Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Basalt- a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
Cementation-the process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles
of sediment together into one mass
Chemical rock- Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a
Clastic rock- Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed
under high pressure
Cleavage- a mineral’s ability to split easily along flat surfaces
Compaction-the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own
Crystal- a solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and
Deposition- Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
Erosion- the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock or
Extrusive rock- igneous rock that forms from lava
Foliated- term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in
parallel layers or bands
Fracture- the way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way
Grains- The particles of minerals or other rocks that give a rock its testure
Granite-a usually light-colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
Igneous rock- a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or
below the surface
inorganic- not formed from living things or the remains of living things
Intrusive rock-igneous rock that forms from when magma hardens beneath the
Earth’s surface
Luster- the way a mineral reflects light from its surface
Metamorphic rock -a type of rock that forms from an exciting rock that is changed
by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
Mineral-a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and
definite chemical composition
Mohs hardness scale- a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in
testing the hardness off minerals
Organic rock- Sedimentary rock that forms form the remains of organisms
deposited in thick layers
Rock cycle-a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly
changes rocks from one kind to another
Rock-forming mineral- the common minerals that make up most of the rocks of
Earth’s curst
Sediment- Earth materials such as pieces of rock that are deposited by erosion
Sedimentary rock- a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or
the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Silica- a material found in magma that is formed from the elements oxygen and
Streak- the color of a mineral’s powder
Texture- the look and feel of a rock’s surface, determined by the size, shape, and
pattern of a rock’s grains

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