Earth’s Interior Review and Reinforce
1. Crust
2. Mantle
3. Outer core
4. Inner core
5. To learn about Earth’s interior, geologists use direct evidence from rock samples that
formed deep inside Earth and indirect evidence from seismic waves.
6. The asthenosphere is a part of the upper mantle, whose material can bend like plastic.
The lithosphere is a rigid layer that includes the crust and the top of the mantle.
7. a
8. h
9. f
10. c
11. d
12. e
13. b
14. g
Convection and the Mantle Review and Reinforce
1. convection
2. radiation
3. conduction
4. The flow that transfers heat within a fluid is called a convection current. The heating
and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluid’s den- sity, and the force of gravity
combine to cause convection currents.
5. Heat from Earth’s core and mantle causes convection currents in Earth’s mantle.
6. radiation
7. true
8. true
9. convection
10. mass
Drifting Continents Review and Reinforce
1. Landforms
2. Africa
3. Glossopteris
4. Climate
5. glaciers
6. Continental drift is the hypothesis that all the continents had once been joined
together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart.
7. Wegener could not provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes or pulls
the continents.
8. Pangaea
9. fossil
10. continental drift
Sea-Floor Spreading Guided Reading and Study
Use Target Reading Skills
a. cools
b. sea floor
c. sea floor
d. ridge
1. a, d
2. sonar
3. to determine distance to an object
4. sea-floor spreading
5. molten material that erupts and cools
6. a. molten material b. magnetic strips c. drilling samples.
7. a, b
8. The farther away from the ridge the samples were taken, the older the rocks were. The
youngest rocks were always in the center of the ridges.
9. deep-ocean trench
10. the process by which ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the
mantle
11.
a. convection currents
b. sea-floor spreading
c. size and shape
d. convection currents
e. The ocean is changed in size and shape.
12. true
13. true
14. The Atlantic Ocean has only a few short trenches. The spreading ocean floor has
nowhere to go.
Key Terms
Across: 1. plate 5. asthenosphere 7. seismic
10. core 11. sonar
Down: 2. lithosphere 3. basalt 4. geology
6. rift 8. mantle 9. crust
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Earth`s Interior Review and Reinforce