Chapter 6 Vocabulary
Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks
Bedding (p. 126)- Horizontal layering in sedimentary rock that
can range from a millimeter thick to several meters thick
Cementation (p. 125)- Process of sedimentary rock formation
that occurs when dissolved minerals precipitate out of
groundwater and either a new mineral grows between the
sediment grains or the same mineral grows between and over
the grains
Clastic (p. 122)- Describes rock and mineral fragments
produced by weathering and erosion and classified according to
particle size and shape
Cross-bedding (p. 126)- Depositional feature of sedimentary
rock that forms as inclined layers of sediment are carried forward
across a horizontal surface
Deposition (p. 123) Occurs when sediments are laid down on
the ground or sink to the bottom of a body of water; final stage
of the erosion process in which the movement of transported
materials slows and they are dropped in another location
Graded Bedding (p. 126) Depositional feature of sedimentary
rocks in which particles are progressively heavier and coarser
toward the bottom layers of bedding
Lithification (p. 124) Transformation of sediments into rock
through compaction and cementation
Sediment (p. 121) Solid particles deposited on Earth’s surface
that can form sedimentary rocks by processes such as weathering,
erosion, deposition, and lithification
Clastic Sedimentary Rock (p. 128) Most common type of
sedimentary rock, such as breccia, sandstone, and shale formed
by lithification of clastic sediments
Evaporite (p. 130) Chemical sedimentary rock that forms
mainly in restricted ocean basins in areas with high evaporation
Porosity (p. 129) Percentage of open spaces between grains in
a rock; is highest in well sorted sediments
Contact Metamorphism (p. 135) Local effect that occurs
when molten rock meets solid rock
Foliated (p. 136) Metamorphic rock, such as schist or gneiss,
whose minerals are squeezed under high pressure and arranged
in wavy layers and bands
Hydrothermal Metamorphism (p. 135) Occurs when very
hot water reacts with rock, altering in mineralogy and chemistry
Nonfoliated (p. 136) Metamorphic rock that lacks mineral
grains with long axes in one direction
Porphyroblast (p. 136) Large crystals that form in solid rock
by reorganization of atoms during metamorphism
Regional Metamorphism (p. 134) Process that affects large
areas of Earth’s crust, producing belts classified as low, medium,
or high grade, depending on pressure on the rocks, temperature
and depth below the surface
Rock Cycle (p. 138) Continuous, dynamic set of processes by
which rocks are changed into other types of rock