas, a Hispanic Christmas tradition that pays homage to Mary and
Joseph's search for an inn, is being conducted by Girl Scout troops in some areas.
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 157 Difficulty: easy
2. A segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns
of behavior is known as a(n) _____.
A) market segment
B) subculture
C) ethnic group
D) reference group
E) subgroup
Answer: B Page: 158 Difficulty: moderate
3. Many companies develop special marketing mixes for a segment of a larger culture
whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior. These segments
are known as _____.
A) subsegments
B) subgroups
C) secondary markets
D) subcultures
E) reference groups
Answer: D Page: 158 Difficulty: moderate
4. The degree to which an individual behaves in a manner unique to a subculture depends
on _____.
A) the extent to which the individual identifies with that subculture
B) how long the individual has been in this country
C) the age of the individual
D) the education of the individual
E) the extent to which others in that subculture accept that individual
Answer: A Page: 158 Difficulty: moderate
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5. Which of the following are bases for subcultures in the United States?
A) ethnic groups
B) religions
C) geographic areas
D) generations
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 159 Difficulty: easy
6. Which of the following are the most commonly described subcultures?
A) ethnic groups
B) religions
C) generations
D) genders
E) geographic areas
Answer: A Page: 159 Difficulty: moderate
7. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding subcultures in the United
States?
A) The degree to which an individual behaves in a manner unique to a subculture
depends on the extent to which the individual identifies with that subculture.
B) Religious groups are the most commonly described subcultures.
C) We are all members of several subcultures.
D) There are very large variations within each subculture.
E) Generations also function like subcultures.
Answer: B Page: 158-159 Difficulty: moderate
8. According to the 2000 Census, which choice below is considered to be
Spanish/Hispanic/Latino?
A) Mexican/Mexican American/Chicano
B) Puerto Rican
C) Cuban
D) a and b
E) a, b, and c
Answer: E Page: 160 Difficulty: moderate
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9. The 2000 Census system has produced _____ race categories.
A) 10
B) 37
C) 57
D) 65
E) 84
Answer: C Page: 160 Difficulty: hard
10. _____ subcultures are defined as those whose members' unique shared behaviors are
based on a common racial, language, or national background.
A) Ethnic
B) Racial
C) Religious
D) Gender
E) Geographic
Answer: A Page: 160 Difficulty: moderate
11. Which of the following is the largest ethnic subculture in the United States?
A) African American
B) Hispanic
C) Asian/Pacific Islander
D) Native American
E) Caribbean
Answer: B Page: 161 Difficulty: moderate
12. The relatively faster growth rate of non-European groups in the United States is due to
their _____.
A) higher birthrates
B) greater immigration
C) lower death rates
D) a and b
E) a, b, and c
Answer: D Page: 161 Difficulty: moderate
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13. Which of the following was the source of the most immigrants into the United States
in 2003?
A) Asia
B) Mexico
C) Europe
D) Central/South America
E) Africa
Answer: A Page: 161 Difficulty: hard
14. Which of the following statements is true regarding ethnic subcultures?
A) European ethnic groups constitute a significant and growing part of the U.S.
population.
B) Hispanics are the largest population group in the South and urban areas in the
Northeast and Midwest.
C) The influence of one's ethnic heritage on behavior is not influenced by situational
factors.
D) All subcultures are very diverse, and general descriptions do not apply to all of the
members.
E) Ethnicity is the only factor that influences an individual's behavior.
Answer: D Page: 160-161 Difficulty: moderate
15. Which of the following is predicted to be the fastest growing ethnic group in the
United States between 2000 and 2020?
A) Whites
B) Blacks
C) Hispanics
D) Asian/Pacific Islander
E) South Americans
Answer: C Page: 162 Difficulty: moderate
16. Which of the following ethnic group is predicted to have the youngest median age in
the United States in the year 2010?
A) Whites
B) Blacks
C) Hispanics
D) Asian/Pacific Islander
E) South Americans
Answer: C Page: 162 Difficulty: moderate
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17. Malcolm is studying subcultures in the United States. He is trying to identify the
subculture that has the highest education levels and median household incomes.
Which ethnic group meets these criteria?
A) Whites
B) Blacks
C) Hispanics
D) Asian/Pacific Islander
E) South Americans
Answer: D Page: 162 Difficulty: moderate
18. Toys-R-Us is examining subcultures in the United States and wants to identify the
ethnic subculture that has the greatest percentage of children under the age of 18.
Which ethnic group meets this criterion?
A) Whites
B) Blacks
C) Hispanics
D) Asian/Pacific Islander
E) South Americans
Answer: C Page: 162 Difficulty: moderate
19. Compared to the white population, African Americans tend to _____.
A) be younger
B) be higher educated
C) have a higher household income
D) be a larger subculture
E) all of the above
Answer: A Page: 163 Difficulty: moderate
20. Which of the following is a segment of the African American market identified by
Market Segment Research?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 164 Difficulty: easy
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21. Which segment of the African American market identified by Market Segment
Research is mature and content with life, tends to be followers not leaders, and are not
status conscious?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Healthy Indulger
Answer: A Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
22. Timothy is a 54 year old African American consumer that is content with his life. He
prefers to be a follower rather than a leader and is not status conscious. To which
segment of the African American market identified by Market Segment Research
would Timothy belong?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Healthy Indulger
Answer: A Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
23. Which segment of the African American market identified by Market Segment
Research is composed of active, status-conscious professionals who are financially
secure and optimistic about the future?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Healthy Indulger
Answer: B Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
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24. Robert is an African American active in sports. He is a status-conscious professional
who is financially secure and optimistic about his and his family's future. Which
segment of the African American market identified by Market Segment Research best
describes Robert?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Healthy Indulger
Answer: B Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
25. Which segment of the African American market identified by Market Segment
Research is young, socially active, carefree, and image conscious?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Healthy Indulger
Answer: C Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
26. Nikki is 23 years old, socially active in several community outreach programs,
carefree, and image conscious. Which African American market segment identified
by Market Segment Research best describes Nikki?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Healthy Indulger
Answer: C Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
27. Which African American market segment identified by Market Segment Research has
a low education and income level, is price conscious, and is pessimistic about the
future?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Ailing Recluses
Answer: D Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
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28. LaShonda is an African American high school drop out that works at a minimum wage
job. She is very price conscious and buys mostly Wal-Mart store brands of products.
Sometimes things seem hopeless for her and her family, and she is very pessimistic
about their future. To which segment of the African American market identified by
Market Segment Research would LaShonda and her family belong?
A) Contented
B) Upwardly Mobile
C) Living for the Moment
D) Living Day to Day
E) Ailing Recluses
Answer: D Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
29. What are the two distinct segments of African Americans identified by Yankelovich?
A) primary and secondary
B) market leaders and market followers
C) optimists and pessimists
D) yin and yang
E) trend setters and trend followers
Answer: B Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
30. Research by Yankelovich finds wide differences among African Americans
represented by two distinct segments labeled “market leaders” and “market followers.”
Compared to “market followers,” “market leaders” _____.
A) want to be on the cutting edge and to set trends
B) have less of a need to be seen as “hip and cool”
C) are considerably less likely to see brands as an indicator of their style and identity
D) are more conservative
E) are more price sensitive
Answer: A Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
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31. Jimmy is an African American that wants to be on the cutting edge and to set trends.
He has an income sufficient to allow him to buy the “latest and greatest,” and he has a
strong need to be seen as “hip and cool” and uses brands to communicate his unique
style and identity. He is not price sensitive and is brand loyal. In terms of
Yankelovich's segments of African Americans, which one best describes Jimmy?
A) market followers
B) Contented
C) Upwardly Mobile
D) market leaders
E) Living Day to Day
Answer: D Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
32. Shondra is an African American who does not feel the need to be seen as “hip and
cool.” She doesn't use brands to indicate to others her style and identity and tends to
be less brand loyal and more price sensitive than others. In terms of Yankelovich's
segments of African Americans, which one best describes Shondra?
A) market followers
B) Contented
C) Upwardly Mobile
D) market leaders
E) Living Day to Day
Answer: A Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
33. Which of the following evening television shows is NOT in the Blacks' Top 10?
A) Friends
B) Jamie Foxx Show
C) Malcolm and Eddie
D) 60 Minutes
E) The Simpsons
Answer: A Page: 165 Difficulty: hard
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34. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding African American Internet
usage?
A) African Americans who are online are more likely to use broadband connections
than the general online population.
B) More African Americans read online ads and are more likely to find them
informative than the general online population.
C) African Americans prefer a Black perspective on news and information.
D) African Americans are less likely to purchase clothing and apparel, listen to
music, and watch videos online than the general population.
E) African Americans are more likely to search for job and career information online
than Whites.
Answer: D Page: 165-166 Difficulty: hard
35. _____ involves creating or sponsoring an event that has a particular appeal to a market
segment.
A) Place-based marketing
B) Event marketing
C) Target marketing
D) Specific marketing
E) Zoned marketing
Answer: B Page: 167 Difficulty: moderate
36. Honey Nut Cheerios sponsors the Soul Fest music event that travels to 30 urban
markets each year in an attempt to reach the African American market. This marketer
is using _____ to reach this market.
A) Place-based marketing
B) Event marketing
C) Targeted marketing
D) Street marketing
E) Zoned marketing
Answer: B Page: 167 Difficulty: moderate
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37. What is the major difference between white and black shoppers' store selection
criteria?
A) respect
B) location
C) price
D) merchandise selection
E) sponsorships
Answer: A Page: 168 Difficulty: moderate
38. According to the Bureau of the Census, a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican,
South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race is
defined as a(n) _____.
A) African American
B) Asian American
C) Hispanic
D) Native American
E) subculture
Answer: C Page: 168 Difficulty: easy
39. Juan came from Cuba in the late 1990s and is currently living in Miami, FL.
According to the Bureau of the Census, Juan would be classified as a(n) _____.
A) African American
B) Asian American
C) Hispanic
D) Native American
E) subculture
Answer: C Page: 168 Difficulty: easy
40. Mexican Americans tend to live in which region of the United States?
A) New York and New Jersey
B) Southwest and California
C) California, New York, and Florida
D) Midwest
E) South
Answer: B Page: 168-169 Difficulty: moderate
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41. Which subculture of Hispanics tends to have incomes well above the others?
A) Puerto Ricans
B) Mexican Americans
C) Latinos from Central America
D) Cubans
E) Latinos from South America
Answer: D Page: 168 Difficulty: hard
42. While marketers must be sensitive to nationality-based differences, some variables
create sufficient cultural homogeneity for most products and advertising campaigns
targeted to the Hispanic market. Which of the following is one of those variables?
A) common language
B) common religion
C) emergence of national Spanish-language media
D) emergence of national entertainment figures
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 169 Difficulty: easy
43. The degree to which an immigrant has adapted to his or her new culture is known as
_____.
A) dispersion
B) traditionalization
C) acculturation
D) modernization
E) secularization
Answer: C Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
44. Which generation of Hispanic adults was born outside the United States, has the
lowest income and education, is most likely to identify themselves as Hispanic, is
most likely to have Spanish as their primary language, and is most likely to possess
traditional values including a masculine view of the family decision hierarchy?
A) First generation adults
B) Second generation adults
C) Third generation adults
D) Primary generation adults
E) Secondary generation adults
Answer: A Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
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45. Jose was born in Mexico and came to the United States in 1975. He still speaks
primarily Spanish, has not graduated from high school and works as a day laborer in
the agricultural industry in California. He and his family still possess traditional
values which include him making all the decisions for his family's welfare. The Pew
Hispanic Center would identify Jose as which generation of Hispanic adults?
A) First generation adults
B) Second generation adults
C) Third generation adults
D) Primary generation adults
E) Secondary generation adults
Answer: A Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
46. According to the Pew Hispanic Center, which generation of Hispanic adults are born
in the United States to immigrant parents, is more likely than the previous generation
to identify themselves as Americans, is equally split between bilinguals and English as
their primary language, and is somewhat less likely to ascribe to traditional values?
A) First generation adults
B) Second generation adults
C) Third generation adults
D) Primary generation adults
E) Secondary generation adults
Answer: B Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
47. Carlos was born in the United States to immigrant parents. He has a higher income
and education that his father, is more likely to identify himself as an American, speaks
Spanish and English fluently, and is less likely to ascribe to traditional values than his
parents. According to the Pew Hispanic Center, to which generation of Hispanic
adults does Carlos belong?
A) First generation adults
B) Second generation adults
C) Third generation adults
D) Primary generation adults
E) Secondary generation adults
Answer: B Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
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48. According the Pew Hispanic Center, which generation of Hispanic adults is born in
the United States to U.S.-born parents, has the highest education and income levels, is
most likely to identify themselves as Americans, is most likely to have English as the
primary language, and is somewhat less likely to ascribe to traditional values?
A) First generation adults
B) Second generation adults
C) Third generation adults
D) Primary generation adults
E) Secondary generation adults
Answer: C Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
49. Maria's grandparents immigrated from Mexico, but her parents were both born in the
United States. She has an MBA and earns the highest income in her family, she
identifies herself as an American, speaks English as her primary language, and does
not ascribe to the traditional values of her grandparents. In terms of the Pew Hispanic
Center's generations of Hispanic adults, to which generation does Maria belong?
A) First generation adults
B) Second generation adults
C) Third generation adults
D) Primary generation adults
E) Secondary generation adults
Answer: C Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
50. Which religion heavily influences the Hispanic culture?
A) Protestantism
B) Buddhism
C) Islam
D) Judaism
E) Roman Catholicism
Answer: E Page: 169 Difficulty: moderate
51. One of the core values that differentiates Hispanic teens is familismo, or _____.
A) a strong familiarity with Hispanic cultural norms
B) a common language
C) a large family
D) a strong family orientation
E) a strong Catholic upbringing
Answer: D Page: 170 Difficulty: moderate
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52. Brand managers at Tommy Hilfiger, a famous brand of clothing, are increasing their
efforts to reach the Hispanic teen market. Which of the following themes would have
the greatest impact on this market?
A) Stress how this brand of clothing will make them appear “hip and cool.”
B) Stress how this expensive brand will communicate to others that they are
“Americanized.”
C) Stress family values.
D) Stress the quality of the brand.
E) Stress how American teens will follow their sense of style.
Answer: C Page: 170 Difficulty: hard
53. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding marketing to Hispanics?
A) Hispanic consumers tend to be highly brand loyal.
B) Hispanics tend to be more receptive than the general market to store brands.
C) Serious attempts to target Hispanics will often involve Spanish-language media.
D) Hispanics have historically lagged behind the general population in terms of
Internet usage.
E) The primary retailing responses to this market have been increasing the number of
bilingual salespeople, the use of Spanish language signs, directions, and point-ofpurchase displays, and merchandise assortments that reflect the needs of the local
Hispanic community.
Answer: B Page: 171-174 Difficulty: moderate
54. Which of the following is NOT a way that retailers have responded to the needs of the
Hispanic market?
A) lowering prices on nationally-branded products
B) increasing the number of bilingual salespeople
C) using Spanish language signs and directions
D) using Spanish language point-of-purchase displays
E) having merchandise assortments that reflect the needs of the local Hispanic
community
Answer: A Page: 174 Difficulty: moderate
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55. Which subculture is the most diverse group, with numerous nationalities, languages,
and religions?
A) Hispanics
B) African Americans
C) Asian Americans
D) Native Americans
E) Asian-Indian Americans
Answer: C Page: 175 Difficulty: moderate
56. Which of the following represents the largest national background of Asian
Americans?
A) Chinese
B) Filipino
C) Japanese
D) Korean
E) Vietnamese
Answer: A Page: 176 Difficulty: moderate
57. Most Asian Americans come from home cultures influenced by _____, which
emphasizes subordination of the son to the father, the younger to the elder, and the
wife to the husband.
A) traditionalism
B) Judaism
C) Protestant Ethics
D) Confucianism
E) Islam
Answer: D Page: 176 Difficulty: moderate
58. Henry was born in the United States, but his parents were born in China. He was
brought up to be subordinate to his father and his elders, and, when he marries, he will
expect his wife to be subordinate to him. Henry is influenced by _____.
A) traditionalism
B) Judaism
C) Protestant Ethics
D) Confucianism
E) Islam
Answer: D Page: 176 Difficulty: moderate
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59. Market Segment Research found three groups of Asian Americans on the basis of their
demographics and attitudes that cut across nationality groups. Which of the following
is one of the segments identified?
A) Confucianists
B) Conformists
C) Traditionalists
D) Market followers
E) all of the above
Answer: C Page: 176-177 Difficulty: moderate
60. In terms of the Asian American market, which segment identified by Market Segment
Research is older, often retired, has strong identification with their original culture,
tends to use their native language as their primary language, and is not concerned
about status?
A) Traditionalists
B) Established
C) Living for the Moment
D) Market followers
E) Contented
Answer: A Page: 176-177 Difficulty: moderate
61. John is an older, retired Japanese American. He has a strong identification with his
Japanese culture, still speaks primarily Japanese and is not concerned about status.
Which segment of the Asian American market identified by Market Segment Research
best describes John?
A) Traditionalists
B) Established
C) Living for the Moment
D) Market followers
E) Contented
Answer: A Page: 176-177 Difficulty: moderate
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62. Frank Chen is a Chinese immigrant in his mid-50s and has a master's degree in
Engineering from MIT. He is a conservative professional with no need or desire for
native-language programming. He is willing to pay premium prices for high quality
products. Which segment of the Asian American market identified by Market
Segment Research best describes him?
A) Traditionalists
B) Established
C) Living for the Moment
D) Market followers
E) Contented
Answer: B Page: 177 Difficulty: moderate
63. Which segment of Asian Americans identified by Market Segment Research is
younger, has moderate identification with their native culture, tends to be bilingual,
and are spontaneous, materialistic, and impulsive shoppers who are concerned with
status and quality?
A) Traditionalists
B) Established
C) Living for the Moment
D) Market leaders
E) Contented
Answer: C Page: 177 Difficulty: moderate
64. Li Ming is an Asian American of Chinese dissent and is young, has a moderate
identification with her native culture, is bilingual, and is spontaneous, materialistic,
and an impulsive shopper. She is concerned with status and quality. Which segment
of the Asian American market identified by Market Segment Research best describes
her?
A) Traditionalists
B) Established
C) Living for the Moment
D) Market leaders
E) Contented
Answer: C Page: 177 Difficulty: moderate
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65. The generation of Asian Americans which was born in the United States to immigrant
parents is sometimes referred to as _____.
A) Generation 2.0
B) the Next Generation
C) the Millenials
D) Generation American
E) Generation 3.0
Answer: A Page: 177 Difficulty: moderate
66. There are several Asian American markets, based primarily on nationality and
language. Each of these in turn can be further segmented on _____.
A) degree of acculturation
B) social class
C) generation
D) lifestyle
E) all of the above
Answer: E Page: 177 Difficulty: easy
67. Which of the following is an important means of reaching virtually all of the nativelanguage speakers of any nationality nationwide?
A) Broadcast television
B) Direct broadcast satellite (DBS)
C) Cable television
D) Sports Illustrated magazine
E) Satellite radio
Answer: B Page: 178 Difficulty: moderate
68. Which of the following statements is true regarding marketing to Asian Americans?
A) Asian Americans are not highly tech savvy or heavy users of the Internet.
B) Effective communication is achieved by simply translating ad copy.
C) Geographic concentration is aiding marketing efficiency.
D) There are very limited options for reaching this market through television.
E) The purchasing power of this group and its various segments is not attractive
enough for marketers to pursue it seriously.
Answer: C Page: 177-178 Difficulty: moderate
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69. The U.S. Census reports Native Americans by _____.
A) one tribe only
B) one tribe only or in combination with another tribe
C) one tribe only or in combination with another tribe plus in combination with any
other race
D) a and b only
E) a, b, and c
Answer: E Page: 179 Difficulty: moderate
70. Which of the following is the largest Native American tribe?
A) Cherokee
B) Navajo
C) Sioux
D) Chippewa
E) Choctaw
Answer: A Page: 179 Difficulty: hard
71. Huata is a Native American from the largest tribe in the United States. Which tribe
does she come from?
A) Cherokee
B) Navajo
C) Sioux
D) Chippewa
E) Choctaw
Answer: A Page: 179 Difficulty: hard
72. While Asian-Indian Americans are diverse in many ways, they do share a number of
important cultural traits. Which of the following is NOT one of these shared traits?
A) They place a great value on education, particularly their children's education.
B) They are concerned with financial security and save at a rate much higher than the
average American.
C) Husbands and wives tend to share an equal role in family decisions.
D) They do not have a “throw-away” mentality; they shop for value and look for
quality and durability.
E) all of the above are shared traits
Answer: C Page: 180 Difficulty: moderate
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73. Which of the following is NOT a country from which Arab Americans come?
A) Morocco
B) Algeria
C) Egypt
D) Saudi Arabia
E) Israel
Answer: E Page: 181 Difficulty: moderate
74. What percentage of Arab Americans are U.S. citizens?
A) less than 20 percent
B) 25 percent
C) 40 percent
D) 75 percent
E) more than 80 percent
Answer: E Page: 181 Difficulty: hard
75. Amal immigrated from Jordan and has become a U.S. citizen. To which ethnic
subculture does Amal belong?
A) Hispanic
B) Asian American
C) Asian-Indian American
D) Arab American
E) Native American
Answer: D Page: 181 Difficulty: easy
76. America is basically a _____. That is, the educational system, government, and
political process are not controlled by a religious group, and most people's daily
behaviors are not guided by strict religious guidelines.
A) Godless society
B) secular society
C) religious society
D) non-Christian society
E) regional society
Answer: B Page: 181 Difficulty: moderate
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77. The different religions in America prescribing differing values and behaviors are
known as religious _____.
A) subcultures
B) sects
C) segments
D) societies
E) pacts
Answer: A Page: 181 Difficulty: moderate
78. Much of the American value system and the resultant political and social institutions
are derived from the _____ beliefs of the early settlers.
A) Judaic
B) Islamic
C) Confucian
D) Christian
E) Buddhist
Answer: D Page: 182 Difficulty: easy
79. Which of the following groups is characterized by a strong belief in the literal truth of
the Bible, a very strong commitment to their religious beliefs, having had a “bornagain” experience, and encouraging others to believe in Jesus Christ?
A) Buddhists
B) Confucianists
C) Born-again Christians
D) Islamists
E) Jewish
Answer: C Page: 183 Difficulty: easy
80. Which type of subculture arises as a result of climatic conditions, the natural
environment and resources, the characteristics of the various immigrant groups that
have settled there, and significant social and political events?
A) ethnic
B) regional
C) religious
D) generational
E) transient
Answer: B Page: 186 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 5 Subcultures
True/False Questions
81. A subculture is a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing
values and patterns of behavior.
Answer: True Page: 158 Difficulty: easy
82. Ethnic groups are the most commonly described subcultures.
Answer: True Page: 159 Difficulty: easy
83. The new Census system (i.e., the 2000 Census) has produced over 100 race categories.
Answer: False Page: 160 Difficulty: moderate
84. The relatively faster growth rate of non-European groups is due to a higher birthrate
among some of these groups and to greater immigration.
Answer: True Page: 161 Difficulty: moderate
85. Asian Americans are predicted to be the fastest growing ethnic subculture in the
United States between 2000 and 2020.
Answer: False Page: 162 Difficulty: moderate
86. One marketer noted that the differences in marketing to the overall market and
marketing to African Americans is that the strategy does not differ, but the tactics
differ.
Answer: True Page: 163 Difficulty: moderate
87. The Bureau of the Census defines Hispanic as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto
Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of
race.
Answer: True Page: 168 Difficulty: moderate
88. Hispanics mostly speak English and prefer English-language media.
Answer: False Page: 171-172 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 5 Subcultures
89. Asian Americans are the highest educated and highest income group with substantial
purchasing power.
Answer: True Page: 175 Difficulty: easy
90. Geographic concentration of the Asian American market enhances marketing
efficiency.
Answer: True Page: 177 Difficulty: easy
91. The Choctaw are the largest Native American tribe.
Answer: False Page: 179 Difficulty: hard
92. India is a homogeneous country.
Answer: False Page: 180 Difficulty: moderate
93. More than 80 percent of Arab Americans are U.S. citizens.
Answer: True Page: 181 Difficulty: hard
94. America is basically a secular society.
Answer: True Page: 181 Difficulty: moderate
95. Muslims in America are culturally diverse, including Arab Americans, African
Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics.
Answer: True Page: 184 Difficulty: moderate
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Chapter 5 Subcultures
Essay Questions
96. A German electronics manufacturer is expanding into the United States. This
company has commissioned your company, a marketing research firm, to explain the
various subcultures in this country. Explain the concept of subcultures, and briefly
describe the three main subcultures discussed in this chapter.
Page: 158 -187 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
A subculture is a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing
values and patterns of behavior. The unique values and patterns of behavior shared by
subculture group members are based on the social history of the group as well as on its
current situation. Ethnic groups are the most commonly described subcultures, but
religious and geographic regions are also the bases for strong subcultures in the United
States. An ethnic subculture is one whose members' unique shared behaviors are
based on a common racial, language, or national background. The major ethnic
subcultures in the United States include African Americans, Hispanics, Asian
Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Indian Americans, and Arab Americans. The
different religions in America prescribing differing values and behaviors constitute
several religious subcultures. The primary religious subcultures in the United States
include Christian subcultures (i.e., Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Born-Again
Christians) and non-Christian subcultures (i.e., Jewish, Muslim, and Buddhist).
Finally, distinct regional subcultures arise as a result of climatic conditions, the
natural environment and resources, the characteristics of the various immigrant groups
that have settled in each region, and significant social and political events. The four
U.S. census regions are Northeast, North Central, South, and West.
97. Name and describe the four segments of African American consumers identified by
Market Segment Research.
Page: 164 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
Market Segment Research found four segments relating to aspirations, occupation,
income, and life stage:
a. Contented--mature and content with life, followers not leaders, not status
conscious.
b. Upwardly Mobile--active, status-conscious professionals, financially secure,
optimistic about the future.
c. Living for the Moment--young, socially active, carefree, and image conscious.
d. Living Day to Day--low education and income, price conscious, pessimistic about
the future.
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Chapter 5 Subcultures
98. Target, the national retailer, is opening several new stores in predominantly Hispanic
communities. Explain how Target should modify its business to adequately serve the
needs of this market.
Page: 171-174 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
The primary retailing responses to this market have been increasing the number of
bilingual salespeople; the use of Spanish language signs, directions, and point-ofpurchase displays; and merchandise assortments that reflect the needs of the local
Hispanic community. Additionally, though, since Target also will be communicating
with these consumers through advertising, for example, store managers need to be
aware that Hispanics often speak Spanish and often prefer Spanish-language media.
Serious attempts to target Hispanics will often involve Spanish-language media as
well as mass media. There are several Spanish-language TV networks in the United
States as well as widespread Spanish language radio, magazines, and newspapers.
Successfully communicating to Hispanic consumers involves more than directly
translating ad copy from English to Spanish.
99. Discuss the emerging trends regarding the Asian American market that are worth
watching.
Page: 177 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
First is geographic concentration, which has historically been high and appears to be
increasing. Over half of all Asian Americans reside in just five cities (Los Angeles,
San Francisco, New York, Honolulu, and Chicago). Roughly 75 percent of all Asian
Americans live in just six states (California, New York, New Jersey, Hawaii, Texas,
and Illinois). Immigration is one of the factors fueling the growth of this population.
A second trend is toward an increase in skilled workers from Mandarin-speaking
regions of mainland China. A final trend is one which is common to all subcultures,
and that is the youth trend. Roughly a third of Asian Americans are under the age of
18, and this second generation (sometimes referred to as Generation 2.0), which was
born in the United States, is like the African American and Hispanic youth, still tied to
their roots, but blending languages and cultures, influencing general U.S. culture, and
fueling trends in fashion and music.
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Chapter 5 Subcultures
100. Much of the American value system and the resultant political and social institutions
are derived from the Christian beliefs of the early settlers. Discuss the forms
Christianity takes in this country.
Page: 182-184 Difficulty: moderate
Answer:
Christianity takes many forms in this country, each with some unique beliefs and
behaviors: Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Born-Again Christians.
Roughly 25 percent of American adults are Roman Catholic. The Catholic church is
highly structured and hierarchical, the pope is the central religious authority, and
individual interpretation of scripture and events is minimal. A basic tenet is that a
primary purpose of a marital union is procreation, resulting in a larger family size for
Catholics than for Protestants. The Catholic church is ethnically diverse, and
Hispanics have fueled much of the Catholic growth since 1960. Catholics have very
few consumption restrictions or requirements associated with their religion.
Approximately 52 percent of American adults identify themselves as Protestant.
While there is significant diversity within this religion, most emphasize direct
individual experience with God as a core tenet. The emphasis on individual
responsibility and control has been credited with creating a strong work ethic, desire
of scientific knowledge, a willingness to sacrifice for the future, and relatively small
families. Some subcultures within this religion prohibit the consumption of certain
products (e.g., stimulants such as caffeine prohibited by the Mormon Church and
alcohol prohibited by the Southern Baptist church).
Born-again Christians are characterized by a strong belief in the literal truth of the
Bible, a very strong commitment to their religious beliefs, having had a “born-again”
experience, and encouraging others to believe in Jesus Christ. They tend to have
somewhat lower education and income levels than the general population, and they
tend to have a more traditional gender role orientation. Born-again Christians are best
known for their political stands on issues such as abortion, homosexual rights, and
prayer in the schools. They generally oppose the use of alcohol and drugs, and various
groups have organized boycotts against advertisers that sponsor shows they find
inappropriate.
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