GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
Jai Kumar Gupta
The book has very useful information related to general knowledge
questions being asked in various quiz in school and various real time
shows in T.V.Programmes.The stress has been emphasized to cover
very important facts related to the topic in concise manner which will
help all Indian students to structure their knowledge base for their
school as well as higher studies
Brilliant Public School, Sitamarhi
Devangan Complex, Rajopatti,
Dumra Road, Sitamarhi, Bihar,
India
00919431636758
06226252314
11/22/2010
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
For Indian Students
Compiled & Edited By
Jai Kumar Gupta
Bahrain
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Table of Contents
Disclaimer................................................................................................................................................................................ 2
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Abbreviations & Acronyms ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
Amazing Facts ....................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Animal General Knowledge................................................................................................................................................... 17
Atomic Test ........................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Biology................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Books & Writers .................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Classical Folk and Tribal Dances in India ............................................................................................................................... 27
Computer Related Quiz ......................................................................................................................................................... 29
Corporate World Quiz ........................................................................................................................................................... 30
Current Affairs, Current Events, General Knowledge ........................................................................................................... 32
Current Event 2010 ........................................................................................................................................................... 32
Current Event 2009 ........................................................................................................................................................... 45
Different Branches of Science ............................................................................................................................................... 63
Earth General Knowledge ..................................................................................................................................................... 66
Famous Cities and River Banks ............................................................................................................................................. 67
General Knowledge Questions.............................................................................................................................................. 70
General Knowledge Test ....................................................................................................................................................... 72
Geographical Sobriquets ....................................................................................................................................................... 74
Historical Events.................................................................................................................................................................... 76
Human Body Quiz ................................................................................................................................................................. 81
Important Days - National and International........................................................................................................................ 82
India History Quiz .................................................................................................................................................................. 85
Indian Independence Quiz .................................................................................................................................................... 89
Indian Presidents .................................................................................................................................................................. 91
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad ...................................................................................................................................................... 91
2. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan ........................................................................................................................................ 91
3. Dr. Zakir Hussain ........................................................................................................................................................... 91
4. Varahagiri Venkata Giri ................................................................................................................................................. 92
5. Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed ............................................................................................................................................. 92
6. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy................................................................................................................................................... 92
7. Giani Zail Singh .............................................................................................................................................................. 92
8. Ramaswamy Venkataraman ......................................................................................................................................... 93
9. Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma ............................................................................................................................................. 93
10. Kocheril Raman Narayanan ......................................................................................................................................... 93
11. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ................................................................................................................... 93
12. Smt. Pratibha Patil....................................................................................................................................................... 94
President of India .................................................................................................................................................................. 95
Election Process ................................................................................................................................................................ 95
Elegibility to Contest Election for the President ............................................................................................................... 95
Working Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 95
Impeachment (Article 61) ................................................................................................................................................. 95
Powers of President .......................................................................................................................................................... 96
Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil (25 July 2007 - till date) ..................................................................................................... 97
DR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (25 July 2002 TO 25 July 2007) .................................................................................................... 97
Shri K. R. Narayanan (25 July 1997 TO 25 July 2002) ........................................................................................................ 97
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma (25 July 1992 TO 25 July 1997) ............................................................................................... 97
Shri R Venkataraman (25 July 1987 TO 25 July 1992) ....................................................................................................... 97
Giani Zail Singh (25 July 1982 TO 25 July 1987) ................................................................................................................ 97
Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (25 July 1977 TO 25 July 1982) .............................................................................................. 97
Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (24 August 1974 TO 11 February 1977) ................................................................................. 97
Shri Varahagiri Venkata Giri (3 May 1969 TO 20 July 1969 and 24 August 1969 TO 24 August 1974)............................. 97
Dr. Zakir Husain (13 May 1967 TO 3 May 1969) ............................................................................................................... 97
Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (13 May 1962 TO 13 May 1967) ........................................................................................ 97
Dr. Rajendra Prasad (26 January 1950 TO 13 May 1962) ................................................................................................. 97
Indian Prime Ministers ........................................................................................................................................................ 102
Powers of Prime Minister ............................................................................................................................ 102
Dr. Manmohan Singh (May 22, 2004 - till date) - Party (INC) ......................................................................................... 102
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (May 16, 1996 - June 1, 1996 and March 19, 1998 - May 22, 2004) - Party (BJP) ........................ 102
Shri Inder Kumar Gujral (April 21, 1997 - March 19, 1998) - Party (Janta Dal) ............................................................... 102
Shri H. D. Deve Gowda (June 1, 1996 - April 21, 1997) - Party (Janta Dal) ..................................................................... 102
P. V. Narasimha Rao (June 21, 1991- May 16, 1996) - Party (Congress[I]) ..................................................................... 102
Shri Chandra Shekhar (November 10, 1990 - June 21, 1991) Party (Janta Dal[S]) ......................................................... 102
Shri V. P. Singh (December 2, 1989 - November 10, 1990) - Party(Janta Dal) ................................................................ 102
Mr. Rajiv Gandhi (October 31, 1984 - December 2, 1989) - Party (Congress[I]) ............................................................ 102
Shri Charan Singh (July 28, 1979 - January 14, 1980) - Party(Janta Party)...................................................................... 102
Shri Morarji Desai (March 24, 1977 - July 28, 1979) - Party (Janta Party) ...................................................................... 102
Smt. Indira Gandhi (January 24, 1966 - March 24, 1977 and January 14, 1980 - October 31, 1984) - Party(Congress &
Congress[I]) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 103
Lal Bahadur Shastri (June 9, 1964 - January 11, 1966) - Party(Congress) ....................................................................... 103
Shri Gulzarilal Nanda (May 27, 1964 - June 9, 1964 and January 11, 1966 - January 24, 1966)- Party (Congress) ........ 103
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru (August 15, 1947 - May 27, 1964 )- Party (Congress) ................................................................... 103
Indian State & Union Teritory ............................................................................................................................................. 104
Indian National Flag ............................................................................................................................................................ 106
Indian Constitution ............................................................................................................................................................. 109
Indian Constitution Amendments ....................................................................................................................................... 112
Indian Election Comission ................................................................................................................................................... 123
Indian Parliament ................................................................................................................................................................ 125
Parliament of Other Countries ............................................................................................................................................ 127
Indian Space Programme .................................................................................................................................................... 129
Indian Cinema ..................................................................................................................................................................... 132
57th National Film Awards.............................................................................................................................................. 132
Dada Saheb Phalke Award .............................................................................................................................................. 133
International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) Award – 2009 .................................................................................................... 135
Longest, Largest, Biggest, Smallest, Tallest and Highest..................................................................................................... 136
Major Irrigation Projects in India ........................................................................................................................................ 140
Mahatma Gandhi Quiz ........................................................................................................................................................ 142
Most Spoken Languages ..................................................................................................................................................... 144
1. Mandarin language – China ........................................................................................................................................ 144
2. English ......................................................................................................................................................................... 144
3. Hindustani – Number of speakers: 497 million........................................................................................................... 144
4. Spanish ........................................................................................................................................................................ 144
5. Russian ........................................................................................................................................................................ 144
6. Arabic .......................................................................................................................................................................... 145
7. Bengali – Number of speakers: 211 million ................................................................................................................ 145
8. Portuguese .................................................................................................................................................................. 145
9. Malay – Indonesia ....................................................................................................................................................... 145
10. French ....................................................................................................................................................................... 145
News Papers/ Journals ........................................................................................................................................................ 146
Nobel Prize Winner ............................................................................................................................................................. 148
Nobel Personalities in India ................................................................................................................................................ 150
Olympic General Knowledge ............................................................................................................................................... 155
Quiz on Religion .................................................................................................................................................................. 156
Quotations .......................................................................................................................................................................... 158
Solar System Quiz................................................................................................................................................................ 160
Sports related quiz .............................................................................................................................................................. 161
World Cup Cricket ........................................................................................................................................................... 177
World Cup Football ......................................................................................................................................................... 177
Strange Facts ....................................................................................................................................................................... 180
Strange Laws ....................................................................................................................................................................... 181
Trivia Questions To Test Your IQ ......................................................................................................................................... 182
United Nations .................................................................................................................................................................... 185
Important UN Agencies ................................................................................................................................................... 188
Other UN Agencies .......................................................................................................................................................... 190
World General Knowledge .................................................................................................................................................. 192
Abbreviations & Acronyms
Abbreviations & Acronyms
Short Name
Full Form or Abbreviations
3G
Third Generation
AAA
Asian Athletics Association
AAFI
The Amateur Athletics Federation of India
AC
Ante Christum (Before Christ), Ashok Chakra, Air Conditioner
ADB
Asian Development Bank
AFI
Athletics Federation of India
AFMC
Armed Forces Medical College
AI
Artifical Intelligence, Air India
AICTE
All India Council for Technical Education
AIFF
All India Football Federation
AIIMS
All India Institute of Medical Science
AITUC
All India Trade Union Congress
ALGOL
Algebric Oriented Language
AM
Ante Meridiem (before Noon), Amplitude Modulation
APEC
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
ARPANET
Advanced Research Project Agency Network
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASEAN
Association of South East Asian Nations
ASLV
Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
AT&T
American Telegraphic and Telephone Co. Ltd.
ATC
Air Traffic Control
ATM
Automated Teller Machine
AVSM
Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
B2B
Busines to Business
B2C
Business to Consumer
BARC
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
BBC
British Broadcasting Corporation
BBS
Bulletin Board Service
BC
Before Christ
BHEL
Bharat Heavy Electri-cals Ltd
BIOS
Basic Input Output System
BIT
Binary Digit
BPL
Below Poverty Line
BPO
Business Process Outsourcing
BPR
Business Process Re-engineering
bps
bytes per second
Short Name
BSE
Bombay Stock Exchange
BSF
Border Security Force
BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
C2C
Consumer to Consumer
CA
Chartered Accountant
CAD
Computer Aided Design
CAT
Common Admission Test
CBI
Central Bureau of Investigation
CBSE
Central Board of Secondary Education
CDAC
Centre for the Development of Advanced Computing
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access
CEO
Chief Executive Officer
CFSL
Central Forensic Science Laboratory
CGI
Common Gateway Interface
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency
CID
Criminal Investigation Department
CISC
Complex instruction-set computing
CITU
Centre of Indian Trade Unions
CNN
Cable News Network
COMSAT
Communications Satellite Corporation
COPRA
Consumer Protection Act
CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPI(M)
Communist Party of India / Marxist
CPWD
Central Public Works Department
CRIS
Centre for Railway Information System
CSIR
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
CTBT
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
CYMK
Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Kinda
D.Litt.
Doctor of Literature
D.Phil.
Doctor of Philosophy
D.Sc
Doctor of Science
DC
Direct Current
DIG
Deputy Inspector General
DMA
Direct Memory Access
DMK
Dravida Munetra Kazhagam
DNA
Deoxyribo-nucleic Acid
DTP
Desktop Publishing
DVC
Damodar Valley Corporation
DVD
Digital Versatile/Video Disc
Full Form or Abbreviations
E & OE
Errors and Omissions Excepted
EDI
Electronic Data Interchange
EIS
Executive Information System
E-MAIL
Electronic Mailing
EMI
Equated Monthly Instalments
ENIAC
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
ENT
Ear, Nose and Throat
EOF
end of file
EOT
Eastern Daylight Time
EPABX
Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange
ERNET
Educational and Research Network
FAQ
Frequently Asked Question
FBI
Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBT
Fringe Benefit Tax
FBTR
Fast Breeder Test Reactor
FBW
Fly-By-Wire
FCI
Food Corporation of India; Fertilizer Corporation of India
FDI
Foreign Direct Investment
FEMA
Foreign Exchange Management Act
FICCI
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
FIFA
International Football Federation (Federation Internationale de Football Association)
FIR
First Information Report
FM
Frequency modulation
FRCP
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians
FRCS
Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons
FRCS
Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society
FRS
Fellow of the Royal Society
G7
Group of Seven (US, UK, Germany, France, Italy, japan and Canada) G8 includes G7 plus Russia
GATE
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering
GATS
General Agreement on Trade and Services
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
GMAT
Graduate Management Admission Test
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GSLV
Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications
GSP
Generalised System Preference
GUI
Graphical User Interface
HAL
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HMI
Himalayan Mountaineering Institute
HTML
Hyper Text Markup Language
HUDCO
Housing and Urban Development Corp.
HVAC
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
i.e.
id est (that is)
IAAI
International Airport Authority of India
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency
IARI
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
IAS
Indian Administrative Service
IATA
International Air Transport Association
IBM
International Business Machines
ICSE
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
ICU
Intensive Care Unit
ICWA
Indian Council of World Affairs
IDA
International Development Agency
IDBI
Industrial Development Bank of India
IEEE
Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers
IELTS
International English Language Testing System
IFC
Industrial Finance Corporation, International Finance Corporation
IFS
Indian Foreign Service; Indian Forest Service
IGNOU
Indira Gandhi National Open University
IIPA
Indian Institute of Public Administration
IISCO
Indian Iron and Steel Company
IISS
International Institute of Strategic Studies
IIT
Indian Institute of Technology
ILA
Indian Library Association
ILO
International Labour Organisation
IMAP
Internet Mail Access Protocol
IMF
International Monetary Fund
INA
Indian National Army
INTUC
Indian National Trade Union Congress
IOC
Indian Oil Corporation
IP
Internet Protocol
IPC
Indian Penal Code
IPCL
Indian Petro-Chemicals Corporation Ltd
IPI
International Press Institute
Short Name
Full Form or Abbreviations
IPO
Initial Public Offering
IPS
Indian Police Service; Inter Press Service
IQ
Intelligence Quotient
IRC
International Red Cross
IRDP
Integrated Rural Development Programme
IRS
Indian Revenue Service
ISBN
International Standard Book Number
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISI
Indian Standards Institution; Inter Services Intelligence
ISKCON
International Society for Krishna Consciousness
ISO
International Standards Organisation
ISRO
Indian Space Research Organisation
IST
Indian Standard Time
ITBP
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
ITES
Information Technology enabled services
ITI
Indian Telephone Industries<br> Industrial Training Institute
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
IVF
In-Vitro Fertilisation
IVM
In-vitro Maturation
JCO
Junior Commissioned Officer
JEE
Joint Entrance Examination
JPEG
Joint Photographic Expert Group
LASER
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LCA
Light Combat Aircraft
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display<br>Least Common Denominator
LCM
Lowest Common Multiple
LIC
Life Insurance Corporation (of India)
LLB
Bachelor of Laws
LMC
Large Megallanic Cloud
LTTE
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam
M.A.
Magisiter Artium (Master of Arts)
M.D
Doctor of Medicine
MBA
Master of Business Administration
MBBS
Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MCC
Marylebone Cricket Club
MCI
Medical Council of India
MICR
Magnetic ink character recognition
MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIPS
Million Instructions per Second
MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Master Instruction Tape
MLA
Member of Legislative Assembly
MNC
Multi-National Corporation
MODEM
modulator demodulator
MP
Member of Parliament; Madhya Pradesh
MPEG
Motion Picture Experts Group
MRCP
Member of the Royal College of Physicians
MTCR
Missile Technology Control Regime
MVC
Maha Vir Chakra
NAAC
National Assessment and Accreditation Council
NABARD
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
NAFED
National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation
NALCO
National Aluminium Company Ltd.
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDAQ
National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation
NASSCOM
National Association of Software and Service Companies
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NAV
Net Asset Value
NCERT
National Council of Educational Research and Training
NCSA
National Centre for Supercomputing Applications; National Computer Security Association
NDA
National Defence Academy
NOC
No Objection Certificate
NPA
Non-performing Assets
NPT
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
NRF
National Renewal Fund
NSUI
National Students Union of India
NTPC
National Thermal Power Corporation
OBC
Other Backward Classes
OCR
Optical Character Recognition
ONGC
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
OOP
Object Oriented Programme
OPEC
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSCAR
Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio
PAN
Permanent Account Number
Ph.D.
Doctor of Philosophy (Philosophiae Doctor)
PIL
Public Interest Litigation
Short Name
Full Form or Abbreviations
PIN
Postal Index Number
PSLV
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
PWD
Public Works Department;
R&D
Research and Development
RADAR
Radio Detecting and Ranging
RAM
Random Access Memory
RAW
Research & Analysis Wing
RBI
Reserve Bank of India
RDX
Research Department Explosive (Cyclotrim-ethylin Trinitrate)
RISC
Reduced instruction-set computing
RNA
Ribonucleic acid
ROM
Read Only Memory
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
RTI
Right to Information
SAIL
Steel Authority of India Limited
SARS
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SCSI
Small Computer Systems Interface
SEBI
Securities and Exchange Board of India
SENSEX
Sensitivity Index (of Share Price)
SEZ
Special Economic Zone
SGPC
Siromani Gurudwara Prabandak Committee
SIM
Subscriber Information Module
SLV
Satellite Launch Vehicle
SMS
Short Message Service
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
STD
Subscriber Trunk Dialling; Sexually Transmitted Diseases
TADA
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act
TCP
Transfer Call Protocol<br> Transmission Control Protocol
TELCO
Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company
TFT
Thin-Film Transistor
TIFR
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
TISCO
Tata Iron and Steel Company
TOEFL
Test of English as a Foreign Language
UAV
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UGC
University Grants Commission
ULFA
United Liberation Front of Asom
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi-sation
UNI
United News of India
UNICEF
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (now, 'United Nations Children's Fund')
UNU
United Nations University
UPA
United Progressive Alliance
UPSC
Union Public Service Commission
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
VAT
Value Added Tax
VCR
Video Cassette Recorder
VIP
Very Important Person
VIRUS
Vital Information Resources Under Siege
VRML
Virtual Reality Modelling Language
VRS
Voluntary Retirement Scheme
VSSC
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
WHO
World Health Organisation
WMO
World Meteorological Organisation
WTO
World Trade Orga-nisation
WWF
World Wildlife Fund
WWW
World Wide Web
WYSIWYG
What you see is what you get
XML
Extensible Mark-up Language
YMCA
Young Men's Christian Association
ZIP
Zone Improvement Plan
Amazing Facts
Amazing Facts
1. Tuesday is considered as the most productive day of the week.
2. In human body the right lung takes in more air than the left one.
3. The sun is 330330 times larger than the earth.
4. Bill gates house was designed using Macintosh computer which is a brand of the microsoft’s rival
company.
5. Almost all varieties of breakfast cereals are made from grass.
6. In the 1930′s America track star Jesse Owens used to race against horses and dogs to earn a living.
7. There is a great mushroom in Oregon that is 2,400 years old. It Covers 3.4 square miles of land and is
still growing.
8. Jimmy Carter is the first USA president to have born in hospital.
9. Elephants are the only animals that cannot jump.
10. Cleopatra married two of her brothers.
11. Human birth control pill works on gorillas.
12. It is illegal to own a red car in shanghai china.
13. Tru to spin an egg, Its strange that a hard-boiled egg will spin but an uncooked or soft-boiled egg will
not.
14. Astronauts cannot burp in space.
15. People with blue eyes see better in dark.
16. The snowiest city in the USA is Blue Canyon, California.
17. Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua is the only fresh water lake in the world that has sharks.
18. Kite flying is a professional sport in Thailand.
19. The gasoline can not freeze no matter how cold the temperature falls.
20. Human stomach produces a new layer of mucus every two weeks otherwise it will digest itself.
21. Every person has a unique tongue print.
22. Donald Duck comics were banned in Finland because he doesn’t wear pants.
23. A tiny amount of liquor on a scorpion will make it go mad instantly and sting itself to death.
24. By raising your legs slowly and lying on your back, you can’t sink in quicksand.
25. Guinness Book of Records holds the record for being the book most often stolen from Public Libraries.
26. The Polar Bear can can reach 25 miles / hr of speed.
27. Leonardo Da Vinci could write with one hand and draw with the other at the same time.
28. Chocolate affects a dog’s heart and nervous system. A few ounces will kill a small sized dog.
29. Most lipsticks contain fish scales.
Animal General Knowledge
Animal General Knowledge
1. The Earth has over 12,00,000 species of animals, 3,00,000 species of plants & 1,00,000 other species.
2. All polar bears are left handed
3. A cow gives nearly 200,000 glasses of milk in her lifetime
4. The original name for the butterfly was ‘flutterby
5. A cheetah does not roar like a lion – it purrs like a cat (meow)
6. A jellyfish is 95 percent water!
7. No two zebras have stripes that are exactly alike. There are more than 50 different kinds of kangaroos.
8. A butterflie have 6 Legs & 2 Pair of Wings & has 12,000 eyes.
9. Human birth control pill works on gorillas.
10. German Shepherds bite humans more than any other breed of dog.
11. Owl is the only bird, which can rotate its head to 270 degrees.
12. The Swan has over 25,000 feathers in its body.
13. Elephant teeth can weigh as much as 9 pounds.
14. Crane sleeps standing on one leg.
15. Shark cannot see, they are very sensitive to sound.
16. A cat sees about six times better than a human at night because of the tapetum lucidum , a layer of extra
reflecting cells which absorb light.
17. A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out.
18. Bears whose brown fur is tipped with lighter-colored hairs are called grizzly bears .
19. Ants don’t sleep.
20. A cheetah can run 76 kilometres per hour (46 miles per hour)
21. Kiwis are the only birds, which hunt by sense of smell.
22. Cassowary is one of the dangerous birds that can kill a man or animal by tearing off with its dagger like
claw.
23. The largest frog in the world is called Goliath frog.
Atomic Test
Atomic Test
Types of Atomic tests - Atmospheric, Underwater, Underground. Scence behind Atomic Weapons Testing - Atomic weapons
are weapons of mass destruction based on two types of reactions - nuclear fission and fussion reaction.
Nuclear Fission based atomic weapon
In nuclear fission reaction a critical mass is created by combining two sub-critical mass capable to support a chain reaction.
There are two ways in which a critical mass can be created. In the gun-type method, sub-critical masses of fissionable
material are placed a little apart from one another in a device similar to a gun barrel. A powerfull conventional explosive is
packed behind one piece, the fuse is triggered and the explosive goes off propelling one of the sub-critical masses into the
other at high speed. A combined mass become super-critical and initiates the self-subtaining chain reaction. For example, the
bomd dropped on hirishima used the gun-type method.
The other method is the implosion method. A spherical sub-critical mass is surrounded by conventional explosives. The
explosive goes off on detonation, compressing the sub-critical mass into high density supercritical mass resulting into a high
density supercritical mass resulting into chain reaction. For example the atom bomb dropped on Nagasaki was of the
implosion type.
Nuclear Fusion based atomic weapons
In fusion weapons, the power comes from the fusion or combination of lightweight nuclei under intense heat, the reason why
they are also called thermonuclear weapons. The nuclei of the isotops of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, are fused. The
product of fusion weight less than the combined original nuclei and the lost matter turns into energy. The very high
temperature required for fusion is achieved by means of fusion explosion. The explosion of the fission device also release
neutrons which strike against a comound of lithium-6 deuteride inside the weapon. On being struck by nutrons the compound
gives rise to helium and tritium. Now pairs of one tritium nuclei, pair of deuterium nuclei and pair of one tritium-one
deuterium nuclei combine to form helium nuclei. As some amount of matter from the deuterium and tritium nuclei is
coverted into a large amount of energy a thermonuclear explosion takes place. The explosive power of the weapon is
increased by surrounding lithium-6 deuteride with U-238 because the thermonuclear explosion fissions the uranium-238. The
device is also known as hydrogen bomb as isotopes of hydrogen are responsible for its explosive power.
Nuclear Reactor Technology
A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate. The
most significant use of nucear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power and for the power of
propulsion in nuclear submarines.
The physics of operating a nuclear reactor is explained by Nuclear reactor physics. The natural uranium is thefuel used in the
reactor and consists of two types of isotopes - U 238 and U-235 in the ratio of 139:1. The U-235 isotop undergoes fission
and release energy. When a slow neutron strucks U-235 atom, it splits into two or more fragments and tw or three fast
neutrons. Tremendous amount of energy is produced in this process. The fast neutrons re made to slow down before they
strike other U-235 atoms, thus releasing chain reaction is attained in due course of time.
Classifications
Nuclear Reactor are classified by several methods such as based on nuclear reaction, moderator material, coolant, phase of
fuel, use etc. A brief outline of these classification schemes is provided below:
Nuclear fission - Most reactors, and all commercial ones, are based on nuclear fission. They generally use uranium and its
product plutonium as nuclear fuel cycle is also possible. Fission reactors can be divided roughly into two classes, depending
on the energy of the neutrons that sustain the fission chain reaction. Thermal reactors use slowed or thermal neutrons and
fast neutron reactors use fast neutrons to cause fission in their fuel. they do not have a neutron moderator and use less
moderating coolants.
Light water moderated reactors (LWRs) - Light water reactors use ordinary water to moderate and cool the reactors. At
operating temperature, the density of water drops because of increase in it's temperature, and fewer neutrons passing
through it are slowed enough to trigger further reactions. Due to the extra thermalization, these types can use natural
uranium/unreached fuel.
Name of Nuclear Explosions Country
Yield (Kt)
Year
Trinity
USA
19
1945
Little Boy
USA
15
1945
Fat Man
USA
21
1945
RDS-1
USSR
22
1949
Hurricane
UK
25
1952
Ivy Mike
USA
10,400
1952
Joe 4
USSR
400
1953
Castle Bravo
USA
15,000
1954
RDS-37
USSR
1,600
1955
Grapple X
UK
1800
1957
Gerboise Bleue
France
70
1960
Tsar Bomba
USSR
57000
1961
596
China
22
1964
Test No. 6
China
3300
1967
Canopus
France
2600
1968
Smiling Buddha
India
12
1974
Pokhran-II
India
60
1998
Chagai-I
Pakistan
36-40
1998
2006 North Korea Nuclear Test North Korea less than 1 Kt 2006
2009 North Korea Nuclear Test North Korea 5-15
2009
Biology
Biology
Minerals and their Significance to a Human Body
Mineral
Elements
Sources
Significance
Effects of deficiency.
Macro Elements
Calcium(Ca)#
Milk, cereals, Cheese, Required for formation of teeth and Bones ,
Green Vegetables.
blood clotting, function of nerves and muscles
Phosphorus(P)
Weak theeth and bones ;
retarded body growth.
Weak theeth and bones ;
retarded body growth and
physiology.
Sulphur(S)
Many protiens of food.
Component of many amino acids.
Pottassium(K)
Meat,
cereals,fruits
vegetables.
Chlorine(Cl)
Table salt
Magnesium(Mg)
Cereals,
vegetables.
Iron(Fe)
Meat, eggs , cereals, Component of haemoglobin and cytochromes.
green vegetables.
Anaemia, weakness
weak immunity.
Iodine(I)
Milk, cheese, sea food, important component of thyroxine hormone
iodized salt
Goitre, Cretinism
Fluorine(F)
Drinking water, tea , Maintence of bones and teeth.
sea food
Weak
theeth,
larger
amount causes motting of
teeth.
Zinc(Zn)
Cereals,
Milk,
meat, sea food
Copper(Cu)
Meat, dry fruits , POds ,
Green vegetables, sea
food
Manganese(MN)
Dry fruits, cereals,tea Cofactor of some enzymes of urea synthesis
fruits
and
green and transfer of phosphate group
vegetables
Irregular growth of bones,
cartilages and connective
tissues
Cobalt(Co)
MIlk, cheese, meat
Important component of vitamin B12
Anaemia
Selenium(SE)
Meat, cereals, sea food
Cofactor of many enzymes; assists vitamin E
Muscular pain; weakness of
cardiac muscles
Chromium(CR)
Yeast, sea food, meat, Important for catabolic metabolism
some vegetables
milk, Required for acid-base balance,
and regulation nad function of nerevs..
green
Distributed
metabolism.
protein
water Low blood pressure, weak
muscles; risk of paralysis..
Required for acid base balance; component of
gastric juice.
Loss of appetite; muscles
cramps
Cofactor of many enzymes of glycolysis anda
number of another metabolic reactions
dependent upon ATP
Irregularties of metabolism
principally
affecting
nervous functions.
and
Micro Elements
eggs, Cofactor
enzymes
of
digestive
and
many
other
Cofactor
of
cytochrome
oxidase
enzyme.Necessary for iron metabolism and
development of blood vessels and connective
tissues
Retarded growth, anaemia,
rough skin, weak immunity
and fertility
Anaemia,weak
vessels
and
tissues
Irregularities
meatbolism
production
blood
connective
of catabolic
and
ATP
Molybdenum(MO)
Cereals, pods,
vegetables
some Cofactor of some enzymes
Irregular
excreation
of
nitrogenous waste products
Vitamin
Chemical Name
Properties
Deficiency disease
A
Retinol
General health giving vitamin, can be stored
liver
Night blindness
B1
Thiamine
For
Growth,
carbohydrate
functioning of heart
Beri-Beri
B2
Riboflavin
For Keeping skin and mouth healthy
Cheilosis
B5
Niacin
For healthy skin, sound mental health
Pellagra
B6
Pyridoxine
Processing of proteins and for nervous system
Convulsions in child
B12
Cynacobalamin
Required for formation and maturation of
RBCs
Pernicious anaemia
C
Ascorbic Acid
For keeping teeth , gums and joints healthy
.Gets destroyed on heating
Scurvy
D
Calciferol
For normal bones and teeth, can be stored in
liver
Rickets
E
Tocopherol
For normal reproduction , removes scars and
wrincles
Sterility
K
Phylloquinone
For normal clotting of blood
Haemophilia
metabolism,
Books & Writers
Books & Writers
Book's Name
Author's Name
A Gift of Monotheists
Ram Mohan Roy
A Minister and his Responsibilities
Morarji Bhai Desai
A Nation is Making
Surendra Nath Bandhopadhye
A Pair of Blue Eyes
Thomash Hardy
A Passage to India
E. M. Foster
A Revenue Stamp (autobiography) Amrita Pritam
A Strange and Sublime Address
Amit Choudhary
A Suitable Boy
Bikram Seth
A Tale of Two Cities
Charls Dikens
A Voice of Freedom
Nayantara Shehgal
A week with Gandhi
L. Fischer
Adventures of Sherlock Homes
Arther Canon Doel
All the Prime Minister's Men
Janardan Thakur
Allahabad Prasasti
Harisen
Amukta Malyad
Krishna Deva Raya
An Unknown Indian
Nirod C. Choudhary
Anand Math
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Anna Karenina
Leo Tolstoy
Aparajito
Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
Apple Cart
G. B. Shaw
Aranyak
Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
Arogyaniketan
Tarashankar Bandopadhyay
Astyadhaye
Panini
Bakul Katha
Ashapurna Devi
Ban Palashir Padabali
Ramapada Chowdhury
Bandit Queen
Mala Sen
Bela Obela Kalbela
Jibanananda Das
Bengali Zamindar
Nilmoni Mukherjee
Bicramanchadev
Bilhon
Blind Beauty
Boris Pasternak
Buddhacharit
Asha Ghosh
Captive Lady
Michel Madhusudan Dutta
Causes of the Indian Mutiny
Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Charitraheen
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Chidambara
S. N. Panth
Circle of the Region
Amitabha Ghosh
City of Job Charnak
Nisith Ranjan Roy
Commedy Errors
Shekhspear
Coolie
Mulkraj Anand
Crisis of India
Ronal Segal
Das Capital
Karl Marks
Death of President
W. Marchent
Decamaren
Bocachio
Desert Village
Oliver Goldsmith
Devdas
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Devi Chaudharani
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Devine Comedi
Dante
Divine Life
Sivanand
Economic History of India
Ramesh Chandra Dutta
End and Means
Huxlay
Faust
Goethe
Ferary Queen
Edmond Spensar
Freedom at Midnight
Lapierre & Collins
Friend Not Master
Ayub Khan
Ganadebata
Tarashankar Bandopadhyay
Book's Name
Author's Name
Gathering Strom
Churchil
Ghulam Giri
Jyotiba Phule
Great Indian and Their Landmark Speeches
Manohar and Sarita Prabhakar
Guid
R. K. Narayanan
Gurdbaho
Bakpatiraj
Hero of Nymph
Aurobindo Ghosh
Hind Swaraj
M. K. Gandhi
Hindu View of Life
S. Radhakrishnan
Historica
Herodotus
I follow the Mahatma
K. M. Munshi
I Van Ho
Walter Scot
Ignited Minds - Unleashing the power within India DR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
In an Antique Land
Amitabh Ghosh
India 2020 - A Vision for the New Millennium
DR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
India Divided
Rajendra Prashad
India Wins Freedom
Abdul Kalam Azad
Indian Epigraphy
D. C. Sircar
Indian war and Independence
D. V. Savarkar
Indica
Megasthenis
Infinite Jest
David Foster Wallace
Inheritance of Loss
Kiran Desai
Jalsaghar
Tarashankar Bandopadhyay
Jhara Palak
Jibanananda Das
Jinnah- India, Partition, Independence
Jaswant Singh
Jungle Book
R. Kippling
Kanterbary Tells
Geofray Chosar
Kidnapped
Stevenson
Kubla Khan
Coleridge
Lalit Bihar
Ashwa Ghosh
Life Devine
Aurobindo Ghosh
Mahabhashya
Patanjali
Man and Superman
G. B. Shaw
Midnight Children
Salman Rushdi
Mitakshara
Vijnaneswara
Mother
Maxim Gorkay
Mother India
Katharin Mayo
Murder in Cathedral
Elliot
My Experiments With Truth
M.K. Gandhi
My Indian Years
Lord Hardinge II
My Journey
DR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Myth of Independence
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Neel Darpan
Dinbandhu Mitra
Netaji Dead or Alive
Samar Guha
New Dimensions of India's Foreign Policy
A. B. Vajpayee
New India
Annie Besant
Padma Nadir Majhi
Manik Bandopadhyay
Pakhtoon
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Palli Samaj
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Paradise Lost
John Milton
Parineeta
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Pather Panchali
Bibhuti BHushan Bandopadhaye
Poverty & Un-British Rule in India
Dadabhai Naoroji
Pratham Pratisruti
Ashapurna Devi
Precepts of Jesus
Ram Mohan Roy
Prison Diary
Jay Prakash Narayan
Book's Name
Author's Name
Problems of the East
Lord Curzon
Putul Nacher Itikatha
Manik Bandopadhyay
Rajtarangini
Kalhan
Ramcharit
S. K. Nandi
Rashmirathi
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar
Saket
Mathili Saran Gupta
Satyarth Prakash
Swami Dayanand
Shadow Line
Amitabh Ghosh
Shadow of Ladakh
B. Bhattacharia
Shape of Things To Come
H. G. Wells
Sitaram
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Straight from the Heart
Kapil Dev
Subarnalata
Ashapurna Devi
Tahakak - E - HInd
Albiruni
Talisman
Walter Scott
The Bandit Queen
Mala Sen
The City of Joy
Dhominic Lapier
The Discovery of India
Jawahar Lal Nehru
The God of Small Things
Arundhuti Roy
The Harry Potter Series
J. K. Rowling
The Indian Struggle
Subash Chandra Bose
The Indian War of Independence
V. D. Savarkar
The Judgement
Kuldip Nayar
The Masque of Africa
V. S. Naipaul
The Miracle of Democracy: India's Amazing Journey
Mr. T. S. Krishnamurthy
The Nehrus; Motilal and Jawaharlal
B. R. Nanda
The Prince
Maciavaly
The Satanic Verse
Salman Rushdi
The Science of Bharat Natyam
Saroja Vaidyanathan
The Silent Cry
Kenjaburo Ue
The Spirit of Islam
Syyed Amir Ali
The White Tiger
Aravind Adiga
Theory of Relativity
Alexander Doma
Three Marketiars
Einstein
To all fighters of freedom, Why Socialism?
J. P. Narayan
Two Leaves and a Bud
Mulkraj Anand
Unhappy India
L. Roy
Urbashi
R. D. Dinkar
Utopia
Thomas Moor
Vision of the Past
Michel Madhusudan Dutta
Volga Se Ganga
Rahul Sankritayan
War and Peace
Tolstoy
What Congress and Gandhi have done to the untouchables B. R. Ambedkar
Wings of Fire
DR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Classical Folk and Tribal Dances in India
Classical Folk and Tribal Dances in India
Classical Dance of India
Dance
State
Bharat Natyam Tamil Nadu
Bihu
Assam
Bhangra
Punjab
Chhau
Bihar, Orissa, W. Bengal and Jharkhand
Garhwali
Uttaranchal
Garba
Gujarat
Hattari
Karnataka
Kathak
North India
Kathakali
Kerala
Kutchipudi
Andhra Pradesh
Khantumm
Mizoram
Karma
Madhya Pradesh
Laho
Meghalaya
Mohiniattam
Kerala
Mando
Goa
Manipuri
Manipur
Nati
Himachal Pradesh
Nat-Natin
Bihar
Odissi
Orissa
Rauf
Jammu & Kashmir
Yakshagan
Karnataka
Folk and Tribal Dances
States
Dances
Maharashtra
Kathakeertan, Lezin, Dandaniya, Tamasha, Gafa, Dahikala, Lovani, Mauni, Dasavtar.
Karnataka
Huttari, Suggi Kunitha, Yakashagana
Kerala
Kaikottikali, Kaliyattam, Tappatikkali
Tamil Nadu
Kolattam, Pinnal Kolattam, Kummi, Kavadi, Karagam
Andhra
Pradesh
Ghanta Mardala, Veedhi Natakam, Burrakatha
Orissa
Ghumara Sanchar, Chadya Dandanata, Chhau
West Bengal
Kathi, Chhau, Baul, Kirtan, Jatra, Lama
Assam
Bihu, Khel Gopal, Rash Lila, Tabal Chongli, Canoe
Punjab
Giddha (women), Bhangra (men)
J&K
Rauf, Hikat
Himachal
Pradesh
Jhora, Jhali, Dangli, Mahasu, Jadda, Jhainta, Chharhi
Haryana
Jhumar, Ras Leela, Phag dance, Daph, Dhamal, Loor, Gugga, Khoria, Gagor
Gujarat
Garba, Dandiya Rass, Tippani, Gomph
Rajasthan
Ginad, Chakri, Gangore, Terahtaal, Khayal, Jhulan Leela, Jhuma, Suisini
Bihar
Jata Jatin, Jadur, Chhau, Kathaputli, Bakho, Jhijhiya, Samochakwa, Karma, Jatra, Natna
Uttar Pradesh
Nautanki, Thora, Chappeli, Raslila, Kajri.
Famous Dancer
Bharatnatyam
Bala Saraswati, C. V. Chandrasekhar, Leela Samson, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Padma Subramanyam, Rukmini
Devi, Sanyukta Panigrahi, Sonal Mansingh, Yamini Krishnamurti
Kathak
Bharti Gupta, Birju Maharaj, Damayanti Joshi, Durga Das, Gopi Krishna, Kumudini Lakhia, Sambhu Maharaj,
Sitara Devi
Kuchipudi
Josyula Seetharamaiah, Vempathi Chinna Sthyam
Manipuri
Guru Bipin Sinha, Jhaveri Sisters, Nayana Jhaveri, Nirmala Mehta, Savita Mehta Debaprasad Das, Dhirendra
Nath Pattnaik, Indrani Rahman, Kelucharan Mahapatra, Priyambaba Mohanty, Sonal Mansingh
Instrumentalists
Sarod
Ali Akbar Khan, Allaudin Khan, Amjad Ali Khan, Buddhadev Dasgupta, Bahadur Khan, Sharan Rani, Zarin S.
Sharma
Tabla
Alla Rakha Khan, Kishan Maharaj, Nikhil Ghosh, Zakir Hussain
Violin
Baluswamy Dikshitar, Gajanan Rao Joshi, Lalgudi G. Jayaraman, M. S. Gopala krishnan, Mysore T.
Chowdiah, T. N. Krishnan
Shehnal
Bismillah Khan
Sitar
Nikhil Banerjee, Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Hara Shankar Bhattacharya
Flute
Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Pannalal Ghose, T. R. Mahalingam
Veena
K. R. Kumaraswamy lyer, Doraiswami lyengar
Vocalists
Hindustani
Shubha Mudgal, Bheemsen Joshi, Madhup Mudgal, Mukul Shivputra, Pandit Jasraj, Parveen Sultana, Naina
Devi, Girija Devi, Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Gangubai Hangal, Krishna Hangal, V. Rajput, Kumar
Gandharva, Faiyyaz Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kishori Amonkar, Ustad Rashid Khan.
Carnatic
M. S. Subbalakshmi, Balamuralikrishna, Bombay Jaishree, H. K. Raghavendra, H. K. Venkataram, Sitarajam,
Mani Krishnaswamy, Akhil Krishnan, M. L. Vasanthakumari, M. D. Ramanathan, G. N. Balasubramaniam
Thumri
Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ustad Mazhar Ali Khan, Ustad Zawad Ali Khan, Rita Ganguli, Poornima
Chaudhary, Shanti Heerananda, Naina Devi
Quwwali
Ghulam Hasan Niyazi, Sultan Niyazi, Ghulam Farid Nizami, Chand Nizami, Iqbal Hussain Khan Bandanawaji,
Aslam Sabari
Dhrupad
Ustad Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar, Zahiruddin Dagar, Waslfuddin Dagar, Bundecha Bandhu, Uday Bhawalkar,
Pt. Abhay Narayan Mallick, Pt. Ritwik Sanyal
Computer Related Quiz
Computer Related Quiz
1. Abacus is cnsidered as the first known counting device and it was orginated from Asia. Abacus worked
on a place-value notion meaning that the place of a bead or rock on the apparatus determined how much
it was worth.
2. In 1642 a French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical digital
calculator using gears known as the Pascaline.
3. In 1812 Charles P. Babbage later known as the “father of the computer”,designed a machine, the
difference engine which was steam-powered, fully automatic and commanded by a fixed instruction
program.
4. In 1947 the giant calculating device ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) machine
was developped by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania.
5. In early 1960s Gene Amdahl designed the IBM System/360 series of mainframe computers, which
considered as the first general purpose digital computers which uses intergrated circuits.
6. In 1961 Dr. Hopper developed the COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) programming
language.
7. In 1964 the International Business Machines (IBM) publishes and marketed the term “word processor
8. In 1965 Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny developped BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code) programming language .
9. In 1969 the Internet was started.
10. In 1969, computers were first used to communicate synchronously.
11. In 1970 Dr. Ted Hoff developed the famous Intel 4004 microprocessor (G) chip.
12. In 1971 the Intel released the first microprocessor, a specialized integrated circuit which was able to
process four bits of data at a time.
13. In 1976 Apple Computers was founded by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak.
14. In 1981 the IBM PC was introduced with a 16-bit microprocessor.
Corporate World Quiz
Corporate World Quiz
1. Uncle Pai is a successful publisher who was associated with Amar Chitra Katha once roaringly
successful children’s literature.
2. Indra Nooyi is the top executive of Indian origin with Pepsi Cold Drinks who regarded as the 50 most
powerful women in corporate America by a leading corporate magazine.
3. Royal Dutch Shell commonly known as Shell is the biggest Petroleum Company in the world.
4. Dhunji Rana the robust male model who have a stylish and sophisticated presence was the model for
Zodiac Man for the brands indian advertising promotions.
5. CEAT tyre company which gives cricket ratings are belongs to RPG Enterprises group is an indian
company which manages various business areas such as Power, Transmission, IT, Speciality, Carbon
Black, Tyre, Retail and Entertainment.
6. Living Media India Ltd is the media group has launched India’s first electronic newspaper, or e-paper.
7. Sunil Mittal of Bharti Telecom was an Indian businessman who has been named among businessweek’s
top entrepreneurs for 2000.
8. The beautiful Ekta Kapoor, daughter of film star Jeetendra, is a highly successful producer of television
serials owns Balaji Telefilms.
9. Epson company has the advertising punchline “The Power To Create”.
10. Tata Finance has launched a credit card with a tie up with American Express credit card company.
11. Stanford University Network is the first three letters of ‘Sun Microsystems’ stand for.
12. The beer brand cobra is the most preferred as an accompaniment to India food.
13. C. K. Prahlad the Management Guru of Indian Origin is most associateed with the phrase “Core
Competence”.
14. Maruti Udyog is the largest ‘unlisted’ company in India in terms of turnover.
15. L. N. Mittal is the only Asian to be included in Sunday Times list of “The Wealthiest 200 in Britain
since 1066″.
16. Raymond is the Indian textile brand who proudly proclaims “Since 1925″in its advertisements.
17. Mumbai-born Fareed Zackaria has been appointed the editor of Newsweek an international news
magazine.
18. Bombay Dyeing textile company of India is head quartered at “Neville House”.
19. The Hollywood horror flick “Crocodile 2 Death Roll” was recently shot in Ramoji film studio in India
20. The Department of Telecommunications (DOT has been transformed in to a corporation and namedas
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.
Current Affairs, Current Events, General Knowledge
Current Affairs, Current Events, General Knowledge
Current Event 2010
Current Event National, Jan 2010
9 Jan
The Centre approves the proposal of the US-based soft drinks major PepsiCo to inject additional equity of
$200 million (around Rs. 930 crore) into its Indian arm within three years.
10 Jan
The Planning Commission constitutes a 25-member expert panel to explore options before the country for
a low-carbon economy.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) sanctions $150 million aid for the Khadi and Village Industries Board
(KVIB)
11 Jan
Two ballistic flight tests of Astra, the Beyond-Visual-Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM), are successfully
carried out fom the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Balasore, Orissa.
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh launches the Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission, or "Solar India"
India and Bangladesh Prime Minister Ms. Sheikh Hasina and her Indian counterpart Dr. Manmohan Singh,
the pacts are aimed at bolstering Bilateral ties.
12 Jan
Seeking to aggressively pursue export of products to China and Japan, the centre announces the
inclusion of both the countries in the MarketLinked Focused Programme (MLFP) scheme; the Centre also
unleashes incentive worth Rs. %00 crore for exporters, especially those in the labour intensive sectors.
13 Jan
The Centre announces a slew of new measures to curb the soaring price of essential commodities.
14 Jan
India and France exchange the instruments of ratification of the agreement on civil nuclear energy
cooperation, bringing into force the historic Indo-France N-deal
The Central Government allows ONGC Videsh to invest $39 million (Rs.1,651 crore) for oil exploration in
two deep-sea blocks in Nigeria over the next five years.
15 Jan
The millennium's longest (11-Minute) annular solar eclipse covers a swathe of 1000 km in India; the
spectacle enthrals millions.
The Central agrees to releas Rs. 12,000 crore in cash to loss-making state-run oil companies to cover for
their losses in the 2009-10 fiscal.
16 Jan
The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests decides to conduct a vulnerability line mapping along the
country's coastline, to ensure the safety of those living close to the coast.
The Centre annoumces that the next assembling centre for the BrahMos missiles will be Rajasthan's
Pilani. At present BrahMos missiles are assembled only in Hyderabad.
17 Jan
Jyoti Basu, the famous Leftist icon of India, passes away at the age of 95 in Kolkata, West Bengal.
18 Jan
The Suprime Court extends to June 30, 2010 the deadline for the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
(TRAI) to fix the tariff for the Direct-to-Home (DTH) platform.
19 Jan
At the joint Economic Group (JEG) dialogue held in Beiging (China), India and China agree to work
together to bridge the widening trade gap between the two nations.
20 Jan
Malaysian Premier Md. Najib Tun Razak visit India; during this visit, India and Malaysia sign an
extradition treaty and two two other accords on economic cooperation and higher education.
21 Jan
Former Foreign Secretary Mr. Shiv Shankar Menon is appointed as a new National Security Adviser
(NSA); he succeeds Mr. M.K. Narayanan.
The Cabinate Committee on Infrastructure accords in-principle approval for the establishment of the
National Knowledge Network (NKN) that will interconnect all knowledge institutions of the country.
22 Jan
Lt. Gen. Vijay Kumar Singh is appointed the new chief of the Army Staff; he succeeds Gen,Deepak
Kapoor.
23 Jan
Maldives President Mohamed Nasheed attend and delivers the keynote address at the 16th edition of the
India-maldivas Partnership Summit, organised by the Confederation of India Industry (CII) in chennai,
Tamil nadu.
24 Jan
The second ministerial-level meeting of the BASIC group of nations-Comprising China, India,South Africa
and Brazil-is held in New Delhi.
In a milestone, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) tests its biggest and most powerful
rocked motor called the S-200, powered by 200 tonnes of solid propellant. The test is conducted at
Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
25 Jan
The Civilian Awards for 2010 are announced on the eve of the nation's 61st Republic Daky; in all, the
President approves the names of 130 persons for the awards -6 for Padma Vibhushan, 43 for Padma
Bhushan and 81 for Padma Shri. The President also approves 442 gallantry awards.
India and South Korea sign four crucial agreement in various sectors; the agreements are signed in New
Delhi during the state visit of South Korean Prime Minister Mr,Lee Myung -bak.
26 Jan
Hon,ble President Ms. Pratibha Patel confers the gallantruy awards on the recipients on the occasion of
the 61st Republic Day; Visiting South Korean Premier Mr.Lee Myung-bak takes part in the Repubic Day
celebrations in New Delhi as the chief guest.
27 Jan
Seeking to enhance its presence in mineral and oil rich African counries. The agreement is signed in
Luanda , Angola.
28 Jan
The 2010 Environmental performance Index,released worldwide, places India at the 123rd rank among
163 countries; the list is topped by Iceland.
29 Jan
In a move to contain rising inflation, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) hikes the Cash Reserve Ratio
(CRR)-the portion that commercial banks are required to keep with the central bank-by 75 basis points
from 5 percent to 5.75 percent.
30 Jan
The high-level task force, constitude toset a growth agenda for the development of the micro,small and
medium enterprises (MSME) sector, submits its recommemdation to prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh.
India submits its emission cut proposals to the UN; in its proposals, India says that it will endeavour to
reduce its emission intensity by 20-25 percent by 2020 in comparison to the 2005 levels.
31 Jan
In a step that could creat a major socio-political impact in Punjab as well as other parts of the country,
Dera Sachkhand Ballan announces a new religion, Ravidassia Dharm; it is also announced that the
community will have its own separate religion book, Amrit Bani Guru Ravidass.
International
9 Jan
Afghan President Mr.Hamid KarZai submits a new list of Cabinet nominees to replace Ministers rejected
by the nation's parlaiment.
10 Jan
Reports reveal that after a 13-month slump, China's exports posted strong growth in December 2009,
helping the country surpass germany to become the world's largest exporter.
Mr. Ivo Josipovic is elected the President of croatia.
11 Jan
Sri Lanka and India sign a commercial pact in colombo, with India Promising the island nation an
assistance of $185 million for the construction of a Railway Line in the War-torn Northern Province of Sri
Lanka.
12 Jan
Foreign Ministers of Afganistan , Pakistan and host United Arab Emirates (UAE) , along with the
reoresentatives of 40 countries, the European Union (EU) and the UN Mision in Afghanistan, hold a crucial
security meet in Abu Dhabi.
An earthquake of a catastrophic 7.0 magnitude devastates the Caribbean nation Haiti, killing Lakhs of
People and rendering millions homeless.
13 Jan
Internet Giant Google threatens to close its operations in china, following a string of vicious cyber attacks
on its services.
14 Jan
Japan and Germany agree to work together on climate change, nuclear disarmament and rebuilding
Afghanistan , during aTokyo visit by german Foreign minister Mr. guido Westerwelle.
15 Jan
Russia lifts its opposition to a long-delayed reform of the European Court if Human rights in a major
gesture towards the west; the new move will also improve the Russian legal system.
16 Jan
The Government of hong Kong approves a controversial $8.6 bollion rail link to China's high-speed rail
network.
17 Jan
Amnesty international accuses Israel of ''collectively punishing'' the population of the Gaza Strip with
border closures.
18 Jan
Chilean billionaire Mr. Sebastian Pinera is elected as the nation's President; with his election, the latin
American nation Witnesses a political shift to the right to the right after 20 years of leftist rule.
19 Jan
Cadbury, the flagbearer of the British Chocolate industry , is acquired by US giant Kraft Foods for $19
billion ; the amalgamation creates a world leader in food and confectionery.
20 Jan
In a major setback for US President Mr. Barack obama, Republican Mr.Scott Brown Captures the US
Senate seat held by the legendary Democrat Edward Kennedy for neraly half a century.
21 Jan
A report released by the Chinese Government reveals that after suffering one of its worst declines in
decades, China's econiomy has rebounded strongly, recording 8.7 percent growth in 2009.
22 Jan
In a Crucial Development, the Us Supreme Court that labour unions and corporations can spend
unlimited amounts to influence federal elections, throwing out a ban that had been in effect for 63 years.
23 Jan
A year after the Gaza War, Israel pays the Un $10.5 million as compensation for danaging its offices
during an attack by its defence forces.
24 Jan
Afghanistan postpones parliamentary elections for four months , saying it will not be safe to hold
elections amid a spiralling Taliban Insurgency.
25 Jan
Dalai Lama's envoys arrive in Beijing for the resumption of talks with china, Which have been suspended
since November 2008 over disagreements on the question of Tibet's autonomy.
26 Jan
In a Significant development, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) says that the
Copenhagen Accord, finalised at the Copenhagen Conference in December 2009, is not a legally binding
document but merely a political one.
27 Jan
Sri Lankan President Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa is re-elected for a second term; in the presidential elections,
he beats former army chief Gen. (Retd.) Sarath Fonseka by a comfortable margin.
The World Economic Forum summit is convened in Davos, Switzerland.
28 Jan
Spelling bad news for outsourcing hubs including India, US President Mr. Barack Obama says in his 2010
state of the Union Address that his government will cut tax breaks of companies that outsource jobs to
offshore destinations.
29 Jan
Microsoft Founder Mr. Bill Gates announces that his foundation will commit $10 billion over the next
decade to research and deliver vaccines to the poorest nations of the world.
30 Jan
Russia seals a multi- billion dollar package of seals to supply weapons to Lybia, Signalling a return to the
strategically important region of North Africa.`
31 Jan
Faced with growing discontent over land seizures by the government and real estate developers , china's
State Council announces a major overhaul of land laws that will slowthe process of home demolitions and
give home owners greater compensations for their land.
FEBRUARY 2010 (National)
1 Feb
A report released by the centre shows that continuing with a rising trend for the second consecutive
month India's exports registered a 9.3 percent growth in December 2009, while imports also turned
positive after posting negative growth for the last 11 months.
2 Feb
German President Dr. horst Koehler arrivesin India on a statet visit; during his meeting with Prime
Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, India and Germany decide to setup security and economic cooperation by
finalising host of cricial pacts.
3 Feb
The Centre Constitutes a high-level committee, headed by justice B.N. SriKrishna, on the Telangana
issue, to hold wide-ranging consultations with all sections of the people and political parties and groups in
Andhra
pradesh.
The government- appointed kirit ParikhCommitte recommends complete decontrol of petrol and diesel
prices; a hike of Rs.100 per LPG cylinder and an increase of Rs. 6 a litre of Kerosene.
4 Feb
India and the UK agree on a text of a civil nuclearcooperation deal that is likely to be signed soon on a
convenient date; the agreement is reached in London, UK, in a meeting between British Business
Secretary Mr. Peter Mandelson and Visiting Indian Commerce and Industry Minister mr. Anand Sharma.
5 Feb
The Ministers of Health and family Welfare and Railways sign an Mou for developing healthcare
infrastructutre along the railway network across the country.
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh inaguurates the Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS) in
New Delhi.
6 Feb
The Chief Ministers' Conference on Price Rise is Convened in New Delhi; at the Conference, the
government decides to setup a high-profile standing Core Group to suggest measures to tackle price rise.
7 Feb
The Chief Ministers' Conference on Internal security is held in New Delhi; Various crucial issues are
discussed in the meeting.
Agni-III, the longest- range(3,500km) N-Capable missile in India's arsenal. is successfully test-fired from
the Wheeler Island off Orrisa.
8 Feb
The second India-Arab Investment Projects Conclave is held in New Delhi. India announces that it intends
to double bilateral trade with the Arab world from the present $114 billion by 2014.
9 Feb
The Union Environment Ministry announces its decision to impose a moratorium on release of Bt. brinjal,
the transgenic brinjal hybrid.
10 Feb
Mr. S. C. Sinha is appointed the Director General of the National Investigation Agency (NIA).
11 Feb
India and the UK sign a joint declaration for civil nuclear cooperation to facilitate the entry of British
companies into the India atomic power sector.
12 Feb
Human Resource Development Minister Mr. Kapil Sibal takes the decision to notify the Right to Education
Act, 2009.
14 Feb
A Government report says that Palakkad district in Kerala has become the first fully electrified district in
the country.
16 Feb
Nepalese President Mr. Ram Baran Yadav visits India.
17 Feb
A Group of Ministers(GoM) clears the "Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical, Medical Educational
Institutions and University Bill", drafted by the HRD Ministry, to provide for a Central Law to curb
malpractices.
20 Feb
India and Bangladesh sign a pact to set up a joint vrnture 1,320 MW power plant as a mark of
cooperation. The two sides also agree to set up a cross border power grid.
21 Feb
Mr. L. K. Advani is unanimously elected Working Chairman of the National Democrative Alliance(NDA).
23 Feb
The Union Government secures Cabinet approval for a new agreement with the US that aims, inter alia,
at promoting privatisation of agricultureal extension services and facilitating collaborations between
American agribusiness and the Indian farm sector.
25 Feb
India submits three dossiers to Pakistan at a meeting between Foreign Secretary Ms. Nirupama Rao and
her Pakistani counterpart Mr. Salman Bashir in New Delhi.
28 Feb
India and Soudi arabia sign an extradition treaty during high level talks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
International
1 Feb
US President Mr. Barack Obama unveils a $3.83 trillion budget in the cingress; the new budget will pour
more money into the fight against unemployment, boost taxes on the wealthy , and freeze spending on a
numbers of government programmes.
2 Feb
Amnesty International appoints Mr. Salil Shetty , an Indian who headed the UN Millennium Mission, as its
enxt Secretary General.
The US Government Proposes $3.2 billion in assistance to pakistan in fiscal 2011 , a substantial jump in
American aid to that country.
3 Feb
Iran announces its readiness to send abroad the bulk of its low-enriched uranium stocks in return for its
Tehran research reactor.
4 Feb
Russia offers to send narcotics police to Afghanistan to shore up the global fight against drug porduction
and trafficking in that country.
5 Feb
A Landmark dael batween Northern Ireland's two major political parties,the Democratic Unionist Party
(DUP) and Sinn Fein, Removes the last hurdle to granting full autonomy to the province envisaged inthe
1998 Good Friday Agreement thet brought decades of sectarian violence to an end.
6 Feb
Resourcehouse , an Australian mining firm, signs a record $60 billion deal to supply coal to energyhungry China for the next 20 years. it is the biggest ever xeport contract in Australia's history.
7 Feb
Iran president Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad orders the cheif of the nuclear progremme to begin higher
uranium enrichment , days after the country seemed to have accepted a UN-drafted nuclear deal.
8 Feb
Mr. Laura Chinchilla becomes Costa Rica's first Women President after a convincing election triumph.
Marin Cilic of Croatia wins the Zagreb Indoors tennis tournament title, beating Michael Berrer of Germany
in the final in Zagreb, Croatia.
9 Feb
Iran sets in motion the process of further refining its stocks of lightly enriched uranium at its atomic
facility in Natanz.
The 11the South Asian Games concludes in Dhaka, Bangladesh; India emerge on top with a haul of 175
medals including 90 Gold, 55 Silver and 30 Bronze, followed by Pakistan (19-25-36) and Bangladesh (1823-56).
11 Feb
Iranian President Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declares Iran a "Nuclear State", saying that the country has
produced its first stock of 20 percent enriched uranium for its nuclear programme.
A report published in the New Scientist says that scientists at the National Institute of Standards adn
Technology, USA, have created the world's most precise clock based on a single aluminium atom. The
new clock would neither gain nor lose one second in about 307 billion years.
12 Feb
Cricket is formally endorsed as a recognised sports by International Olympic Committee(IOC).
13 Feb
A high powered laser destroys a target missile in flight off the Central California Coast, USA, in a
milestone test of a futuristic missile defence system conducted by US.
14 Feb
Andrew Dodt of Australia wins the title of the 1.5 million Avantha Masters golf championship in Gurganon,
Haryana.
Physicists at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory create the hottest
temperature ever in the laboratory---4 trillion degrees Celsius---hot enough to break matter down to the
kind of soup that existed microseconds-after the birth of the universe.
15 Feb
Indian origin lawyer Mr. Rashid Hussain is appointed USA's new special envoy to the Organization of
Islamic Conference (OIC), a post vital to America's bid to repair strained relations with the Muslim world.
Australian all-rounder shane Watson wins the prestigious Allan Border Medal, besides being named
Australia's ODI Player of the Year.
Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and an observation deck to the space outpost.
The new deck, named Tranquility, will give the resident astronauts of the orbital station a panoramic view
of the station and the Earth below.
16 Feb
The 2009 Sangeet Natak Akademi (Akademi Ratna) Fellowships are awarded to the winners at a
ceremony held in New Delhi; the winners are: Pandit Jasraj, Shreeram Lagoo, Yamini Krishnamurti,
Lalgudi Jayaraman, Kamlesh Dutt Tripathi and Kishori Amonkar.
19 Feb
Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama is honoured with the prestigious Democracy Service Medal by the
Government of USA in function in Washington, USA.
21 Feb
Russian tennis star Maria Sharapova wins the title of the WTA Tour's Memphis tournament, beating Sofia
Arvidsson of Sweden in the final in Memphis, USA.
22 Feb
Ian Poulter UK beats compatriot Paul Casey to win the Accenture Match Play golf championship in
Marana, USA.
Iraq war movie The Hurt Locker sweeps the board at the BAFTA Awards in London, the UK, winning the
Best Film and Best Director Award for Kathryan Bigelow; other awards won by the film include Original
Screenplay, Cinematography, Editing and Sound.
23 Feb
Eminent journalist Mr. Sanjoy Hazarika is awarded the Dr. Jean Mayer Award for Global Citizenship by the
US based Tufts University for his contributions to the north-east of India.
24 Feb
A report released by the World Trade Organization (WTO) says that world trade fell by 12 % in 2009, the
biggest fall since the end of the World War II in 1945.
Sachin Tendulkar becomes the first cricketer in history to score a double century in an ODI; he achieves
this feat in the second ODI of the series against South Africa in Gwalior. Riding on his unbeaten 200 (off
147 balls), India beat the visitors by 153 runs to take a 2-0 lead in the three-match series.
The Sasakawa Prize of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) is conferred on Mr. Sameer Hajee, an NRI
scientist, who invented a portable light that can be recharged by pedalling for 20 minutes. The device,
called the Nuru Light, was developed for use in areas without electricity.
25 Feb
Mr. Viktor Yanukovych is sworn in as Ukraine's President at a majestic ceremony in Kiev, Ukraine.
The National Weightlifting championship concludes in Udaipur, Rajasthan; Services bag the men's team
title, while All India Police claim the women's crown.
Famous social worker Ms. Ela Phatt is chosen for the prestigious Niwano Peace Prize of Japan for 2010 for
her contribution to the upliftment of poor women in India.
A much-awaited energy venture, known as "power plant in a box", is unveiled by its Indian-American
inventor, K.R. Sridhar, in Washington, USA. The groundbreaking invention promises clean electricity to
homes, office buildings and even whole villages in the developing world. The device, called Bloom Box,
can generate electricity from multiple fuels while producing relatively less greenhouse gas emissions.
26 Feb
The Indian women's cricket team beat the visiting English side by five wickets in the fourth match of the
ODI series, thus sealing the series 3-1, in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.
27 Feb
The Commonwealth Shooting Championship ends in New Delhi. India clinch the top position with 35
Gold, 25 Silver and 14 Bronze, followed by England (4-15-12) and Wales (4-2-7).
28 Feb
The 21st Winter Olympic Games, held in Vancouver, Canada, ends. Hosts Canada clinch the top position
with 14 Gold, 7 Silver and 5 Bronze, followed by Germany (10-13-7) and USA (9-15-13).
March
National
6 March
Actress Jaya Bachchan is honoured with a Lifetime Achievement Award at a ceremony held at the British
Academy of Film & Television Arts in London, England, for her "inspiring contribution to Indian cinema.
March
International
2 March
In yet another milestone for Chandrayaan-1, the Houston (US)-based Lunar and Planetary Institute says
that the Indian Moon mission had found not only water molecules and new type of rocks, but also ice on
the Moon.
8 March
The 82nd Academy Awards, better known as the Oscar Awards, are presented in a grand ceremony in Los
Angeles, USA. The Hurt Locker, a smallbudget film on the Iraq war, wins six awards, while Avatar, a
global blockbuster, wins three. The prominent winners are: Sandra Bullock (Best Actress for The Blind
Side), Jeff Bridges Locker (Best Film), Kathryn Bigelow (Best Director for The Hurt Locker), Christoph
Waltz (Best Actor in a Supporting Role for Inglourious Basterds), Mo'Nique (Best Actress in a Supporting
Role for Precious), etc.
A team of scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA, devise a way to produce 30
KWh of electricity enough to power an entire household using one bottle of drinking water and four hours
of sunlight. The key to these claims is a new, affordable catalyst that uses solar electricity to split water
and generate hydrogen.
April
National
8 April
The Union Cabinet approves the big ticket disinvestment in Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) to mop up
about Rs. 16,000 crore by selling its equity and issuing fresh shares to the public.
10 April
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announces that it will launch the first in a constellation of
seven satellites envisaged for the ambitious Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) by the
end of 2011.
13 April
The Indian Army agrees to acquire the indigenous two-stage ramjet Akash missile.
17 April
ISRO's Cartosat 2B high-resolution satellite is flagged off from Bengaluru to Sriharikota, wherefrom it will
be launched.
18 April
The government launches the second edition of the Triton series of exercises designed to test the security
of the Kerala coast.
20 April
Mr. Mukul Sangma is sworn in as the Chief Minister of Meghalaya; he replaces Mr. D.D. Lapang.
22 April
The Centre announces that the sea along the Indian coasts will be brought under the ambit of the Coastal
Regulation Zone (CRZ) guidelines.
23 April
Navies of India and the US begin annual war exercises, the 14th edition of MALABAR, involving antisubmarine warfare surface firing, visit board, search and seizure and submarine operations, in the
Arabian Sea.
27 April
To extend the social security benefits to more workers under the ESI scheme, the Centre raises the
maximum wage limit for the facility from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 15,000 a month.
30 April
Mr. Justice Sarosh Homi Kapadia is appointed the 38th Chief Justice of India; he succeeds Justice K.G.
Balakrishnan.
Pilot production of the air-launched version of the India-Russia BrahMos missile starts in Russia, in line
with plans to fit it in the Indian Air Force's Su-30MKI fighter aircraft by 2012.
April
International
8 April
Mr. R.P. Goenka, Chairman Emeritus of RPG Enterprises, receives the Lifetime Achievement Award from
All India Management Association (AIMA) in New Delhi.
Prasun Chatterjee, an Indian environmetal engineering student whose research has contributed to a new
way of detecting toxic and copper in water, wins one of the highest US research honours, the 2010 Ellen
Gonter Environmental Chemistry Award, from the American Chemical Society.
10 April
Polish President Lech Kaczynski and a high-profile delegation are killed when a plane carrying 97 people
crashes near the Russian city of Smolensk.
12 April
British-Indian author Mr. Rana Dasgupta wins the Commonwealth Writers' Prize for 2010 for his epic tale
Solo set in Communist and post-Communist Bulgaria, Australian author Ms. Glenda Guest's Siddon Rock
is adjudged the Best First Book.
13 April
The two-day, 47-nation Nuclear Security Summit concludes in Washington, USA, with the adoption of a
short final communique and seven-page work plan aimed at prompting the effective securty of nuclear
material worldwide.
15 April
The BRIC nations - (Brazil, Russia, India and China) hold a summit in Brasilia; at the same venue, India,
Brazil and South Africa also hold the IBSA summit. Both the summits underscore a shared quest for
greater collective influence within the changing geometry of the international system.
The Eyjafjallajokull volcano of Iceland, that erupted a day before, takes a heavy toll on the European
aviation industry, makin it impossible to operate flights anywhere in Europe.
17 April
In a significant development, Ira calls for the suspension of the US from the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) and proposes a five-point plan to democratise the global security architecture.
19 April
A new page in Pakistan's history is turned with President Mr. Asif Ali Zardari signing the 18th Amendment
Bill that transfers the power of the presidency to the Parliament and brings back the 1973 Constitution
drafted during the regime of former President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
20 April
Noted Hindi writer Hrishikesh Sulabh is chosen for the International Indu Sharma Katha Samman for
2010 for his story collection Vasant Ke Hatyare.
21 April
Mr. D. M. Jayaratne is appointed Prime Minister of Sri Lanka by the nation's President Mr. Mahinda
Rajapaksa.
25 April
Mr. P. Kamalanathan, an ethnic Indian, wins a prestigious parliamentary by-election in Malaysis, giving a
boost to the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) that claims to speak for the 1.7 million community.
26 April
The two-day annual spring meting of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank
concludes in Washington, USA; at the meeting, the member nations endorse voice reform to increase the
voting power of developing and transition countries (DTC) in the World Bank by 3.13 percentage points,
bringing their proportional voice to 47.19 percent.
27 April
A South Korean mountaineer, named Ms. Oh Eun-sun, becomes the first woman in the world to scale the
world's 14 highest mountains, by conquering the Annapurna in the Himalayas.
28. April
The 16th South asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) convenes in Thimphu, Bhutan; at the
meeting, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh leads the SAARC leaders in introspecting on the progress
made by the eight-member regional forum in its 25 years of existence.
30 April
The World Expo 2010 opens amid much fanfare in Shanghai, China; Chinese President Mr. Hu Jintao
inaugurates the opening ceremony attended by more than 20 heads of states and governments, apart
from a large number of high-level dignitaries from across the world.
Belgium becomes the first nation in Europe to ban the burqa in public places.
The Pantaloons Femina Miss India 2010 is held in Mumbai. Ms. Manasvi Mamgai of Mumbai is adjudged
Miss India World, Bengaluru girl Ms. Nicole Faria is named Miss India Earth; Ms. Neha Hinge of Pune wins
the Miss India International crown.
April
Sports
12 April
India win the inaugural Pearls World Cup Kabaddi Punjab 2010 title, beating Pakistan in the final in
Ludhiana, Punjab.
15 April
Ace Indian cueist Pankaj Advani defends his Asian billiards title with a win over Peter Gilchrist of
Singapore in the final in Indore, Madhya Pradesh.
17 April
Dipika Pallikal of India wins the WISPA (women's) title, beating Emma Beddoes of England in the final of
the Indian Challenger squash tournament in Kolkata; Mohamed El Shorgagy of Egypt wins the men's title.
May
National
1 May
Mr. Atul Khare, an Indian, is appointed by UN Secretary-General Mr. Ban Ki-moon as Assistant SecretaryGeneral for Peacekeeping Operations.
3 May
The Lok Sabha passes a bill to raise the ceiling on gratuity for employees in the private sector to Rs. 10
lakh from Rs. 3.5 lakh.
7 May
In a ignificant development, the Supreme Court holds that candidates in the "Meritorious Reserved
Category (MRC)" selected on merit and placed in the "General/Unreserved Category" in the Central Civil
Services Examination (CSE) can be given a choice to opt for a service of higher preference in terms of
Rule 16(2) of the CSE Rules.
The contentious Nuclear Liability Bill is introduced in the Lik Sabha amid protests and walkout by the NDA
and the Left parties.
9 May
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announces that Russia will develop a lander that will
ferry a rover to explore the Moon's surface as part of the Chandrayaan-II mission, slated for launch in
2013.
13 May
In a big-ticket investment aimed at giving a boost to its holding of oil and gas assets abroad, the ONGC
Videsh Ltd. (OVL), along with its partners, enters into an agreement with the Venezuelan governement to
develop
a
$20
billion
oil
project
in
that
country.
The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, crosses a milestone, with the
thermal baffle, a crucial piece of cooling equipment, successfully lowered into it.
15 May
Former Vice-President and three-time Chief Minister of Rajasthan in the past, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
of BJP passes away in Jaipur, Rajasthan.
16 May
Seeking to expand cooperation with the Indian Space Research Oraganisation (ISRO) on its
Chandrayaan-II missin, the US offers assistance through Boeing, which partners with NASA on its space
exploration
programmes.
Mr. ratan Kumar Sinha is appointed Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay.
17 May
After two successive setbacks, Agni-II surface-to-surface ballistic missile is successfully test-fired from
theWheeler island off the Orissa coast. The intermediate-rangemissile can carry nuclear weapons and hs
a range of 2,000 km.
18 May
Leading private sector lender ICICI Bank agrees to take over the Bank of Rajasthan.
20 May
Pakistan sends a note verbale to India on the disputed Kishanganga project, clearly indicating its
intention to set up a Court of Arbitration as provided in the despurte settlement mechanism under the
Indus Water Treaty (IWT).
21 May
The Central Government grants the Maharatna status to four public sector giants - National Thermal
Power Corporation (NTPC), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), and
Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).
22 May
Arjun Vajpai, a 16-year-old boy from Noida, becomes the youngest Indian to scale Mount Evrest.
23 May
The first indigenously-built Light Combat Helicopter, developed by the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL),
successfully makes its inaugural test-flight in Bengaluru.
24 May
The Uniion Ministry of Commerce and Industry through a notification brings cotton and cotton waste
under the restricted list for exports.
25 May
Turkmenistan President Mr. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov visits India; during his meeting with Prime
Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in New Delhi, the two sidesdiscuss energy cooperation and sign several
agreements signalling the desire of both countries to strengthen bilateral ties.
28 May
Addressing a joint session of the Bhutanese Parliament in Thimphu, Bhutan, Lok Sabha Speaker Ms.
Meira Kumar announces the setting up of a Parliamentary Friendship Group to help reinforce and renew
the bonds of friendship between India and Bhutan.
29 May
The Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry rejects a proposal to bring medical education under the
purview of teh proposed National Commission for Higher Education and Research (NCHER).
30 May
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grants a corpus of $5 million to the Public Health Foundation of India
(PHFI) to strengthen the National Tobacco Control Programe in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, over a
three-year period up to 2010.
May
International
6 May
Mr. Goodluck Jonathan is sworn in as the President of Nigeria, hours after the death of incumbent
President Umaru Yar'Adua.
7 May
North Korea's leader Kim Jong-il ends his four-day visit to China; he tells the Chinese government that he
is willing to help revive stalled negotiations over his country's controversial unclear programme.
8 May
Pakistan successfully test-fires two surface-to-surface missiles---Hatf-III (Ghaznavi) and Hatf-IV
(Shaheen)---capable of carrying both nuclear and conventional warheads.
The heads of state and governments of the 16 Eurozone nations launch a historic $110-billion finacial aid
package to bail out the heavily-indebted Greece from bankruptcy.
9 May
Russia marks the 65th anniversary of victory in World War II with a spectacular military parade in
Moscow; for the first time ever, serving US, British, French and Polish troops, as well as many former
Soviet states join over 10,000 Russian soldiers in th e parade.
12 May
Britain's first post-war coalition government, with Conservative leader Mr. David Cameron as Prime
Minister and his Liberal Democrat counterpart Mr. Nick Clegg as Deputy Prime Minister, takes office, as
the sun sets on the 13-year Labour rule.
Human Resource Development Minister Mr. Kapil Sibal is conferred the Stephen P. Duggan award by the
New York (USA)-based Institute of International Educaton; he is given the award for his contribution to
the spheres of governance and education in India.
13 May
The world's first-ever ATM that dispenses gold in place of currency notes is unveiled in Abu Dhabi; the
machine named "Gold To Go: gives out one, five and 10-gram gold bars as well as gold coins.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), USA, announces that it will fly a
plasmapowered rocket that can reach Mars in a little over a month's time. The rocket is named Variable
Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket (VASIMR).
Dr. Ajay Mathur, Director-General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Visionary Award by the US-based
Alliance to Save Energy.
14 May
Time magazine selects Indian mathematician Mr. Anand Kumar's school---Super 30---in the list of Best of
Asia in 2010.
15 May
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) approves immediate disbursement of $1.3 billion of financial
assistance to Pakistan.
19 May
The French Cabinet approves a draft law to ban the burqa, the Muslim full-face veil, from public spaces,
opening the way for the bill to be tabled in the Parliament.
22 May
13-year-old American boy JordanRomero scripts history by becoming the youngest person in the world to
conquer the Mount Everest.
25 May
Indian-origin politician Ms. Kamla Persad-Bissessar is sworn in as th e Prime Minister of Trinidad &
Tobago.
31 May
Hon'ble President Ms. Pratiba Patil wraps up her six-day Chia visit; she becomes the first Indian head of
state to visit China in a decade.
May
Sports
9 May
Mark Webber, the Australian racer of the Red Bull team, clinches the title of the Spanish Grand Prix
Formula One championhip in Barcelona, Spain.
10 May
Dempo Sports Club clinches the title of the 2010 I-League football tournament, beating Lajong United of
Shillong in the penultimate round in Shillong, Meghalaya; it is the fourth I-League title of Dempo.
11 May
Indian chess wizard Viswanathan Anand retains his FIDE World Chess Championship title, beating
Bulgarian contender Veselin Topalov in the 12 and deciding game in Sofia, Bulgaria. Playing with black
pieces, Anand pulls off a win in 56 moves.
12 May
Indian wrestler Narsingh Yadav clinches the Gold medal in the 74-kg freestyle category at the Asian
Wrestling Championship, beating Saeed Riahi of Iran in the final in New Delhi.
13 May
India's Olympic hero Sushil Kumar notches up his first-ever Gold at the Asian Wrestling Championship,
beating South Korean Dae Sung Kim in the final in New Delhi.
14 May
Chiara Cainero of Italy wins the Gold at the women's skeet competition in the shotgun World Cup in
Dorset, England.
16 May
England wins the 2010 ICC World Twenty 20 title, beating Australia in the final by seven wickets in
Barbados, West Indies. This is England's first title in an ICC global event.
India and South Korea are declared joint winners of the Sultan Azlan Shah hockey tournament, after the
final is washed out in Ipoh, Malaysia.
Rafael Nadal of Spain beats Roger Federer of Switzerland in the final to clinch the title of the Madrid
Masters tennis championship in Madrid, Spain.
17 May
Australia win the title of the ICC Womens' World Twenty20, beating New Zealand by three runs in the
thrilling summit clash in Barbados, West Indies.
18 May
Seema Tomar of India bags the women's trap Silver in the shotgun World Cup in Dorset, England; this is
the first-ever trap medal in a World Cup by an Indian woman shooter.
21 May
Maria Sharapova of Russia clinches the Strasbourg Open women's singles title in Strasbourg. France.
23 May
Italian giants Inter Milan win the 2010 Champions League football title, beating German giants Bayern
Munich 2-0 in the final in Madrid, Spain.
24 May
India's Joshna Chinappa wins the German Ladies' Squash Open, beating Swiss opponent Gaby Schmohl in
the final of the WISPA World Tour event in Saarbrucken, Germany.
26 May
Zhu Qinan of China wins the air rifle Gold in the shooting World Cup in Fort Benning, USA.
27 May
Indian men beat Iran 3-1 in a crucial match of the World table tennis team championships in Moscow,
Russia.
June
National
1 June
Jharkhand comes under President's rule with Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil accepting a
recommendation of the Union Cabinet.
2 June
Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car at Rs. 1 lakh, rolls out of the assembly line at its new plant at
Sanand, Gujarat, raising the hopes of the lower and middle class families in the country of fulfilling the
dream of owning a four-wheeler.
South African President Mr. Jacob Zuma visits India; during his visit, India and South Africa launch the
India-South Africa CEOs Forum.
6 June
The Union Government decides to appoint the Natonal Knowledge Commission Chairman and Adviser to
the Prime Minister on ublic Information Infrastructure and Innovation, Mr. Sam Pitroda, as the head of
"India Smart Grid Task Force".
7 June
Former Chief Justice K.G. Balakrishnan takes over as the Chairman of the National Human Rights
Commission.
8 June
In the largest-evertelecom takeover by an Indian firm, Bharti Airtel completes a deal to buy out Kuwaitbased Zain Telecom's African business for $10.7 billion.
SBI Chairman Mr. O.P. Bhatt is elected the new Chairman of the Indian Banks Association (IBA) for 201011.
11 June
The 16-day auction of the Broadband Wireless Spectrum (BWA) ends; through the auction, the Centre
raises Rs. 38,617 crore. Internet service provider Infotel emerges as the sole pan-India licence winner in
the auction.
12 June
The Central Government approves capital infusion of Rs. 6,211 crore in five public sector banks---IDBI,
Central Bank of India, Bank of Maharashtra, UCO Bank and Union Bank of India.
13 June
India's anti-tank missile Nag is successfully test-fired; the missile proves its capability of destroying a
target at a range of 500 m, hitting a moving object in 3.2 seconds.
18 June
The indigenously developed, nuclear-capable ballistic missile Prithvi-II is successfully test-fired from the
Integrated Test Range in Orissa.
19 June
In a meeting held in New Delhi, the State Education Ministers endorse the Centre's move to have a core
curriculum in science and mathematics for Class XI and XII.
20 June
The National Rural Health Missiion (NRHM) authorities suggest the introduction of a rural cadre of
healthcare workers, saying that clinical care proveders with a shorter duratoion of training are a
competent alternative to physicians.
26 June
India is granted observer status on the board of the Thirty Metre Telescope (TMT) project, the next
generation astronomical observatory that will be located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA.
28 June
India and Canada sign a civil nuclear cooperation agreement; the agreement is signed in the presence of
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and his Canadian counterpart Mr. Stephen Harper in Toronto,
Canada.
29 June
The Indian Navy inducts two water-propelled fast attack craft, INS Cankarso and INS Kondul, at a
ceremony in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The two ships will shore up the security of the country's
coastline.
30 June
A report released by the Centre reveals that the India's current account deficits (CAD), reflecting its
position in trade and invstment with other nations, rose to 2.9 percent of DGP in 2009-10 against 2.4
percent a year ago.
June
International
2 June
Japan's Prime Minister Mr. Yukio Hatoyama resigns; he becomes the fourth successive Premier of the
country to quit after a year or less at the helm.
3 June
Ukraine officially takes NATO menmbership off its agenda in a volte face of the policy once ardently
pursued by the previous President, Mr. Vikor Yushchenko.
June
Sports
1 June
Renjith Maheshwari of India clinches the Gold in men's triple jump at the Asian Grand Prix 2010 in Pune,
Maharashtra.
5 June
Francesca Schiavone becomes the first Italian woman to win a Grand Slam singles title after defeating
Australia's Samantha Stosur 6-4, 7-6(2) in the French Open final in Paris.
6 June
Rafael Nadal recaptures the French Open crown defeating Robin Soderling of Sweden by 6-4, 6-2, 6-4
retaking th e World No. 1 spot. It is Nadal's fifth win in the French Open since 2005.
7 June
The first Australia-India Energy and Minerals Forum meeting is held in Perth, Australia; both sides
express willingness to work jointly in the areas of development of use of brown coal, energy efficiency,
improvement of coal-based power plants, hydro power development and power generation technology
research, and development of smart grids.
MMTC Director (Personnel) Mr. A. Mahapatra is conferred the International HR Excellence Award for 2010
by the Institute of Personnel Management, Sri Lanka.
The Dawning Nebulae, a Chinese supercomputer, is adjudged the second fastest supercomputer in the
world---with a commputing speed of 1.27 petaflops per second---in the biannual testing of the world's
500 fastest supercomputers.
8 June
Japan's new Prime Minister Mr. Naoto Kan affirms that the will resolve the status of a controversial US air
base "in accordance with the agreement" that Japan and the US announced in May 2010.
10 June
The 2010 Orange Prize for fiction, Britain's highly-regarded honour for woman writers, is conferred on
American novelist Ms. Barbara Kingsolver for her novel The Lacuna.
9 June
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) imposes the fourth round of sanctions on Iran; of the 15
members of the Council, 12 vote in favour of the sanctions.
11 June
The annual summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
13 June
Astronomers at the Oxford University, England, announce that they havediscovered seven diverse new
planets. The planets, which range from "shrunken Saturns" to "bloated Jupiters", include a rare brown
dwarf with 60 times the mass of Jupiter.
14 June
Iran and Pakistan ink the last of a series of agreements to operationalise the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline
deal. As per the deal, Iran commits itself to supplying natural gas to Pakistan from 2010 onwards.
In a significant development, American geologists disover $1 trilllion worth of mineral deposits in
Afghanistan.
Veteran Gandhian Social worker and National Youth Project (NYP) Director Mr. S.N. Subba Rao is
conferred the Anuvrat Ahimsa International Peace. Award at a ceremony in New Delhi.
21 June
The G.D. Birla Aards, instituted by the Birla Academy of Art and Culture, are presented in New Delhi. The
awardees are: Mr. V.P. Dhananjayan (cultural heritage), Ms. Zokhunmi Vankung (service to humanity)
and
Dr.
Percy
Barnevik
(rural
upliftment
in
Kanchipuram,
Tamil
Nadu).
Celebrated democracy campaigner Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi of Kyanmar becomes the first recipient of the
Benazir Bhutto Shahid Award for Democracy instituted by the Pakistan People's Party in the memory of
the slain leader.
22 June
Tata Group Chairman Mr. Ratan Tata is made an Honorary Doctor of Law by the University of Cambridge,
UK, in recognition of his business achievements and philanthropic work.
23 June
Dr. Asko Parpola, Professor-Emeritus of Indology, Institute of World Cultures, Finland, is conferred the
prestigious Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi Classical Tamil Award at the inaugural World Classical Tamil
Conference in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
26 June
The two-day G8 and G20 summits open in Toronto, Canada. At both the meetings, world leaders pledge
to counter terrorism and work collectively for a sustainable recovery of the global economy.
The Home/Interior Ministers of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) nations
hold a conference in Islamabad, Pakistan. In the conference, it is decided to act jointly against any form
of terrorism.
27 June
The G20 leaders, on the closing day of their Toronto meet, approve a deal to slash their national deficits
within three years, seeking to overcome divisions among world powers on how best to nurture a fragile
global economic recovery.
30 June
In a move to break the political deadlock in the nation, Nepal's Prime Minister Mr. madhav Kumar Nepal
resigns after 13 months in power.
June
Sports
8 June
Virender Sehwag maintains his No. 1 position in the ICC rankings for Test Batsmen; India hold on to their
top spot.
10 June
India win the men's team recurve Gold medal at the Archery World Cup (Stage II) in Antalya, Turkey.
13 June
Indian badminton ace Saina Nehwal wins the title of the Yonex Sunrise-India Open Grand Prix badminton
championship, beating Choo Wong Mew of Malaysia in the final in Chennai.
19 June
Sergiy Stakhovksy of Ukraine beats Janko Tipsarevic of Serbia in the final to lift the title of the UNICEF
Open tennis tournament in S'Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands.
20 June
Indian badminton ace Saina Nehwal clinches the second Super Series title of her career by winning the
Singapore Open, beating Tzu Ying Tai of Chinese Taipei in the final in Singapore.
24 June
India clinch the Asia Cup beating Sri Lanka by 81 runs in the final in Dambulla, Sri Lanka.
27 June
Saina Nehwal of India wins the Indonesian Open Super Series badminton title, beating Sayaka Sato of
Japan in the final in Jakarta, Indonesia.
28 June
Niccolo Campriani of Italy wins the men's air rifle title at the Shooting World Cup in Belgrade, Serbia.
July
National
1 July
Mr. Sharad Pawar, Union Agriculture Minister and the former President of Board of Control for Cricket in
India (BCCI), is appointed the new President of International Cricket Council (ICC). He becomes the
second Indian after Mr. Jagmohan Dalmiya to hold the ICC's top office.
2 July
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) hikes the short-term indicative interest rates---repo rate and reverse
repo rate---by 25 basis points to 5.5 and 4.0, respectively, to rein in inflation and inflationary pressures.
3 July
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and UPA Chairperson Ms. Sonia Gandhi inaugurate the swanky,
world-class Terminal 3 at the Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi. Spread over 5.4 million
square feet, the terminal is the world's sixth largest.
4 July
National Security Adviser (NSA) Mr. Shiv Shankar Menon begins an important China visit, to explore how
the two nations could expand both economic and cultural engagements.
12 July
ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C15) puts five satellites in orbit; the five satellites are:
ISRO's Cartosat-2B, Alsat of Algeria, NLS 6.1 AISSAT-1 of University of Toronto (Canada), NLS 6.2
TISAT-1 of University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland), and Studsat, built by 35 students of seven
engineering colleges in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
15 July
The Centre approves a symbol for the rupee, helping the Indian currency join the elite club of the US
dollar, euro, the pound sterling and the Japanese yen. the symbol, designed by Bombay IIT postgraduate Mr. D. Udaya Kumar, is a blend of t he Devanagari "Ra" and the Roman "r".
19 July
Data released by the Centre show that India's exports registered an impressive 32 percent growth during
the first quarter of 2010-11, reaching $50.8 billion; imports also grew 34 percent at $83 billion during the
same period, while the country's trade deficit stood at $32.2 billion.
21 July
Remote sensing satellite Cartosat-2B sends high quality images of the Indian landmass, including
Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh and Madurai in Tamil Nadu; the images were taken by the satellite's
panchromiatic camera, which has a resolution as high as 0.8 metre.
22 July
The Union Cabinet approves the inclusio/amendment of the names of castes and communities in the
Central Lists of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in respect of Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jharkhand, Karnataka, Rajasthan and the UT of Daman & Diu.
23 July
The State Bank of India (SBI) raises $1 billion (about Rs. 4,700 crore)through bonds from the US market.
The Union Government announces that India will mount its first scientific expedition to the South Pole in
November 2010.
25 July
In a bid to give boost to production of solar energy, the Union Government ropes in power finance
bodies---Power Finance Corporation (PFC) and the Rural Electrification Corporation (REC)---to finance
new projects under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), under which the government
aims to add at least 1,000 MW solar power by the end of 2013.
Rashtrapati Bhavan is presented with an International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 14001:
2004 Certificate for having emerged as the country's first urban habitat with excellent environmental
management systems.
26 July
In a boost to its efforts to build an anti-missile system, India successfully test-fires an interceptor missile
off the Orissa coast. The missile destroys an "enemy" ballistic missile over the Bay of Bengal.
29 July
The Parliament approves the imposition of President's Rule in Jharkhand.
30 July
Election Commissioner Mr. Shahabuddin Yaqoob Quraishi takes over as Chief Election Commissioner
(CEC); he succeeds mr. Navin Chawla.
The Union Cabinet gives its nod for legislation to raise the retirement age of High Court judges from 62 to
65.
International
12 July
The International Criminal Court charges Sudanese President Mr. Omar al-Bashir with three counts of
genocide in the troubled Darfur region.
13 July
The Delhi Metro is bestowed the Outstanding Civil Engineerimg Project Award by the Asian Civil
Engineering Coordinating Council.
14 July
The world's largest solar power plant, named "La Florida", opens in Badajoz, Spain. Spread over 550,00
square metres, the plant can produce 50 MW of power.
2010 FIFA World Cup winners Spain replace Brazil at the top of the most recent FIFA World rankings.
15 July
Argentina becomes the first country in Latin America to legalise same-ses marriage, following a landmark
Senate vote.
Indian badminton superstar Saina Nehwal climbs up to the World No. 2 slot in the international
badminton rankings.
16 July
Viraat Badhwar becomes the first Indian to win the Callaway junior golf championships; he beats Rico
Hoey of USA in the final in San Diego, USA.
18 July
Om Prakash Singh of India wins the Gold in the men's shot put event at the Savo Games in Finland.
The Metro Citizens' Forum volunteers' programme of the Delhi Metro wins the "Stevie Distinguished
Honoree" medal at the International Business Awards, 2010, in Virginia, USA.
19 July
Mumbai clinch the 63rd Rangaswamy Cup senior national men's hockey championship, beating Haryana
in the final in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
"Bombay Sisters" C. Saroja and C. Lalitha are chosen for the prestigious Sangita Kalanidhi award of the
Music Academy.
21 July
British astronomers announce the discovery of the heaviest and brightest star ever known to exist. The
star named R 136al has a mass some 300 times bigger than our Sun. The new star is so bright that it
would outshine our Sun by as much as the Sun outshines the Moon.
22 July
In a groundbreaking ruling, the International Court of Justice says that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of
inependence from Serbia in February 2008 did not violate any international law.
Delhi Chief Minister Ms. Sheila Dikshit is chosen for the prestigious Lokmanya Tilak Award for 2010, in
recognition of her contribution to politics.
Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil presents the 4th Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism Awards in
New Delhi. The prominent awardess are: Siddarth Varadarajan (Journalist of the Year - Print), Arnab
Goswami (Journalist of the Year - Broadcast); Harish Damodarn (Best Non-Fiction Book in English for
India's New Capitalists), etc.
25 July
African Union (AU) leaders meet in Kampala, Uganda; the leaders condemn a recent ghastly terrorist
attack that killed 76 people in Uganda.
Alberto Contador of Spain wins the 2010 Tour de France cycling championship in Paris, France.
27 July
Sandeep Sejwal of Railways sets a natinal record (two min. 18.31 sec.) in men's 200m breast-stroke at
the Federation Cup aquatics meet in New Delhi.
29 July
Iran's ally Turkey says that Iran is ready to stop enriching uranium to 20 percent purity if the global
powers agree to export medium-enriched nuclear fuel for its Tehran-based medical reactor.
Virdhawal khade of Maharashtra wins four Gold medals at the Federation Cup aquatics meet in New
Delhi.
Legendary actor Sunil Dutt is posthumously conferred the National Amity Award; the late actor's
daughter, Ms. Priya Dutt, receives the honour from Vice-President Md. Hamid Ansari in New Delhi.
31 July
India and the US sign the much-debated agreement on modalities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel,
under the civilian nuclear deal between the two countries. The agreement is signed in Washington, USA
by Indian Ambassador Ms. Meera Shankar and US Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Mr.
William Burns.
The 42nd Jnanpith Award for 2006 is presented to Konkani litterateur Mr. Ravindra Kelekar; Lok Sabha
Speaker Ms. Meira Kumar gives away the award at a function in Panaji.
August
National
1 August
The Centre announces its plans to expand the coverage of Below Poverty Line (BPL) population under the
public distribution system (PDS) to 8.7 crore from the current 6.52 crore based on the accetance of the
Tendulkar Committee's poverty projections for 2011 by the Planning Commission.
2 August
The World Heritage Committee, in its 34th session held in Brasilia, Brazil, inscribes Jaipur's Jantar Mantar
in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
3 August
The Centre appoints two full-time and seven part-time members to the 19th Law Commission of India,
which was reconstituted in September 2009.
5 August
The Union Textile Ministry announces a new scheme to improve the skills of 2.56 lakh textile workers at a
cost of Rs. 272 crore in the remaining two years of the 11th Five-Year Plan.
8 August
The Rajya Sabha passes by voice vote the Trade Marks (Amendment) Bill, 2009, that allows any person
or enterprise to seek registration or trade mark in any of the 84 member countries of the Madrid
Protocol. The Bill had already been passed by the Lok Sabha in December 2009.
16 August
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh gives the green signal for setting up a National Innovation Council,
to be headed by technocrat Dr. Sam Pitroda.
21 August
External Affairs Minister Mr. S.M. Krishna and his Japanese counterpart Mr. Katsuya Okada hold an
important summit in New Delhi; in the meeting, the two sides spell out the paramenters for a bilateral
civil nuclear accord.
24 August
Former Union Power Secretary Mr. Harishankar Brahma is appointed Election Commissioner.
25 Auqust
With the government conceding a major point to the Opposition on supplier liability, the Lok Sabha
passes the controversial Givil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010. As per the Bill, nuclear operators
are to be strictly liable for damages resulting from an accident, but their liability is capped at Rs. 1,500
crore. In earlier drafts, the cap was Rs. 500 crore.
26 Auqust
The Union Cabinet approves the long-awaited Direct Taxes Code Bill under which the government has
proposed to like the income tax exemption limit from the existing base of Rs. 1.6 lakh to Rs. 2 lakh. The
Bill also seeks to remove surcharge and cesses on corporate tax asa measure of providing relief to
industry while simplifyig taxation norms.
28 Auqust
The 2010 Commonwealth Games theme song, Jiyo Utho Badho Jeeto, composed by A.R. Rahman, is
released during a function in Gurgaon, Haryana.
29 August
Foreign Secretary Ms. Nirupama Rao visits Sri Lanka for a first-hand assessment of India's assistance to
the nearly three lakh displaced Tamils in that country.
31 August
The Centre decides to declare the elephant as a national heritage animal.
International
1 August
Renowned Indian sand artist Mr. Sudarsan Pattnaik wins the first prize at the 8th International Sand
Sculpture Championship held in Berlin, Germany.
2 August
The mascot of ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 is unveiled at a ceremony i n Colombo, Sri Lanka. The
mascot, named "Stumpy", is the image of an elephant.
5 August
Russian Presient Mr. Dmitry Medvedev voics support for South Africa's bid to join the BRIC group, which
unites Brazil, Russia, India and China.
Asher Noria of India wins the double trapn Gold by equalling the junior World record in the 50th World
shooting championship at Munich, Germany.
A. Sharath Kamal scripts history by becoming the first Indian to enter the top 50 of the world table tennis
rankings.
Ace Indian shuttler Saina Nehwal's name is approved for Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, the country's highest
sports honour, by the Government of India. Alongside, the names of the winners of Arjuna Awards,
Dhyan Chand Awards and Dronacharya Awards are also announced.
6 August
Federation of Indo-Israel Chambers of Commerce confers the prestigious Businessman of the Decade
award on Tata Group Chairman Mr. Ratan Tata in a ceremony in Mumbai.
8 August
Tejaswini Sawant scripts history by becoming the first Indian woman to clinch Gold at the World Shooting
Championship, winning the 50m rifle prone event in Munich, Germany, equalling the world record in the
process.
Bengal win the 64th Santosh Trophy, beating Punjab 2-1 in the final in Kolkata.
9 August
Colombia ushers in a new government and swears in Mr. Juan Manuel Santos as the President; he
succeeds Mr. Alvaro Uribe.
11 August
Russia announces that it has deployed S-300 air defence missiles in Abkhazia, Georgia's former
breakaway
region.
The 50th World shooting championship concludes in Munich, Germany; India finish a creditable 14th
among 105 countries with two Gold medals (Tejaswini Swant and Asher Noria) and a Bronze. China(21
Gold, 20 Silver and 11 Bronze) to the medals tally, while Russia (21-13-12) take the second place.
12 August
B. Adhiban becomes India's 23rd Grandmaster when he completes the final Grandmaster norm by
winning the Olomouc International chess tournament in Czech Republic.
13 August
In a crucial development, Russia announces that it will shortly begin the start-up of the reactor at Iran's
first atomic power plant in Bushehr.
15 August
Sri Lankan President Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa dedicates to the nation the first phase of the $1.5-billion
Hambantota
port,
being
constructed
with
Chinese
help.
Indian Grandmaster K. Sasikiran regains the title at the Hogeschool Zeeland chess tournament at
Vissingen in the Netherlands.
16 August
Chinese government figures show that after three decades of spectacular growth, China overtakes Japan
in the second quarter of 2010 to become the world's second largest economy behind the US.
17 August
Australian Prime Minister Ms. Julia Gillard proposes that her country turn into a republic at the time of
succession to Queen Elizabeth II in Britain.
Indian Woman Grandmaster Padmini Rout wins a Bronze in the World Junior girls' chess championship in
Chotowa-Czarna, Poland; Anna Muzychuk of Slovenia clinches the Gold.
19 August
Indian shuttler H.S. Prannoy wins a Silver medal at the inaugural Youth Olympics in Singapore.
23 August
Golfer Arjun Atwal scripts history by becoming the first Indian and only the sixth Asia-born player to win
on the PGA Tour, when he secures a one-stroke victory at the Wyndham Championship in Greensboro,
USA.
24 August
Miss Mexico Ximena Navarrete (22) is crowned Miss Universe 2010 at the pageant held in Las Vegas,
USA. Miss Jamaica Yendi Phillipps is adjudged the first runner-up and Miss Australia Jesinta Campbell is
adjudged the second runner-up.
25 August
Iran test-fires its home-built surface-to-surface Fateh 110 missile, less than a week after a similar test
that was carried out on another missile.
27 August
Kenyan President Mr. Mwai Kibaki signs a new constitution that institutes a new US-style sstem of checks
and balances and has been hailed as the most significant political event in the country since Kenya's
independence nearly half a century ago.
29 August
Russia's Prime Minister Mr. Vladimir Putin formaly opens the Russian section of an oil pipeline to China,
hailing it as an oil pipeline to China, hailing it as an important step in diversifying energy exports away
from Europe.
Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil gives away the National Sports and Adventure Awards 2010; star
shuttler Saina Nehwal gets the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award. Te President honours 15 sportspersons
with the Arjuna Award, five coaches with the Dronacharya Award, three with theDhyan Chand Award (for
lifetime achievement in sports), four with the Tenzing Norgay Award and three institutions with the
Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puraskar.
National
4 September
The Centre announces that it will allow export of 55 lakh bales of cotton effective October 1, 2010, and
will revisit the policy for a thorough review in Mid-November indicating that shipments beyond this ceiling
will attract export duty.
5 September
The BrahMos cruise missile is successfully test-fired from Chandipore, Orissa, the high point of the launch
being that the missile performs a steep dive at a supersonic speed. The test creates a world record, as it
is for the first time that a cruise missile is tested at supersonic speeds in a steep-dive mode.
In a glittering ceremony held in New Delhi distinguished teachers from various parts of the country are
felicitated on the occasion of Teacher's Day.
International
2 September
In a historic move, the Israelis and the Palestinians embark on direct peace talks in Washington, USA, a
breakthrough after 20 months of stalled dialogue.
3 September
Master Blaster Sachin Tendulkar is awarded the honorary rank of Group Captain of the Indian Air Force at
a special function in New Delhi. He is the first sportsperson to win this honour.
6 September
Rwanda's re-elected President Mr. Paul Kagame is sworn in for a second term in office; the swearing-in
ceremony held in the nation's capital Kigali witnesses a large gathering of his followers.
US President Mr. Barack Obama unveils plans to spend at least $50 billion for the expansion and renewal
of US roads, railways and airports, in a fresh bid to fire up sluggish economic growth in the country.
In a move to take on anti-nuclear protesters, the German Government, led by Ms. Angela Merkel, decides
to press ahead with plans to extend the life of Germany's nuclear power plants.
Current Event 2009
January 2009
1 Jan
In a move to redress the grievances of armed forces personnel over anomalies in pay structures, the
Union Government decides to place officers in the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and their equivalents in
the other two services on a higher pay band and constitute a separate pay commission
New York (USA)-based Financial giant Merrill Lynch goes into history, as it is bought up by Bank of
America Corp.
Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt, the fastest man on earth, edges US swimming ace Michael Phelps to be
voted the 2008 Athlete of the Year.
2 Jan
Ms. Sheikh Hasina is sworn in as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh
5 Jan
National Conference President Mr. Omar Abdullah is sworn in as the 11th Chief Minister of Jammu &
Kashmir
7 Jan
In an unparalleled instance of fraud in India's corporate history, B. Ramalinga Raju resigns as chairman
of Satyam Computer Services India's fourth largest IT company, after admitting that the accounts of
the company were fudged to the tune of Rs. 7,106 crore over several years
9 Jan
The Slovak Republic clinch their third Hopman Cup title in Perth, Australia, beating Russia 2-0 in the
final of the mixed team tournament.
11 Jan
Marin Cilic of Croatia beats India's Somdev Dewarman in the final to claim the Chennai Open tennis
title in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
12 Jan
Slumdog Millionaire, a British movie with overwhelmingly Indian content and backdrop, emerges as a
big winner at the 66th Golden Globe Awards in Beverly Hills, USA, scooping up four awards including
the Best Original Score for famous Indian music director A.R. Rahman
Portugal star Cristiano Ronaldo is conferred the FIFA World Footballer of the Year award for 2008 at a
ceremony in Zurich, Switzerland.
15 Jan
Mr. Radha Vinod Raju, a senior IPS officer of J&K cadre, is appointed the first Director-General of the
National Investigation Agency
16 Jan
Mumbai win the 2009 Ranji Trophy title defeating Uttar Pradesh in the final in Hyderabad, Andhra
Pradesh.
19 Jan
President's rule is imposed on Jharkhand, ending political uncertainty in the State following Chief
Minister Mr. Shibu Soren's resignation.
20 Jan
Mr. Barack Obama is sworn in as the 44th President of the US, while Mr. Joe Biden is sworn in as the
47th Vice-President of the nation
23 Jan
ISRO reveals that the Imaging X-ray Spectrometer, one of the payloads of Chandrayaan-1, received Xray signals of aluminium, magnesium and silicon.
The US approves the first human trials using embryonic stem cells testing, a pioneering therapy for
stroke patients.
Japan launches the world's first Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), dedicated to
monitoring greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth.
25 Jan
As many as 133 personalities—10 for Padma Vibhushan, 30 for Padma Bhushan and 93 for Padma
Shri—are chosen for the prestigious Padma Awards
26 Jan
Eminent Hindi author Ms. Mannu Bhandari's autobiography Ek Kahni Yah Bhi is chosen for the
prestigious Was Samman for 2008.
27 Jan
At an international conference on food security in Madrid, Spain, Mr. Jacques Diouf, the head of the
UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation, appeals to double global food production by 2050 to ward off
mass hunger
29 Jan
The World Economic Forum summit of world leaders commences in Davos, Switzerland to discuss the
present economic crisis and to find solutions thereof
31 Jan
State Bank of India slashes interest rates on new home loans to 8 percent
To control the problem of piracy off the coast of Somalia, countries of the Indian Ocean and the Red
Sea pledge to cooperate in arresting pirates
Yuki Bhambri creates history by becoming the first Indian to win the Australian Open boys' title,
beating F. Georgoudas of Germany in the final in Melbourne, Australia.
February 2009
1 Feb
The prestigious Ambikatanayadatta National Award, instituted by the D.R. Bendre National Memorial
Trust, is conferred on Sahitya Akademi President Mr. Sunil Gangopadhyay.
British filmmaker Mr. Danny Boyle adds another feather to his cap by bagging the top honour at the
Directors Guild of America Awards for his film Slumdog Millionaire in Los Angeles, USA.
Mahesh Bhupathi and Sania Mirza become the first Indian pair to win a Grand Slam mixed doubles title,
crushing Andy Ram (Israel) and Nathalie Dechy (France) in the final of the event at the Australian Open
2009.
3 Feb
Iran successfully places into orbit Omid, its first domestically made satellite.
4 Feb
In a milestone, a Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas takes off from Bengaluru and for the first time drops
live stores (bombs) at a firing range
5 Feb
Cuban President Mr. Raul Castro concludes a week-long visit to Russia, having signed various crucial
pacts aimed at revitalising bilateral ties
8 Feb
India win the Wealthsurance ODI series against Sri Lanka 4-1, even as Sri Lanka win the fifth and final
match by 68 runs in Colombo.
9 Feb
West Zone lift the Duleep Trophy, defeating South Zone in the final in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
10 Feb
Noted Hindustani classical vocalist Pandit Bhimsen Joshi (87) is presented the Bharat Ratna, the
country's highest Civilian award
11 Feb
Veteran politician Mr. Zillur Rahman is elected President of Bangladesh
12 Feb
In what was the first-ever high-speed impact between two intact spacecraft, two communication
satellites—one American, the other Russian—smash into each other nearly 800 km. above the Earth.
14 Feb
King Abdullah, the monarch of Saudi Arabia, appoints Ms. Noura al-Fayez as a deputy cabinet minister,
thus making her the first ever woman to be appointed as minister in the history of the nation
15 Feb
Ms. Suman Sharma, a 30-year-old Indian woman, becomes the world's first woman to fly the mighty
Russian MiG-35 fighter jet at the Aero India international air show in Bengaluru.
Finance Ministers from the G7 nations hold an important meeting in Rome, Italy, which renews calls for
a concerted global response to the financial and economic crisis
19 Feb
The Rajya Sabha passes the Prevention of Money Laundering (Amendment) Bill, 2008, which will
strengthen the legal framework to tackle cases effectively.
22 Feb
Slumdog Millionaire wins eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Director. Sean Penn wins
Best Actor for Milk and Kate Winslet wins Best Actress for The Reader. Indian music maestro A.R
Rahman wins two Oscars while another Indian Resul Pookutty wins an Oscar for the Best Sound Mixing
24 Feb
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory lands in the Pacific Ocean after failing to reach Earth's orbit.
25 Feb
Antarctica's subglacial Gamburtsev Mountain Range is mapped for the first time
28 Feb
In a significant development in the history of Indian warship building, the keel of the first indigenous
aircraft carrier is laid by Defence Minister Mr. A.K. Anthony at Cochin Shipyard Ltd. in Kochi, Kerala.
The Standing Committee of China's NPC approves the Food Safety Law, which will enhance supervision
and strengthen quality standards.
Novak Djokovic of Serbia clinches the title of the Dubai Open tennis championship, beating David Ferrer
of Spain in the final in Dubai, UAE.
March 2009
1 Mar
Accepting the Centre's advice, Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil rejects Chief Election
Commissioner Mr. N. Gopalaswami's recommendation that Mr. Navin Chawla be removed as Election
Commissioner.
ASEAN concludes its annual summit in Hua Hin, Thailand, and calls for coordinated action against the
current recession
China's first lunar probe, Chang’e 1, impacts the Moon.
India clinch the hockey Test series against New Zealand, beating the hosts 2-0 in the fourth and final
match in Auckland, New Zealand.
4 Mar
The Union Government announces the appointment of Mr. Navin Chawla as the new Chief Election
Commissioner with effect from April 20, 2009
6 Mar
NASA launches Kepler telescope to survey the galaxy in the hope of learning if other planets like the
Earth exist.
8 Mar
The 14th World Conference on Tobacco or Health (WCOTH) is inaugurated in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
North Korea holds elections for its Supreme People's Assembly
Sachin Tendulkar scores his 43rd ODI century (an unbeaten 163 off 133 balls) in the third ODI of the
series in Christchurch, New Zealand.
14 Mar
In a crucial meeting in London, the UK, G20 leaders agree on a broad framework to tackle the global
financial crisis.
16 Mar
The Pakistani government reinstates the deposed Chief Justice, Justice Iftikhar Chaudhary, surrendering
to the demand of the Opposition leader Mr. Nawaz Sharif
19 Mar
Meghalaya is put under President's rule and the State Assembly is kept under suspended animation
20 Mar
Air Marshal Pradeep Vasant Naik is appointed the Chief of the Air Staff with effect from June 1,2009. He
succeeds Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major
22 Mar
The Fifth World Water Forum, a seven-day focus on the world's water crisis, ends in Istanbul, Turkey,
with a pledge by more than 100 countries to strive to provide clean water and proper sanitation facilities
for billions in need. The delegates also vow to shore up defences against drought and flood.
England defeat New Zealand by four wickets in the final to claim the title of the ICC" Women's World
Cup in Sydney, Australia.
23 Mar
Tata Motors launches the much-awaited Rs. 1 lakh car Nano, billed as the "people's car" due to its easy
affordability, amid great fanfare in Mumbai, Maharashtra
26 Mar
Mr. Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov, a Russian-French mathematician, is honoured with the Abel Prize for
his revolutionary contribution to geometry. This prestigious award is instituted by the Norwegian
Academy of Science and Letters and carries a cash award of NOK 6.000,000.
28 Mar
The election process in 141 Lok Sabha constituencies, spread over 13 States and Union Territories,
begins with Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil issuing a notification for the second phase
31 Mar
Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil gives away the Padma Awards in New Delhi. The winners
include Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Bollywood actors Ms. Aishwarya Rai
Bachchan and Mr. Akshay Kumar, eminent Tamil writer Mr. D. Jayakanthan and noted Kerala
academician Mr. A. Sreedhara Menon, among others.
British forces commence their withdrawal from Iraq, six years after the Anglo-American invasion of die
country.
Indian batsman V.V.S. Laxman returns to the top 20 of ICC Test rankings, up six places to the 15th
position.
April 2009
1 Apr
The Cancer Research Foundation India launches an awareness programme under the "Conquer Cancer
Campaign" for initiating awareness through a dedicated helpline in the urban areas.
Israeli Prime Minister Mr. Benjamin Netanyahu officially assumes the reins of power of the country,
along with a 30-member cabinet.
India's Gaganjit Bhullar qualifies for playing in this year's British Open golf tournament by winning the
international final qualifying event for Asia in Singapore.
2 Apr
Leaders of the world’s largest economies at the G20 Summit in London pledge additional SLA trillion in
resources for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other multilateral institutions to boost global
growth.
5 Apr
Delhi girl Ms. Ekta Chowdhry is crowned Miss India Universe 2009 at the Femina Miss India pageant held
in Mumbai; Ms. Pooja. Chopra of Pune is crowned Miss India World and Shriya Kishore of Mumbai is
crowned Miss India Earth.
North Korea announces the successful launch of an indigenous communication satellite.
6 Apr
Team India's mainstay Rahul Dravid takes the 182nd catch of his Test career in the final Test against
New Zealand in Wellington, thus setting the world record for most Test catches (excluding
wicketkeepers), overtaking Australian Mark Waugh's tally.
7 Apr
India record their first Test series win in New Zealand in 41 years, taking the series 1 -0, even as the
third and final Test ends in a draw in Wellington, New Zealand.
8 Apr
For the first time. Pakistan acknowledges that besides Mohammad Ajmal Amir Kasab, some of the other
terrorists invoked in the Mumbai attack may have also been Pakistanis
10 Apr
Chandrayaan-1 sends back some important images, one of them being its first full-Earth image captured
by the Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) on board. These images, taken from 4,00,000 km away, with
India at the centre, show Asia and West Asia, parts of Africa and Australia forming a terrestrial ring
around the Indian Ocean.
12 Apr
In a significant decision, the Supreme Court of India holds that the Appellate Authority (AA), even while
affirming the order of the Disciplinary Authority (DA), must give reasons for arriving at the decision.
India lift the Sultan Azlan Shah hockey tournament title after a gap of 13 years, beating Malaysia 3-1 in
the final at Ipoh, Malaysia.
13 Apr
Tech Mahindra outbids Larsen & Toubro and Wilbur Ross to acquire the beleaguered San-am Computer
Services; it will shell out Rs. 2.889 crore for 51 percent stake in Satyam.
Swiss architect Mr. Peter Zumthor is chosen for the Pritzker Prize 2009, a prestigious honour which is
considered an equal to the Nobel Prize in architecture.
16 Apr
Polling in 124 of the 543 Lok Sabha constituencies—the first of the five-phase elections—witness 58-62
percent turnout
17 Apr
At an international conference held in Tokyo, Japan, donors led by the L'S and Japan pledge more than
$5 billion to stabilise Pakistan's troubled economy and fight the spread of terrorism.
19 Apr
Ace Indian cueist Pankaj Advani wins a record third Asian billiards championship title, beating
Singapore's Peter Gilchrist in the final of the Asian billiards championship in Pune, Maharashtra.
20 Apr
In a flawless mission, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV C-12) puts in orbit Radar Imaging
Satellite (RISAT-2), a surveillance satellite, and ANUSAT, the first satellite built by a university (Anna
University, Chennai).
23 Apr
French swimmer Alain Bernerd breaks the world record in the 100-metre freestyle event at the French
swimming championship, winning the event at 46.94 seconds.
24 Apr
The Government of Oman, through its ambassador to India, urges India to sign the Free Trade
Agreement (FTA) with the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council
25 Apr
South Africa's long-dominant African National Congress (ANC) party wins over-whelmingly in the
parliamentary elections, but fails to get the majority it won in the last elections. The victory puts Mr.
Jacob Zuma in line for presidency
26 Apr
Governments around the world rush to check the spread of H1N1, a new type of virulent swine flu
30 Apr
The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) announces the launch of the New
Pension System (NPS) for all citizens of the country with immediate effect
The six-year British military occupation of Iraq ends formally, a month ahead of schedule, amid
conflicting claims whether it was worth the cost and loss of lives.
India's Asher Noria clinches the Gold in the double trap event of the International juniors' competition in
Suhl, Germany.
May 2009
1 May
Official data reveal that India's merchandise export plummeted by 33.3 percent in dollar terms in March
2009.
Workers, trade unions and leftist politicians across Europe mark May Day or International Labour Day
with massive demonstrations demanding jobs, better wages and pensions.
Australia beat Pakistan by eight wickets in the fourth ODI of the series in Abu Dhabi, UAE, to take the
series with an unassailable 3-1 lead.
4 May
Nine months after he was elected the first Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal,
Mr. Pushpa Kamal Dahal "Prachanda” announces his resignation from the office in Kathmandu, the
capital of the nation
9 May
Mr. Jacob Zuma the indefatigable fighter against apartheid is sworn in as liberated South Africa’s fourth
President in Johannesburg
12 May
Russian Prime Minister Mr. Vladimir Putin and Japanese Prime Minister Mr. Taro Aso signs Nuclear
Supply deal in Tokyo, Japan, under which Russia will supply fuel and technology to energy-starved
Japan.
13 May
The elections to the 15th Lok Sabha comes to an end with the completion of the fifth and final phase.
According to official reports, around 5960 percent of the 71.37 crore voters in the country exercised
their franchise in the month-long elections to elect 543 members to the Lok Sabha
15 May
NASA launches two robotic probes—the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar CRater
Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). It is the first step towards returning humans to the Moon
by 2020.
16 May
The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) led by the Indian National-Congress storms back to power at the
Centre winning 261 seats in the general elections held in April-May 2009; the Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP)-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) garners 159 seats while Left parties win just 24 seats.
Others including SP (23), BSP (21) and BJD bag 99 seats.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) announces that Sri Lanka and Belarus will be granted
dialogue partner status at the group's summit to be held in June 2009.
South Korea wins their third Asia Cup hockey title, beating Pakistan 1-0 in the final in Kuantan,
Malaysia.
17 May
China retains the Sudirman Cup world badminton championship title, defeating South Korea in the final
in Guangzhou, China.
19 May
Ending all speculations, the Sri Lankan Government announces that troops engaged in combing
operations in the Mullaithivu coast, where the LTTE were pitted in the last standoff against the military,
have recovered the body of LTTE supremo V. Prabhakaran.
The nuclear-capable Agni-II missile, with a strike range of up to 3,000 km, is successfully test-fired from
a launch pad off the Orissa coast.
22 May
Dr. Manmohan Singh is sworn in as the Prime Minister of India for a second consecutive term along with
19 Cabinet colleagues—majority of them from Congress and only two from other allies—as part of the
first phase of government formation
24 May
Deccan Chargers, last year's wooden spooners, clinch the title of the IPL-2, beating Bangalore Royal
Challengers in the final by six runs at Johannesburg, South Africa.
25 May
Cyclone Aila hits West Bengal, killing a large number of people and affecting lakhs in the State.
Mr. Madhav Kumar Nepal takes oath as the new Prime Minister of Nepal
27 May
Justice Arijit Pasayat, retired Supreme Court Judge, assumes charge as Chairperson of the Competition
Appellate Tribunal for tenure of three years.
Canadian short story writer Ms. Alice Munro wins the prestigious £60,000 Man Booker International
Prize.
Russia successfully launches a spacecraft to boost the strength of the crew of the Inter-national Space
Station (ISS) from three to six.
31 May
Air Chief Marshal Pradeep Vasant Naik takes over as the Chief of the Air Staff.
In the Asian Security Summit held in Singapore, Pakistan offers to play a constructive role in
Afghanistan.
Casey Stoner of Australia wins the Italian MotoGP Grand Prix title in Mugello, Italy.
June 2009
1 June
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) announces that the mobile subscriber base in India
has crossed the staggering 40-crore mark.
Ignoring opposition from Israel, a UN team enters Gaza to investigate possible war crimes and other
violations of international law during Israel's assault on the coastal strip in early 2009.
The Indian women's team finishes fourth in the Asian women's rugby tournament in Pattaya, Thailand.
3 June
Ms. Meira Kumar is unanimously elected as the first women Speaker of the Lok Sabha; she also
becomes the first Dalit to be elected to this prestigious post
6 June
India's Leander Paes and Lukas Dlouhy of the Czech Republic win the men's doubles title of the 2009
French Open tennis tournament with a 3-6, 63, 6-2 win over Wesley Moodie of South Africa and
Belgium's Dick Norman.
9 Jun
Genpact, one of the world's largest business process outsourcing companies, signs an MoU with the
Government of Bhutan to train personnel and develop information technology-enabled services in the
mountain nation
11 June
Kaguya, Japan's first lunar satellite is successfully manoeuvred to crash onto the Moon.
12 June
India, along with 27 other countries, signs the Inter-governmental Agreement on the Trans-Asian
Railway (TAR) network, which aims at linking the railroad systems in Asia and Europe. Besides India,
the signatories include Cambodia, Mongolia, South Korea, Russia, Tajikistan and Thailand, among
others.
The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to slap tougher sanctions on North Korea in
response to its nuclear test in violation of the UN resolutions.
16 June
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit is held in Yekaterinburg, Russia
18 June
NASA successfully blasts two probes into space on a mission to scout water resources and landing sites
in anticipation of sending humans back to the Moon in 2020.
21 June
The eagerly-awaited Acropolis Museum, which houses 4,000 ancient sculptures that once adorned the
Acropolis, opens in Athens, Greece.
Pakistan emerge winners of the 2009 edition of the ICC World Twenty20, beating Sri Lanka by eight
wickets in the final in London, England.
Ace Indian shuttler Saina Nehwal scripts history by becoming the first Indian to win a Super Series
tournament after she clinches the Indonesian Open title with a stunning victory over the higher ranked
Chinese Lin Wang in Jakarta, Indonesia.
24 June
Uttarakhand Health Minister Mr. Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank is unanimously elected as the new Chief
Minister of the State replacing Maj. Gen. (Retd.) B.C. Khanduri
25 June
Mr. Nandan M. Nilekani, the Co-Chairman of the Board of Directors of Infosys Technologies, is
appointed as the Chairperson of the Unique Identification (UID) Authority of India. It is a new agency
set up to provide unique identification numbers to all citizens for accessing various government
services.
A research carried out by a team of European scientists reveals that huge geysers on Saturn's moon
Enceladus may be fed by a salty sea below its surface.
26 June
Michael Jackson, the American pop superstar, passes away at the age of 50 in Los Angeles, USA
29 June
On the sidelines of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris,
France, Trade Ministers of India, Brazil and South Africa come out with a joint declaration asserting
that the needs and aspirations of developing countries must remain in the forefront of the Doha Round
of World Trade Organisation talks.
Brazil beat USA 3-2 in the final to win the title of the Confederations Cup football tournament in
Johannesburg, South Africa.
30 June
The Bandra-Worli Sea Link, the longest sea bridge in the country, is inaugurated by UPA Chairperson
Ms. Sonia Gandhi in Mumbai.
In a significant development, the US troops begin withdrawing from Iraq
July 2009
1 July
As a part of the government's decision to spread the reach of the National Security Guards (NSG),
Union Home Minister Mr. P. Chidambaram inaugurates an NSG hub in Chennai.
Sri Lankan President Mr. Mahinda Rajapaksa announces the formation of an All-Party Committee
(APC) for development and recon-ciliation work in the terrorism-ravaged country.
World champion Viswanathan Anand of India retains his second place behind Bulgaria's Veselin
Topalov in the latest chess world rankings.
2 July
Japanese diplomat Yukiya Amano is elected the next head of the UN atomic watchdog International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), succeeding Mohamed ElBaradei who retires in November 2009
5 July
Roger Federer of Switzerland creates history by clinching his 15th Grand Slam, when he beats Andy
Roddick of USA in the marathon final of the Wimbledon 2009.
6 July
Union Finance Minister Mr. Pranab Mukherjee unveils the Union Budget 2009-10 in the Lok Sabha. In
the Budget, he seeks to trade off higher fiscal deficit with growth
9 July
Leaders of the G8 industrial nations and the G5 developing countries at their Summit in L'Aquila, Italy
call for an ambitious and balanced conclusion to the Doha Development Round of trade talks in 2010.
The leaders also stress that the standstill commitments made at the London G20 summit must be
adhered to
14 June
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh attends the Bastille Day parade in Paris, France, The Indian
delegation attends the event as Guest of Honour, on a day that marks the 220th anniversary of the
French Revolution
16 July
The Union Government proposes to launch an ambitious Rs. 1,600-crore scheme for the development
of one million hectares of fringe forests and adjoining non-forest lands in villages across the country.
The 15th NAM Summit concludes in Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt
17 July
ISRO announces that Chandrayaan-1’s star sensors--vital in determining the orientation of the
spacecraft--have failed.
20 July
India and die US take the bilateral relations a step forward, with the visiting US Secretary of State Ms.
Hillary Clinton signing three agreements—the military end user agreement, the technology safeguards
agreement, and the science and technology cooperation agreement.
Four-time women's boxing world champion M.C. Mary Kom is chosen by the Government of India for
the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, the country's highest sporting honour, for the year
2008.
22 July
A total solar eclipse, the longest of its kind of the 21st century, sweeps across a narrow swathe of
Asia, visible in totality from many regions of India.
At the sidelines of the conference of the Foreign Ministers of two dozen countries in Phuket, Thailand,
India's External Affairs Minister Mr. S. M. Krishna holds his first meeting with his Chinese counterpart
Mr. Yang Jiechi. In the meeting, the representatives of the two Asian powerhouses resolve to further
deepen their ties, especially in bilateral trade.
A NASA report reveals that Jupiter was recently struck by a large object-possibly a comet or a block of
ice-which has left a Earth-sized dent in its gaseous atmosphere.
25 June
Indonesian President Mr. Sushilo Bambang Yudhoyono is re-elected by a landslide margin
26 July
With the launch of INS Arihant in Visakhapatnam, India joins the elite club of nations having nuclear
submarine capability. With the launch of this 110-metre, 6,000-tonne submarine, India becomes only
the sixth country after the US, the UK, China, Russia and France and the only country in the Indian
Ocean region to possess this advanced capability.
Last year's winner Alberto Contador of Spain wins the title of the 2009 Tour de France.
31 July
The Supreme Court asks the Centre to take up with the State Governments and ensure that there is
no unauthorised constructions of temples, churches, mosques and gurdwaras on public streets/public
places.
Aaron Peirsol of USA wins the 200-metre backstroke. title at the World swimming championship in
Rome, Italy.
The Government of Sri Lanka relaxes the restrictions on deep sea fishing--in force since 2005 due to
terrorism--in the northern seas
August 2009
1 Aug
Ms. Nirupama Rao takes charge as the Foreign Secretary.
Corazon Aquino, whose name remains indelibly linked to the "people's power" of the 1980s in the
Philippines, passes away at 76.
India defeat South Africa by 17 runs in the final to win the Emerging Players Tournament in Brisbane,
Australia.
3 Aug
Prominent Indian social activist Mr. Deep Joshi is named along with five others for the prestigious
Ramon Magsaysay Award for 2009, which is considered Asia's equivalent of Nobel Prize
5 Aug
Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is sworn in as the President of Iran
12 Aug
The Centre releases the draft of the new Direct Taxes Code. The new code proposes 10 percent
income tax if the total yearly income exceeds Rs. 1.6 lakh but does not exceed Rs. 10 lakh. It
proposes two other slabs: where the total income exceeds Rs. 10 lakh but does not exceed Rs. 25
lakh, it proposes a tax of Rs. 84,000 plus 20 percent of the amount by which the total income
exceeds Rs. 10 lakh. In the slab where the total income exceeds Rs. 25 lakh, it proposes Rs. 3.84
lakh plus tax at the rate of 30 percent of the amount by which the total income exceeds Rs. 25 lakh.
The code is proposed to come into effect from April 1, 2011
15 Aug
Member-states of the forum of East Asia Summit (EAS), including India and China, hold a meeting in
Bangkok, Thailand, wherein they collectively express themselves against all forms of protectionism in
trade and investment.
16 Aug
Olympic champion and the "Fastest Man on Earth" Usain Bolt of Jamaica obliterates his own 100 m
world record (9.69 sec, registered at Beijing Olympics 2008) to win the World Athletics Championship
final in a breathtaking 9.58 seconds in Berlin, Germany.
20 Aug
Afghan voters defy the threat of Taliban rebels and come out to vote in the Presidential elections of
the country, counting of votes also begins
23 Aug
18-year old Miss Venezuela Ms. Stefania Fernandez clinches the coveted 2009 Miss Universe title at
the pageant held in Nassau, Bahamas.
England regain the Ashes Trophy after beating Australia by 197 runs on the fourth day of the
deciding fifth Test.
26 Aug
In a significant development, the fudges of the Supreme Court of India, including Chief Justice of
India KG. Balakrishnan, agree to make public their statements of assets, which they declared at the
time of their appointment to the Supreme Court, and subsequent additions, if any
28 Aug
The former Indian Coast Guard ship Vigraha is inducted into the Sri Lankan Navy (SLN) at the
Trincomalee Navy Dockyard in Sri Lanka; the ship is formally commissioned and renamed SUWS
Sayurala.
29 Aug
Space shuttle Discovery blasts off from NASA's space station at Cape Canaveral, Florida to the
International Space Station (ISS) on a 13-day mission to equip the space station.
Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil presents the National Sports and Adventure Awards to the
recipients at a glittering function in New Delhi. This is for the first time that the nation honours three
sportspersons with the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award for the same year—four-time
world boxing champion M.C. Mary Kom, and Beijing Olympic Bronze medallists Vijender Singh
(Boxing) and Sushil Kumar (Wrestling).
30 Aug
The Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), led by Mr. Yukio Hatoyama, registers a landslide victory in
Japan's parliamentary elections, ousting the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which has been in power
in the country for all but 11 months since 1955.
The ISRO calls off the Chandrayaan-1 mission, as there is no possibility of retrieving it; it, however,
says that the Chandrayaan-2 mission will be on track as per schedule (2012-13).
31 Aug
Vice-Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma takes over as the new Chief of Naval Staff; he succeeds Admiral
Sureesh Mehta.
The Colombo High Court of Sri Lanka sentences senior Tamil journalist Mr. J. Tissainayagam to 20
years of rigorous imprisonment under the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA).
India retain the Nehru Cup football title, beating Syria in the final 6-5 in New Delhi.
September 2009
1 Sep
Renowned missile scientist Dr. V.K. Saraswat assumes office as the Scientific Advisor to the Defence
Minister and Director-General of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
Fiji is suspended from the Commonwealth after it fails to meet a deadline to make progress towards
restoring democracy in the nation.
Kumar Sangakkara of Sri Lanka reclaims the top spot in ICC's batsman rankings in Tests.
2 Sep
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, which makes education a fundamental
right of every child in the 6-15 years group, comes into force with the Presidential assent
4 Sep
Signalling a breakthrough in the deadlock over global trade talks, stuck since July 2008, the New Delhi
Ministerial Meeting on re-energising the trade talks announces the resumption of Doha Round of WTO
talks
7 Sep
In a radical. revamp for school education. Union Human Resource Development Minister Mr. Kapil
Sibal announces that beginning 2011, Class X board examinations will become a thing of the past:
instead, students will be promoted to senior secondary level through internal assessment.
Ace cueist Pankaj Advani of India clinches the tide of the 2009 Professional World Billiards
Championship in Leeds, England, outclassing Mike Russell of Qatar in the final.
10 Sep
Olympic Bronze medallist Indian boxer Vijender Singh creates history by becoming the first Indian to
win a medal at the World Boxing Championship, after beating Ukrainian Sergiy Derevyanchenko to
enter the semi-final at the 2009 edition of the event in Milan, Italy.
12 Sep
The Centre unveils the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), under which States that are ready to accord property
rights to slum dwellers will be assisted by the Centre to upgrade their slums.
The Rural Development Ministry says in a report that 50 percent of Indians are below the poverty line
if one takes into account the criterion of calorie intake.
14 Sep
India win the Compaq Cup tri-series beating Sri Lanka in the final in Colombo, Sri Lanka, riding on
Sachin Tendulkar's 44th ODI century (138) and Harbhajan Singh's five-wicket haul (5 for 56).
15 Sep
Nobel winning US agricultural scientist Norman Borlaug, widely hailed as the "Father of Green
Revolution", passes away in USA.
In one of the biggest upsets in tennis history, Juan Martin del Potro of Argentina defeats Swiss
maestro Roger Federer in the final to lift the title of the 2009 US Open men's singles title in New York,
USA.
16 Sep
Mr. Yukio Hatoyama is appointed as the Prime Minister of Japan; he becomes the 60th person to hold
this office and the 93rd Prime Minister of the nation
17 Sep
NASA astronomers find the coldest place in the solar system inside the craters in the Moon's south
pole. Temperature in the area is 397 degrees below zero, which is just 62 degrees higher than the
lowest temperature possible.
20 Sep
Riding on the brilliant display of Somdev Devvarman, India defeat South Africa 4-1 in the World Group
play-off in Johannesburg, South Africa, thus entering the Davis Cup World Group after an 11-year
gap.
23 Sep
In what is the 15th successful launch of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in a row, the PSLV
C-14 blasts off from the Sriharikota space station, and puts India's Oceansat-2 and six foreign nano
satellites in orbit.
24 Sep
The Summit of G20 major economies gets underway in Pittsburg, USA.
In a significant discovery, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announces that the NASAsupplied Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on board Chandrayaan-1, India's first Moon mission, had
found traces of water across the surface of large parts of the Moon.
27 Sep
Iran test-fires three missiles, including a solid-fuelled weapon which can target several destinations in
the region including Israel, heightening tensions among world powers.
Australian scientists find 850 new species in the underground caves of the Australian Outback,
including various species of invertebrates like spiders, insects and worms.
28 Sep
German Chancellor Ms. Angela Markel is re-elected for a second four-year term to govern the country.
Chinese researchers unearth the fossil of a bird-like dinosaur with wings, which they suggest is a
crucial missing link in dinosaurs' evolution into birds.
29 Sep
In a landmark development, Iran announces that it will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) to inspect its second uranium plant to help allay fears about its nuclear intentions.
Indian boxing's pride Vijender Singh, Olympic and World Championship Bronze medal winner,
achieves yet another first for Indian boxing by becoming the world's top ranked pugilist in the
middleweight category.
30 Sep
Legendary playback singer Manna Dev is chosen for the prestigious Dada Saheb Phalke Award for
2007.
October 2009
1 Oct
The Union Government makes major changes in the Mega Power Policy, under which States
controlling the power distribution system will be allowed to purchase power from mega power units in
a bid to encourage such projects.
Iran and six global powers—five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany—
begin nuclear talks in Geneva, Switzerland.
Gautam Gambhiris named ICC Test Cricketer of the Year; M.S. Dhoni is adjudged the ICC ODI
Cricketer of the Year, while Australia's Mitchell Johnson wins the Cricketer of the Year award.
2 Oct
The Centre renames the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act as the Mahatma Gandhi Rural
Employment Guarantee Act.
Brazilian city Rio de Janeiro gets the right to host the 2016 Olympics.
3 Oct
India is unanimously elected the Second Vice-Chair of the G24 countries
Tiger Woods of USA becomes the first athlete in history to surpass $1 billion in career earnings.
5 Oct
Americans Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak win the 2009 Nobel Prize in
Medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations in cells, an insight that has
inspired new lines of research into cancer.
Australia win the Champions Trophy, defeating New Zealand in the final by six wickets in Centurion,
.South Africa.
6 Oct
Three Americans—Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith, whose 1960 research laid
the foundation for today's world of computer images and lightning fast communication, share the
2009 Nobel Prize in Physics.
7 Oct
India-born American Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, his fellow countryman Thomas Steitz and Israeli
scientist Ada Yonath share the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for showing how the ribosome, which
produces protein, functions at the atomic level.
British novelist Ms. Hillary Mantel's historical novel Wolf Hall wins this year's Man Booker Prize
beating five other contenders, including two previous Booker winners
8 Oct
Ms. Herta Mueller, a member of Romania's ethnic German minority, wins the 2009 Nobel Prize in
Literature.
NASA crashes two spacecraft, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and its Centaur
rocket, into an eternally dark crater, in search of water.
9 Oct
US President Mr. Barack Obama, who is just nine months into his term, sensationally wins the 2009
Nobel Peace Prize
12 Oct
Americans Elinor Ostrom and Oliver Williamson jointly win the 2009 Nobel Economics Prize for their
analyses of economic governance—the rules by which people exercise authority in companies and
economic systems.
15 Oct
India and Russia finalise a new 10-year military cooperation pact that will enhance bilateral relations.
US President Mr. Barack Obama signs into law the Kerry-Lugar Bill that triples the US non-military
assistance to Pakistan to SI.5 billion annually over the next five years
16 Oct
India notifies its separation plan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), under which 14
of its 22 nuclear reactors will be placed under safeguards of the watchdog by 2014.
Five countries—Nigeria, Brazil, Bosnia. Lebanon and Gabon—are elected as the new members of die
UN Security Council.
17 Oct
The Maldives Cabinet holds the world's first underwater meeting to highlight the dangers posed to
low-lying nations by global warming.
Ghana become the first African nation to win the under-20 football World Cup, when they beat Brazil
4-3 in the final of the 2009 edition in Cairo, Egypt.
18 Oct
Britain's Jenson Button is crowned Formula One world champion when he secures the fifth place in
the Brazilian Grand Prix in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
20 Oct
Union Finance Minister Mr. Pranab Mukherjee launches the National Skill Development Corporation
(NSDC), which is mandated to impart skills to 30 percent of the overall target of 500 million people
by the year 2022
22 Oct
The results of the Assembly elections in Maharashtra, Haryana and Arunachal Pradesh are
announced. Congress wins 42 seats out of 60 in Arunachal; in Maharashtra, Congress (82 seats)-NCP
(62) coalition retains power; and in Haryana, the Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) wins 31 seats
against Congress' 40 in a House of 90
23 Oct
The New South Wales Blues win the inaugural Airtel-Champions League Twenty20 championship,
defeating Trinidad & Tobago by 41 runs in the final in Hyderabad.
24 Oct
Dr. K. Radhakrishnan (60), Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, is
appointed Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). He succeeds Dr. G.
Madhavan Nair.
The seventh ASEAN-India meet is held on the sidelines of the 15th Association of South East Asian
Nations Summit in Hua Hin, Thailand. At the meet, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh proposes the
establishment of a joint task force to ensure a substantive outcome for India's 10th summit with
ASEAN in 2012; he also offers to play host to the bilateral gathering that year.
25 Oct
India grants Market Economy Status to Vietnam, which responds by entering the India-ASEAN Free
Trade Agreement which India had signed with the other members of the 10-nation bloc in August
2009
27 Oct
NASA tests Ares I-X, a prototype rocket that carries the hope of returning humans to the Moon, and
for the first time to Mars. It is also the world's tallest rocket to be ever launched.
29 Oct
The first-ever fighter-level exercise between the air forces of India and Oman comes to an end at the
Royal Air Force of Oman's Thumrait airbase.
Britain's Queen Elizabeth formally hands over the Commonwealth Games baton to visiting President
Ms. Pratibha Patil in London. After the formal handing-over, prominent Indian sports personalities set
off a relay race that will eventually cover more than 1,90,000 km over 340 days across various
Commonwealth nations. The race will come to an end when the baton finally reaches New Delhi on
October 3, 2010
30 Oct
31 Oct
Oasis of the Seas, the world's biggest cruise liner, embarks on its maiden voyage to Florida, USA,
from Helsinki, Finland. The liner spans 360 metres, has 2,700 cabins and can accommodate 6,300
passengers and 2,100 crew.
India defeat Australia by six wickets in the third match of the ODI series in New Delhi to take a 2-1
lead in the series.
November 2009
1 Nov
Deriba Merga of Ethiopia wins the men's title of the Airtel Delhi Half-Marathon; Mary Keitani of
Kenya wins the women's race.
2 Nov
Twenty-one Judges of the Supreme Court, including Chief Justice of India K.G. Balakrishnan, declare
their assets, giving details of movable and immovable property owned by them and their spouses on
the Supreme Court website.
Afghanistan's Election Commission proclaims President Mr. Hamid Karzai the victor of the country's
tumultuous presidential elections, cancelling a planned run-off and ending a political crisis that
began with a fraud-marred first round in .August 2009.
4 Nov
Soumya Swaminathan of India becomes the girls' champion in the World Junior Chess Championship
at Puerto Madryn, Argentina.
5 Nov
In the fifth match of the India-Australia ODI series at Hyderabad, Sachin Tendulkar scores a brilliant
175 off 141 balls, which is the 45th ODI century of his career. Despite his heroics, India go down by
three runs in the match.
6 Nov
The 10th India-European Union (EU) Summit is held in New Delhi; the summit is chaired by Prime
Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, while the EU is represented by European Commission President Mr.
Jose Manuel Barroso and Swedish Prime Minister Mr. Fredrik Reinfeldt, whose country currently
heads the EU. Among various crucial agreements, the two sides also sign an important pact to
promote joint research in nuclear fusion. The two sides also decide to put negotiations for a free
trade agreement on the fast track
The UN General Assembly endorses the Goldstone Report, which focuses mainly on alleged Israeli
war crimes and crimes against humanity during the infamous Gaza War.
7 Nov
A team of Japanese and American scientists announces the discovery of 22 extremely distant
galaxies which may have been born 787 million years after the Big Bang.
8 Nov
Inaugurating the 25th India Economic Summit, organised in New Delhi by the World Economic
Forum in association with FICCI, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh unveiled the broad contours of
decision-making on future economic reforms.
The UN Development Fund for Women launches an international campaign in the Kenyan capital
Nairobi to mobilise people around the world to take part in a drive to stop the pandemic of violence
suffered by women.
9 Nov
A crucial agreement is reached between Nepal and China to start flights on the Kathmandu-Lhasa
route in 2010, making Nepal the first country in the world to operate flights to Lhasa (Tibet).
11 Nov
Australia clinche the ODI series against India by a 4-2 margin, even as the last of the seven-match
series in Mumbai is abandoned due to rain.
13 Nov
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), USA, says that its bombardment of the
Moon's surface has discovered beds of water ice at the lunar pole.
15 Nov
The two-day summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) concludes in Singapore. In the
summit, the leaders of the 21 APEC economies pledge to promote inclusive and sustainable growth
to ensure a durable recovery.
16 Nov
The UN Hunger Summit is held in Rome, Italy; in the summit, the participants pledge to combat
food shortages around the world.
18 Nov
US President Mr. Barack Obama wraps up his three-day China visit, after discussing trade-related
issues with Chinese Premier Mr. Wen Jiabao.
19 Nov
Bangladesh Prime Minister Ms. Sheikh Hasina is chosen for the prestigious Indira Gandhi Prize for
Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2009.
China retain the men's team title at the 19th Asian table tennis championship in Lucknow; they also
clinch the women's team title in the tournament.
The Centre approves the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, which aims to add 20,000 MW of
power in India by 2022
20 Nov
Belgian PM Mr. Herman Von Rompuy is elected as the first President of the 27-member European
Union (EU); Ms. Catherine Ashton of Britain is elected as the High Representative of Foreign Affairs
and Security Policy.
Master Blaster Sachin Tendulkar becomes the first cricketer to score 30,000 international runs, a
feat he achieves in the first Test of the India-Sri Lanka series in Ahmedabad; the match ends in a
draw.
21 Nov
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), developed by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research
(CERN), starts functioning again after a break of 14 months. Scientists hope that the LHC, popularly
known as the Big Bang Machine, will help them understand the origin of the Universe.
22 Nov
Larissa Ramos of Brazil wins the 2009 Miss Earth title at the pageant held in Boracay, the
Philippines.
Usain Bolt of Jamaica and Sanya Richards of USA are named the IAAF World Athletes of the Year in
a ceremony held in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
23 Nov
India test-fires its nuclear-capable Agni-II Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile at night for the first
time from the Wheeler Island off the Odhisa coast
24 Nov
The report of the Liberhan Commission, appointed to find out the facts behind the demolition of the
Babri Masjid, is tabled in the Parliament. The report comes down strongly on the entire Sangh
Parivar, accusing them of manipulating the common masses and turning them into a frenzied mob.
The summit meeting between US President Mr. Barack Obama and visiting Prime Minister Dr.
Manmohan Singh is held at the White House in Washington, USA. The meeting ends on an optimistic
note with Mr. Obama affirming that the relationship between the two nations is one of the "defining
partnerships of the 21st century"
25 Nov
Hon'ble President Ms. Pratibha Patil creates history by becoming the first woman head of state to fly
in a fighter jet. She completes a 30-minute sortie aboard a Sukhoi at a height of 8,000 feet.
27 Nov
The French Parliament unanimously adopts the Indo-French civil nuclear deal, paving the way for
French companies to invest in India.
28 Nov
India and Canada reach a crucial deal on civil nuclear cooperation, paving the way for the supply of
Canadian atomic technology, equipment and uranium to India
29 Nov
Italy win their first-ever World Cup golf title, defeating Sweden and Ireland in the three-way final
round in Shenzhen, China.
30 Nov
The 2009 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) concludes in Port-of-Spain, after
reaching some key agreements on various crucial matters including the issue of climate change
December 2009
1 Dec
Union Minister for Tourism Kumari Selja launches the MV Aquamarine, a cruise ship, from Kochi,
Kerala; it is the first international cruise ship to operate from a port in India.
Star Argentinian footballer Lionel Messi wins the Golden Ball, awarded to the European Footballer
of the Year, following an exceptional season with Spanish giants Barcelona.
2 Dec
US President Mr. Barack Obama unveils a new Afghan strategy, saying that the US will send
30,000 more troops to the war-torn nation. He also says that the US will make an effort to pull out
of Afghanistan by July 2011
4 Dec
The Nepal Cabinet holds a historic meeting at the Everest Base Camp in Kalapatthar to send a
message to the world that the Himalayas in Nepal are melting because of climate change triggered
by carbon emissions in big countries.
5 Dec
Spain retain the Davis Cup by taking an unassailable 3-0 lead over Czech Republic in the final in
Barcelona, Spain. This is Spain's fourth tide since 2000.
6 Dec
India beat touring Sri Lanka by an innings and 24 runs in the third and final Test of the series in
Mumbai, thus completing a 2-0 series sweep. The series win takes India to the top spot in the ICC
Test Rankings for the first time.
Australia claims the men's field hockey Champions Trophy for a record 10th time, beating Germany
in the final of the 2009 edition in Melbourne, Australia.
7 Dec
In a significant development, India and Russia conclude a breakthrough long-term pact for
expanding civil nuclear cooperation that is free from any restrictions on India and guarantees it
against any curb in the future. Under the agreement signed during Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan
Singh's visit to Moscow, Russia will set up more nuclear reactors in India, transfer the full range of
nuclear energy technologies and ensure uninterrupted supply of fuel.
The UN Climate Change Conference 2009 opens amid much anticipation in Copenhagen, Denmark.
8 Dec
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) adds yet another feather to its cap, with its
scientists succeeding in completely sequencing the genome of an individual. This spectacular feat
enables India to join a league of select countries—the US, the UK, Canada, China and South Korea.
Australia retains the Frank Worrell Trophy with a draw against West Indies in the second Test of
the series in Adelaide, Australia, thus gaining a 1-0 lead in the three match series.
9 Dec
In a crucial development, the Centre announces that the process of forming the State of Telangana
will be initiated and appropriate resolution moved in the Andhra Pradesh Assembly.
11 Dec
Asian champion Suranjoy Singh becomes the first Indian boxer to clinch a Gold medal in the
intercontinental President's Cup; he defeats Frenchman Nordine Oubaali in the final to win the Gold
at the 51-kg category in the 2009 edition of the tournament, where confederations from Asia,
America, Europe, Africa and Oceania are pitted against one another.
12 Dec
Kaiane Aldorino of Gibraltar wins the 2009 Miss World crown in the pageant held in Johannesburg,
South Africa, defeating 111 contestants from all over the world. This is the first Miss World title for
Gibraltar. Miss Mexico Perla Beltran finishes second, while Miss South Africa Tatum Keshwar
becomes the second runner-up.
13 Dec
India successfully test-fires the nuclear-capable ballistic missile Dhanush from a warship in the Bay
of Bengal off the Orissa coast.
14 Dec
New Zealand clinch the title of the 2009 Champions Challenge hockey tournament, beating
Pakistan 4-2 in the final in Salta, Argentina; India bag the Bronze medal defeating hosts Argentina
in the playoff match.
15 Dec
Boeing's revolutionary lightweight 787 Dreamliner takes to the skies for the first time from an
airport in USA, marking the advent of a new era in air transport. It is the largest passenger jet
made mostly of composite material.
17 Dec
An international study reveals that scientists have identified all the changes in cells of lung and
skin cancer to produce the first entire cancer genome map.
18 Dec
The UN Climate Change Summit 2009 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, ends with pact named
"Copenhagen Accord". The accord promises a mobilisation of $100 billion in annual funding for
developing countries to meet the challenges of climate change from 2020 and also pledges about
$30 billion by 2012. It sets a target limiting temperature increases to a maximum of two degrees
Celsius, but fails to specify the greenhouse gas emission cuts that nations need to commit
themselves to in order to meet that goal.
19 Dec
Spanish club Barcelona becomes the first team in the world to win six tournaments in a calendar
year, winning the Club World Cup title for the year 2009, defeating Estudiantes of Argentina in the
final in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
20 Dec
The world's first osmotic power plant, which can utilise the energy when fresh water encounters
sea water to produce clean electricity, is unveiled in Norway.
22 Dec
India and Bhutan hold summit-level talks in New Delhi. In the summit, a dozen pacts are signed
between Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and visiting Bhutan King Jigme Khesar Namgyel
Wangchuk.
Argentinian footballer Lionel Messi wins the FIFA Player of the Year at a glittering ceremony held in
Zurich, Switzerland; Brazilian player Marta is adjudged the Woman Player of the Year.
24 Dec
The US Senate passes President Mr. Barack Obama's landmark healthcare overhaul by a 60-39
vote, backing sweeping changes in the medical insurance market and new coverage for tens of
millions of uninsured Americans.
India clinch the ODI series against the touring Sri Lankan side 3-1, winning the fourth match by
seven wickets in Kolkata, West Bengal.
26 Dec
China launches the world's fastest train till date, which has the ability to run at an average speed
of 350 km per hour.
28 Dec
The Russian Navy inducts the Akula-II Class nuclear attack submarine "K-152 Nerpa"; the
induction spells good news for India, and it will be leased to India for a 10-year period.
29 Dec
Japanese Premier Mr. Yukio Hatoyama holds a crucial meeting with his Indian counterpart Dr.
Manmohan Singh in New Delhi. During the visit, the two sides finalise a joint action plan to
advance security cooperation. They discuss various other issues of mutual interest, including the
issue of nuclear cooperation. The two leaders also approve the Rs. 3, 60,000-crore Delhi-Mumbai
Industrial Corridor (DMIC) project, which is to be constructed with Japanese assistance. Mr.
Hatoyama offers the bullet train technology to India.
30 Dec
England beat hosts South Africa by an innings and 98 runs in the second Test to take a 1-0 lead in
the three-match series in Durban, South Africa.
31 Dec
Ms. Reena Kaushal becomes the first Indian woman to ski to the South Pole. Ms. Kaushal, based in
Delhi, makes the historic ski-run as part of an eight-woman Commonwealth team which crosses a
900-km Antarctic ice trek to mark the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Commonwealth.
For the second time in just over a year, Canadian Prime Minister Mr. Stephen Harper temporarily
shuts down the Parliament, evoking accusations from opposition politicians that he is abusing
parliamentary power for political gains.
Different Branches of Science
Different Branches of Science
DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
Branch
Concerning field
Aeronautics
Science of fligt of airplanes.
Astronomy
Study of heavenly bodies.
Agronomy
Science dealing with crop plant.
Angiology
Deals with the study of blood vascular system.
Anthology
Study of flower.
Anthropology
Study of apes and man.
Apiculture
Honey industries (Bee Keeping).
Araneology
Study of spiders.
Batracology
Study of frogs.
Biochemistry
Deals with the study of chemical reactions in relation to life activities.
Biotechnology
Deals with the use of micro-organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as
drugs; vaccines; hormones,etc. on a large scale.
Cardiology
Study of heart.
Craniology
Study of skulls.
Cryptography
Study of secret writing.
Cryogenics
Study concerning with the application and uses of very low temperature.
Cytology
Study of cells.
Dermatology
Study of skin.
Ecology
The study of relationship between organisms and enviornment.
Entomology
Study of insects.
Etiology
Study of cause of insects.
Eugenics
Study of improvment of human race by applying laws of heredity. it is related with future generations.
Evolution
Deals with the study of origin of new from old.
Exbiology
Deals with life or possibilities of life beyond the earth.
Floriculture
Study of flower yeilding plants.
Geology
Study of condition and structure of the earth
Genetics
Study of heredity and variations.
Gerontology
Study of growing old.
Gynaecology
Study of female reproductive organs.
Horticulture
Study of garden cultivation.
Haematology
Study of blood.
Hepatology
Study of liver.
Iconography
Teachings by pictures and models.
Immunology
Science which deals with the study of resistance of organisms against infection.
Jurisprudence
Science of law.
Kalology
Study of human beauty.
Lexicography
Compiling of dictionary.
Mycology
Study of fungi.
Myology
Study of muscles.
Nephrology
Study of kidneys.
Neurology
Study of nervous system.
Numismatics
Study of coins and medals.
Obstetrics
Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy.
Oneirology
Study of dreams.
Ophthalmology
Study of eyes.
Omithology
Study of birds.
Osteology
Study of bones.
Palaeontology
Study of fossils.
Philately
Stamp collecting.
Philology
Study of languages.
Phonetics
Concerning the sounds of a language.
Physiography
Natural phenomenon.
Pedology
Stydy of soils.
Pathology
Study of disease causing organisms.
phycology
Study of algae.
Physiology
Science dealing with the study of functions of various parts of organisms.
Pisciculture
Study of fish.
Pomology
Study of fruits.
Seismology
Study of earthquakes.
Sericulture
Silk industry (culture of silk moth and pupa).
Serpentology
Study of snakes.
Telepathy
Communication between two minds at a distance with the help of emotions, thoughts and feelings.
Taxonomy
Study of classification of organisms.
Virology
Study of virus.
Earth General Knowledge
Earth General Knowledge
1. It’s a common perception that the earth began billions of years ago as a huge ball of swirling dust and
gases.
2. Lightning strikes about 6,000 times per minute on earth. and atleast 2000 Number of lightning strikes
over the earth per second.
3. A bolt of lightning is about 54,000°F (30,000°C) which is actually six times hotter than the surface of
the sun.
4. Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil are the five countries with the biggest area on Earth.
5. The earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago.
6. As the sun warms the earth’s surface, the atmosphere warms too. Some parts of the earth receive direct
rays from the sun all year and are always warm.
7. Warm air, which weighs less than cool air, rises. Then cool air moves in and replaces the rising warm
air. This movement of air is what makes the wind blow.
8. The average lightning bolt is about an inch wide and five miles long.
9. The names of the continents all end with the same letter with which they start.
10. Scientists believe the invertebrate life began on earth about 600 million years ago.
11. Fish evolved about 300 million years ago on the earth.
12. Humans began to use clothing about 70 million years ago.
13. The first words were spoken by humans about 40 thousand years ago.
14. Cave paintings have been identified from about 30 million years ago.
15. Pyramids were build about 4.5k years ago.
16. the Roman empire lasted about 500 years ago, from 0 to 500 AD
17. the Greek civilization lasted about 2k years, from about 4k years ago to 2k years ago
18. Agricultural habits began about 11k years ago when most of the large animals had been killed.
19. Tools began to be used about 180k years ago
20. 100 years ago the first virus was found in both plants and animals.
21. The oldest known fossil is of a single-celled organism, blue-green algae, found in 3.2 billion year-old
stones in South Africa.
22. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere (about 49.5%)
Famous Cities and River Banks
Famous Cities and River Banks
Famous Cities and River Banks
City
Country
River
Adelaide
Australia
Torrens
Amsterdam
Netherlands
Amsel
Alexandria
Egypt
Nile
Ankara
Turkey
Kazil
Allahabad
India
At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna
Agra
India
Yamuna
Ayodhya
India
Saryu
Ahmedabad
India
Sabarmati
Badrinath
India
Alaknanda
Bareilly
India
Ram Ganga
Bangkok
Thailand
Chao Praya
Basra
Iraq
Euphrates and Tigris
Baghdad
Iraq
Tigris
Berlin
Germany
Spree
Bonn
Germany
Rhine
Budapest
Hungary
Daunbe
Bristol
U. K.
Avon
Buenos Aires
Argentina
Laplata
Cuttack
India
Mahanadi
Curnool
India
Tungabhadra
Chittagong
Bangladesh
Majyani
Canton
China
Si-Kiang
Cairo
Egypt
Nile
Chung King
China
Yang-tse-King
Cologne
Germany
Rhine
Delhi
India
Yamuna
Dandzing
Germany
Vistula
Dresden
Germany
Elve
Dibrugarh
India
Brahmaputra
Dublin
Ireland
Liffy
Ferozpur
India
Satluj
Guwahati
India
Brahmaputra
Hardwar
India
Ganga
Hyderabad
India
Musi
Hamburg
Germany
Elve
Jabalpur
India
Narmada
Jamshedpur
India
Swarnarekha
Jaunpur
India
Gomti
Kabul
Afghanistan
Kabul
Karachi
Pakistan
Indus
Kanpur
India
Ganga
Kota
India
Chambal
Kolkata
India
Hooghly
Khartoum
Sudan
Confluence of Blue and white Nile
Lahore
Pakistan
Ravi
Leningrad
Russia
Neva
Lucknow
India
Gomti
Lisbon
Portugal
Tagus
Liverpool
England
Messey
Ludhiana
India
Satluj
London
England
Thames
Mathura
India
Yamuna
Moscow
Russia
Moskva
Montreal
Canada
St. Lawrence
Nanking
China
Yang-tse-Kiang
New Orleans
U.S.A.
Mississippi
Nasik
India
Godavari
New York
U.S.A.
Hudson
Ottawa
Canada
Ottawa
Patna
India
Ganga
Paris
France
Seine
Philadelphia
U.S.A.
Delaware
Perth
Australia
Swan
Panjim
India
Mandavi
Prague
Czech Republic
Vitava
Quebec
Canada
St. Lawrence
Rome
Italy
Tiber
Rotterdam
The Netherlands New Mass
Stalingrad
Russia
Volga
Shanghai
China
Yang-tse-Kiang
Sidney
Australia
Darling
Srinagar
India
Jhelum
Surat
India
Tapti
Sambalpur
India
Mahanadi
Serirangapatam
India
Cauvery
Saint Luis
U.S.A.
Mississippi
Tiruchurapalli
India
Cauvery
Tokyo
Japan
Arakava
Ujjain
India
Kshipra
Vijayvada
India
Krishna
Varanasi
India
Ganga
Vienna
Australia
Danube
Warsaw
Poland
Vistula
Washington D.C. U.S.A.
Potomac
Yangoon
Irrawaddy
Myanmar
General Knowledge Questions
General Knowledge Questions
The general knowledge questions and answers for you to test your knowledge about the current affairs.
Question : Who has been appointed the National Security Adviser by the UPA Government?
Answer : J. N. Daxit
Question : Who is the new Chief Minister of Karnataka?
Dharam Singh
Question : Who among the following has won the Miss Universe 2004 crown?
Answer : Jennifer Hawkins
Question : Which cricketer holds the world record of maximum number of sixes in Tests?
Answer : Chris Carins (New Zealand)
Question : Who has been appointed the new Chief Justice of India?
Answer : Justice R. C. Lahoti
Question : Which sports persons got the honour of lighting the Olympic flame at the Major Dhyan Chand
Stadium in New Delhi recently?
Answer : Anjali Bhagwat
Question : Which planet crossed the face of the sun (in transit) after 122 years recently?
Answer : Venus
Question : Which country was readmitted to the Commonwealth recently?
Answer : Pakistan
Question : Who won the men’s singles title of the French Open 2004?
Answer : Gaston Gaudio
Question : Who is India’s first Woman Grand Master in Chess?
Answer : Koneru Humpy
Question : How can the age of the tree be determined?
Answer : Counting the annual growth rings of its stem
Question : Where is the Lingaraja Temple built during the medieval period?
Answer : Bhubaneswar
Question : Which Delhi Sultans is known for introducing market control mechanism?
Answer : Alauddin Khalji
Question : Which mountain peaks of the Himalayas is NOT in India?
Answer : Annapurna
Question : Who is the author of the book, “The Man Who Divided India”?
Answer : Rafiq Zakaria
General Knowledge Test
General Knowledge Test
The most easiest general knowledge questions answers that can help you test your IQ level.
Question : What country produces Rioja wines?
Answer: Spain
Question : Who was the favourite daughter of Shakespeare’s King Lear?
Answer : Cordelia
Question : Which is the brightest star?
Answer: Sirius
Question : Which star has collapsed into itself? Answer : Black Hole
Question : Which is the heaviest star?
Answer : HDE 269810 IN Magellanic Cloud
Question : Which Australkian city includes the suburbs of Cottesloe and Subiaco? Answer : Perth
Question : Who discovered Oxygen in 1774?
Answer : Joseph Priestly
Question : Name the author of A Town Like Alice
Answer : Nevil Shute
Question : How many Earth years does it take Pluto to orbit the sun?
Answer : 248
Question : What name is given to the central part of a fleshy fruit, containing the seeds?
Answer : The core
Question: What letter appears to the right of Y on a keyboard?
Answer : U
Question : What is it that makes soda water fizz?
Answer : Carbon Dioxide
Question : What disease is the Sabin Vaccine used to prevent?
Answer : Polio
Question : Name the actor grandfather of Drew Barrymore.
Answer : John Barrymore
Question : Who is the female host of the television show, Better Homes and Gardens? Answer : Noni
Hazlehurst
Question: Which comedian once said, “A well-balanced person has a drink in each hand”?
Answer: Billy Connolly
Geographical Sobriquets
Geographical Sobriquets
Geographical Sobriquets
Surname
Name
Bengal’s Sorrow
Damodar River
Blue Mountains
Nilgiri Hills
City of Sky-scrapers
New York
City of Seven Hills
Rome
City of Dreaming Spires
Oxford
City of palaces
Kolkata
City of Golden Gate
San Francisco
City of Magnificent Buildings Washington D.C.
City of Eternal Springs
Quito(S.America)
China’s Sorrow
Hwang Ho
Cockpit of Europe
Belgium
Dark Continent
Africa
Emerald Isle
Ireland
Eternal City
Rome
Empire City
New York
Forbidden City
Lhasa (Tibet)
Garden City
Chicago
Gate of Tears
Strait of Bab-el Mandeb
Gateway of India
Mumbai
Gift of the Nile
Eqypt
Granite City
Aberdeen (Scotland)
Hermit Kingdom
Korea
Herring Pond
Atlantic Ocean
Holy Land
Jerusalem
Island Continent
Australia
Island of Cloves
Zanzibar
Isle of Pearls
Bahrein (Peesian Gulf)
Key of the Mediterranean
Gibralter
Land of Cakes
Scotland
Land of Golden Fleece
Australia
Land of Maple Leaf
Canada
Land of Midnight Sun
Norway
Land of the Thousand Lakes
Finland
Land of the Thunderbolt
Bhutan
Land of white Elephant
Thailand
Land of Five Rivers
Punjab
Land of Thousand Elephants
Laos
Land of Rising Sun
Japan
Loneliest Island
Tristan De Gunha (Mid-Atlantic)
Manchester of Japan
Osaka
Pillars of Hercules
Strait of Gibraltar
Pearl of the Antilles
Cuba
Playground of Europe
Switzerland
Quaker City
Philadelphia
Queen of the Adriatic
Venice
Roof of the World
The Pamirs
Rose Pink City
Jaipur
Sugar bowl of the World
Cuba
Venice of the North
Stockholm
Windy City
Chicago
Whirteman’s grave
Guinea Coast of Africa
Yellow River
Huang Ho (China)
Historical Events
Historical Events
HISTORICAL EVENTS
B.C
2500-1800
Indus valley civilization.
599
Birth of Mahavir; Nirvana in 523. B.C.
563
Birth of Gautam Buddha; Nirvana in 483 B.C.
327-26
Alexander's invasion of India and the opening of land route between India and Europe.
269-232
Ashoka's reign.
261
Battle of Kalinga.
57
Beginning of Vikrama era.
30
Satvahana dynasty in Deooan. Pandyan empire in for south.
326
Alexander defeated Poras in the Battle of Hydaspas
261
Ashoka defeated Kalinga in the Kalinga War
A.D
78
Beginning of Saka era.
320
Beginning of Gupta era.
360
Samudragupta conquers the whole of N. India and much of the Deccan.
380-413
Rule of Chandragupta Vikramaditya, age of Kalidasa, renewal of induism.
606-647
Rule of Harshavardhana.
629-645
Hieun Tsang's visit in India.
622
Beginning of Hijra era.
712
Arab invasion of Sind by Mohd. bin Qasim.
1001-27
Repeated attacks of Mehmud Ghazni.
1025
Sacking of Somnath temple by Mehmud.
1191
First battle of Tarain in which Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Mohd. Ghori.
1192
Second battle of Tarain in which Mohd. Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan.
1206
Qutubuddin Aibak founded the Ilbari/Slave dynasty.
1290
Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji established Khilji dynasty.
1290
Marco Polo visited India.
1320
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq founded the Tughlaq dynasty.
1333
Ibn Batuta arrived in India.
1336
Harihara and Bukka founded the Vijaynagar empire.
1347
Bahmani kingdom founded.
1398
Timur invades India.
1451
Lodi dynasty comes in power in Delhi Sultanate.
1469
Birth of Guru Nanak Dev.
1498
Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut.
1510
Portuguese capture Goa-Albuquerque Governor.
1526
First Battle of Panipat in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and established the Mughal dynasty.
1556
Second battle of Panipat in which Akbar defeated Hemu.
1565
Battle of Talikota in which Vijaynagar empire is defeated.
1571
Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar.
1576
Battle of Haldighati in which Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap.
1582
Akbar started Din-i-llahi.
1600
English East India Company established.
1604
Compilation of Adi Granth.
1605
Death of Akbar.
1611
The English built a factory at Masulipatnam.
1627
Birth of Shivaji
1631
Death of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal. The building of Taj Mahal.
1658
Aurangzeb became Emperor of Delhi.
1666
Birth of Guru Gobind Singh.
1699
Guru Gobind Singh creates 'Khalsa'.
1707
Death of Aurangzeb, fall of Mughal empire begins.
1739
Nadir Shah invaded India; the peacock throne and the Kohinoor Diamond taken away from India.
1757
Battle of Plassey in which the English defeated Siraj-ud- daula, Nawab of Bengal.
1760
Battle of Wandiwash, end of French power in India,
1761
Third Battle of Panipat in which Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.
1764
Battle of Buxar in which the English defeated the triple alliance of Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Nawab Shujaud-daula of Awadh and Mughal emperor Shah Alam.
1793
Permanent settlement in Bengal.
1799
Fourth Anglo Mysore War, death of Tipu Sultan, Ranjit Singh occupied Lahore and made it his capital.
1817-19
Marathas finally crushed.
1828
Lord William Bentick becomes Governor General; Era of social reforms; Prohibition of Sati (1829), Suppression
of thugs (1830).
1835
Introduction of English as medium of instruction.
HISTORICAL EVENTS
A.D
1853
First Indian railway from Bombay to Thane.
1857-58
First war of Indian Independence.
1858
British crown takes over the Indian Government; End of East India Company's rule.
1861
Birth of Rabindra Nath Tagore.
1869
Birth of M.K. Gandhi.
1885
Formation of Indian National Congress.
1905
Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.
1906
Formation of All India Muslim Leagues.
1909
Minto-Morley Reforms.
1911
Delhi durbar held, partition of Bengal cancelled, capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
1914
World War I started.
1918
End of World War I.
1919
Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Montague- Chelmsford reforms.
1920
Non-cooperation Movement launched,
1921
Moplah rebellian in Malabar; visit of Prince of Wales.
1922
Chauri-Chaura incidence.
1923
Swaraj party formed.
1927
Simon Commission appointed.
1928
Visit of Simon Commission to India, death of Lala Lajpat Rai.
1929
Congress demanded'Poorna Swaraj'in Lahore session.
1930
January 26 celebrated as Independence Day throughout India, Dandi Salt Satyagraha, First Round Table
conference.
1931
Gandhi-lrvin Pact, Second Round Table Conference.
1932
Suppression of Congress Movement, Third Round Table Conference, Communal Award, Poona Pact.
1935
Government of India Act.
1937
Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces.
1939
Resignation of Congress ministries, beginning of World War II.
1942
Cripps Mission Plan, Quit India Movement, Formation of Indian National Army by S.C. Bose.
1945
Simla conference held and the failure of Wavell Plan, INA trials at Red Fort, Delhi.
1946
Cabinet Mission Plan, Formation of Interim Government, Direct Action Resolution by Muslim League.
1947
Mountbatten Plan of June 3 in which partition of India resolution is proposed, India divided, Pakistan created,
both achieve independence, Jawarhar Lai Nehru becomes the I Prime Minister of India.
1948
Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (Jan. 30).
1950
India became republic (Jan. 26).
1951
First Five Year Plan implemented.
1952
First General Elections held.
1953
Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hillary conquer Mt. Everest (May 29).
1954
Panchsheel agreement between India and China.
1956
Life insurance nationalized, State Reorganising Act comes into force.
1957
Second General Elections.
1958
Metric system of weights and measures introduced.
1959
Dalai Lama exiled; enters India.
1961
Liberation of Goa.
1962
Chinese attack on India. (Oct 20).
1964
Jawaharlal Nehru dies; Lai Bahadur Shastri becomes PM.
1965
Indo-Pak war.
1966
Tashkent Agreement reached, Death of Lai Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi became PM.
1967
Dr. Zakir Hussain elected President.
1968
Hargovind Khurana shares the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology.
1969
Death of. President Zakir Hussain (May 3). V. V. Giri elected President, Nationalization of 14 leading banks,
Split in Indian National Congress.
1970
Former Indian ruler's privy purses abolished. Dr. C. V. Raman died (Nov. 2).
1971
Indo-Pak War over Bangladesh.
1972
Shimla Agreement signed.
1973
Manekshaw named India's first Field Marshal
1974
Nuclear explosion at Pokhran (May 18).
1975
Indian satellite 'Aryabhatta' launched, National emergency declared.
1976
The four Indian News agencies merged into a single News Agency known as 'Samachar', life of Lok Sabha
extended by an year.
1977
Defeat of Mrs. Indira Gandhi in the election, Morarji Desai takes over as PM, emergency withdrawn.
1978
India launches world's biggest adult literacy plan (Oct. 2).
1979
Charan Singh became PM., Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace Prize.
1980
Indira Gandhi returns to power at centre, India launches first satellite using its own satellite launching vehicle
(July. 18).
HISTORICAL EVENTS
1981
India launched APPLE; Khalistan activists hijack Indian Airlines Boeing 737 to Lahore.
1982
Zail Singh sworn in as President, the 21-member Indian scientific expedition headed by Dr. S. Z. Qasim lands on
Antarctica (Jan. 9), INSAT1 A launched, Ninth Asian Games held in New Delhi.
1983
The 7th Non Aligned Summit in New Delhi, Kalpakkam Atomic Energy plant goes critical (July 2), INSAT-1 B
launched (Aug. 30), Richard Attenborough's "Gandhi" wins 8 oscars.
1984
Rakesh Sharma becomes India's first spaceman (Apr. 5), Bachendri Pal become the first Indian woman to scale
Mt. Everest (May 23), Operation Blue Star, Assassination of Indira Gandhi (Oct 31), Rajiv Gandhi becomes PM,
Bhopal Gas tragedy (Dec. 3).
1985
Anti-defection Bill passed (Jan. 3), Azharuddin hits 3 centuries in 3 tests.
1986
The first wholly Indian test-tube baby bom at KEM Hospital, Bombay (Aug. 7).
1987
Sunil Gavaskar becomes the first batsman to score 10,000 runs in tests (Mar. 7), Goa becomes the 25th state of
India (May 30).
1988
India's first remote sensing satellite IRS 1 -A launched from Russia (Mar. 17), INSAT 1-C launched from French
Guyana (July 22).
1989
Successful test of Agni (May 22), laying of the foundation stone for the Ram Janmabhoomi temple of Ayodhya
(Nov 10). V.P. Singh becomes the PM.
1990
Successful launching of INSAT 1-D (June 12), Mandal Commission recommendation implemented (Aug. 7), V.P.
Singh tenders resignation (Nov. 7), S. Chandrashekhar becomes PM. (Nov. 10).
1991
Rajiv Gandhi killed in a bomb blast (May 21), P. V. Narsimha Rao became PM. (June 21), Earthquake in Uttarkashi
region (Oct. 20), Satyajit Ray got special Oscar award. (Dec.16).
1992
Prithvi test fired (May 5), INSAT-2 A launched (July 10), Dr. Shanker Dayal Sharma became President (July 25),
the domes of Babri Masjid demolished (Dec 6).
1993
Panchayati Raj Act effective (Apr. 24), INSAT-2 B launched from French Guyana (July 23), Earthquake in Latur
region (Sept. 30).
1994
First heart transplant in the country (Aug. 3), PSLV D-2 launched (Oct. 15).
1995
Punjab Chief Minister Beant Singh assassinated (Agu. 31), INSAT-2 C launched (Dec. 7)
1996
A.B. Vajpayee became PM. (May 16), H.D. Deve Gowda became PM. (June 1), India-Bangladesh sign Ganga Water
Pact (Dec. 12)
1997
I. K. Gujral became PM. (Apr. 21), K. R. Narayanan sworn in as President (July 25), Mother Teresa passes away
(Sept. 5), Arundhati Roy wins Booker Prize (Oct. 14), I. K. Gujral resigns as PM. (Nov. 28)
1998
Konkan railway commissioned (Jan. 26), A. B. Vajpayee became PM. (Mar. 19), India conducted total 5 nuclear
tests (May 11 and May 13), Severe cyclone in Gujarat (June 9), Amartya Sen won the Noble Prize in Economics
(Oct. 14)
1999
P.M. Vajpayee arrived in Pakistan by Delhi-Lahore bus (Feb. 20), India successfully launched its first commercial
telecom satellite INSAT-2 E from Kourou (Apr. 3), Intense fighting in Kargil (June-July), Devastating cyclone in
Orissa and A. P. (Oct.)
2000
U. S. President Bill Clinton visited India (Mar.) INSAT-3 B launched from Kourou (Mar. 22), Successful test firing
of 'Dhanush', the naval version of 'Prithvi' missile (Apr. 11), Karnam Malleshwari wins a bronze at Olympics,
Chattisgarh formed (Nov. 1), Uttaranchal formed (Nov. 9), Jharkhand formed (Nov. 15)
2001
The pilotless target aircraft 'Lakshya' inducted into the Indian Air Force (Jan. 5), Severe earthquake in Gujarat
(Ja. 26), the newly-constructed Ennore port dedicated to the nation (Feb. 1), India successfully launches GSLV D1 from Sriharikota (Apr. 18), Indo-Pak summit at Agra (July 15-16), Lok Pal Bill introduced in Lok Sabha (Aug.
14), Attack on WTC, New York shakes the world (Sept. 11), Lok Sabha passes the bill on "Right to Education till
14" (Nov. 30), Terrorist attack on Indian Parliament (Dec. 13)
2002
INSAT-3 C launched on Ariane rocket from Kourou in French Guyana (Jan. 24), ISRO successfully tries the
indegenious cryogenic engine (Feb. 5), POTO passed in the joint session of the Parliament (Mar. 26), LCA test
flown successfully (June 6), Cabinet clears 26% FDI in print media (June 25), Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam elected the
President of India (July 18), Bhairon Singh Shekhawat sworn in as Vice-President of India (Aug. 19), India
launches METSAT by using PSLV-C4 (Sept. 12), Draft of the Tenth Five-Year Plan approved by the Planning
Commission (Oct. 5), BSNL launches mobile phone service (Oct. 15), Vajpayee and Putin sign Delhi declaration
(Dec. 4), Kelkar submitted modified report on tax reforms (Dec. 28)
2003
Kalpana Chawla killed in space shuttle Columbia burnup (Feb. 1); Large reserves of oil & gas discovered in Barmer
district of Rajasthan (Feb. 4); US launched attack on Iraq (Mar. 20); INSAT-3A launched from Kourou (Apr. 10);
Indigenous Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) renamed 'Tejas' (May 4); GSLVD-2 launched from Sriharikota (May 8);
First instance of power failure in modern USA (Aug. 15-16); Mars comes closest to Earth (Aug. 27); Govt.
approves the purchase of Advanced Jet Trainers, Hawk, from Britain (Sept. 3); INSAT-3E launched from Kourou
(Sept. 20); Pope John Paul-ll beautifies Mother Teresa (Oct. 19); First Afro-Asian Games held in Hyderabad (Oct.
24-Nov. 1); India & Pakistan agree to a formal cease-fire along the LOG (Nov. 25); 97th, 98th, 99th & 100th
Constitutional Amendment Bills passed (Dec. 18-23)
2004
Sensex crosses the magical figure of 6000 (Jan. 2); India signs agreement with Russia for obtaining Admiral
Gorshkov (Jan. 20); Delhi High Court clears Rajiv Gandhi from the Bofors deal (Feb. 4); 200 killed in Madrid train
blast (Mar. 11); Nobel Medals of Rabindra Nath Tagore gets stolen from Shantiniketan (Mar. 25); NDA conducts
election before time, but loses unexpectedly, UPA government comes in power, Dr. Manmohan Singh sworn-in as
the new PM (May 22); 87 children killed in a fire in school in Kumbhkonam, Tamil Nadu (July 17); Olympics return
to their homeland Athens, Rajyavardhan Rathode wins a silver for India (Aug. 13-29); Hamid Karzai wins the
Presidential vote in Afghanistan (Oct. 14); Sandalwood King Veerappan is dead (Oct. 18); George W. Bush reelected (Nov. 3); Kanchi Shankaracharya Jayendra Saraswati arrested on murder charges (Nov. 11); Yasser
Arafat is dead (Nov. 11); Parliament dismissses POTA (Dec. 9); Tsunami causes havoc in South and South East
Asia killing more than a lakh (Dec. 26)
Human Body Quiz
Human Body Quiz
1. In 24 hours, An average human heart beats 1,03,689 times.
2. In 24 hours, An average human Lungs respire 23,045 times.
3. In 24 hours, An average human Blood flows 16,80,000 miles.
4. An average human Nails grow 0.00007 inches in every 24 hours, .
5. An average human Hair grows 0.01715 inches in 24 hours, .
6. In 24 hours, An average human Take 2.9 pounds Water (including all liquids).
7. In 24 hours, An average human Take 3.25 pounds FOOD.
8. In 24 hours, An average human Breathe 438 cubic feet AIR.
9. In 24 hours, An average human Lose 85.60, BODY TEMPERATURE.
10. In 24 hours, An average human Produce 1.43 pints SWEAT.
11. In 24 hours, An average human Speak 4,800 WORDS.
12. In 24 hours, An average human During SLEEP move 25.4 times.
13. The fastest human beings run only about 30 kilometres per hour (18 miles per hour).
14. About 10% of the world’s population is left-handed.
15. A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet
16. A human eye blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!
17. The vocabulary of the average person consists of 5,000 to 6,000 words.
18. The average person laughs about 15 times a day
19. Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!
20. Never hold your nose and cover your mouth when sneezing, as it can blow out your eyeballs.
21. People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.
22. Sneezing stops heart beat for a second and then continues.
23. Shape of the backbone is important to have sufficient breathing.
24. Like fingerprints, everyone’s tongue print is different.
Important Days - National and International
Important Days - National and International
Important Days - National and International
Jan 1
Army Medical Corps Establishment Day
Jan 8
African National Congress Foundation Day
Jan 10
World Laughter Day
Jan 11
Death anniversary of Lal Bahadur Shastri
Jan 12
National youth Day (Birth Day of Swami Vivekanand)
Jan 15
Army Day
Jan 23
Netaji Subhashchandra Bose's birth anniversary
Jan 25
International Customs Duty Day, India Tourism Day
Jan 26
Republic Day
Jan 28
Birth anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai
Jan 30
(Martyr's day) Mahatma Gandhi's Martyrdom Day; World Leprosy Eradication Day
Jan 31
World Leprosy Eradication Day
Feb 2
Natinal Day of Srilanka, World Wetlands Day
Feb 5
Kashmir Day (Organised by Pakistan)
Feb 13
Sarojini Naidu's Birth Anniversary
Feb 14
St. Valentine's Day
Feb 24
Central Exise Day
Feb 28
National Science Day
Mar 3
Natinal Defence Day
Mar 4
National Security Day
Mar 8
International Women's Day
Mar 9
CISF Raising Day
Mar 12
Mauritius Day; Central Industrial Security Force Day
Mar 15
World Consumer Day
Mar 16
National Vaccination Day
Mar 19
World Disabled Day
Mar 21
World Forestry Day
Mar 22
World Day of Water
Mar 23
World Meterological Day
Mar 24
World TB Day
Mar 26
Bangaladesh Liberation Day
April 1
Orissa Day
April 5
Natinal Meritime Day
April 7
World Health Day
April 13
Jallianwallah Bagh Massacre Day (1919)
April 14
B.R. Ambedkar Remembrance Day
April 18
World Heritage Day
April 22
World Earth Day
April 23
World Books Day
May 1
International Labour Day, Maharashtra Day
May 3
International Energy Day
May 8
International Red Cross Day (It is celebraed to commemorate the birth anniversary of the founder of the Red
Cross Organization Jean Henry Dunant)
May 11
National Technology Day
May 15
International Family Day
May 17
World Telecom Day
May 24
Commonwealth Day
May 31
World No Tobacco Day
June 5
World Environment Day
June 27
World Diabetes Day
July 1
Doctor's Day
July 4
American Independence Day
July 11
World Population Day
July 26
Kargil Victory Day
Aug 6
Hiroshima Day
Aug 9
Quit India Movement Day
Aug 12
International youth Day
Aug 14
Pakistan's Independence Day
Aug 15
India's Independence Day
Aug 19
World Photography Day
Aug 20
Sadbhavana Diwas
Aug 29
Sports Day (Dhyanchand's Birth Day)
Aug 30
Small Industry Day
Sept 5
Teacher's Day (Dr. Radhakrishnan's Birth Day)
Sept 7
Forgiveness Day
Sept 8
International Literacy Day
Sept 14
Hindi day,World First Aid Day
Sept 16
World Ozone Day
Sept 21
World Alzheimer's day
Sept 25
Social Justice Day
Sept 27
World Tourism Day
Oct 1
International Day for the Elderly(UN)
Oct 2
Gandhi Jayanti
Oct 3
World Nature Day
Oct 4
World Animal Day
Oct 5
World Habital Day; World Teacher's Day
Oct 6
World Wildlife Day
Oct 8
Indian Airforce day
Oct 9
World Postal Day
Oct 10
World Mental Health day; National Post Day
Oct 12
World Sight day
Oct 13
World Calamty Control Day(UN)
Oct 14
World Standard Day
Oct 15
World White cane day(guiding the blind)
Oct 17
International poverty
Oct 20
National Solidarity Day (China attacked India on that day)
Oct 24
United Nations Day
Oct 30
World Thrift Day
Oct 31
National Integration Day (In memory of Idira Gandhi)
Nov 7
Infant Protection day; World Cancer Awareness Day
Nov 9
Pravasiya Bharatiya Divas/ Legal Service Day
Nov 10
Transport Day
Nov 14
Children's day/ World Diabetics day
Nov 17
Guru Nanak Dev's Birth Anniverrsary
Nov 26
Law Day
Nov 30
Flag Day
Dec1
World AIDS Day
Dec 4
Navy Day
Dec 7
Armed Force Flag Day
Dec 10
Human Rights day
Dec 11
UNICEF Day
Dec 14
National Energy Conservation Day
Dec 19
Goa's Liberation day
Dec 23
Kisan Divas (Farmer's Day)
India History Quiz
India History Quiz
1. Hinduism is an ancient religion of India and the oldest religion in the world.
2. Hindus regard the Vedas which was composed around 1500 B.C. as central to the Hindu tradition.
3. Hinduism is like an ocean of the combined knowledge of various rishis, sages, and saints. It was they
who gave the religion the depth and complexity for which it is known today
4. Hinduism is a way of life, there is no fixed name for Hinduism; some call it Sanatana Dharma, some call
it Bhagawat Dharma, etc. There was no name “Hindu” in old scriptures but later invaders of India
named people here as Hindu because they used to live on the banks of the river Sindhu.
5. Hinduism is broken into four key denominations, which are Saivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism, as well as
Smartism.
6. The Vedas Meaning “knowledge” in Sanskrit, the Vedas is the oldest and most authoritative texts of
Hinduism. Composed around 1500 B.C.E., they are among the world’s oldest surviving.
7. Vedas consist of four parts. The Rig Veda contains verses of praise to the gods; the Yajur Veda
discusses the requirements of ritual offerings; the Sama Veda, verses and chants for ritual offerings, and
Atharva Veda, magical verses.
8. The Upanishads Among the principal texts of the Hindu tradition, the Upanishads are metaphysical
treatises that are concerned with the origin and destiny of humanity and the universe.
9. The Hinduism calls for the belief in one Supreme Being, who stands for both the creator, as well as a
reality.
10. Karma, which stands for the cause and effect of an individual’s choices and destiny, is another main
belief of Hinduism. The thoughts, actions and words of an individual can affect their karma.
11. Ongoing cycles of Creation, Preservation and Dissolution within the universe are a main belief of
Hinduism.
12. Hindus believe that the soul can be reincarnated, undergoing a cycle of rebirth. Hindus believe that a
soul is able to undergo numerous lifetimes within a physical body. All of the past lives that you have
led, contribute to the person you are today.
13. The Bhagavad-Gita A section of the immense epic known as the Mahabharata, believed to be about
2000 years old, it is set on the field of the climactic battle of the Mahabharata.
14. The Puranas The name purana means “ancient and these eighteen texts are a compendium of legends
and histories dating from the fourth century B.C.E. to 1000 C.E. They address the creation of the
universe, its destruction and renovation, the genealogy of gods and patriarchs, and the reigns of ancient
rulers.
15. The science of Ayurveda, and the science of Yoga, was inspired and developed by the great masters and
seers of ancient India. The origin of Ayurveda and Yoga are common to play a highly complimentary
role in spiritual evolution and the maintenance of physical well-being and vitality.
16. There are three paths according to hindu believes, karmamarga – path of works and action, jnanamarga –
path of knowledge or philosophy, bhaktimarga – path of devotion to God
17. Hindu believes There are four stages of life brahmacharga – school years – grow and learn, grhastha –
marriage, family and career, vanaprastha – turn attention to spiritual things, sanrgasu – abandon world to
seek spiritual things
18. The seven sacred cities of hindus are Ayodhya, Mathura, Gaya (Bodhgaya), Kasi (Varanasi, Benares),
Kanci, Avantika (Ujjain), Dvaraka
19. The ten commitments in hindu dharma is Ahimsa – do no harm, Satya – do not lie, Asteya – do not steal,
Brahmacharya – do not overindulge, Aparigraha – do not be greedy, Saucha – be clean, Santosha – be
content, Tapas – be self-disciplined, Svadhyaya – study, Ishvara Pranidhana – surrender to God
20. India, along the ages, came to be home for every religion of the world. So, despite being essentially a
Hindu nation, it embraced Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, as well as gave rise to off shoots of Hinduism.
21. In the history the beginning of one of the richest civilisation of the world dates back to the 3200-1600
BC of Indus Valley Civilization.
22. The name `India’ is derived from the Indus River civilisation known as the sindhu valleys which were
the home of the earlier inhabitents of Indus valley.
23. Aryan Invaded India 1600-1500 BC, India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history.
The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.
24. India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history.
25. India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta.
26. The name `Hindustan’ combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
27. Sanskrit is considered as the mother of all higher languages. This is because it is the most precise, and
therefore suitable language for computer software.
28. Chess was invented in India.
29. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies which originated in India.
30. The’ place value system’ and the ‘decimal system’ were developed in 100 BC in India.
31. The first six Mogul Emperor’s of India ruled in an unbroken succession from father to son for two
hundred years, from 1526 to 1707.
32. The World’s First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara temple at Tanjavur in Tamil Nadu. The shikhara
is made from a single ‘ 80-tonne ‘ piece of granite and built in just 5 years.
33. India is the Largest democracy in the world, the 6th largest country in the world AND one of the most
ancient and living civilizations of at least 10, 000 years old.
34. The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally
called ‘Mokshapat.’ The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The
game was played with cowrie shells and dices.
35. The world’s highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after levelling a hilltop,
this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.
36. India has the most post offices in the world.
37. The largest employer in the world is the Indian railway system, employing over a million people.
38. The World’s first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all
over the world studied more than 60 subjects.
39. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India
in the field of education.
40. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The father of medicine, Charaka,
consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.
41. India was one of the richest countries till the time of British in the early 17th Century.
42. The art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh 6000 over years ago. The very word
‘Navigation’ is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from the
Sanskrit word ‘Nou’.
43. Christopher Columbus was attracted by India’s wealth and was looking for route to India when he
discovered America by mistake.
44. Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before
the astronomer Smart. His calculation in 5th century was the time taken by earth to orbit the sun was
365.258756484 days.
45. The value of “pi” was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana in the 6th century, and he
explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem.
46. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus also orignated from India.
47. Quadratic equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.
48. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as
10*53 (i.e 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C. during the Vedic period.
Even today, the largest used number is Tera: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).
49. India was the only source for diamonds to the world untill 1896
50. The Baily Bridge built by the Indian Army in August 1982 is the highest bridge in the world located in
the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan Mountains.
51. Sushruta is regarded as the father of surgery. Over 2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted
complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones and also plastic
surgery and brain surgeries.
52. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy,
embryology, digestion, metabolism, physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many
ancient Indian texts.
53. India celebrates the birthday of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, former President and Vice-President and
great statesman, as “Teachers’ Day”.
Indian Independence Quiz
Indian Independence Quiz
1. In history of Indian freedom struggle, one needs to first look into the events that led to the need for
struggle in the first place. And this dates back to the time the Europeans laid foot on Indian shores. The
British came to India to make her a colony.
2. From 1757, they won almost every battle against the Indian rulers. They sent back to England a lot of
the nation’s wealth. This was leading to immense anger amongst patriots.
3. In 1757 the British defeat Siraj-ud-Daulah at the battle of Plassey.
4. In 1760 the British defeat the French at the battle of Wandiwash.
5. In 1764 the British defeat Mir Kasim at the battle Buxar.
6. In 1765 the British bring the Diwani Rights into Bengal, Orissa and Bihar.
7. In 1767-1769 the British enter into a humiliating peace pact with the ruler of Mysore – Hyder Ali.
8. In 1772 Warren Hastings is appointed to the post Governor of Bengal.
9. In 1773 the British Parliament passes the Regulating Act.
10. In 1774 Warren Hastings is made the Governor-General.
11. In 1775 they defeat the king of Mysore – Hyder Ali.
12. In 1784 the Pitts India Act is introduced.
13. In 1799 the British defeat Tipu Sultan
14. In 1803-1805 the British defeat the Marathas.
15. From 1817 to 1819 the Maratha rule is completely crushed by the British.
16. In 1831 the east India Company takes overpowers the Raja of Mysore.
17. In 1833 the Company’s trading rights is abolished.
18. In 1848 lord Dalhousie appointed to the post of Governor-General.
19. Finally after 100 years later, in 1857 a number of Indians rose up and revolted. This angry outburst that
has never before or after been witnessed by India became an important chapter in history books.
20. March 29, 1857 is considered is the day when Mangal Pandey reaped the seed for a struggle which gave
India its first freedom struggle.
21. In 1857 the Sepoy Mutiny, which was the first battle for Indian Independence.
22. This has been termed as ‘The Revolt of 1857′, ‘Sepoy Movement’ and the ‘First War of Independence’.
23. In 1858 the Indian Government is taken over by the British Crown.
24. In 1861 introduction of the Indian Councils Act, Indian High Courts Act and the Penal Code.
25. In 1877 the Queen of England is introduced as Empress of India.
26. In 1885 the first formal meeting of the Indian National congress was held.
27. In 1899 lord Curzon is appointed as Governor-General, as well as Viceroy.
28. In 1906 the Muslim League was formed for the seperate representatives of Muslims and congress makes
the declaration for Swaraj.
29. In 1908 the Newspaper Paper Act was introduced.
30. In 1912 the capital of the imperial was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
31. In 1919 massacre at Jalianwalla Bagh happen where in a peaceful public gathering General O Dwyer
Opened fire and killed hubndreds of innocent men, women and children.
32. In 1921 Mahatma Gandhi takes over leadership of Congress; beginning of the Non-co-operation
Movement.
33. In 1922 the Civil Disobedience Movement was launched
34. In 1923 the salt tax is certified.
35. 1927: The Simon Commission was appointed and in 1928 the Simon Commission arrives in India and is
boycotted all the Indian parties.
36. On March 23, 1931 Bhagat Singh threw a fake bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly to ignite the
feeling of patritism in every single India. On April 18, 1929 without any proper hearing he was
sentenced to death.
37. In 1929: Lord Irwin promises to provide Dominion status for the nation; the National flag of India is
hoisted by Jawaharlal Nehru in Lahore.
38. In 1930 Salt Satygraha, which took the form of the Dandi March began.
39. In 1931 the pact between Irwin and Gandhi; as well as the Second Round Table Conference. In 1932 the
third Round Table Conference commenced.
40. In 1935 introduction of the Government of India Act launched.
41. In 1942 congress brings to the fore Quit India resolution.
42. On October 21, 1943, Subash Chandra Bose declared the formation of Azad Hind Government and
hosted the Indian National Flag in Kohima, Assam on March 18, 1944.
43. In 3rd June 1947 Lord Mountbatten announces his plan for partition of India. Although he was not
aware of the geography of the India, the Britishers wanted to divide India as sooner as possible to
strethen their future appearce in the subcontinent.
44. In 15th August India got its hard earned Independence but unfortunately due to the gridiness of the
politicians and Britishers it was divided as India and Pakistan.
45. Pt. Jawaherlala Nehru Became the first prime minister of India, in Pakistan Mohammed Ali Jinnah
Decorated as the founder of Pakistan.
Indian Presidents
Indian Presidents
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad
India’s first president after independence was dr. Rajendra Prasad born on december 3, 1884 in the Saran
district of North Bihar. Prasad spent his childhood listening to tales from the Ramayana, and the epic had a
profound influence on his life. He was a brilliant student, he studied in the Presidency College, Calcutta, and
topped in Master of Arts and Master of Law at the Calcutta University.
He joined the Indian National Congress while practicing Law in Calcutta in 1911. Even though he made his
mark as a lawyer, he was deeply influenced by Gandhi, and plunged himself into the freedom struggle. He twice
became the president of the Congress in 1934 and 1939.
Prasad emerged as the only choice for presidency after the country became a Republic in 1950. When it came to
relinquishing office in 1962, after being the First Citizen of India for 12 long years from January 26, 1950 to
May 13, 1962, Dr. Prasad did not bat an eyelid, despite persuasions from all quarters. The nation befittingly
awarded him with a Bharat Ratna. He was passed on February 28, 1963.
2. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
The Second President Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan born on September 5, 1888 in a middle class Hindu family
in Tirutani in the then Madras State. He best known as a philosopher, statesman, writer, educationist, humanist
and administrator, despite being orthodox, his parents had a vision for their son and sent him to Christain
missionary schools and colleges, such as Lutheran Mission School, Tirupati; Vellore College, Vellore; and
Madras Christian College.
He took up Philosophy at the graduation level in Madras University and went on to master the subject.
Throughout his glorious career, Radhakrishnan held numerous important academic, cultural and political posts,
both in India and abroad, such as Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University, Spaulding Professor of Eastern
Religion and Ethics, Oxford University, Leader of the Indian Delegation to UNESCO, Ambassador-Extraord
inary and Minister-Plenipoten tiary to the U.S.S.R., etc.
Dr. Radhakrishnan became the President after Dr. Rajendra Prasad, his presidency period starts from May 13,
1962 to May 13, 1967. His birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day throughout India he passed on April 17,
1975.
3. Dr. Zakir Hussain
Third President an educator, Dr. Zakir Hussain was born in Hyderabad on February 8, 1897. He studied at Islam
High School, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, and later at the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College (now known as
Aligarh Muslim University).
He founded the Jamia Millia Islamia University in Delhi. He held several posts as Chairman, Central Board of
Secondary Education, a member of the University Grants Commission and a member of the University
Education Commission. Hussain served as the Vice-President from 1962 to 1967 and then went on to grace
Rashtrapati Bhavan as the third President. The first President to die while in office on may 3, 1969, he was
awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1954 and the Bharat Ratna in 1963.
4. Varahagiri Venkata Giri
Fourth President Varahagiri Venkata Giri was a prolific writer and a good orator, he was born in Berhampur in
the Ganjam district(then a part of the Madras Presidency) of Orissa on August 10, 1894.
A Telegu by birth, he went to the University of Dublin, Ireland, for higher studies. He soon got absorbed into
the freedom struggle in Ireland. While taking active participation in the freedom movement, Giri joined the
Indian National Congress and mobilised the trade unions in support of the freedom struggle. He was elected to
the Parliament in 1952. Thereafter, Giri served as Governor of Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Mysore from 1957 to
1967. He became the Vice-President in 1967. Giri had to officiate as President Dr. Zakir Hussain passed away
while in office. He was finally elected the President in 1969. Giri received the Bharat Ratna in 1975.
5. Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
The Fifth President Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed man of many abilities, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was born on May
13, 1905 in the Hauz Qazi area of Old Delhi. He received his primary education from Bonda Government High
School, Uttar Pradesh, and did his matriculation from the Delhi Government High School, then under the
Punjab University. Later, he joined the Catherine College, Cambridge University, and was called to the Bar
from Inner Temple of London. Ahmed joined the Indian National Congress in 1931 and took active part in the
freedom struggle. He became part of the Central Cabinet after Independence and held important portfolios. He
could not complete his term due to a fatal heart attack on February 11, 1977.
6. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
India’s sixth President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was born in the Anantpur district of Andhra Pradesh on May 18,
1913. After completing his primary education at Theosophical High School at Adyar in Madras, Reddy went to
Government’s Arts College at Anantpur for higher studies. He plunged into the freedom movement in 1931,
participating in various nationalist activities.
Reddy became the chief minister of the then newly-formed state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, and later from
1962 to 1964. He served in the cabinet of Prime ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi. Twice elected
as the Lok Sabha Speaker (1967 and 1977), Reddy became the President in 1977 after winning the elections
hands down as an unopposed candidate.
7. Giani Zail Singh
Giani Zail Singh a man of the masses and the only Sikh President of India till date, Zail Singh was born on May
5, 1916 in an agricultural family in village Sandhwan in the then Faridkot State. Hailing from a humble
background, Singh showed remarkable acumen in mastering Sikh history and its scriptures. He acquired the
epithet of ‘Giani’ because of his scholarly abilities.
After leading the fight against feudalism and participating actively in the freedom movement in Punjab, Singh
went on to become the chief minister of the state in 1972. Punjab enjoyed unprecedented peace and prosperity
under his leadership. He became home minister in Indira Gandhi cabinet in 1980, he utilised his administrative
skills to solve many problems that stared in the face of the nation. He was elected to the highest office of India
in 1982.
8. Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Eighth President, Ramaswamy Venkataraman was born in village Rajamadam in the Thanjavur district of Tamil
Nadu on December 4, 1910. He did his Masters in Economics from Madras University and Law from Law
College, Madras. As a practicing lawyer, he became involved with the Quit India Movement in 1942.
Venkataraman was a member of the Constituent Assembly that drafted India`s Constitution. After India became
a Republic, he was elected to the Parliament in 1952. He was Governor, International Monetary Fund,
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Asian Development Bank. He was elected
Vice-President of India in 1984 and became the President in 1987.
9. Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
The Ninth President Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma was born in Bhopal on August 19, 1918, Madhya Pradesh, and
studied in St. John’s College, Agra; Allahabad University; Lucknow University; Fitzwilliam College,
Cambridge University; Lincoln’s Inn, London and Harvard Law School, USA.
He taught Law at Cambridge University in 1946-47. While in Britain, Sharma took active interest in India’s
struggle for Independence, and later joined the Indian National Congress. After India became a Republic,
Sharma took over as the Chief Minister of Bhopal in 1952 before the state of Madhya Pradesh was formed. He
also occupied the posts of the Governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra. Sharma was elected the
Vice-President in 1987 and eventually the country’s President in 1992. He is credited to have sworn in three
prime ministers.
10. Kocheril Raman Narayanan
The tenth president Kocheril Raman Narayanan was a scholar and a writer, Narayanan was born in village
Uzhavoor in Kottayam district of Kerala on October 27, 1920. He did his Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts in
English Literature from Travancore University, and later went on to study at the London School of Economics.
Narayanan joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1949 and served in Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Canberra and
Hanoi. He was India’s Ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China, and eventually became Secretary in the
Ministry of External Affairs in 1976. He was India’s Ambassador to the United States from 1980 to 1984.
Elected to the post of Vice-President in 1992, Narayanan became the President in 1997. He was also the first
President to cast his vote in the 1998 General Elections. He passed away on November 9, 2005.
11. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
One of the most distinguished scientists of India, Abdul Kalam is known as the Missile Man of India. He was
born at Rameswaram, in Tamil Nadu on October 15, 1931, and studied Aeronautical Engineering at the Madras
Institute of Technology.
Kalam developed India`s first Satellite Launch Vehicle. He also developed and enabled operationalisation of
Agni and Prithvi missiles. It was largely because of his efforts that India became a nuclear weapons country.
Befittingly, he has been bestowed with all the three civilian honours of the Nation. The 11th President is also
credited with many firsts to his credit. He is the first President to be awarded the Bharat Ratna before he
occupied Rashtrapati Bhavan, the first scientist to become the President and the first bachelor to be elected to
the highest office of the land. He created history by flying the Sukhoi 30.
12. Smt. Pratibha Patil
The 12th and current president of india, she is the first indian women appointed at the top post of the indian
constituency.
Indian Presidents
President of India
The president of India is the executive head of State and First Citizen of India. The executive powers vested in the
President are to be exercised on the advice of the council of Ministers responsible to the parliament. The 42nd amendment
to the Constitution has made it obligatory on the part of the President to accept the advice of the Council of Ministers.
Election Process
The president of India indirectly elected through "Electoral College" consisting of Elected members of both the Houses of
Parliament & elected members of the Legisletive Assemblies of the states. According to the 70th Amendment Act, 1992,
the expression "States" inckudes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry. The total
voting strength of the parliament is equal to the total voting strength of all state asemblies together. The Supreme Court
of India inquires all disputes regarding President's election. After electing the president takes OATH in presence of Chief
Justice of India, or in absence of Chief Justice, senior most judge of SC.
In case the office falls vacant due to the death, resignation or removal, the Vice-President acts as President. If he is not
available then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, if not then senior most judge of the Supreme Court shall act as the
Persident of India. The election is to be held within 6 month of the vacancy.
In Presidential elections history V. V. Giri is the only person who won the election as an independent
candidate in 1969. And Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was elected unopposed as no one else filed nomination for
the post of the President in 1977.
Elegibility to Contest Election for the President
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He/She must be a citizen of India.
Completed 35 yrs of age
Eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha
Must not hold any Govt. Post. except (President, Vice-President, Govornor of any State, Minister of Union or State)
Working Terms
An elected president is elegible to hold his/her office for the 5yrs term. And as per the Article 57 there is no upper limit on
the no. of times a person can become President. He/She can give resigation to Vice President before his/her full term.
Impeachment (Article 61)
The President can be impeached only on the ground of violation of Constitution (This impeachment procedure called
Quasi-judicial procedure). The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either House of the Parliament. The charge
must come in the form of a proposal which must be signed at least one-fourth of the total membership of that house.
Before the resolution could be passed, a fourteen days notice must be given to the President. If after the notice, the House
passes the resolution by a majority of not less than two-third membership of that House, the matter will be referred to the
other House. After the charges are framed by one house, the other House investigates them. At this time President has
the right to defend himself either in person or through his lawyer. If after the investigation, the other house passes the
resolution by not less than two-third majority of that House, the President stands impeached from his office from the date
on which the motion is so passed.
Powers of President
Executive Power

Appoints PM, ministers, Chief Justice and judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, chairman and members of
UPSC, Comptroller and Auditor General, Attorney General, Chief Election Comissioner and other members of
Election Commission, Governors, Members of Finance Commission, Ambassadors etc.

He/ She directly administers the Union Territories through the Lt. Governor, Commissioner or Administrator.
Judicial Power

The President's pardoninf power comprises a group of analogous powers like pardon, reprieve, remission, respite
and communication.

Appoint the Chief Justice and judges of Supreme Court and High Court
Diplomatic Power



Represents country in international forums.
Sends ambassadors and receives diplomats.
International treaties and agreements are concluded on his behalf.
Financial Power

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All money bills can originate in Parliament only on recommendadation of President.
No demand for a grant can be made except on his recommendation.
He/She can make advances out of the Contingency Fund of India to meet any unforseen expenditure.
Appoints Finance Commission (after every 5yrs) that recommends distribution of taxes between Union and State
Govts.
Military Power

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He is the Supreme Commander of the Defense Forces in India.
Appoints Chiefs of Army, Navy and Air Force.
Declares wars and concludes peace subject to the approval of the Parliament.
Emergency Power

The President can promulgate 3 types of Emergencies: (i)National Emergency (Article 352), (ii)State Emergency
(President Rule Article 356), (iii)Financial Emergency
Legislative Powers
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Addresses the first session after general elections and at the commencement of the first session of each year.
Can send messages to both the Houses, whether with respect to a Bill pending in the Parliament or otherwise.
Can summon and prorogue the sessions of the 2 houses & can dissolve Lok Sabha..
Can address both the houses jointly or separately.
He/She can appoint any member of the Lok Sabha to preside over its procedings when both the offices of Speaker
and the Deputy Speaker fall vacant simultaneously.
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Nominate 12 members of Rajya Sabha.
Nominates 2 members of Anglo-Indian community in Lok Sabha if they haven't recieved adequate representation.
Can enact laws through ordinance when the parliament is in recess (Article 123). These ordinances must be
passed by parliament within 6 weeks of reassembly.

His/Her prior recommendation or permission is needed to introduce certain types of Bills boundaries of a State, a
Money Bill etc.
Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil (25 July 2007 - till date)
DR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (25 July 2002 TO 25 July 2007)
Shri K. R. Narayanan (25 July 1997 TO 25 July 2002)
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma (25 July 1992 TO 25 July 1997)
Shri R
Venkataraman (25 July 1987 TO 25 July 1992)
Giani Zail Singh (25 July 1982 TO 25 July 1987)
Shri
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (25 July 1977 TO 25 July 1982)
Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (24 August 1974 TO 11 February 1977)
Shri
Varahagiri Venkata Giri (3 May 1969 TO 20 July 1969 and 24 August 1969
TO 24 August 1974)
Dr. Zakir Husain (13 May 1967 TO 3 May 1969)
Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (13 May 1962 TO 13 May 1967)
Dr. Rajendra Prasad (26 January 1950 TO 13 May 1962)
Long before the Gandhian era had set in, there was born on 3 December, 1884, in an obscure village
in
the
Saran district of North Bihar, Rajendra Prasad, whose life was to be an embodiment of the Gandhian
principles. He was to Gandhiji, to quote Sarojini Naidu, what John was to Christ. Jawaharlal called him
the symbol of Bharat and found "truth looking at you through those eyes". As early as 1922, C.R. Das, the President of the
Gaya session of the Indian National Congress, remarked, trial "At the moment Rajendra Prasad appears to be the sole
excuse for a further honest trial of Gandhism to solve a political problem". When this view was reported to Motilal Nehru in
January 1923, his reaction was almost identical: "Das is certainly correct. We have given a fair trial to Gandhism for over
two years. It seems to me that the only good result it has yielded - I do not say it will not yield better or more results - is
Babu Rajendra Prasad". Four year later Vithalbhai Patel remarked, "The one argument against the discontinuance of the
Gandhian cult is Rajendra Prasad". Gandhiji himself once said of him : "There is at least one man who would not hesitate
to take the cup of poison from my hands". No wonder Gunther called him the heart of the Congress organization. Another
publicist wrote that Mahatma Gandhi with his uncanny insight picked out and groomed three of his colleagues for
important roles in national life. In Jawaharlal he saw the dynamism of youth that never ages and a soaring idealism intent
on a synthesis of ethical values and socio-economic objectives of modern revolutions. In Sardar he saw the great
pragmatist and the man of iron will who knew how to get things done. In Rajendra Prasad he saw a great deal of himself.
Rajendra Prasad's great uncle, Chaudhur Lal, built fortunes of the family, a zamindari income of Rs.7,000/- per year and
substantial farm lands. He was the Dewan of the Hathwa Raj, highly respected by all, honest, loyal and efficient. Rajendra
Prasad's father, Mahadev Sahay, was a country gentleman, a scholar of Persian and Sanskrit. His hobbies were wrestling
and horticulture and he took delight in providing free Ayurvedic and Unani treatment to patients who flocked to him.
Rajendra Prasad's mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was a devout lady who would not give up her evening bath and Pooja even
though plagued by a cough which eventually proved fatal. Every day she would tell stories from the Ramayana to young
Rajendra, as he huddled close to her, eager and receptive, waiting for the light of dawn to peep into the windowless
bedroom of the old-fashioned house. No wonder the Ramayana by Tulsidas became his constant companion, though he
loved to browse occasionally on the Upanishads and other scriptures also. The family shunned ostentations, lived simply
and mixed freely with the co-villagers. Disparities were not irritating. There was a sense of community, fellow-feeling and
kindliness. All shared in the festivals and the Poojas. The flow of village life was quiet and gentle. All this left a deep
impression on young Rajendra's mind. The village came to symbolize peace and repose.
At the age of five young Rajendra was, according to the practice in the community to which he belonged, put under a
Maulavi who taught him Persian. Later, he was taught Hindi and arithmetic. After the completion of this traditional
education he was put in the Chapra Zilla School, from which he moved to R.K. Ghosh's Academy in Patna in order to be
with his only brother, Mahendra Prasad, who was eight years older than him and who had joined the Patna College. When
Mahendra Prasad moved to Calcutta in 1897, Rajendra was admitted into the Hathwa High School. Soon he rejoined the
Chapra Zilla School, from where he passed the Entrance examination of the Calcutta University at the age of eighteen, in
1902, standing first in the first division. When it is remembered that the educational jurisdiction of the Calcutta University
extended from Sadiya, the easternmost frontier of British India, to a little beyond Peshawar on the north-west, the feat
appears truly remarkable. He had been married for five years at that time. His wife Rajbanshi Devi was a true-to-tradition
Hindu lady, merging her identity totally in that of the husband.
After passing the Entrance examination Rajendra Prasad joined the Presidency College, Calcutta, and both brothers lived
together for a time in room of the Eden Hindu Hostel. A plaque still commemorates his stay, for practically the whole of his
University career, in that room. Not many from Bihar had joined that metropolitan institution. But, before long, Rajendra
Prasad gained immense popularity. This was demonstrated in a remarkable early moment in 1904 when as a Third year
student he won in the first annual election for the post of Secretary of the College Union against a senior student
belonging to a rich aristocratic family of Calcutta. Those were days when junior students did not speak to their seniors
unless spoken to. Rajendra Prasad had, moreover, neither sought nor worked for the post. Dr. P.K. Roy, the Principal, in
whose presence the election had taken place by show of hands, was astounded by the result, more than a thousand
against seven, and enquired as to what made Rajendra Prasad so popular. The great scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose and
the highly respected P.C. Ray wanted him to offer Science, but he preferred Arts, for though he had topped in I.A. he had
not topped in the Science subjects. While his remarkable distinguished academic career continued and he capped it with a
First in the M.A. and a First in Master of Law, other ideas occupied his mind and heart. He had been initiated into the cult
of 'Swadeshi' by his elder brother, even before his arrival in Calcutta. Now he joined, while in B.A. (Hons.) Class, the Dawn
Society run by Satish Chandra Mukherjee, Sister Nivedita, Surendranath Banerjee and many other luminaries gave
discourses here. There were debating and essay-writing competitions and he bagged many of the prizes. A new awareness
was dawning on him. The anti-partition agitation stirred him. The processions, the slogans, the speeches touched new
chords. He collected the Bihari students in Calcutta and they conducted activities similar to those conducted by the Dawn
Society. The formation of the Bihari Students' Conference followed in 1908. It was the first organization of its kind in the
whole of India. It not only led to an awakening, it nurtured and produced practically the entire political leadership of the
twenties in Bihar.
At the time he set himself up as a legal practitioner in Calcutta in 1911, apprenticed to Khan Bahadur Shamsul Huda, he
also joined the Indian National Congress and was elected to the A.I.C.C. A year earlier, he impressed Sir Asutosh
Mukherjee so deeply that the latter offered him a Lectureship in the Presidency Law College. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the
greatest political leader of India in those days, had met him in Calcutta a year earlier and had exhorted him to join the
Servants of India Society in Poona. Due to lack of good management the family estate was in bad shape and Rajendra
Prasad was looked upon as the retriever. But had had no doubts about what he should do. Though he could not bring
himself to have a straight talk with Mahendra Prasad, his elder brother, he sought his permission and blessing to join
Gokhale through a letter in which he gave vent to his innermost thoughts. "Ambitions I have none," he had concluded,
"except to be of some service to the Motherland". The shock and the anguish of his brother, however, held him to the
family. About that time his mother died and his only sister Bhagwati Devi, fifteen years older than him, returned to her
parents' home, a widow at nineteen, and in a way, took the place of his mother. In 1916 Rajendra Prasad shifted to Patna
on the establishment of the High Court of Bihar and Orissa. Soon, he succeeded in gaining a marked ascendancy, not only
over the clients and his colleagues at the Bar, but even more so on the Judges. His incisive intellect and phenomenal
memory were no doubt great assets, but what really established his supremacy, over the minds of the judges in particular,
was his innate integrity and purity of character, his inability to stoop to any tactics to score a point, to win a case. Often
enough when his adversary failed to cite a precedent, the Judges asked Rajendra Prasad to cite a precedent against him.
Rajendra Prasad had first seen Gandhiji at a meeting held in Calcutta in 1915 to honour him. He was called 'Karmavir
Gandhi' in those days. In the December 1916 session of the Congress, held at Lucknow, he again saw Gandhiji. He knew
that the Champaran Kisan leader Rajkumar Shukla and Braj Kishore Prasad had requested Gandhiji to pay a visit to
Champaran. The session had also adopted a resolution on the Champaran situation. In the April 1917, A.I.C.C. session,
held in Calcutta, Gandhiji and Rajendra Prasad sat very close to each other but he did not know that Gandhiji was to be
taken to his residence in Patna on his way to Champaran. He, therefore, left for Puri when the session ended. When
Gandhiji reached Rajendra Prasad's residence in Patna next morning, the servant took him to be a client and a villager and
showed him the servant's bathroom and the well outside. Barefooted, clad in half achkan, dhoti and Kathiawadi purgree,
carrying in a roll his bedding and a few dhotis and some food in a tin box, Gandhiji looked very much an illiterate villager.
Gandhiji did not know what to do next, when; hearing of his arrival, Mazharul Haq came and took him to his palatial
residence, Sikander Manzil. There was a similar situation at Muzaffarpur Junction Station where Acharya Kripalani, a
Professor in the local College, had come to receive Gandhiji with a large number of students. None had seen Gandhiji.
None recognized him.
On return to Patna Rajendra Babu learnt all that had happened and hastened to Motihari. He regarded his meeting with
Gandhiji as the turning point in his career. He stayed with Gandhiji till his trial was over. Thereafter, things in the country
took a different course, by reason of the Rowlatt Act and the Punjab upheaval, and in 1920, even before the civil
disobedience and non-cooperation resolution of the special session of the Congress held in Calcutta in September had been
confirmed by the regular session held in December at Nagpur, he took the plunge. He openly pledged himself to defy
unrighteous laws, and resort to civil disobedience and non-cooperation and thus he constituted himself more or less as an
outlaw in the eyes of the British Government in India. The decades that followed were years of intense activity and heavy
suffering. He ceased to be a Senator of the University to the regret of the British Vice-Chancellor. He withdrew his sons,
Mrityunjaya and Dhanajjaya, and his nephew, Janardan from the Benares Hindu University and other schools. He wrote
articles for Searchlight and the Desh and collected funds for these papers. He toured a lot, explaining, lecturing, exhorting.
He was the life-breath of the constructive programme and a great votary of Khadi. He was the first leading political figure
in the Eastern Provinces to join forces with Gandhiji at a time when the latter was without a large and effective following.
Another such leader from the West who joined Gandhiji was Vallabhbhai Patel. During the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha
Rajendra Babu and Vallabhbhai came closer. Rajendra Babu cherished Sardar's friendship as one of the most pleasant
memories of his life. He often went to Sabarmati and toured the country with Gandhiji. He suffered several terms of
rigorous imprisonment. He suffered privations for want of a regular income of his own. All the while he suffered from
asthma. He would not accept any financial assistance from the Congress or from any other source and depended mostly
on his elder brother.
He was in jail when on 15 January, 1934 the devastating earthquake in Bihar occurred. He was released two days later.
Though ailing, he set himself immediately to the task of raising funds and organizing relief. The Viceroy also raised a fund
for the purpose. While his fund swelled to over 38 lakhs, the Viceroy's fund, despite his great influence, resources and
prestige, remained at one third of the amount. The way relief was organized left nothing to be desired. Nationalist India
expressed its admiration by electing him to the President of the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress.
Mahendra Prasad, his elder brother, had died. The Congress through a resolution remembered his social services and his
devotion to the national cause. When the Congress Ministries were formed in 1937, it was the Parliamentary Board
consisting of Sardar Patel, Rajendra Babu and Maulana Azad, which really and effectively provided guidance and control.
In 1939 when Subhas Chandra Bose had to be relieved of the office of the Congress President, it was Rajendra Prasad who
was persuaded to face the crisis and overcome it. The Congress faced another crisis when Acharya Kripalani resigned and
Rajendra Babu had to step into the breach, even though he happened to be India's Food and Agriculture Minister and
President of the Constituent Assembly.
He realized that industrialism had disrupted the web of village life woven and integrated for centuries. It had to be rewoven into a new pattern. He wanted that pattern to be inspired by Gandhian values; human needs and acquisitiveness to
be regulated through self-discipline; agricultural production to be maximized, village industries to be resuscitated and their
scope enlarged; the old sense of community to be recaptured. But he found that the country was unable to resist the pull
of industrialization, even hurriedly thought-out industrialization, and he was not happy at the development. This was one
reason why he declined to accept the Chairmanship of the Planning Commission. This was why, when Wavell informally
enquired what portfolio he would choose if he were to choose it for himself, he said that he hardly needed time to think
about it. It had to be Food and Agriculture. Wavell was amused and there was an unspoken why. "Well", Rajendra Babu
went on, "the subject is familiar to me. He knew all that the best farmer knows about agricultural operations and
practices. But he also realized that certain improvements had to be effected on those methods. The slogan 'Grow More
Food' was given by him and the campaign was initiated by the Food Ministry under his guidance. He could not, however,
continue for long in that Ministry and ensure compliance with the policies initiated by him. But, before he relinquished
charge, he did, as Gandhiji wanted, effect decontrol of food grains, and though officials and public men alike had
prophesied disaster, nothing untoward happened. His stewardship of the Constituent Assembly was exemplary. He guided,
regulated, controlled, but did so with such infinite patience, skill, grace and firmness that not only none had a sense of
grievance but all felt that the discussions were always full, free and frank and left nothing to be desired. During the very
first session of the Constituent Assembly, he had announced that though the Assembly was born under limitations it would
outgrow those and function as a sovereign body, recognizing no outside authority. The proceedings of the last day of the
Constituent Assembly read like pages from a book of tributes and, in a way, indicate how loved and respected he was by
each section of the House.
His elevation to the Presidentship in 1950 came as a matter of course. There were some doubts in some quarters. Could a
person who was temperamentally a peasant, who lived and dressed like one, impress in an office where ceremonialism
and gilded trappings counted? But nothing else was possible. He was the only choice and there could not be another. As
President, he exercised his moderating influence and moulded policies or actions so silently and unobtrusively that many
were led to think that, unlike any other Head of State, he neither reigned nor ruled. He never worried about what people
said about him. He never looked into the mirror of history. There were occasions when he differed from the Prime Minister.
But that was nothing new. They had differed for almost three decades and yet worked together in the Congress. The
differences never embittered their personal relations. Perhaps, both realized that they arose out of their differing
backgrounds, beliefs, approaches and attitudes. It was in 1960 that he announced his intention to retire, and though there
were many regrets and many tried to persuade him to continue for a third term, his mind was made up. Jayaprakash
Narayan welcomed the decision, suggesting that his direct guidance might be available after retirement to the Sarvodaya
Movement. But the 1961 illness, severed and protracted, shattered Rajendra Prasad's health completely. Many therefore,
worried at his decision to go back to the Sadaquat Ashram. How could he guide any constructive movement with that frail
body of his? Would not the inconveniences of the Ashram prove too much for his health?
His elder sister Bhagwati Devi had passed away in the night of 25 January, 1960. She doted on her dearly-loved younger
brother, to whose house she had returned within two years of her marriage, a widow at nineteen. It must have taken
Rajendra Babu all his will power to have taken the Republic Day salute as usual, on the following day, seemingly unruffled.
It was only on return from the parade that he set about the task of cremation. Within months of his retirement, early in
September 1962, passed away his wife Rajbanshi Devi, whose contribution to making him what he was, though indirect,
was considerable. Frail and an invalid for a long time, she was the very embodiment of the spirit of renunciation,
selflessness, self-effacement and devotion. She had asked for little and though she had been only partly a companion to
him, she had silently encouraged him and never stood in the way. Her husband's will was her will, his pleasure hers. Not
many words were exchanged between the two - they would sit quietly together for hours - and yet their silent communion
filled the atmosphere with distinct aura.
No wonder, his last days were days of agony. The Chinese aggression had shaken him completely. He had apprehended
the danger. He had thought of the dreaded possibility. But "perhaps those who thought otherwise knew better". This
consolation was shaken away by the naked aggression. His will to live was weakening. In a letter to one devoted to him,
he wrote a month before his death: "I have a feeling that the end is near, end of the energy to do, end of my very
existence". And so, when the end came suddenly on 28 February, 1963, he was not unprepared. He died, after a few
hours' illness, with 'Ram Ram' on his lips.
Ever since the present Contributor came near him in 1933, the bond grew stronger as the years passed. Rajendra Prasad
had great affection for him and valued his judgement. Rajendra Babu and the present Contributor were together in the
Birla House when the Interim Government was formed in September 1946. Rajendra Babu said, "We must now move to
our residences" The present contributor had brought nothing except his clothes, and wondered as to how to go about
setting up a home. When he reached No. Queen Victoria Road - now Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road - in the evening, he was
pleasantly surprised to find that not only were all provisions and utensils and crockery's there, but even the statue of
goddess Lakshmi had not been forgotten. Rajendra Babu shared Gandhiji's great vision, the making of a new man in a new
society. His mind was capable of broad sweeps. But it would take in at the same time the smallest details.
Indian Prime Ministers
Indian Prime Ministers
Prime Minister of India
Powers of Prime Minister








Appoints the Council of Ministers.
Allocates portfolios. Can ask a minister to resign and can get him dismissed by President.
Assist the President in appointment of all high officials.
Can recommend to the President to declare emergency on grounds of war, external aggression or armed rebellion.
Advises President about President's rule in the State or emergency due to financial instability.
The President convenes and prorogues all sessions of Parliamenr in consultation with him/her.
Can recommend the dissolution of Lok Sabha before expire.
Leader of the House
Dr. Manmohan Singh (May 22, 2004 - till date) - Party (INC)
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (May 16, 1996 - June 1, 1996 and March 19, 1998 - May 22,
2004) - Party (BJP)
Shri Inder Kumar Gujral (April 21, 1997 - March 19, 1998) - Party
(Janta Dal)
Shri H. D. Deve Gowda (June 1, 1996 - April 21, 1997) - Party (Janta
Dal)
P. V. Narasimha Rao (June 21, 1991- May 16, 1996) - Party
(Congress[I])
Shri Chandra Shekhar (November 10, 1990 - June 21, 1991) Party
(Janta Dal[S])
Shri V. P. Singh (December 2, 1989 - November 10, 1990) Party(Janta Dal)
Mr. Rajiv Gandhi (October 31, 1984 - December 2, 1989) - Party
(Congress[I])
Shri
Party)
Charan Singh (July 28, 1979 - January 14, 1980) - Party(Janta
Shri
Party)
Morarji Desai (March 24, 1977 - July 28, 1979) - Party (Janta
Smt. Indira Gandhi (January 24, 1966 - March 24, 1977 and January 14, 1980 October 31, 1984) - Party(Congress & Congress[I])
Lal Bahadur Shastri (June 9, 1964 - January 11, 1966) Party(Congress)
Shri Gulzarilal Nanda (May 27, 1964 - June 9, 1964 and January 11,
1966 - January 24, 1966)- Party (Congress)
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru (August 15, 1947 - May 27, 1964 )- Party
(Congress)
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allabahad on November 14, 1889. He received his early
education at home under private tutors. At the age of fifteen, he went to England and after two
years at Harrow, joined Cambridge University where he took his tripos in Natural Sciences. He was later
called to the Bar from Inner Temple. He returned to India in 1912 and plunged straight into politics. Even as
a student, he had been interested in the struggle of all nations who suffered under foreign domination. He
took keen interest in the Sinn Fein Movement in Ireland. In India, he was inevitably drawn into the struggle for
independence. In 1912, he attended the Bankipore Congress as a delegate, and became Secretary of the Home Rule
League, Allahabad in 1919. In 1916 he had his first meeting with Mahatma Gandhi and felt immensely inspired by him. He
organised the first Kisan March in Pratapgarh District of Uttar Pradesh in 1920. He was twice imprisoned in connection with
the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22.
Pt. Nehru became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. He toured Italy,
Switzerland, England, Belgium, Germany and Russia in 1926. In Belgium, he attended the Congress of Oppressed
Nationalities in Brussels as an official delegate of the Indian National Congress. He also attended the tenth anniversary
celebrations of the October Socialist Revolution in Moscow in 1927. Earlier, in 1926, at the Madras Congress, Nehru had
been instrumental in committing the Congress to the goal of Independence. While leading a procession against the Simon
commission, he was lathi-charged in Lucknow in 1928. On August 29, 1928 he attended the All-Party Congress and was
one of the signatories to the Nehru Report on Indian Constitutional Reform, named after his father Shri Motilal Nehru. The
same year, he also founded the 'Independence for India League', which advocated complete severance of the British
connection with India, and became its General Secretary.
In 1929, Pt. Nehru was elected President of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress, where complete
independence for the country was adopted as the goal. He was imprisoned several times during 1930-35 in connection
with the Salt Satyagraha and other movements launched by the Congress. He completed his 'Autobiography' in Almora Jail
on February 14, 1935. After release, he flew to Switzerland to see his ailing wife and visited London in February-March,
1936. He also visited Spain in July 1938, when the country was in the throws of Civil War. Just before the court-break of
the Second World War, he visited China too.
On October 31, 1940 Pt. Nehru was arrested for offering individual Satyagraha to protest against India's forced
participation in war. He was released along with the other leaders in December 1941. On August 7, 1942 Pt. Nehru moved
the historic 'Quit India' resolution at the A.I.C.C. session in Bombay. On August 8,1942 he was arrested along with other
leaders and taken to Ahmednagar Fort. This was his longest and also his last detention. In all, he suffered imprisonment
nine times. After his release in January 1945, he organized legal defence for those officers and men of the INA charged
with treason. In March 1946, Pt. Nehru toured South East Asia. He was elected President of the Congress for the fourth
time on July 6, 1946 and again for three more terms from 1951 to 1954.
Indian State & Union Teritory
Indian State & Union Teritory
Indian State & Union Teritory - Governor, Capital, Official Language (Click on State Name to View the
Details)
ID
State Name
State Capital
Governer
Official
Language
Chief Minister
District
1
Andhra
Pradesh
Hyderabad
Mr. E.S.L. Narasimhan
Mr. K. Rosaiah
Telugu
23
2
Arunachal
Pradesh
Itanagar
Gen.(Retd.) J.J. Singh
Mr. Dorjee Khandu English
16
3
Assam
Dispur
Shri Janaki Ballav Pattanaik
Mr. Tarun Gogoi
Assamese
27
4
Bihar
Patna
Mr. Devanand Konwar
Mr. Nitish Kumar
Hindi
37
5
Chhatisgarh
Raipur
Shri Shekhar Dutt
Dr. Raman Singh
Hindi
16
6
Goa
Panaji
Dr. Shivinder Singh Sidhu
Mr. Digambar
Kamat
Konkani
2
7
Gujarat
Gandhi Nangar
Dr. Kamla Beniwal
Mr. Narendra Modi
Gujarati
26
8
Haryana
Chandigarh
Mr. Jagannath Pahadia
Mr.
Bhupinder
Hindi
S.Hooda
20
9
Himachal
Pradesh
Shimla
Ms. Urimila Singh
Mr. Prem
Dhumal
12
10
Jammu
Kashmir
Mr. N.N. Vohra
Urdu,
Mr. Omar Abdullah Kashmiri,
Dogri
22
and Srinagar(Summer)
Jammu(Winter )
,
v.
Kumar
Hindi
11 Jharkhand
Ranchi
Shri M.O.H Farook
Shri Arjun Munda
Hindi
22
12 Karnataka
Bengaluru
Mr. Hans Raj Bhardwaj
Mr.
Yeddyurappa
Kannada
27
13 Kerala
Thiruvananthapuram
Mr. Ramkrishna S. Gavai
Mr.
V.S.
Malayalam
Achuthanandan
14
Madhya
Pradesh
Bhopal
Mr. Rameshwar Thakur
Mr. Shivraj Singh
Hindi
Chauhan
50
15 Maharashtra
Mumbai
Shri K. Shankarnarayanan
Mr. Ashok Chavan
Marathi
35
16 Manipur
Imphal
Mr. Gurbachan Jagat
Mr. Okram
Singh
Manipuri
9
17 Meghalaya
Shillong
Mr. R.S. Mooshahary
Mr.
Mukul
Sangma
English
7
18 Mizoram
Aizawl
Lt.Gen.(Retd)M.M.Lakhera
Mr. Lalthanhawla
English
8
19 Nagaland
Kohima
Shri. Nikhil Kumar
Mr. Neiphiu Rio
English
8
20 Orrissa
Bhubaneshwar
Mr. M.C. Bhandare
Mr.
Patnaik
Oriya
30
21 Punjab
Chandigarh
Shri Shivraj Patil
Mr. Parkash Singh
Punjabi
Badal
22 Rajasthan
Jaipur
Shri Shivraj Patil, Governor of
Mr. Ashok Gehlot
Punjab (Additional Charge)
23 Sikkim
Gangtok
Mr. Balmiki Prasad Singh
14
Mr.
Chamling
B.S.
Ibibo
A.
Naveen
Pawan
20
Hindi
33
Nepali
4
24 Tamil Nadu
Chennai
Shri Surjit Singh Barnala
Mr. M. Karunanidhi Tamil
31
25 Tripura
Agartala
Shri Dnyandeo Yashwantrao Patil
Mr. Manik Sarkar
Bengali
4
26 Uttarakhand
Dehradun
Ms. Margaret Alva
Mr.
Pokhriyal
Hindi
13
27 Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow
Mr. B.L. Joshi
Ms. Mayawati
Hindi
71
28 West Bengal
Kolkata
Shri M.K. Narayanan
Mr.
Buddhadeb
Bengali
Bhattacharjee
Ramesh
19
Indian National Flag
Indian National Flag
Every free nation of the world has its own flag. It is a symbol of a free country. The National Flag of India was designed by
Pingali Venkayyaand and adopted in its present form during the meeting of Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a
few days before India's independence from the British on 15 August, 1947. It served as the national flag of the Dominion of
India between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950 and that of the Republic of India thereafter. In India, the term
"tricolour" refers to the Indian national flag.
The National flag of India is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the
bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a
navy blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath
Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.
Evolution of the Tricolour
It is really amazing to see the various changes that our National Flag went through since its first inception. It was discovered
or recognised during our national struggle for freedom. The evolution of the Indian National Flag sailed through many
vicissitudes to arrive at what it is today. In one way it reflects the political developments in the nation. Some of the historical
milestones in the evolution of our National Flag involve the following:
The first national flag in India is said to have been hoisted on August 7, 1906, in the Parsee
Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta now Kolkata. The flag was composed of three
horizontal strips of red, yellow and green.
The second flag was hoisted in Paris by Madame Cama and her band of exiled revolutionaries
Unofficial flag of India
in 1906
in 1907 (according to some inl9OS). This was very similar to the first flag except that the top
strip had only one lotus but seven stars denoting the Saptarishi. This flag was also exhibited
at a socialist conference in Berlin.
The third flag went up in 1917 when our political struggle had taken a definite turn. Dr. Annie
Besant and Lokmanya Tilak hoisted it during the Home rule movement. This flag had five red
and four green horizontal strips arranged alternately, with seven stars in the saptarishi
configuration super-imposed on them. In the left-hand top corner (the pole end) was the
The Berlin committee
flag, first raised by
Bhikaiji Cama in 1907
Union Jack. There was also a white crescent and star in one corner.
During the session of the All India Congress Committee which met at Bezwada in 1921 (now
Vijayawada) an Andhra youth prepared a flag and took it to Gandhiji. It was made up of two
colours-red and green-representing the two major communities i.e. Hindus and Muslims.
Gandhiji suggested the addition of a white strip to represent the remaining communities of
India and the spinning wheel to symbolise progress of the Nation.
The year 1931 was a landmark in the history of the flag. A resolution was passed adopting a
The flag used during the
Home Rule movement
in 1917
tricolor flag as our national flag. This flag, the forbear of the present one, was saffron, white
and green with Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel at the center. It was, however, clearly
stated that it bore no communal significance and was to be interpreted thus.
On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as Free India National Flag. After the
advent of Independence, the colours and their significance remained the same. Only the
Dharma Charkha of Emperor Asoka was adopted in place of the spinning wheel as the emblem
on the flag. Thus, the tricolour flag of the Congress Party eventually became the tricolour flag
of Independent India.
Colours of the Flag:
The flag unofficially
adopted in 1921
In the national flag of India the top band is of Saffron colour, indicating the strength and
courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra.
The last band is green in colour shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land.
The Chakra:
This Dharma Chakra depicted the "wheel of the law" in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the
The flag adopted in 1931.
This flag was also the
battle ensign of the
Indian National Army
3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that there is life in
movement and death in stagnation.
Flag Code
On 26th January 2002, the Indian flag code was modified and after several years of
independence, the citizens of India were finally allowed to hoist the Indian flag over their
homes, offices and factories on any day and not just National days as was the case earlier.
Now Indians can proudly display the national flag any where and any time, as long as the
The present Tricolour
flag of India
provisions of the Flag Code are strictly followed to avoid any disrespect to the tricolour. For
the sake of convenience, Flag Code of India, 2002, has been divided into three parts. Part I of
the Code contains general description of the National Flag. Part II of the Code is devoted to
the display of the National Flag by members of public, private organizations, educational
institutions, etc. Part III of the Code relates to display of the National Flag by Central and
State governments and their organisations and agencies.
There are some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26 January 2002 legislation. These include the
following:
The Do's:

The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to
inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.

A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all
days and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise consistent with the dignity and honour of the National Flag.

Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.
The Don'ts

The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise
to sunset, irrespective of the weather.

The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over
the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.

No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or
emblems can be placed on or above the flag. The tricolour cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting.
The Indian National Flag represents the hopes and aspirations of the people of India. It is the symbol of our national pride.
Over the last five decades, several people including members of armed forces have ungrudgingly laid down their lives to keep
the tricolour flying in its full glory.
Indian Constitution
Indian Constitution
Introduction to Indian Constitution
The Constitution of India is the world's lengthiest written constitution with 395 articles and 8 schedules. It contains the good
points taken from the constitutions of many countries in the world. It was passed on 26 Nov 1949 by the 'The Constituent
Assembly' and is fully applicable since 26 Jan 1950. The Constituent Assembly had been elected for undivided India and held
its first sitting on 9th Dec.1946, re-assembled on the 14th August 1947, as The Sovereign Constituent Assembly for the
dominion of India. In regard to its composition the members were elected by indirect election by the members of The
Provisional Legislative Assemblies (lower house only). At the time of signing 284 out of 299 members of the Assembly were
present.
The constitution of India draws extensively from Western legal traditions in its outline of the principles of liberal democracy.
It follows a British parliamentary pattern with a lower and upper house. It embodies some Fundamental Rights which are
similar to the Bill of Rights declared by the United States constitution. It also borrows the concept of a Supreme Court from
the US.
India is a federal system in which residual powers of legislation remain with the central government, similar to that in
Canada. The constitution provides detailed lists dividing up powers between central and state governments as in Australia,
and it elaborates a set of Directive Principles of State Policy as does the Irish constitution.
The constitution has provision for Schedules to be added to the constitution by amendment. The ten schedules in force cover
the designations of the states and union territories; the emoluments for high-level officials; forms of oaths; allocation of the
number of seats in the Rajya Sabha. A review of the constitution needs at least two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
to pass it.
The Indian constitution is one of the most frequently amended constitutions in the world. Infact the first amendment to it
was passed after only a year of the adoption of the constitution and instituted numerous minor changes. Many more
amendments followed a rate of almost two amendments per year since 1950. Most of the constitution can be amended after
a quorum of more than half of the members of each house in Parliament passes an amendment with a two-thirds majority
vote. Articles pertaining to the distribution of legislative authority between the central and state governments must also be
approved by 50 percent of the state legislatures.
Preamble of The Constitution
We, The people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby Adopt, Enact and give ourselves
this Constitution.
The Union and Its Territory
Article 1: Name and territory of the Union
1.
India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.
2.
The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.
3.
The territory of India shall comprise:
I.
II.
The territories of the States
The Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and such other territories as may be acquired.
Article 2: Admission or establishment of new States
Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.
Article 3: Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
Parliament may by law:
1.
Form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by
uniting any territory to a part of any State
2.
Increase the area of any State
3.
Diminish the area of any State
4.
Alter the boundaries of any State
5.
Alter the name of any State [Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament
except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area,
boundaries or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State
for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period
as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.]
Article 4: Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules
and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters
1.
Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and
the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such
supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in
the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary.
2.
No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.
Citizenship
Article 5: Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution
At the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and
1.
Who was born in the territory of India; or
2.
Either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or
3.
Who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such
commencement, shall be a citizen of India.
Article 6: Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan
Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in
Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if:
1.
He or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act,
1935 (as originally enacted); and
2.
In the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily
resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or
3.
In the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered
as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an
application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and
manner prescribed by that Government: Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident
in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.
Article 8: Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan:
Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory
of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India:
Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in
Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the
authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to
the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948.
Article 8: Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India
Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in
India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country
outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the
diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made
by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this
Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.
Article 9: Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens
No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article
8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.
Article 10: Continuance of the rights of citizenship
Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to
the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.
Article 11: Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law
Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with
respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.
Indian Constitution Amendments
Indian Constitution Amendments
1.
The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1950---This amendment provided for several new grounds of
restrictions to the right to freedom of speech and expression and the right to practise any profession or to carry on
any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the Constitution. These restrictions related to public order,
friendly relations with foreign States or incitement to an offence in relation to the right to freedom of speech, and to
the prescribing of professional or technical qualifications or the carrying on by the State, etc., of any trade, business,
industry or service in relation to the right to carry on any trade or business. The amendment also inserted two new
Articles, 31A and 31B and the Ninth Schedule to give protection from challenge to land reform laws.The constitution
of India draws extensively from Western legal traditions in its outline of the principles of liberal democracy. It follows
a British parliamentary pattern with a lower and upper house. It embodies some Fundamental Rights which are
similar to the Bill of Rights declared by the United States constitution. It also borrows the concept of a Supreme
Court from the US.
2.
The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952---By this amendment, the scale or representation for election
to the Lok Sabha was readjusted.
3.
The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954---This amendment substituted entry 33 of List III (Concurrent
List) of the Seventh Schedule to make it correspond to Article 369.
4.
The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955---Article 31 (2) of the Constitution was amended to re-state
more precisely the State's power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property and distinguish it
from cases where the operation of regulatory or prohibitory laws of the States results in "deprivation of property".
Article 31A of the Constitution was also amended to extend its scope to cover categories of essential welfare
legislation like abolition of zamindaris, proper planning of urban and rural areas and for effecting a full control over
the mineral and oil resources of the country, etc. Six Acts were also included in the Ninth Schedule. Article 305 was
also amended to save certain laws providing of State Monopolies.
5.
The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955---This amendment made a change in Article 3 so as to empower
President to specify a time limit for state legislatures to convey their views on the proposed Central laws affecting
areas, boundaries, etc., of their states.
6.
The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956---This amendment made some changes in Articles 269 and 286
relating to taxes on sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-state trade and commerce. A new entry 92 A
was added to the Union List of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution.
7.
The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956---This amendment Act purported to give effect to the
recommendations of the State Reorganisation Commission and the necessary consequential changes. Broadly, the
then existing states and territories were changed to have two-fold classification of states and union territories. The
amendment also provided for composition of the House of the People, re-adjustment after every census, provisions
regarding the establishment of new High Courts, High Court Judges, etc.
8.
The Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1960---Article 334 was amended with a view to extending the
period of reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to the Anglo-Indian community by
nomination in Parliament and in the State Legislatures for a further period of ten years.
9.
The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960---The purpose of this amendment is to give effect to the
transfer of certain territories to Pakistan in pursuance of the agreement extended into between Governments of
India and Pakistan. This amendment was necessitated in view of the Judgement of Supreme Court in In Re Berubari
Union by which it was held that any agreement to cede a territory to another country could not be implemented by a
law made under Article 3 but would only be implemented by an amendment of the Constitution.
10. The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961---This Act amended Article 240 and the First Schedule in order
to include areas of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory and to provide for its administration under the
regulation making powers of President.
11. The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961---The purpose of this amendment was to amend Articles 66
and 71 of the Constitution to provide that the election of President or Vice President could not be challenged on the
ground of any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
12. The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962---This amendment sought to include Goa, Daman and Diu as
a Union Territory and to amend Article 240 for the purpose.
13. The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962---By this amendment, a new Article 371A was added to
make special provisions with respect to state of Nagaland in pursuance of an agreement between Government of
India and Naga People's Convention.
14. The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962---By this Act, Pondicherry was included in the First
Schedule as a Union Territory, and this Act has also enabled the creation of Legislature by Parliamentary law for
Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry.
15. The Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963---This amendment provided for increase in the age of
retirement of High Court Judge and for the provision of compensatory allowance to judges who are transferred from
one High Court to another. The Act also provided for appointment of retired judges to act as judges of High Court.
Article 226 was also enlarged to empower High Court to issue direction, orders or writs to any Government
authority, etc., if the cause of action for the exercise of such power arose in the territories wherein the High Court
exercise jurisdiction notwithstanding that seat of such Government authority is not within those territories. The Act
also provided for the exercise of powers of Chairman of the Service Commissions, in their absence, by one of their
Members.
16. The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963---Article 19 was amended by this Act to impose further
restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably and without arms and to form
associations in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India. The oath of affirmation to be subscribed by
candidates seeking election to Parliament and State Legislatures have been amended to include as one of the
conditions that they will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India. The amendments are intended to promote
national integration.
17. The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964---Article 31A was further amended to prohibit the
acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid as compensation and the
definition of "estate" as contained in that Article had also been enlarged with retrospective effect. The Ninth
Schedule had also been amended to include 44 more Acts.
18. The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966---Article 3 was amended by this Act to specify that the
expression "State" will include a union territory also and to make it clear that the power to form a new state under
this Article includes a power to form a new state or union territory by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to
another state or union territory.
19. The Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966---Article 324 was amended to effect a consequential
change as a result of the decision to abolish Election Tribunals and to hear election petitions by High Courts.
20. The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966---This amendment was necessitated by the decision of the
Supreme Courts in Chandramohan vs. State of Uttar Pradesh in which certain appointments of District Judges in
State of Uttar Pradesh were declared void by Supreme Court. A new Article 233A was added and the appointments
made by Governor were validated.
21. The Constitution (Tiventy-first Amendment) Act, 1967---By this amendment, Sindhi Language was included in
the Eighth Schedule.
22. The Constitution (Tiuenty-second Amendment) Act, 1969---This act was enacted to facilitate the formation of
a new autonomous state of Meghalaya within state of Assam.
23. The Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969---Article 334 was amended so as to extend the
safeguards in respect of reservation of seats in Parliament and State Legislatures for Schedules Castes and
Scheduled Tribes as well as for Anglo-Indians for a further period of ten years.
24. The Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971---This amendment was passed in the context of a
situation that emerged with the verdict in Golaknath's case by Supreme Court. Accordingly, this Act amended Article
13 and Article 368 to remove all doubts regarding the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution including the
Fundamental Rights.
25. The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971---This amendment further amended Article 31 in the
wake of the Bank Nationalisation case. The word `amount' was substituted in place of `compensation' in the light of
the judicial interpretation of the word `compensation' meaning `adequate compensation'.
26. The Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971---By this amendment, the privy and privileges of the
former rulers of Indian states were abolished. This amendment was passed as a result of Supreme Court decision in
Madhav Rao's case.
27. The Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971---This amendment was passed to provide for
certain matters necessitated by the reorganisation of north-eastern states. A new Article 239B was inserted which
enabled the promulgation of Ordinances by Administrators of certain union territories.
28. The Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972---The amendment was enacted to abolish the special
privileges of the members of Indian Civil Services in matters of leave, pension and rights as regard to disciplinary
matters.
29. The Constitution (Twenty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1972---The Ninth Schedule to the Constitution was
amended to include therein two Kerala Acts on land reforms.
30. The Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972---The purpose of the amendment was to amend Article 133
in order to do away with the valuation test of Rs 20,000 as fixed therein, and to provide instead for an appeal to
Supreme Court in Civil proceedings only on a certificate issued by High Court that the case involves a substantial
question of law of general importance and that in opinion of High Court, the question needs to be decided by
Supreme Court.
31. The Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973---This Act inter alia raises the upper limit for the
representation of states in the Lok Sabha from 500 to 525 and reducing the upper limit for the representation of
union territories from 25 members to 20.
32. The Constitution (Thirty-second Amendment) Act, 1973---This Act provided the necessary constitutional
authority for giving effect to the provision of equal opportunities to different areas of the State of Andhra Pradesh
and for the constitution of an Administrative Tribunal with jurisdiction to deal with grievances relating to public
services. It also empowered Parliament to legislate for the establishment of a Central university in the State.
33. The Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974----By this amendment, Articles 101 and 190 were
amended in order to streamline the procedure for resignation of Members of Parliament and State Legislatures.
34. The Constitution (Thirty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1974---By this Act, twenty more land tenure and land
reforms laws enacted by various State Legislatures were included in the Ninth Schedule.
35. The Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974---By this Act a new Article 2A was added thereby
conferring on Sikkim the status of an associate State of Indian Union. Consequent amendments were made to
Articles 80 and 81. A new schedule, i.e., Tenth Schedule, was added laying down terms and conditions of association
of Sikkim with the Union.
36. The Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975---This was enacted to make Sikkim a full-fledged State
of Indian Union and to include it in the First Schedule to the Constitution and to allot to Sikkim one seat each in the
Council of States and in the House of the People. Article 2A and the Tenth Schedule inserted by the Constitution
(Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act were omitted and Articles 80 and 81 were suitably amended.
37. The Constitution (Thirty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1975---By this Act, Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh
was provided with a Legislative Assembly. Article 240 of the Constitution was also amended to provide that as in the
case of other union territories with Legislatures, the power of President to make regulations for the Union Territory of
Arunachal Pradesh may be exercised only when the assembly is either dissolved or its functions remain suspended.
38. The Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975---This Act amended Articles 123, 213 and 352 of the
Constitution to provide that the satisfaction of President or Governor contained in these Articles would be called in
question in any court of law.
39. The Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975---By this Act, disputes relating to the election of President,
Vice-President, Prime Minister and Speaker are to be determined by such authority as may be determined by
Parliamentary Law. Certain Central enactments were also included in the Ninth Schedule by this Act.
40. The Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976---This act provided for vesting in the Union of all mines,
minerals and other things of value lying in the ocean within the territorial waters or the continental shelf or the
exclusive economic zone of India. It further provided that all other resources of the exclusive economic zone of India
shall also vest in the Union. This act also provided that the limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the
exclusive economic zone and the maritime zones of India shall be as specified from time to time by or under any law
made by Parliament. Also some more Acts were added to the Ninth Scheme.
41. The Constitution (Forty-first Amendment) Act, 1976---By this Act, Article 316 was amended to raise the
retirement age of Members of State Public Service Commissions and Joint Public Service Commissions from 60 to 62
years.
42. The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976---This act made a number of important amendments in
the Constitution. These amendments were mainly for purpose of giving effect to the recommendations of Swaran
Singh Committee. Some of the important amendments made are for the purpose of spelling out expressly the high
ideals of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation, to make the Directive Principles more comprehensive
and giving them precedence over those Fundamental Rights which have been allowed to be relied upon to frustrate
socio-economic reforms. The amendment Act also inserted a new chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens and
made special provisions for dealing with anti-national activities, whether by individuals or by associations. The
judiciary provisions were also amended by providing for a requirement as to the minimum number of judges for
determining question as to the constitutional validity of law and for a special majority of not less than two-third for
declaring any law to be constitutionally invalid. To reduce the mounting arrears in High Courts and to secure the
speedy disposal of service matters, revenue matters and certain other matters of special importance in the context
of socio-economic development and progress, this amendment Act provided for the creation of Administrative and
other tribunals for dealing with such matters while preserving the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to such
matters under Article 136 of the Constitution. Certain modifications in the writ jurisdiction of High Courts under
Article 226 were also made.
43. The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977---This Act inter alia provided for the restoration of the
jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts, curtailed by the enactment of the Constitution (Forty-second
Amendment) Act, 1976 and accordingly Articles 32A, 131 A, 144A, 226A and 228A included in the Constitution by
the said amendment, were omitted by this Act. The Act also provided for the omission of Article 31 which conferred
special powers on Parliament to enact certain laws in respect of anti-national activities.
44. The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978---The right to property which had been the occasion for
more than one amendment of Constitution was omitted as a Fundamental Right and it was made only as a legal
right. It was, however, ensured that the removal of the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights would
not affect the right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. Article 352 of the
Constitution was amended to provide "armed rebellion" as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency.
Internal disturbance not amounting to armed rebellion would not be a ground for the issuance of a Proclamation. The
right to personal liberty as contained in Articles 21 and 22 is further strengthened by the provision that a law for
preventive detention cannot authorise, in any case, detention for a longer period than two months unless an
Advisory Board has reported that there is sufficient cause for such detention. The additional safeguard has also been
provided by the requirements that Chairman of an Advisory Board shall be a serving Judge of the appropriate High
Court and that the Board shall be constituted in accordance with the recommendations of the Chief Justice of that
High Court. With a view to avoiding delays, Articles 132 and 134 were amended and a new Article 134A was inserted
to provide that a High Court should consider the question of granting a certificate for appeal to Supreme Court
immediately after the delivery of the judgement, final order or sentence concerned on the basis of an oral application
by a party or, if the High Court deems it so to do, on its own. The other amendments made by the Act are mainly for
removing or correcting the distortions which came into the Constitution by reason of the amendment initiated during
the period of internal emergency.
45. The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980---This was passed to extend safeguards in respect of
reservation of seats in Parliament and State Assemblies for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes as well as for AngloIndians for a further period of ten years.
46. The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982---Article 269 was amended so that the tax levied on the
consignment of goods in the course of inter-state or commerce shall be assigned to the states. This Article was also
amended to enable Parliament to formulate by law principle for determining when a consignment of goods takes
place in the course of inter-state trade or commerce. A new 92B was also inserted in the Union List to enable the
levy of tax on the consignment of goods such consignment takes place in the course of inter-state trade or
commerce. Clause (3) of Article 286 was amended to enable Parliament to specify, by law, restrictions an conditions
in regard to the system of levy rates and other incidence of tax on the transfer of goods involved in the execution of
a works contract, on the delivery of goods on hire-purchase or any system of payment of instalments, etc. Article
366 was also suitably amended to insert a definition of "tax on the sale or purchase goods" to include transfer for
consideration of controlled commodities, transfer of property in goods involved in the execution of a works contract,
delivery of goods on hire-purchase or any system payment by instalments, etc.
47. The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984---This amendment is intended to provide for the
inclusion of certain land Reforms Acts in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution with a view to obviating the scope of
litigation hampering the implementation process of those Acts.
48. The Constitution (Forty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1984---The Proclamation issued by President under Article
356 of the Constitution with respect to the State of Punjab cannot be continued in force for more than one year
unless the special conditions mentioned in clause (5) of the said Article are satisfied. As it is felt that the continued
force of the said Proclamation is necessary, therefore, the present amendment had been effected so as to make the
conditions mentioned in clause (5) of Article 356 inapplicable in the instant case.
49. The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984---Tripura Government recommended that the provisions
of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution may be made applicable to tribal areas at that State. The amendment
involved in this Act is intended to give a constitutional security to the autonomous District Council functioning in the
State.
50. The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984---by Article 33 of the constitution, Parliament is empowered
to enact laws determining to what extent any of the rights conferred by Part III of the constitution shall, in their
application to the members of the armed forces or the forces charged the maintenance of public order, be restricted
or abrogated so as to ensure proper discharge or their duties and maintenance of discipline among them. It was
proposed to amend Article 33 so as to bring within its ambit: (i) the members of the Force charged with the
protection of property belonging to or in the charge or possession of the state; or (ii) persons employed in any
bureau or other organisation established by the state for purposes of intelligence or counter-intelligence; or (iii)
persons employed in or in connection with the telecommunication systems set up for the purposes of any Force,
bureau or organisation. Experience has revealed that the need for ensuring proper discharge of their duties and
maintenance of discipline among them is of paramount importance in the national interest.
51. The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984---Article 330 has been amended by this Act for providing
reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram in Parliament and
Article 332 has been amended to provide similar reservation in the Legislative Assemblies of Nagaland and
Meghalaya to meet the aspirations of local tribal population.
52. The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985---It amends the Constitution to provide that a Member
of Parliament or a State Legislature who defects or is expelled from the party which set him up as a candidate in the
election or if an independent member of the House joins a political party after expiry of six months from the date on
which he takes seat in the House shall be disqualified to remain a member of the House. The Act also makes suitable
provisions with respect to splits in and merger of political parties.
53. The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986---This has been enacted to give effect to the
Memorandum of Settlement of Mizoram which was signed by Government of India and Mizoram Government with
Mizoram National Front on 30 June 1986. For this purpose, a new Article 371G has been inserted in the Constitution
inter alia preventing application of any Act of Parliament in Mizoram in respect of religious or social practices of
Mizos, Mizos' customary law and procedure, administration of civil and criminal practice involving decisions according
to Mizos' customary law and ownership and transfer of land unless a resolution is passed in the Legislative Assembly
to that effect. This, however, will not apply to any Central Act already in force in Mizoram before the commencement
of this amendment. The new Article also provides that the Legislative Assembly of Mizoram shall consist of not less
than 40 members.
54. The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1986---This Act increases the salaries of Supreme Court and
High Court judges as follows: Chief Justice of India Rs 10,000 per month Judges of Supreme Court Rs 9,000 per
month Chief Justice of High Court Rs 9,000 per month Judges of High Court Rs 8,000 per month This Act amended
Part `D' of the Second Schedule to the Constitution to give effect to the above increases in the salaries of judges
and to make an enabling provision in Articles 125 and 221 to provide for changes in the salaries of judges in future
by Parliament by law.
55. The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986---This Act seeks to give effects to the proposal of
Government of India to confer statehood on the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh and for this purpose, a new
Article 371H has been inserted which, inter alia, confers, having regard to the sensitive location of Arunachal
Pradesh to vest special responsibility on Governor of the new State of Arunachal Pradesh with respect to law and
order in the State and in the discharge of his functions, the Governor shall after consulting the Council of Ministers,
exercise his individual judgement, as to the action to be taken and this responsibility shall cease when President so
directs. The new Article also provides that the new Legislative Assembly of the new State of Arunachal Pradesh, shall
consist of not less than thirty members.
56. The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987---Government of India has proposed to constitute the
territories comprised in Goa District of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu as the State of Goa and the
territories comprised in Daman and Diu districts of that Union Territory as a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu.
In this context, it was proposed that the Legislative Assembly of the new State of Goa shall consist of 40 members.
The existing Legislative Assembly of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu has 30 elected members and three
nominated members. It was intended to make this Assembly with the exclusion of two members representing
Daman and Diu districts the provisional Legislative Assembly for the new State of Goa until elections are held on the
expiry of the five year terms of the existing Assembly. It was, therefore, decided to provide that the Legislative
Assembly of the new State of Goa shall consist of not less than 30 members. The special provision required to be
made to give effect to this proposal is carried out by this amendment.
57. The Constitution (Fifty-seventh amendment) Act, 1987---The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984
was enacted to provide for reservation of seats in the house of the people for scheduled tribes in Nagaland,
Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh and also for reservation of seats for scheduled tribes in the legislative
assemblies of Nagaland and Meghalaya by suitably amending articles 330 and 332. Even though these states are
predominantly tribal, the underlying objective the aforesaid act was to ensure that the members of scheduled tribes
in these areas do not fail to secure a minimal representation because of their inability to compete with the advanced
section sections of the people. The Constitution (fifty-first amendment) act, though formally enforced, could not be
fully implemented unless parallel action is taken to determine the seats which are to be reserved for Scheduled
tribes in these areas. The number of seats reserved for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes in the Legislative
Assembly of any State under article 332 of the constitution will have to be determined having regard to the
provisions of article 332 (3) of the Constitution. However, in view of the historical background with respect to the
areas comprised in north-eastern states, the circumstances obtaining in these areas in the State of development of
Scheduled Tribes and other relevant considerations, it was considered necessary to provide for special arrangements
with regard to the reservation for Scheduled Tribes in these areas for a temporary period so as to facilitate easy
transition of these areas to the normal arrangements as envisaged in the Constitution. Article 332 of the Constitution
was further amended for making a temporary provision, until the re-adjustment of seats on the basis of first census
after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution for these states, for the determination of the number of
seats reserved for Scheduled Tribes. This amendment seeks to provide that if all the seats in the Legislative
Assembly of such States a existence on the date of coming into force of this constitution amendment act are held by
the members of Scheduled Tribes, all the seats except one shall be reserved for scheduled tribes and in any other
case such number of seats as bears to the total number of seats a proportion not less than the number of members
belonging to Scheduled Tribes in the existing assembly bears to the total number of seats in the existing assembly.
The act achieves these objectives.
58. The Constitution (Fifty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1987---There has been general demand for the publication of
authoritative text of the Constitution in Hindi. It is imperative to have an authoritative text of the Constitution for
facilitating its use in the legal process. Any Hindi version of the Constitution should not only conform to the Hindi
translation published by the Constituent Assembly, but should be in conformity, with the language style and
terminology adopted in the authoritative texts of Central Acts in Hindi. The Constitution has been amended to
empower President of India to publish under his authority the translation of the Constitution in Hindi signed by the
Members of the Constituent Assembly with such modification as may be necessary to bring it in conformity with the
language, style and terminology adopted in the authoritative texts of Central Acts in Hindi language. President has
also been authorised to publish the translation Hindi of every amendment of the Constitution made in English.
59. The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988---The Act amends Article 365 (5) of the Constitution so as
to facilitate the extension of a Presidential Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 beyond a period of
one year, if necessary upto a period of three years, as permissible under clause (4) of Article 356 with respect to the
State of Punjab because of the continued disturbed situation there. The Act also amends Article 352 of the
Constitution pertaining to the Proclamation of emergency in its application to the State of Punjab and includes
internal disturbance as one of the grounds for making a Proclamation in respect of the State of Punjab only. As a
consequence of amendment in Article 352, Articles 358 and 359 in relation to the State of Punjab will be operative
only for a period of two years from 30 March 1988, which is the date of commencement of the amendment.
60. The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988---The Act amends clause (2) of Article 276 of the
Constitution so as to increase the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment from Rs 250 per
annum to Rs 2,500 per annum. The upward revision of this tax will help state governments in raising additional
resources. The proviso to clause (2) has been omitted.
61. The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1989---The Act provides for reducing voting age from 21 to 18
years by amending Article 326 of the Constitution to provide to the unrepresented youth of the country an
opportunity to give vent to their feelings and help them become a part of political process.
62. The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1989---Article 334 of the Constitution lays down that the
provisions of the Constitution relating to the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes
and the representation of the Anglo-Indian community by nomination in the Lok Sabha and in the Legislative
Assemblies of the States shall cease to have effect on the expiry of a period of 40 years from the commencement of
the Constitution. Although the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes have made considerable progress in the
last 40 years, the reasons which weighed with the Constituent Assembly in making provisions with regard to the
aforesaid reservation of seats and nomination of members, have not ceased to exist. The Act amends Article 334 of
the Constitution to continue the reservation for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the
representation of the Anglo-Indians by nomination for a further period of 10 years.
63. The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1989---The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988
was enacted in March 1988 making certain changes in regard to making a Proclamation of Emergency in Punjab and
to the duration of President's rule in State. On reconsideration, the Government decided that the special powers in
regard to the Proclamation of Emergency in Punjab as envisaged in the said amendment are no longer required.
Accordingly the provision to clause (5) of Article 356 and Article 359A of the Constitution has been omitted.
64. The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990---This Act amends clauses (4) and (5) of Article 356 of
the Constitution with a view to facilitate the extension of the proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of
the Constitution on 11 May 1987 upto a total period of three years and six months in relation to the State of Punjab.
65. The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990---Article 338 of the Constitution provides for a Special
Officer for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards provided
for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution and to report to the President on their
working. The Article has been amended for the constitution of a National Commission for Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes consisting of a Chairperson, Vice Chairperson and five other Members who shall be appointed by
the President by warrant under his hand and seal. The amended Article elaborates the duties of the said Commission
and covers measures that should be taken by the Union or any state for the effective implementation of the reports
presented by the Commission. It also provides that the Commission shall, while investigating any matter or inquiring
into any complaint have all the powers of a Civil Court trying a suit and the reports of the said Commission shall be
laid before Parliament and the Legislature of the states.
66. The Constitution (Sixty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1990---The Act protects 55 State Acts relating to land reforms
and ceiling on agricultural land holdings enacted by States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh,
Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and
administration of the Union Territory of Pondicherry, from challenge in courts, by including them in the Ninth
Schedule to the Constitution.
67. The Constitution (Sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1990---The three year period in the case of proclamation
issued on 11 May 1987 with respect to the State of Punjab was extended to three years and six months by the
Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990. This Act further amends clause (4) of Article 356 so as to further
extend the period upto a total period of four years.
68. The Constitution (Sixty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1991---The three year period in the case of proclamation
issued on 17 May 1987 with respect to the State of Punjab was earlier extended to four years by the Constitution
(sixty-seventh Amendments) Act, 1990. This Act further amends clause (4) of Article 356 so as to further extend the
period upto a total period of five years.
69. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991---The Government of India appointed on 24 December
1987 a Committee to go into various issues connected with the administration of Delhi and to recommend measures,
inter alia for the streamlining of the administrative set up. After detailed inquiry and examination, it recommended
that Delhi should continue to be a union territory and may be provided with a Legislative Assembly and a Council of
Ministers responsible to such assembly with appropriate powers to deal with matters of concern to the common man.
The Committee also recommended that with a view to ensuring stability and permanence, arrangements should be
incorporated in the constitution to give the national capital a special status among the union territories. This act has
been passed to give effect to the above recommendations.
70. The Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992---While considering the (Seventy-fourth Amendment)
Bill, 1991 and the Government of National Capital Territory Bill, 1991 views were expressed in both the Houses of
Parliament in favour of including also the elected members of the legislative assemblies of union territories in the
electoral college for the election of the President under Article 54 of the Constitution. At present Article 54 relating to
the election of the President provides for an electoral college consisting of only the elected Members of Parliament as
well as the legislative assemblies of the states (not of union territories). Similarly, Article 55 providing for the
manner of such election also speaks of legislative assemblies of states. Accordingly, an Explanation was inserted in
Article 54 to provide that reference to `State' in Article 54 and 55 would include the National Capital Territory of
Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry for constituting the Electoral College for election of the President. This
would enable the elected members of the Legislative Assembly created for the Union Territory of Pondicherry under
the provisions of Article 239A and of the proposed Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory of Delhi
under Article 239AA to be included in the Electoral College.
71. The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992---There has been demands for inclusion of certain
languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. This Act amends the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution to
include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.
72. The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992---For restoring peace and harmony in the areas of
the State of Tripura where disturbed conditions prevailed, a Memorandum of Settlement was signed by the
Government of India with Tripura National Volunteers on 12 August 1988. In order to implement the said
Memorandum, Article 332 of the Constitution has been amended by the Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment)
Act, 1992 for making a temporary provision for the determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled
Tribes in the State Assembly of Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first Census
after the year 2000 under Article 170 of the Constitution.
73. The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1993---Article 40 of the Constitution which enshrines one of
the Directive Principles of State Policy lays down that the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and
endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of selfgovernment. In the light of the above, a new Part IX relating to the Panchayats has been inserted in the Constitution
to provide for among other things, Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages; constitution of Panchayats at village
and other level or levels; direct elections to all seats in Panchayats at the and intermediate level, if any and to the
offices of Chairpersons of Panchayats at such levels; reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes in proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons in Panchayats at
each level; reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women; fixing tenure of five years for Panchayats
and holding elections within a period of six months in the event of supersession of any Panchayat.
74. The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1993---In many states local bodies have become weak
and ineffective on account of a variety of reasons, including the failure to hold regular elections, prolonged
supersession and inadequate devolutions of powers and functions. As a result, Urban Local Bodies are not able to
perform effectively as vibrant democratic units of self-government. Having regarded to these inadequacies a new
part IX-A relating to the Municipalities has been incorporated in the Constitution to provide for among other things,
constitution of three types of Municipalities, i.e., Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to urban
area, Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas and Municipal Corporations for larger urban areas.
75. The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1994---The operation of the Rent Control Legislations, as are
today in various states, suffers from major weaknesses and has led to various unintended consequences. Some of
the deleterious legal consequences include mounting and mounting litigation, inability of the courts to provide timely
justice, evolution of practices and systems bypass the operations of rent legislations and steady shrinkage of rental
housing market. The Supreme Court taking note of the precarious state of rent litigation in the country in case of
Prabhakaran Nair and others vs. State of Tamil Nadu (Civil Writ Petition 506 of 1986) and other writs observed that
the Supreme Court and the High Courts should be relieved of the heavy burden of rent litigation. Tiers of appeals
should be curtailed. Laws should be simple, rational and clear, litigations must come to end quickly. Therefore, this
Act amends Article 323B in Part XIVA of the Constitution so as to give timely relief to the rent litigants by providing
for setting up of state-level Rent Tribunals in order to reduce the tiers of appeals and to exclude the jurisdiction of all
courts, except that of the Supreme Court, under Article 136 of the Constitution.
76. The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994---The policy of reservation of seats in educational
institutions and reservation of appointments or posts in public services for Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes has had a long history in Tamil Nadu dating back to the year 1921. The extent of reservation has
been increased by the State Government from time to time, consistent with the needs of the majority of the people
and it has now reached the level of 69 per cent (18 per cent Scheduled Castes, one per cent Scheduled Tribes and
50 per cent Other Backward Classes). The Supreme Court in Indira Sawhney and others vs. Union of India and
others (AIR, 1993 SC 477) on 16 November 1992 ruled that the total reservations under Article 16(4) should not
exceed 50 per cent. The Tamil Nadu Government enacted a legislation, namely, Tamil Nadu Backward Classes,
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institution and of appointments or posts
in the Services under the State) Bill, 1993 and forwarded it to the Government of India for consideration of the
President of India in terms of Article 31-C of the Constitution. The Government of India supported the provision of
the State legislation by giving the President's assent to the Tamil Nadu Bill. As a corollary to this decision, it was
necessary that the Tamil Nadu Act 45 of 1994 was brought within the purview of the Ninth Schedule to the
Constitution so that it could get protection under Article 31B of the Constitution with regard to the judicial review.
77. The Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995---The Schedule Castes and the scheduled tribes
have been enjoying the facility of reservation in promotion since 1955. The Supreme Court in its judgment dated 16
November 1992 in the case of Indira Sawhney and others vs. Union of India and others, however, observed that
reservation of appointments or posts under Article 16(4) of the Constitution is confined to initial appointment and
cannot extend to reservation in the matter of promotion. This ruling of the Supreme Court will adversely affect the
interests of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Since the representation of the Scheduled Castes and
the Scheduled Tribes in services in the States have not reached the required level, it is necessary to continue the
existing dispensation of providing reservation in promotion in the case of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled
Tribes. In view of the commitment of the Government to protect the interests of the Scheduled Castes and the
Scheduled Tribes, the Government has decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. To carry out this, it was necessary to amend Article 16 of the
Constitution by inserting a new clause (4A) in the said Article to provide for reservation in promotion for the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
78. The Constitution (Seventy-eighth Amendment) Act, 1995---Article 31B of the Constitution confers on the
enactments included in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution immunity from legal challenge on the ground that
they violate the fundamental rights enshrined in Part III of the Constitution. The Schedule consists of list of laws
enacted by various state governments and Central Government which inter alia affect rights and interest in property
including land. In the past, whenever, it was found that progressive legislation conceived in the interest of the public
was imperilled by litigation, recourse was taken to the Ninth Schedule. Accordingly, several State enactments
relating to land reforms and ceiling on agricultural land holdings have already been included in the Ninth Schedule.
Since the Government is committed to give importance to land reforms, it was decided to include land reform laws in
the Ninth Schedule so that they are not challenged before the courts. The state governments of Bihar, Karnataka,
Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal had suggested the inclusion of some of their Acts relating to
land reforms in the Ninth Schedule. Since the amendment to Acts which are already placed in the Ninth Schedule are
not automatically immunised from legal challenge, a number of amending Acts along with a few principal Acts have
been included in the Ninth Schedule so as to ensure that implementation of these Acts is not adversely affected by
litigation.
79. The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act, 1999---By this Act the Government has extended the
reservations of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes as well as for the Anglo-Indians in the
House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States for another ten years.
80. The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000---Based on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance
Finance Commission, an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States has been enacted
by the Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act 2000. Under the new scheme of devolution of revenue between
Union and the States, 26 per cent out of gross proceeds of Union taxes and duties is to be assigned to the States in
lieu of their existing share in the income-tax excise duties, special excise duties and grants in lieu of tax on railway
passenger fares.
81. The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000---By this amendment the unfilled vacancies of a year
which were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for being filled up in that year in accordance
with any provision for reservations made under Article 16 of the Constitution, shall be considered as a separate class
of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years, and such class of vacancies shall not be considered
together with the vacancies of the year in which they were filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent
reservation against total number of vacancies of that year.
82. The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000---The amendment provides that nothing in Article 335
shall prevent the State from making any provision in favour of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the
Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation for
reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with affairs of the Union
or of a State.
83. The Constitution (Eighty-third Amendment) Act, 2000---The Act amended Acticle 243M of the Constitution to
provide that no reservation in Panchayats need be made in favour of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal Pradesh
wholly inhabited by tribal population.
84. The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001---The Act amended provisos to articles 82 and 170(3)
of the Constitution to readjust and rationalise the territorial constitutencies in the States, without altering the
number of seats allotted to each State in House of People and Legislative Assemblies of the States, including the
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes constituencies, on the basis of the population ascertained at the census for
the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of population/electorate in different
constituencies. It is also to refix the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in
the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States on the of the basis of the population
ascertained at the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of
population/electorate in different constituencies. It is also to refix the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes
and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the Feroc and the Legislative Assemblies of the States on the basis of the
population ascertained at the cersit for the year 1991.
85. The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2001---This Act amended article 16(14A) of the Constitution to
provide for consequential seniority in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of reservation for the Government
servants belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. It also provides retrospective effect from 17th
day of June 1995.
86. The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002---The Act deals with insertion of a new article 21A after
article 21. The new article 21A deals with Right to Education---"The State shall provide free and compulsory
education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine".
Substitution of new Article for Article 45. For Article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted,
namely, Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. Article 45: "The
State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six
years." Article 51A of the Constitution was amended and a new clause (k) was added after clause (j), namely, "(k)
who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between
the age of six and fourteen years."
87. The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003 - In Article 81 of the Constitution, in clause (3), in
the proviso, in clause (ii), for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted. In Article 82 of the
Constitution, in the third proviso, in clause (ii), for the figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted. In
Article 170 of the Constitution, - (i) in clause (2), in the Explanation, in the proviso, for the figures "1991", the
figures "2001" shall be substituted; (ii) in clause (3), in the Explanation, in the third proviso, for the figures "1991",
the figures "2001" shall be substituted. In Article 330 of the constitution, in the Explanation, in the proviso, for the
figures "1991", the figures "2001" shall be substituted.
88. The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003 - It shall come into force on such date as the Central
Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. After Article 268 of the Constitution, the following
article shall be inserted, namely: "268A. (1) Taxes on services shall be levied by the Government of India and such
tax shall be collected and appropriated by the Government of India and the States in the manner provided in clause
(2). (2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such tax levied in accordance with the provisions of clause (1) shall
be - (a) collected by the Government of India and the States; (b) appropriated by the Government of India and the
States, in accordance with such principles of collection and appropriation as may be formulated by Parliament by
law". In Article 270 of the constitution, in clause (1), for the words and figures "Article 268 and 269", the words,
figures and letter "Articles 268, 268A and 269" shall be substituted. In the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, in
List I-Union List, after entry 9.2B, the following entry shall be inserted, namely: "92C. Taxes on services".
89. The Constitution (Eighty-ninth Amendment) Act, 2003-It shall come into force on such date as the Central
Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. In Article 338 of the Constitution, - (a) for the
marginal heading, the following marginal heading shall be substituted, namely : "National Commission for :
Scheduled Castes"; (b) for clauses (1) and (2), the following clauses shall be substituted, namely: "(1) There shall
be a Commission for the Scheduled Castes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes. (2)
Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall consist of a
Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service and tenure of office of the
Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule
determine"; (c) in clauses (5), (9) and (10), the words "and Scheduled Tribes", wherever they occur, shall be
omitted. After Article 338 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely: "338A. (1) There shall
be a Commission for the Scheduled Tribes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes. (2)
Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall consist of a
Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service and tenure of office of the
Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule
determine. (3) The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the
President by warrant under his hand and seal. (4) The Commission shall have the power to regulate its own
procedure. (5) It shall be the duty of the Commission - (a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the
safeguards provided for the Scheduled Tribes under this Constitution or under any other law for the time being in
force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such safeguards; (b) to inquire into
specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes; (c) to
participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes and to
evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State; (d) to present to the President, annually
and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards; (e) to
make in such reports recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for the
effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-economic
development of the Scheduled Tribes; and (f) to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare
and development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any
law made by Parliament, by rule specify. (6) The President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House
of Parliament along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the
recommendations relating to the Union and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such
recommendations. (7) Where any such report, or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any State
Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the Governor of the State who shall cause it to
be laid before the Legislature of the State along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be
taken on the recommendations relating to the State and reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such
recommendations. (8) The Commission shall, while investigating any matter referred to in sub-clause(a) or inquiring
into any complaint referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (5), have all the powers of a civil court trying a suit and in
particular in respect of the following matters, namely: (a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person
from any part of India and examining him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; (c)
receiving evidence on affidavits; (d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (e)
issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents; (f) any other matter which the President may,
by rule, determine. (9) The Union and every State Government shall consult the Commission on all major policy
matters affecting Scheduled Tribes".
Indian Space Programme
Indian Election Comission
Election Comission in India - Chief Election Commisioners of India
An independent Election Commission has been established under the Constitution in order to carry out and regulate the
holding of elections in India.
The Election Commission was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25th January 1950. Originally a Chief
Election Commissioner ran the commission, but first in 1989 and later again in 1993 two additional Election Commissioners
were appointed.The Election Commission is responsible for the conduct of elections to parliament and state legislatures and
to the offices of the President and Vice-President.
The Election Commission prepares, maintains and periodically updates the Electoral Roll, which shows who is entitled to vote,
supervises the nomination of candidates, registers political parties, monitors the election campaign, including candidates’
funding. It also facilitates the coverage of the election process by the media, organises the polling booths where voting takes
place, and looks after the counting of votes and the declaration of results. All this is done to ensure that elections can take
place in an orderly and fair manner.
At present, there are two Election Commissioners appointed by the President. Chief Election Commissioner can be removed
from office only by parliamentary impeachment. The Commission decides most matters by consensus but in case of any
dissension, the majority view prevails.
CHIFE ELECTION COMMISSIONERS OF INDIA
Sukumar Sen
21 March 1950-19 December 1958
K.V.K. Sundaram
20 December 1958-30 September 1967
S.P. Sen Verma
1 October 1967-30 September 1972
Dr Nagendra Singh
1 October 1972-6 February 1973
T. Swaminathan
7 February 1973-17 June 1977
S.L. Shakdhar
18 June 1977-17 June 1982
R.K. Trivedi
18 June 1982-31 December 1985
R.V.S. Peri Sastri
1 January 1986-25 November 1990
Smt V.S. Rama Devi
26 November 1990-11 December 1990
T.N. Seshan
12 December 1990-11 December 1996
M.S. Gill
12 December 1996-13 June 2001
J.M. Lyngdoh
14 June 2001-7 February 2004
T.S. Krishna Murthy
8 February 2004-15 May 2005
B.B. Tandon
16 May 2005-07 February 2006
N. Gopalaswamy
8 February 2006 - 30 April 2009
Navin Chawla
2 May 2009 - 30th July 2010
Dr. S. Y. Quraishi
30th July 2010
Indian Parliament
Indian Parliament
Parliament of India
Parliament
Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India. The Indian Parliament comprises of the President and the two HousesLok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The President has the power to summon and prorogue
either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha.
The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950. The first general elections under the new Constitution were
held during the year 1951-52 and the first elected Parliament came into being in April, 1952, the Second Lok Sabha in April,
1957, the Third Lok Sabha in April, 1962, the Fourth Lok Sabha in March, 1967, the Fifth Lok Sabha in March, 1971, the
Sixth Lok Sabha in March, 1977, the Seventh Lok Sabha in January, 1980, the Eighth Lok Sabha in December, 1984, the
Ninth Lok Sabha in December, 1989, the Tenth Lok Sabha in June, 1991, the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May, 1996, the Twelfth
Lok Sabha in March, 1998, Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October, 1999, Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2004 and Fifteenth Lok
Sabha in April, 2009.
Rajya Sabha
The origin of Rajya Sabha can be traced back to 1919, when in pursuance to the Government of India Act, 1919, a second
chamber known as the Council of States was created. This Council of States, comprising of mostly nominated members was a
deformed version of second chamber without reflecting true federal features. The Council continued to function till India
became independent. The Rajya Sabha, its Hindi nomenclature was adopted in 23 August, 1954.
The Rajya Sabha is to consist of not more than 250 members - 238 members representing the States and Union Territories,
and 12 members nominated by the President.
Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. However, one third of the members retire every second
year, and are replaced by newly elected members. Each member is elected for a term of six years.
The Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The House also elects a Deputy Chairman from among
its members. Besides, there is also a panel of "Vice Chairmen" in the Rajya Sabha. The senior most Minister, who is a
member of Rajya Sabha, is appointed by the Prime Minister as Leader of the House.
Lok Sabha
Parliamentary institutions in India, with all their modern ramifications, owe their origin to India's British connections. Until
1853, there was no legislative body distinct from the Executive. The Charter Act of 1853, for the first time provided some
sort of a legislature in the form of a 12 member Legislative Council. The Indian Independence Act, 1947 declared the
Constituent Assembly of India to be a full sovereign body. Apart from being a Constitution drafting body, it also assumed full
powers for the governance of the country. With the coming into force of the Constitution on 26 January, 1950, the
Constituent Assembly functioned as the Provisional Parliament until the first Lok Sabha, then known as the House of People,
and was constituted following General Elections in 1952. Lok Sabha, the Hindi nomenclature was adopted on 14 May, 1954.
The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of Universal Adult Suffrage.
The Constitution provides that the maximum strength of the House be 552 members - 530 members to represent the States,
20 members to represent the Union Territories, and 2 members to be nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian
Community. At present, the strength of the House is 545 members.
The term of the Lok Sabha, unless dissolved, is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a
proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one
year at a time and not extending in any case, beyond a period of six months after the proclamation has ceased to operate.
Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
1.
Members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the eligible voters. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected
members of State Legislative Assemblies in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of
single transferable vote.
2.
The normal life of every Lok Sabha is 5 years only while Rajya Sabha is a permanent body.
3.
Lok Sabha is the House to which the Council of Ministers is responsible under the Constitution. Money Bills can only
be introduced in Lok Sabha. Also it is Lok Sabha, which grants the money for running the administration of the
country.
4.
Rajya Sabha has special powers to declare that it is necessary and expedient in the national interest that Parliament
may make laws with respect to a matter in the State List or to create by law one or more all-India services common
to the Union and the States.
Functions and Powers
The cardinal functions of the Legislature include overseeing of administration, passing of budget, ventilation of public
grievances, and discussing various subjects like development plans, international relations, and national policies. The
Parliament can, under certain circumstances, assume legislative power with respect to a subject falling within the sphere,
exclusively reserved for the states. The Parliament is also vested with powers to impeach the President, remove judges of
Supreme and High Courts, the Chief Election Commissioner, and Comptroller and Auditor General in accordance with the
procedure laid down in the Constitution. All legislation requires the consent of both Houses of Parliament. In the case of
Money Bills, the will of the Lok Sabha prevails. The Parliament is also vested with the power to initiate amendments in the
Constitution.
Parliament of Other Countries
Parliament of Other Countries
Parliament of Other Countries
Country
Parliament
Afghanistan
Shora
Australia
Parliament
Bangladesh
Jatia Parliament
Bhutan
Tasongadu
Canada
Parliament
China
National People Congress
Denmark
Folketing
Egypt
People’s Assembly
France
National Assembly
Germany
Bundestag
Great Britain
Parliament
India
Parliament (Sansad)
Iran
Majlis
Ireland
Dail Eireann
Israel
Knesset
Official Books of Various Country
Japan
Diet
Blue Book - An official report of the British Government.
Malaysia
Majlis
Green Book - Official Publications of Itali and Persia
Maldive
Majlis
Magnolia
Khural
Grey Book - Official reports of the Government of Japan
and Belgium.
Nepal
Rasthtriya Panchayat
Netherlands
States General
Norway
Storting
Pakistan
National Assembly
Orange Book - Official publication of the Govt. of
Netharlands.
White Book - Official publications of China, Germany and
Potugal.
White Paper - Official Paper of the Govt. of Britain and
India on a particular issue.
Yellow Book - Official paper of the Govt. of France.
Poland
Scym
Spain
Crotes
Sweden
Riksdag
South Africa
Parliament
Switzerland
Federal Assembly
Russia
Duma
Taiwan
Yuan
Turkey
Grand National Assembly
U.S.A.
Congress
Indian Space Programme
Indian Space Programme
Despite being a developing economy with its attendant problems, India has effectively developed space technology and has
applied it successfully for its rapid development and today is offering a variety of space services globally. During the
formative decade of 1960s, space research was conducted by India mainly with the help of sounding rockets. The Indian
Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was formed in 1969. Space research activities were provided additional fillip with the
formation of the Space Commission and the Department of Space by the government of India in 1972. And, ISRO was
brought under the Department of Space in the same year. In the history of the Indian space programme, 70s were the era of
Experimentation during which experimental satellite programmes like Aryabhatta, Bhaskara, Rohini and Apple were
conducted. The success of those programmes, led to era of operationalisation in 80s during which operational satellite
programmes like INSAT and IRS came into being. Today, INSAT and IRS are the major programmes of ISRO.
The most significant milestone of the Indian Space Programme during the year 2005-2006 was the successful launch of
PSLV-C6. On 5 May 2005, the ninth flight of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C6) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre
(SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota successfully placed two satellites - the 1560 kg CARTOSTAR-1 and 42kg HAMSAT - into a
predetermined polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO). Coming after seven launch successes in a row, the success of PSLV-C6
further demonstrated the reliability of PSLV and its capability to place payloads weighing demonstrated the reliability of PSLV
and its capability to place payloads weighing up to 1600 kg satellites into a 600 km high polar SSO.
The successful launch of INSAT-4A, the heaviest and most powerful satellite built by India so far, on 22 December 2005 was
the other major event of the year 2005- 06. INSAT-4A is capable of providing Direct-To-Home (DTM) television broadcasting
Services.)
Indian National Satellite System
The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the AsiaPacific region. In the 1980s, it initiated a major revolution in India's communications sector and sustained the same later.
The satellites of INSAT system, which are in service today, are INSAT-2F, INSAT-3A, INSAT-3B, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E,
KALPANA-1, GSAT-2, EDUSAT and INSAT-4A, that was launched recently. The system provides a total of about 175
transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands. Being a multipurpose satellite system, INSAT provides services to
telecommunications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue fields.
INSAT system is also providing meteorological services through Very High Resolution Radiometer and CCD cameras on some
of its spacecraft. This apart, cyclone monitoring through meteorological imaging and issue of warnings on impending cyclones
through disaster warning receivers have been operationalised. For this, 350 receivers have been installed along the east and
west coasts of India.
Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System
India has the largest constellation of Remote Sensing Satellites, which are providing services both at the national and global
levels. From the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellites, data is available in a variety of spatial resolutions staring from 360
metres and highest resolution being 2.5 metres. Besides, the state-of-the-art cameras of IRS spacecraft take the pictures of
the Earth in several spectral bands. In future, ISRO intends to launch IRS spacecraft with better spatial resolution and
capable of imaging day and night. The satellites of IRS system which are in service today are IRS-1C, IRS- ID, IRS-P3,
OCEANSAT-1, Technology Experimental Satellite (TES), RESOURCESAT-1, and the recently launched CARTOSAT-1 capable of
taking stereo pictures. The upcoming Remote Sensing Satellite are Cartosat-2, RISAT (Redar Imaging Satellite) and
Oceansat-2.
Launch Vehicles
After successfully testing the first indigenous launch vehicle SLV-3 in 1980, ISRO built the next generation Augmented
Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV). ISRO's Launch Vehicle Programme had a giant leap with the successful launch of IRS-P2
spacecraft onboard the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in October 1994. On 18 April 2001, India successfully launched
is Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Technology development for advanced launch vehicles made good
progress with the breakthrough achieved during the year in Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET) to be employed in
Air-Breathing engine. This is an important element in the launch vehicle technology development. Concepts for reusable
launch vehicle are also being studied.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
The four stages PSLV is capable of launching upto 1,600 kg satellites into a 620 km polar orbit. It has provision to launch
payloads from 100 kg micro-satellites or mini or small satellites in different combinations. It can also launch one-two class
payloads into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). So far, it has performed nine missions with eight consecutive successes.
The latest launch of PSLV (PSLV-C6) was on 5 May 2005 during which the vehicle precisely placed the 1560 kg CARTOSAT-1
and the 42 kg HAMSAT into a 620 km high polar SSO.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
The GSLV was successful on its very first test flight. After its successful second flight on 8 May 2003, it was commissioned.
This was followed by the success of its third flight on 20 September 2004. The GSLV is capable of launching 2,000 kg class
satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The development of Indigenous cryogenic stage to be used as the third
stage of GSLV made further progress during the year. The cryogenic engine which forms part of this stage, has already been
successfully qualified. GSLV-Mk III, a new version of GSLV and capable of launching spacecraft weighing upto 4 tonnes to
GTO is under development.
Launch Infrastructure
An elaborate launch infrastructure exists at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota Island on the East
Coast of India which is about 100 km from Chennai. Sriharikota is located at 13$dG North latitude. From here, satellites can
be launched into a variety of orbital inclinations starting from 18$dG and extending upto 99$dG. Full-fledged facilities for
satellite integration, assembly and launch exist there. Sriharikota also houses a Telemetry, Tracking and Command network
for tracking satellites and monitoring them. The newly built Second Launch Pad at SDSE SHAR as a redundancy to the
existing launch pad, and to cater to the requirement of GSLV-Mk III as well as other future launch vehicles, was
commissioned on 5 May 2005 with the successful launch of PSLV-C6.
Space-Industry Co-Operation
One of the important features of the Indian Space Programme since its inception has been the co-operative approach with
the Indian industries. The Department of Space (DOS) has established linkages with about 500 industries in small, medium
and large-scale sectors, either through procurement contracts, know-how transfers or provision of technical consultancy.
Because of its association with the space programme, the space industry is now capable of meeting the challenges in terms
of adopting advanced technologies or handling complex manufacturing jobs.
Interface with Academic and R&D Institutions
The ISRO has an active programme to interact with academic and research institutions all over the country for the benefit of
our space programme. In this regard, the Sponsored Research Programme (RESPOND) is an important component of DOS.
Under RESPOND, DOS support research and educational activities at universities, individual colleges, and at the Indian
Institutes of Technology as well as other research institutions. During the year 2005-2006, 13 projects were successfully
completed and 62 new projects were initiated at 42 academic institutions comprising universities, colleges and research
institutions. In addition to research projects, DOS supported 73 conferences, symposia, educational and promotional
activities in the areas of importance to ISRO, besides providing support to ISRO-institutional chairs at reputed institutions.
International Co-Operation
From the days of its inception, ISRO has had a very good record of international cooperation. It has Memoranda of
Understanding / Agreements with 26 countries / space agencies. A UN sponsored Centre for Space Science and Technology
Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTE-AP) set up in India has trained more than 400 personnel of the Asia-pacific region.
during the year, CSSTE-AP completed 10 years. In addition, ISRO provides training in space applications to personnel of
developing countries through its Sharing of Experience in Space (SHARES) programme. ISRO has launched scientific
payloads of other space agencies like Modular Opto-electronic Scanner of DLR, Germany that was flown on IRS-P3 spacecraft
and the data is being shared by scientists of DLR, India and the US. It has a co-operative agreement with NASA / NOAA for
the reception of meteorological data from INSAT spacecraft by those agencies.
Megha-Tropiques is a joint satellite mission of ISRO and French Space Agency CNES for atmospheric studies. The satellite will
be built and launched by ISRO and CNES will develop two of the payloads and the third payload jointly with ISRO. At the
same time, scientific instruments developed in the United States, Germany, Sweden, UK and Bulgaria will be launched on
board India's Chadrayaan-1 spacecraft. This apart, an Italian scientific instrument will be included onboard India's
OCEANSAT. 2 satellites. Instruments for astronomical observation jointly developed with Israel and Canada will be flown
onboard India's GSAT-4 and RISAT satellites respectively. And, an Indian scientific instrument to study solar physics and
solar-terrestrial sciences will be flown onboard Russia's CORONAS-PHOTON satellite.
India has also set up three local User Terminals and a Mission Control Centre for the international COSPAS / SARSAT
programme for providing distress alert and position location service. A search and Rescue Transponder is included in INSAT3A spacecraft. India is a signatory to the International Charter on Disaster Management and is providing remote sensing data
for the same.
Antrix
Antrix, the commercial front of the Department of Space, is a single window agency for marketing Indian space capabilities.
It is playing a key role in the worldwide availability or IRS data through Geoeye, USA. Antrix also provides IRS data
processing equipment.
Antrix offers launch services using India's PSLV. Two German, one Korean and one Belgian satellites have already been
successfully launched by PSLV. Through Antrix, Telemetry, Tracking and Command support from the Indian ground stations
are offered. Similarly, lease of transponders from INSAT system is possible. In this regard, 11 transponders have already
been leased to INTELSAT. Customers for the spacecraft components offered by Antrix include world's leading spacecraft
manufacturers.
During the year, an agreement was entered into with EADS Astrium, Paris for the joint manufacture of 200 kg and 300 kg
class satellite platforms for the telecommunications market. Besides, Antrix won contracts from Europe and Asia for launch
services in the highly competitive international markets. After the successful development of a low cost, compact, modular
and rugged Automatic Weather Station (AWS) in co-ordination with industry, the technology has been licensed to industry for
regular production.
Thus, in addition to successfully developing spacecraft and launch vehicle technologies indigenously, India has also been
successful in the application of satellite technology to benefit its national economy. At the same time, India has also been
sharing space-based information with the international community and providing commercial space services globally.
Indian Cinema
Indian Cinema
57th National Film Awards
Bollywood marked its stamp on the 57th National Film Awards as Amitabh Bachchan won the best actor award for his
performance in "Paa" and Aamir Khan- starrer "3 Idiots" was adjudged the best popular movie.
However, it was Malayalam drama "Kutty Srank" which walked away with five awards, including the best feature film.
"Kutty Srank", with Mammoothy in the lead, also won awards for best cinematography, best screenplay, best costume and
a special jury recognition, which it shared with Bollywood hit "Kaminey" and Malayalam film "Kerala Varma Pazhassi
Raja".
Raykesh Omprakash Mehra's "Delhi 6", shot in the bylanes of Old Delhi, bagged the Nargis Dutt award for best feature
film on national integration while Shyam Benegal's "Well Done Abba" was chosen as the best film on social issues.
R Balki's "Paa", was also named the best Hindi film, besides winning recognitions in the best supporting actress category
(Arundhuti Nag) and best make-up (Christein Tinsley and Dominie Till).
Amit Trivedi got the best music director award for Anurag Kashyap's "Dev-D", a modern take on Sarat Chandra
Chattopadhyay's classic "Devdas".
The emotional number 'Behti hawa sa tha woh' from "3 Idiots" bagged the best lyrics award for Swanand Kirkere.
Ananya Chatterjee was named the best actress for her role in the Bengali film "Abohoman", which also fetched the best
direction award for Rituparno Ghosh and best editing for Arghyakamal Mitra, besides being adjudged the best Bengali
movie.
Farooq Sheikh was named the best supporting actor for his role in Sanjay Puran Singh Chauhan's "Lahore", which also
won the 'Indira Gandhi Award for best debut film.
Rupam Islam was chosen as the best male playback singer for his rendering of 'Kolakata' in the Bengali film
"Mahanagar" while the best female playback was awarded to Nilanjana Sarkar for another Bengali movie "Houseful".
While producer Reliance Big Picture and Director Shaji N Karun of "Kutty Srank" will get the Swarna Kamal and Rs
2,50,000 each, the producer and director of "3 Idiots" -- Vidhu Vinod Chopra and Raj Kumar Hirani -- would get the
Swarna Kamal and Rs 2,00,000 each. Bachchan would get a Rajat Kamal and Rs 50,000.
The awards were announced by chairpersons of each of the three juries for feature films, non-feature films and film writing.
Ramesh Sippy, chairperson of the jury on feature films, said the system adopted for selection of movies this time was a twotier one in which a regional jury first screened the films from five regions after which a central jury went through them.
He said that based on discussions, the jury had decided to recall five films which had not made it in the first list at the level
of the regional juries.
Out of these, two -- "Natrang" (best film in Marathi) and "Houseful" (best female playback) won awards.
The best children's film award was shared by "Putaani Party" in Kannada and "Keshu" in Malayalam.
Jeeva and Anba Karaus share the best child actor award.
Telegu film "Magadheera" bagged awards for special effects and choreography.
Well known music director Ilayaraja got the award for the award best background score for "Kerala Verma Pazasi Raja".
The Best audiography award was shared by Oscar winner Resool Pookutty for "Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja', Subash Sahoo
(location sound) for "Kaminey" and Anup Dev (re-recordist of the final missed track) for "3 Idiots".
Dada Saheb Phalke Award
The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is an annual award given by the Indian government for lifetime contribution to Indian
cinema. It was instituted in 1969, the birth centenary year of Dadasaheb Phalke, considered the father of Indian cinema.
The award for a particular year is given during the end of the following year along with the National Film Awards.
The Bombay High Court had directed the Directorate of Film Festivals of India (DFFI) to consider uncensored films for
the competition, a case which DFFI contested and won in the Supreme Court in late 2006. The case had delayed
announcement of the award for 2006, which was announced in the middle of 2008. The 2007 award which had to be
announced at the end of 2008 was announced in September 2009.
Renowned playback singer Manna Dey has been nominated for the prestigious Dada Saheb Phalke award for the year
2007.
First Awardee was Devika Rani (1969).
Recipient
Contribution AS
Year
Manna Dey
Singer
2007
Tapan Sinha
Director
2006
Shyam Benegal
Director
2005
Adoor Gopalakrishnan Director
2004
Mrinal Sen
Director
2003
Dev Anand
Actor, Director, Producer
2002
Yash Chopra
Director, Producer
2001
Asha Bhosle
Singer
2000
Hrishikesh Mukherjee
Director
1999
B.R. Chopra
Director, Producer
1998
Pradeep
Lyricist, Poet
1997
Sivaji Ganesan
Actor
1996
Dr. Raj Kumar
Actor, Singer, Producer
1995
Actor
1994
Lyricist
1993
Dilip Kumar
Majrooh Sultanpuri
Bhupen Hazarika
Composer, Singer, Producer
1992
Bhalji Pendharkar
Producer, Director
1991
A. Nageshwar Rao
Actor
1990
Singer, Producer
1989
Actor, Singer
1988
Actor, Director
1987
B. Nagi Reddi
Producer
1986
V.Shantaram
Director, producer, actor
1985
Director, Producer
1984
Durga Khote
Actress
1983
L.V. Prasad
Actor, Director, Producer
1982
Naushad
Composer
1981
Jairaj
Actor, Director, Producer
1980
Sohrab Modi
Actor, Director, Producer
1979
R.C. Boral
Composer
1978
Nitin Bose
Cinematographer, Director, Producer 1977
Kanan Devi
Actress, Singer, Producer
1976
Dhiren Ganguly
Actor, Director, Producer
1975
B.N. Reddi
Director, Producer
1974
Sulochana
Actress
1973
Pankaj Mallick
Singer, Actor, Composer
1972
Prithviarj Kapoor
Actor, Director, Producer
1971
B.N. Sircar
Producer
1970
Devika Rani
Actress
1969
Lata Mangeshkar
Ashok Kumar
Raj Kapoor
Satyajit Ray
International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) Award – 2009
International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) Award – 2009
The three-day International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) award ceremony kicked off on Macau on June 11. Bollywood
superstar Amitabh Bachchan Inaugrated the 10th edition of the prestigious event by planting a lotus Flower, the official
flower of both India and Macau. Amitabh Bachchan is the brand ambassador of IIFA. The award Ceremony has travelled
across continents from London, Yorkshire and Amsterdam in Europe, Johannesburg and Sun City in South Africa and
Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Bangkok in Asia. The IIFA awards 2009 were given on June 13. Ashutosh Gowariker’s
historical romance ‘ Jodhaa Akbar’ swept the International Indian Film Acadmey (IIFA) awards 2009 with a perfect 10 bag of
trophies , being named the best film and fetching its male lead Hrithik Roshan the best actor award and Ashutosh Gowarikar
the best Director award. The IIFA and Green globe Foundation presented an award to Rahul Bose for his Contribution to
Creating awareness on global warming. Bollywood’s veteran actor Rajesh Khanna, fondly called kaka by his fans was
awarded the lifetime acheivment award. The 66-year-old thespian attained the heights of superstardom in the 70’s with his
remarkable performances in films like Amar Prem, Aradhana, Kati Patang and others.
Best Film – Jodhaa Akbar.
Best Actor in a Leading Role – Male – Hrithik Roshan – Jodhaa Akbar.
Best Actor in a Leading Role Female – Priyanka Chopra – Fashion.
Best Director – Ashutosh Gowarikar – Jodhaa Akbar.
Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Male – Arjun Rampal – Rock on!!.
Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Female – Kangana Ranaut – fashion.
Best Actor in a Negative Role – Akshaye khanna - Race.
Best Story – Neeraj Pandey - A Wednesday.
Outstanding Achievment by an Indian in International Cinema – Aishwarya Rai Bachchan.
Lifetime Achievment Award - Rajesh khanna.
Best music – A R Rahman – Jodhaa Akbar.
Best lyrics – Javed Akhtar – Jashn-E-Banaraa (Jodhaa Akbar).
Best Playback Singer- Male- Javed Ali – Jashn-E-Bahara (Jodhaa Akbar).
Best Playback Singer – Female –Shreya Ghoshal – Teri ore (Singh is King).
Best Dialogue – Manu Ishi – Oye Lucky! Lucky oye!
Longest, Largest, Biggest, Smallest, Tallest and Highest
Longest, Largest, Biggest, Smallest, Tallest and Highest
Longest river (India)
Ganges
Longest river (World)
Nile
The longest tributary river of India
Yamuna
The longest river of the south
Godavari
Highest mountain peak
Godwin Austin (k2)
Largest lake (Fresh water)
Wular lake (Kashmir)
Highest Dam
Bhakra Dam (Punjab)
Largest Mosque
Jama Masjid, Delhi
Longest Road
Grand Trunk Road
State with longest coastline
Gujarat
Largest railway route
From Jammu to Kanya Kumari
Longest tunnel
Jawahar tunnel (Jammu & Kashmir)
Longest national highway
NH-7which
runs
Kanyakumari
Longest Dam
Hirakod Dam (Orissa)
Longest River Bride
Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna
Longest populated city
Mumbai (1.60 crore)
Largest Museum
National Museum, Kolkata
Largest Delta
Sunderban Delta, W. Bengal
Largest Dome
Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur (Karnataka)
Largest Zoo
Zoological Gardens, Alipur, Kolkata
Largest man-made Lake
Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam)
Largest Desert
Thar (Rajasthan)
Highest Tower
Pitampura Tower, Delhi
Smallest State (Area)
Goa
Smallest State (Population)
Sikkim
Highest Waterfall
Gersoppa waterfall (Karnataka)
Longest Electric railway line
From Delhi to Kolkata via Patna
Densest populated State
West Bengal
Largest cave temple
Kailash temple, Ellora (Maharashtra)
Largest animal Fair
Sonepur (Bihar)
Highest Gateway
Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri (Agra)
Biggest Hotel
Oberal –Sharaton (Mumbai)
Largest State (Area)
Rajasthan
from
Varanasi
to
Largest State (Population)
Uttar Pradesh
Place of heaviest rainfall
Mausinram (Meghalaya)
Largest corridor
Rameshwaram temple corridor (Tamil Nadu)
Largest cantilever span bride
Howrah Bridge (Kolkata)
Largest forest state
M.P.
Highest straight gravity Dam
Bhakra Dam
Longest Railway Platform
Kharagpur (W. Bengal)
Largest Stadium
Salt lake (Yuva Bhaeti), Kolkata
Largest Port
Mumbai
Highest Lake
Devatal (Garhwal)
Largest Lake (Saline water)
Chika lake, Orissa
Highest Award
Bharat Ratna
Highest Gallantry Award
Paramveer Chakra
Largest Gurudwara
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Deepest river valley
Bhagirathi & Alaknanda
State with longest coastline of South India
Andhra Pradesh
Longest river which forms estuary
Narmada
Largest Church
Saint Cathedral (Goa)
Longest Beach
Marina Beach, Chennai
Highest Battle field
Siachin Glacier
Highest
Len (Laddakh)
Airport
Largest river island
Majuli (Brahmaputra river, Assam)
Largest Planetarium
Birla Planetarium (Kolkata)
Longest, Largest, Biggest, Smallest, Tallest and Highest
Animal, Tallest
Giraffe
Archipelago, Largest
Indonesia
Bird, Fastest
Swift
Bird, Largest
Ostrich
Bird, Smallest
Humming Bird
Bridge, Longest Railway
Huey P. Long Bridge, Louisiana (U.S.A.)
Building, Tallest in the World
Burj, Dubai (UAE)
Canal, Longest Irrigational
The Kalakumsky Canal
Canal, Longest
Suez Canal
Capital, Highest
La Paz (Boliva)
City, Biggest in Area
Mount Isa Australia
City, Largest in Population
Tokyo
City, Costliest
Tokyo
City, Highest
Van Chuan (China)
Continent, Largest
Asia
Continent, Smallest
Australia
Country, Biggest (Area)
Russia
Country, Largest (Population)
China
Country, Largest (Electorate)
India
Creature, Largest
Blue Whale
Delta, Largest
Sunderban (Bangladesh & India)
Desert, Largest (World)
Sahara (Africa)
Desert, Largest (Asia)
Gobi
Dam, Largest
Grand Coulee Dam (U.S.A.)
Dam, Highest
Hoover Dam (U.S.A.)
Diamond, Largest
The Cullinan
Dome, Largest
Astrodome, in Housten (U.S.A.)
Epic, Largest
Mahabharat
Irrigation Scheme, Largest
Lloyd Barrage, Sukkur (Pakistan)
Island, Largest
Greenland
Sea, Largest
Mediterranean sea
Lake, Deepest
Baikal (Siberia)
Lake, Largest (Artificial)
Lake Mead (Boulder Dam)
Lake, Highest
Titicaca (Bolivia)
Lake, Largest (Fresh water)
Superior
Lake, Largest (Salt water)
Caspian
Library, Largest
United State Library of Congress, Washington
D.C.
Mountain Peak, Highest
Everest (Nepal)
Mountain Range, Longest
Andes (S. America)
Museum, Largest
British Museum, London
Ocean, Largest
Pacific
Palace, Biggest
Vatican (Italy)
Park, Largest
Yellow Stone National Park (U.S.A.)
Peninsula, Largest
Arabia
Place, Coldest (Habitated)
Verkhoyank (Siberia)
Place, Dryest
Iqique (In Atacama Desert, Chile)
Place, Hottest
Azizia (Libya, Africa)
Place, Rainiest
Mausinram (Meghalaya, India)
Planet, Biggest
Jupiter
Planet, Brightest
Venus
Planet, Smallest
Mercury
Plateau, Highest
Pamir (Tibet)
Platform, Longest
Kharagpur (India)
Railway, Longest
Trans-Siberian railway
Railway Station, Longest
Grand Central Terminal, Chicago (U.S.A.)
River, Longest
Nile (Africa)
River, Largest
Amazon (S. America)
Sea-bird, Largest
Albatross
Star, Brightest
Sirius
Statue, Tallest
Statue of Motherland, Volgagrad (Russia)
Telescope, Largest Radio
New Mexico (U.S.A.)
Tramway, World’s first
New York
Tunnel, Longest (Railway)
Tanna (Japan)
Tunnel, Longest (Road)
Mont Blanc Tunnel between France and Italy
Volcano, Highest
Ojos del Salado (Andes, Ecuador)
Volcano, Most Active
Maunaloa (Hawail-U.S.A.)
Wall, Longest
Great wall of China
Waterfall, Highest
Angel (Venezuela)
Water, Lowest body
Dead Sea
Zoo, Largest
Kruger National Park, South Africa
Major Irrigation Projects in India
Major Irrigation Projects in India
Nagarjunasagar (Andhra Pradesh): on the Krishna river near Nandikona village (about 44 km from Hyderabad.)
Tungabhadra (Joint project of Andhra Pradesh and Karnatka): On the Tungabhadra river.
Gandak (joint project of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh): Nepal also derives irrigation and power benefits from this project.
Kosi(Bihar): A multipurpose project , which serves bihar and Nepal.
Sone high level canal (Bihar) : an extention on sone barrage project.
Kakrapara (Gujarat) : on the Tapti river near Kakrapara , in surat district.
Ukal (Gujarat): A multiupurpose project, across Tapti river near Ukai village.
Mahi (Gujarat ): A two – phase project , one across the Mahi river near Wanakbori village and the other across Mahi
river near Kadana.
Sabarmati (Gujarat): A storage dam across Sabarmati river near Dhari village in Mehsana district and Wasna barrage
near Ahmedabad.
Panam (Gujarat): A masonry dam across Panam river near Keldezar village in Panchmahals district.
Karjan(Gujarat):A masonry dam across Karjan river near Jiotgarh village in Nandoo Taluka of Bharuch district.
Bhadra (Karnataka ):A multipurpose project across the river Bhadra .
Upper Krishna (Karnataka) : A project consisting of Narayanpur dam across the Krishna river and a dam at Almatti.
Ghataprabha (Karnataka): A project across Ghataprabha in Belgaum and Bijapur districts.
Malaprabha (Karnataka) : A dam across ithe Malaprabha in Belguam district.
Tawa (Madhya Pradesh ): A project the Tawa river , a tributary of the Narmada in Hoshangabad district.
Chambal (joint project of Madhya Pradesh and rajasthan): The project comprises Gandhi Sagar dam , Rana Sagar dam
and Jawahar Sagar dam.
Mahanadi Reservoir Project (Madhya pradesh): It has three phases : (1) Ravishankar sagar project and feeder canal
system for supply of water to Bhilai Steel plant and Sandur dam across Sandur village, (2) extension of Mahanadi feeder
canal (3) Pairi dam.
Hasdeo Bango Project(Madhya Pradesh ): It the third phase of Hasdeo Bango Project complex and envisages
construction of a masonry dam across Hasdeo river. The first and second phases have been substantially completed .
Bargi Project (Madhya pradesh): It is a multipurpose project consisting of a masonry dam across Bargi river in the
Jabalpur district and a left bank a canal.
Bhima (Maharashtra) : Comprises two dams , one on the Pawana river near Phange in Pune district and the other
across the Krishna river near Ujjaini in Sholapur district.
Jayakwadi(Maharashtra) : A masonry spillway across the river Godavari .
Kukadi Project (Maharashtra) : Five independent storage dams ,i.e., Yodgaon, Manikdohi, Dimba, Wadaj and
Pimpalgaon jog . The canal system comprises (1) Kukadi left bank canal, (2) Dhimba left bank canal, (3) Dhimba right
bank canal (4)Meena feeder and (5) Meena branch .
Krishna Project (Maharashtra ): Dhom dam near Dhom village on Krishna and Kanhar village on Varna river in Satna
district.
Upper Penganga (Mahrarhtra ) : Two reservoirs on Penganga river at Isapur in Yavatmal district and the other on
Rayadhu river at Sapli in Parbhani district.
Hirakud(Orrisa): World’s longest dam, is located on the Mahanadi river.
Mahandi Delta Scheme (Orissa): The irrigation scheme will utilize releases from the Hirakud reservoir.
Bhakra Nangal (Joint project of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan): India’s biggest multipurpose river valley project
comprises a straight gravity dam across the Satlej at Bhakra, the Nangal dam, the Nangal hydal channel, two power
houses at Bhakra dam at and two power station at Ganguwal and Kotla.
Beas (Joint venture of Haryana , Punjab , and Rajasthan) : It consists of Beas-Sutlej link and Beas dam at Pong.
Thein Dam (Punjab): The project envisages Constroction of a dam across river Ravi and a power plant on its left bank.
Rajasthan Canal (Rajasthan): The Project will use water released from Pong dam will provide irrigation facilities to the
north western region of Rajasthan, i.e. a part of the thar desert . It consists of Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 167
km in Punjab and Haryana and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan ) and 445 km Rajasthan main canal entirely in
Rajasthan.
Paramblkulam Allyar (Joint venture of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) : The project envisages the integrated hamessing of
eight rivers , six in the Annamalai hills and two in the plains.
Sarda Sahayak (Uttar Praesh) : The Project envisages construction of a barrage across the river Ghagra, a link
channel, a barrage across river Sarda and a feeder channel involving constructions of two major aqueducts over Gomti
and Sai.
Ramganga(Uttar Pradesh): A Dam across Ramganga, a tributary of the Ganga river located in Garhwal district. The
Project has, besides reducing the intensity of Floods in central and western Uttar Pradesh, provided water for the Delhi
Water supply scheme.
Left Bank Ghagra Canal (Uttar Pradesh ): A link channel taking off from the left bank of Ghagra river of Girja barrage
and joining with Sarju river . Also a barrage across Sarju.
Tehri Dam (Uttar Pradesh): Earth and Rock- fill dam on Bhagirathi river in Tehri district.
Madhya Ganga Canal (Uttar Pradesh): A barrage across ganga in Bijnor district.
Farakka(West bengal) : The project was taken up for the preservation and maintenance of Calcutta Port and for
improving the navigability of the Hooghly. It comprises a barrage across the Ganga at Farakka, a barrage at Jangipur
across the Bhagirathi and a feeder channel taking off from the Ganga at Farakka and tailing at the Bhagirathi below the
Jangipur barrage.
Mayurakshi (West Bengal): An irrigation and hydro – electric Project comprises the Canada Dam.
Kangsabati (West bengal): The project envisages construction of dams on the Kangsabati and Kumari rivers.
Damodar Valley Project(West Bengal and Bihar): A multipurpose project for the unified development of irrigation,
flood control and power Generation in west Bengal and Bihar. It comprises multipurpose dams at Konar, Tilaiya, Maithon
and Panchet, hydel power stations at Tilaiya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet barrage at Durgapur; and thermal power
houses at Bokaro, Chandrapura and Durgapur. The Project is administered by the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC)
Mahatma Gandhi Quiz
Mahatma Gandhi Quiz
1. Mahatma Gandhi’s fathers name was Mr. Karamchand Gandhi and Mother was Putlibai.
2. Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar a distric of gujrat state in India.
3. He got married to Kasturbai Makanji when he was 13 years old and was blessed with two children.
4. He studied law in London between 1888 and 1891 and went to South Africa in 1893 where he opened
his own law office.
5. In 1906 Mahatma Gandhi began the Satyagraha movement in South Africa in protest to the law that all
Indians should be finger printed and should also carry an identification card. He was joined by
thousands of Indians in this civil disobedience movement.
6. Gandhi returned to India in 1915. He spent a year touring India on the advice of his political guru, Gopal
Krishna Gokhale with the idea of knowing the ‘real India’.
7. On completing the tour, Gandhi chose to settle down on the banks of river Sabarmati on the outskirts of
the city of Ahmedabad where he opened Satyagraha Ashram.
8. In India, Gandhi started the first Satyagraha in Champaran at the request of poor farmers as they were
compelled by British indigo planters to grow indigo on 15% of their land and were then forced to part
with the entire crop in lieu of rent.
9. The Satyagraha forced the British Government to setup an enquiry to evaluate the conditions of the
farmers. A committee was setup of which Gandhi too was a part and the committee ruled in favor of the
farmers. The success of the first Satyagraha movement in India played an immense role in increasing
Gandhi’s popularity in India.
10. In 1921 Gandhiji called for a non-cooperation movement against the British rule, many Indians willingly
renounced their honors and titles, lawyers gave up their practice and students left schools and colleges,
womens also entered the field of freedom struggle for the first time. This movement seriously rocked the
foundation of the British Empire in India.
11. After mob violence in Chauri Chaura which broke out in Feb 1922 Gandhiji ended non-cooperation
movement abruptly and undertook a fast for five days to atone for the crime committed by the people
during the mob hysteria.
12. Gandhi Ji devoted his time to the propagation of the basic needs such as unity among the HinduMuslims, equality of women, removal of the concept of untouchables and increasing the popularity of
hand-spinning.
13. On March 12, 1930 Gandhiji started the historic Dandi March to break the law which stated that salt
could not be made by Indians. He reached the beach at Dandi and broke the salt law on Aril 6, 1930.
14. The historic Dandi March gave strength to the entire nation to start a nation wide defiance of the law and
helped start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Within a couple of weeks, thousands were arrested and
put in jail further rocking the empire. The Viceroy Lord Irwin was forced to hold talks with Gandhi and
on March 5, 1931 the Gandhi Irwin pact was signed. After signing this pact, Gandhi left for England to
attend the First Round Table Conference.
15. During World War II the British Government in India wanted India’s help. The Congress agreed to help
but wanted a promise of Independence in return, the British Government refused.
16. In 1942, Gandhi launched the ‘Quit India’ movement. This movement led to wide spread disorders and
many violent demonstrations across India. Gandhi and other top leaders of the Congress were arrested.
During that period his wife passed away and Gandhiji too suffered from a severe attack of Malaria.
Considering his deteriorating health, in May 1944 the British Government released him from jail.
17. At the end of World War II, Britain emerged victorious and when general elections were held in 1945,
the Labor Party came into power and Atlee became the Prime Minister. He promised that a self
Government would soon be made available in India. A committee arrived from England and discussions
were held with the leaders of India about the future of the free India but these meetings failed because of
the differences in the opinion between the Congress and Muslims leaders.
18. In 1945 eventually India attain Independence but due to Jinnah’s obstinacy, the country was partitioned
into India and Pakistan. The partition caused a large amount of bloodshed between the Hindus and the
Muslims. During the entire saga, Gandhi worked relentlessly to promote the unity between the Hindus
and the Muslims and kept a fast to promote indian government for providing aid to newly bulit muslim
nation pakistan. This angered the Hindus to the extent of killing Gandhi.
19. On January 30, 1948 during a prarthna sabha he was shot by Nathu Ram Godse . The last words on his
lips were ‘Hey Ram’ (Oh God).
Most Spoken Languages
Most Spoken Languages
1. Mandarin language – China
The highest number of speakers use Mandarin language the number of speakers are crossed 1 billion plus, it is
the most widely spoken language on the planet which is based in the most populated country on the planet,
China. Speaking Mandarin can be really tough, because each word can be pronounced in four ways (or “tones”),
and a beginner will invariably have trouble distinguishing one tone from another.
To say “hello” in Mandarin, say “Ni hao” (Nee HaOW). The “Hao” is pronounced as one syllable, but the tone
requires that you let your voice drop midway, and then raise it again at the end.
2. English
While English doesn’t have the most speakers, it is the official language of more countries than any other
language. Its speakers hail from all around the world, including the U.S., Australia, England, Zimbabwe, the
Caribbean, Hong Kong, South Africa, Canada.
3. Hindustani – Number of speakers: 497 million
Hindustani is the primary language of India’s crowded population, and it encompasses a huge number of
dialects of which the most commonly spoken is Hindi. Many predict that the population of India will soon
surpass that of China, the prominence of English in India prevents Hindustani from surpassing the most popular
language in the world.
To say “hello” in Hindustani, say “Namaste”.
4. Spanish
Spanish is spoken in just about every South American and Central American country, Spain, Cuba, and the U.S.
There is a particular interest in Spanish in the U.S., as many English words are borrowed from the language,
including: tornado, bonanza, patio, quesadilla, enchilada, and taco grande supreme.
To say “hello” in Spanish, say “Hola”.
5. Russian
One of the six languages in the UN, Russian is spoken not only in the Mother Country, but also in Belarus,
Kazakhstan, and the U.S.
To say “hello” in Russian, say “Zdravstvuite” (ZDRAST-vet- yah).
6. Arabic
Arabic, one of the world’s oldest languages, is spoken in the Middle East, with speakers found in countries such
as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Egypt. Because Arabic is the language of the Koran,
millions of Moslems in other countries speak Arabic as well. So many people have a working knowledge of
Arabic, in 1974 it was made the sixth official language of the United Nations.
To say “hello” in Arabic, say “Al salaam a’alaykum” .
7. Bengali – Number of speakers: 211 million
In Bangladesh, a country of 120+ million people, just about everybody speaks Bengali. And because
Bangladesh is virtually surrounded by India, the number of Bengali speakers in the world is much higher than
people would expect.
To say “hello” in Bengali, say “Ei Je” (eye-jay).
8. Portuguese
In the 12th Century, Portugal won its independence from Spain and expanded all over the world with the help of
its famous explorers like Vasco da Gama and Prince Henry the Navigator. Because Portugal got in so early on
the exploring game, the language established itself all over the world, especially in Brazil where it’s the national
language, Macau, Angola, Venezuela, and Mozambique.
To say “hello” in Portuguese, say “Bom dia” (bohn dee-ah).
9. Malay – Indonesia
Malay Language is spoken in Malaysia and Indonesia. There are many dialects of Malay, the most popular of
which is Indonesian. But they’re all pretty much based on the same root language, which is the ninth mostspoken in the world.
To say “hello” in Indonesian, say “Selamat pagi” (se-la-maht pa-gee).
10. French
French often called the most romantic language in the world, French is spoken in countries like Belgium,
Canada, Rwanda, Cameroon, Haiti and France.
To say “hello” in French, say “Bonjour” (bone-joor).
News Papers/ Journals
News Papers/ Journals
News Papers/ Journals
Founder/Editors
Bengal Gazette (India's first news paper, 1780)
J. K. Hikki
Amrit Bazar Patrika
Shishir Kr. Ghosh & Motilal Ghosh
Keshri
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Maharatta
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Sudharak
G. K. Gokhle
Vande Mataram
Aurobindo Ghosh
Native Opinion
V. N. Mandalik
Kavivachan Sudha
Bhartendu Harishchandra
Rast Goftar (First News Paper in Gujrati)
Dadabhai Naoroji
New India
Bipin Chandra Pal
Statesman
Robert Knight
Hindu
Vir Raghavacharya & G. S. Aiyar
Sandhya
B. B. Upadhyaya
Vichar Lahiri
Krishna Shastri Chiplunkar
Hindu Patriot
Girish Chandra Ghosh
Som Prakash
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Yugantar
Bhupendra Nath Datta & Barindra Kumar Ghosh
Bombay Chronicle
Firoze Shah Mehta
Hindustan
Madan Mohan Malviya
Mooknayak
B. R. Ambedkar
Comrade
Mohammed Ali
Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq
Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Al-Hilal
Abul Kalam Azad
Al-Balagh
Abul Kalam Azad
Independent
Motilal Nehru
Punjabi
Lala Lajpat Rai
New India
Annie Besant
Commonweal
Annie Besant
Pratap
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi
Essays in Indian Economics
Mahadev Govind Ranade
Samvad Kaumudi (Bengali)
Ram Mohan Roy
Mirat-ul-Akhbar (First Persian News Paper)
Ram Mohan Roy
Indian Mirror
Devendra Nath Tagore
Nav Jeevan
M. K. Gandhi
Young India
M. K. Gandhi
Harijan
M. K. Gandhi
Prabudha Bharat
Swami Vivekananda
Udbodhana
Swami Vivekananda
Indian Socialist
Shyamji Krishna Verma
Talwar (in Berlin)
Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaye
Free Hinduatan
Tarak Nath Das
Hindustan Times
K. M. Pannikar
Kranti
Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate
Nobel Prize Winner
Nobel Prize Winner
Nobel Prize Winner - 2010
Winner's Name
Field
Country
Work
Konstantin Novoselov Physics
Andre Geim
Russia
For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material
graphene.
Liu Xiaobo
Peace
China
The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 was awarded to Liu Xiaobo "for his long and nonviolent struggle for fundamental human rights in China".
Mario Vargas Llosa
Literature
Peru
For his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the
individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat.
Robert G. Edwards
Medicine
UK
For the development of in vitro fertilization.
Richard
F.
Heck Chemistry USA
Ei-ichi
Negishi
USA
Akira Suzuki
Japan
For palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis.
Peter
A.
Diamond Economics USA
Dale T. Mortensen
USA
Christopher
A.
UK
Pissarides
For their analysis of markets with search frictions.
Nobel Prize Winner - 2009
Winner's Name
Field
Country
Work
Elizabeth Blackburn Medicine
Carol
Greider
Jack Szostak
USA
For the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the
enzyme telomerase.
Charles
K.
Kao Physics
Willard
S.
Boyle
George E. Smith
USA
For groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers
for optical communication. And the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit
– the CCD sensor.
V.
Ramakrishnan Chemistry UK
Thomas A. Steitz
USA
Ada E. Yonath
Israel
For studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
Barack Obama
Peace
USA
For his extraordinary efforts
cooperation between peoples.
Herta Müller
Literature
Germany For the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the
landscape of the dispossessed.
Elinor
Ostrom Economics USA
Oliver E. Williamson
to
strengthen
international
diplomacy
and
For her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons.
For his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm.
Nobel Prize Winner - 2008
Winner's Name
Field
Country
Work
Martti A
Peace
Finland
Who has worked to end conflicts in troubled spots around the world for more than
three decades.
Paul Krugman
Economics USA
For his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity.
Jean-Marie
Gustave Le Clézio
Literature
Whose work reflects a seemingly insatiable restlessness and sense of wonder
about other places and other cultures.
Harald zur Hausen Medicine
France
Germany His discovery led to the development of two vaccines against cervical cancer, the
Francoise
BarreSinoussi
Luc Montagnier
France
France
second
most
common
cancer
among
women.
The viral discovery has also led to an understanding of the natural history of
H.I.V. infection in people, which ultimately leads to AIDS and death unless
treated.
Yoichiro
Nambu Physics
Makoto Kobayashi
Toshihide Maskawa
USA
Japan
Japan
For their work exploring the hidden symmetries among elementary particles that
are the deepest constituents of nature.
Osamu Shimomura Chemistry Japan
Martin
Chalfie
USA
Roger Y. Tsien
USA
For taking the ability of some jellyfish to glow green and transforming it into a
ubiquitous tool of molecular biology to watch the dance of living cells and the
proteins within them.
Nobel Prize Winner - 2007
Winner's Name Field
Country
Work
Al
Gore Peace
R. K. Pachuri
USA
India
For their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made
climate change.
Leonid
Hurwicz Economics USA
Eric S. Maskin
Roger
B.
Myerson
For their work in mechanism design theory, a branch of economics that looks at the
design of institutions in situations where markets do not work properly.
Doris Lessing
Literature
Whose deeply autobiographical writing has swept across continents and reflects her
engagement with the social and political issues of her time.
Gerhard Ertl
Chemistry Germany Whose studies of chemical reactions on solid surfaces have affected agriculture,
manufacturing and environmental science.
UK
Mario
R. Medicine
Capecchi
Oliver
Smithies
Martin J. Evans
USA
USA
UK
For developing the immensely powerful “knockout” technology that allows scientists
to create animal models of human disease in mice.
Albert
Fert Physics
Peter Grünberg
France
They have discovered how to manipulate the magnetic and electrical properties of
Germany thin layers of atoms to store vast amounts of data on tiny disks, making iPods and
other wonders of modern life possible.
Nobel Personalities in India
Nobel Personalities in India
Nobel Personalities in India
Abdul Ghaffar Khan
He was known as the 'Frontier Gandhi'. He was a nationalist Muslim leader of the North-West Frontier
Province. He first started a militant organisation known as the 'Red Shirt', and later on joined the nonviolent Civil Disobedience Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi.
Acharya Vinoba Bhave
Saintly personality; had devoted his life to social welfare; founder of the Bhoodan movement.
Amir Khusrau
Assumed 'Parrot of India', was a famous poet and author who wrote in poetry and prose and also
composed music. He enjoyed the patronage of successive Sultans of Delhi from Balban to Ghiyas-ud-din
Tughluq. He died in 1324-25. His works include Tughluqnamah and the Tarikh-i-Alai.
Anand Mohan Bose
He was a prominent Indian public man in his times. He was the first Indian to be a Wrangler of Cambridge
University in 1873. He was the founder-secretary of the Indian Association which was established in
Calcutta in 1876, and presided over the 14th session of the Indian National Congress held in Ma
Ashutosh Mukherjee
He was an eminent lawyer and educationist. He was certainly a maker of modern Bengal, if not of India,
by virtue of his eminent services to the cause of education. At the early age of 25 he became a member
of the Senate of the Calcutta University of which he became the vice-chancellor.
Aurobindo Ghosh
An ardent nationalist who later became a saint, was educated in England. His views were readily accepted
by Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab and Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra and led to the formation of an
extremist school within the Congress.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Patriot and statesman, known as Lokmanya. He organised Extremist Party within the Congress with Lala
Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pai. Britishers called him "Father of Indian Unrest". He gave the clarion call
"Swaraj is my birth right". Tilak was the founder-editor of Mahratta (English) and Kesar
Bhagat Singh
Known as Shahid-e-Azam. Founded Naujawan Bharat Sabha. Exploded bomb in Central Legislative
Assembly at Lahore on April 8, 1929. He was arrested and sentenced for life. He along with Sukh Dev and
Shivram Rajguru, was hanged on March 23, 1931 for participating in Lahore conspiracy.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
A prominent Indian politician, born in South India in 1879. He was the General Secretary of the Indian
National Congress in 1921-22 and was a member of the Congress Working Commitee. Rajagopalachari
was the Chief Minister of Madras from 1937-39.
Dadabhai Naoro Ji
He was elected president of the Indian National Congress at its second session held in Calcutta in 1886.
He was the first Indian to be elected a member of the House of Commons in England on a ticket of Liberal
Party. Twice again, in 1893 and in 1906, he was elected president of the INC.
Nobel Personalities in India
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
A prominent leader of the Scheduled Castes. Built up a party of the untouchables, became a member of
the Constitutent Assembly and piloted through it the Indian Constitution Act which declared India to be
Republic. He also piloted the Hindu Code through the Indian Legislature.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad
He was the first President of the Republic of India. Born in Bihar in 1884, educated at the Calcutta
Universty, he began his career as an advocate and soon commanded a very large practice at Patna High
Court. Prasad became the president of Congress in 1934, 1939 and 1947; a minister in Nehru's cabin
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
He was a prominent Indian nationalist, and presided over the 1905 session of the Indian National
Congress. In 1905 he founded at Poona the Servants of India Society. He died in 1915. He is considered
as the 'Political Guru' of Gandhiji.
Govinda Ballabh Pant
The celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, was the author of Ashtadhyayi. He was one of the leading members
and leaders of the Indian National Congress. He became the Chief Minister in his native province of Uttar
Pradesh after independence.
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Social reformer and educationist from Bengal and a pioneer in the field of primary education and widow
re-marriage.
Jamshedji Tata
Parsi industrialist and philanthropist. Father of Indian industry, founded Tata, Iron and Steel Company in
Bihar.
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Prime Minister of India from May, 1964 to his death on 11 January, 1966. He was conferred Bharat Ratna
posthumously. He was a martyr for the cause of peace between India and Pakistan at Tashkent.
Lala Lajpat Rai
Indian national leader known as "Lion of Punjab". Founder editor of Bande Mataram, The Punjabeeand
The People. Died of injuries caused by police lathi-charge while leading a demonstration against Simon
Commission at Lahore in 1928. Author of Young India, The Arya Samaj and England's Debt to India.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. Became a
barrister-at-law (1891) in England. Went to South Africa in 1893. Stayed there till 1914 for the cause of
the emancipation of the Indians from the insulting life.
Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit
Born in 1900, was a talented daughter of Pandit Motilal Nehru. She held many high offices after Indian
independence including the post of India's High Commissioner in England (1955-61) and India's
Ambassador to the U. S. S. R. as well as to the U. S. A.
Nobel Personalities in India
Mrs. Annie Besant
English theosophist, bom in London in October 1847. She founded the Central Hindu College at Banaras
and was elected president of the Theosophical Society in 1907. In 1916 she founded the Indian Home
Rule League and became its first president and in 1917.
Mrs. Sarojini Naldu
The most talented Indian lady, born of Bengali parents, was a poet and orator who took a prominent part
in Indian politics. She presided over the Kanpur session of the Indian National Congress in 1925 and was
the first lady to be appointed a state Governor in the Republic of India.
Netaji Subhash Bose
Popularly known as Netaji, was born on January 23, 1879, at Cuttack. He passed the Indian Civil Service
Examination in 1920. He joined the Indian National Congress in 1921. In 1938 he was the president of the
INC at its Haripura session and in 1939 he was elected president of its Tripuri session.
Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru
He was the first Prime Minister of Independent India and is known as the architect of modem India. He
was born in Allahabad on Novemeber 14,1889. In 1928 be became the General Secretary of the Indian
National Congress and in 1929 its President. At the Lahore session under his Presidentship was pass
Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya
A leading nationalist leader, prominent educationist and social reformer. Later on joined the second
session of the Indian National Congress held in 1886 and twice became its President in 1909 and 1918.
His greatest achievement was the foundation in 1915 in Benaras of the Hindu University.
Pandit Motilal Nehru
A renowned Indian patriot, was born on 6th May, 1861 in Delhi. He began his career as a lawyer at the
Allahabad High Court, joined the Indian National Movement and started a journal named The
Independent' to support the cause of Indian Nationalism. Along with C. R. Das he formed the Swarajist
Party
Rabindranath Tagore
Poet, novelist, patriot, educationist, essayist, painter and philosopher. He founded Shantiniketan (now
Viswabharati University) in West Bengal. The first Asian to receive Nobel Prize in Literature (for Gitanjati
in 1913), writer of National Anthems of India and Bangladesh.
Ram Manohar Lohla
A social and political revolutionary, he founded the'Samajwadi Party' after difference of opinion with the
Congress.
Ramakrishna Paramhansa
He was a very great spiritual teacher of the Hindus in modern times. His two-noteworthy disciples were
Keshavchandra Sen and Swami Vivekanand.
Rasbehari Basu
He was elected president of the Surat session of the Indian National Congress in 1907 in which the
Moderates and Extremists came to a serious clash. Next year he presided over the Madras session of the
INC.
Nobel Personalities in India
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
A renowned Indian patriot and politician, was born on the 31st, October, 1875 in Gujarat and began his
career as a lawyer. He took a leading part in the Bardoli Satyagraha movement. In 1931 he became the
president of the Congress. He joined the "interim Government" set up in 1946 as the Home Ministe
Sarvapalli Radha Krishan
The second President of the Republic of India. Radha Krishnan was appointed as India's ambassador to
the USSR in 1949. In 1962 he became the President of India. His birthday, Sept 5, is celebrated as
Teacher's Day.'
Shaukat Ali
A prominent leader and politician amongst the Indian Muhammadans. He along with his brother
Muhammad All, led the Khilafat Movement in 1919-20. He also joined the Indian National Congress and
the non-co-operation movement.
Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan
He was a prominent leader of the Indian Muhammadans. Remained loyal to the British during the Sepoy
Mutiny (1857-58), founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875. In 1920 the
college was raised to the status of University and called the Aligarh Muslim University.
Sister Nivedita
A famous disciple of Swami Vivekananda, was an Irish lady named Miss Margaret Nobel.
Swami Vivekananda
Disciple of Rama Krishna Paramahansa, and founder of Ramakrishna Mission at Belur. He championed the
supremacy of Vedantic philosophy and his talk at the Chicago conference of world religions in 1893 made
westerners realise the greatness of Hinduism for the first time.
V. D. C Savarkar
He founded Mitra Mandal aimed at achieving freedom by armed rebellion, founded Abhinav Bharat,
started Free Indian Society in England (London). Savarkar was arrested in Nasik conspiracy case and
sentenced to transportation for life and freed in 1937. He authored Indian War of Independence.
W. C. Banetjee
The first president of the Indian National Congress held at Bombay in 1885. He was made Congress
President a second time at its Allahabad session in 1892.
Zakir Hussain
Proposed Wardha Scheme of education, formerly Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Millia. He was elected as
President of India in 1967.
Olympic General Knowledge
Olympic General Knowledge
1. According to the legends and menuscripts the ancient Olympic Games were founded by Heracles a son
of Zeus.
2. The very first Olympic race which was organised in 776 BC was won by Corubus by profession he was
a chef.
3. The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece in 1896. There were 311 male but no
female competitors.
4. The first Olympic games were held in 776BC and then after that every 4 years repeatedly until 339BC.
5. Golf is the only sport which was played on the surface of moon on 6 February 1971 when astronaut
Alan Shepard hit a golf ball.
6. In ancient olympics There were no team events, relay races or the long distance race of Marathon these
events were introduced in the modern Olympics
7. Earnier womens were not allowed in olympic games. At the first modern Olympic Games there were
311 male but no female competitors.
8. The first ever perfect score of 10 in Olympic gymnastics was achieved at the 1976 Montreal Olympics
by Romanian Nadia Comaneci, she won 3 gold medals.
9. The youngest ever Olympian wasonly 10 years old when he competed in the 1896 Athens Olympics is a
Greek gymnast Dimitrios Loundras.
10. The record for the most Olympic medals ever won is held by Soviet gymnast Larissa Latynina.
11. Larissa Latynina won 18 medals ehich includes 9 gold, 5 silver and 4 bronze after competing in three
Olympics, between 1956 and 1964.
12. Australia is one of only two countries to have participated in every one of the Modern Olympics since
the Games were established in 1896.
13. Ancient olympic racetracks were 192 meters long.
President of India
Quiz on Religion
1. According to a servay around 168,000 bibles are distributed in the US on any given day and its a best
best selling book in the world.
2. Christianity is considered as the world’s most widespread religion and due to its popularity a servay
reveals that 50 holy bibles sold in an average minute.
3. The Bible was written in three main languages respectively Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek.
4. The 12 disciples were not were not allowed to carry food, money, or extra clothing.
5. The oldest almost complete manuscript of the Bible still existing is the Codex Vaticanus, dating from
the first half of the 4th century, now held in the Vatican library.
6. Dogs are mentioned 14 times in the Bible, and lions 55 times, but domestic cats are not mentioned at all.
7. The longest book chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119, the shortest is Psalm 117.
8. The word “God” appears in every book except Esther and Song of Solomon.
9. The raven is the first bird mention in the Bible. It appears in Genesis 8:7, when it is sent out from the ark
by Noah to see if the flood waters have abated. The second bird was a dove, in verse 8.
10. Almonds and pistachios are the only nuts mentioned in the Bible.
11. Whilst the Bible is the world’s best-selling book, it’s also the world’s most shoplifted book.
12. The word ‘Lord’ appears in the bible 7,736 times.
13. Hinduism The dominant religion of India, Hinduism has a broad variety of forms, ranging from simple
folk practices to abstruse metaphysical systems.
14. Hindus regard the sacred texts known as the Vedas (composed around 1500 B.C.) as central to their
tradition.
15. Shaivism One of the three primary traditions of Hinduism, Shaivism focuses on the god Shiva, the lord
of transformative power in the universe.
16. Shaktism Shaktism focuses on worship of Shakti, the Divine Mother embodying the power of universal
manifestation, sometimes known under her names Devi or Kali.
17. Vaishnavism Vaishnavism focuses on Vishnu, the Supreme Lord, and his incarnations Krishna and
Rama. Vaishnavism is divided into various sampradayas (sects), each of which has been founded by a
particular acharaya (guru).
18. The Vedas Meaning “knowledge” in Sanskrit, the Vedas are the oldest and most authoritative texts of
Hinduism. Composed around 1500 B.C.E., they are among the world’s oldest surviving.
19. Vedas consist of four parts. The Rig Veda contains verses of praise to the gods; the Yajur Veda
discusses the requirements of ritual offerings; the Sama Veda, verses and chants for ritual offerings, and
Atharva Veda, magical verses.
20. The Upanishads Among the principal texts of the Hindu tradition, the Upanishads are metaphysical
treatises that are concerned with the origin and destiny of humanity and the universe.
21. In Old Testament times the Mediterranean Sea was called the Great Sea.
22. Revelation, written about 95 AD, is the youngest book in the New Testament.
Classical Folk and Tribal Dances in India
Quotations
Quotation
Quoted By
1
Swaraj is my Birth Right
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
2
Take care to get what you like or you will be forced to like what you get.
G. B. Shaw
3
A thing of beauty is a joy forever
John Keats
4
To be and not to be that is the question.
Shakespeare
5
Delhi Chalo
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
6
Superstition is the religion of feeable minds.
Edmund Burke
7
Let a hundread flowers bloom and let a thousand school of thought contend.
Mao-Ste-Tunng
8
Aram Haram Hai
Jawahar Lal Nehru
9
Where wealth accumulates, men decay.
Goldsmith
10 Beauty is truth, truth is beauty, that is all.
John Keats
11 I came I saw I conquered
Shekspear
12 Good Government is no substitute for self government.
Alfred Tennyson
13 A democratic Government is of the people, for the people and by the people.
Abraham Linkon
14 Jay Hind
Netaji
15 Law grinds the poor and rich men rule the men.
Gold Smith
16 The human soul needs actual beauty more than bread.
D. H. Lawrence
17 War is the greatest crime man perpetrates against man.
Zarathustra
18 There never was a good war or a bad peace.
Benjamin Franklin
19 The only man who never makes mistakes is the man who never does anything.
Theodore Roosevelt
20 Truth and Non-violence is my God
M. K. Gandhi
21 Jai Jawan, Jai Krishan
Lal Bahadur Shastri
22 Eureka Eureka
Archimedes
23 Just as I would not like to be a slave, so I would not like to be a master.
Abraham Linkon
24 Brevity is the soul of wit.
Shekspear
25 East is east and west is west and never the twin shall meet.
Kipling
26 Knowledge is Power
Hobbes
27 Man is by nature a political animal.
Aristotol
28 Temptation usually comes in through a door that has delibaretly been left open.
Arnold Glasow
29 I therefore want freedom immediately this very night, before dawn if it can be had?
Gandhiji
30 Man is not the creature of circumstance. Circumstances are the creature of men.
Disraeli
31 Excellent things are rare.
Plato
32 Well done is better than well said.
Benjamin Franklin
33 Ambition is like love: Impatient both of delays as well as rivals.
Buddha
34 The child is father of the man.
William Wordsworth
35 Faith is the bird that feels the light when the dawn is still dark.
Rabindra Nath Tagore
36 Patriotism is religion and religion is love for India.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Solar System Quiz
Solar System Quiz
1. Our solar system consists of one central star, the Sun
2. The Solar System have nine planets named Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune, and Pluto
3. Our solar system consists of more than 60 moons
4. Our solar system consists of millions of rocky asteroids
5. Our solar system consists of billions of icy comets
6. The solar system is said to be over 5 billion years old.
7. Planets are different in sizes and colors. The four planets closer to the Sun are called ‘rocky’ planets.
8. Only two planets have (Earth and Mars) have moons
9. The asteroid belt is a zone between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
10. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn can be seen with the naked eye (Without telescope or
binoculars)
11. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are called ‘rocky’ or’ terrestial’ planets.
12. `Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are called the gaseous planets.
13. Jupiter and Saturn contain the largest percentages of hydrogen and helium, while Uranus and Neptune
contain largest shares of ices, frozen water, ammonia, methane, and carbon monoxide.
14. The four gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, have rings.
15. Hubble is one of the worlds most powerful telescopes.
16. The Sun is too bright for the Hubble Space Telescope to observe.
17. The sun is 330330 times larger than the earth.
18. The earth began billions of years ago as a huge ball of swirling dust and gases.
19. Earth is only known planet where life began on 600 million years ago.
Sports related quiz
Sports related quiz
1. An avereage soccer player can run almost 5 to 7 miles in a whole ninty minutes of a socer game.
2. Holes in a golf course must be 4.25 inches in diameter, and at least 4 inches deep and a standard golf
course contains 18 holes between 100 and 600 yards length.
3. In tennis there are most numbers of officials compare to the number of players like in tennis
tournaments there are 13 officials in regards of two players.
4. The spots on dice are called “pips. And the word ‘pip’ commonly used for a ‘spot’ or a ‘speck’.
5. Try to add all the numbers on a roulette wheel which is usually played in the casinoand cosidered as
easiest casion game, that is 1through 36, you get ’666′, the biblical number of fallen man.
6. The world’s highest cricket ground is in Chail (HP), India, which has highest altitude of 2250 Meter of
above sea level.
7. Since 1896 from the beginning of the modern Olympics, only Greece and Australia are the pnly two
nations whose athletes have taken parts in every Olympic Games.
8. In 1935, Jesse Owens broke 4 world records in 45 minutes
9. Fishing is the biggest participant sports in the world.
10. Soccer is the most attended or watched sport in the world.
11. Boxing became a legal sport in 1901.
12. More than 100 million people hold hunting licences.
13. The record for the most major league baseball career innings is held by Cy Young, with 7,356 innings.
14. The first instance of global electronic communications took place in 1871 when news of the Derby
winner was telegraphed from London to Calcutta in under 5 minutes.
15. In 1898, one of the first programmes to be broadcasted on radio was a yacht race that took place in
British waters.
16. Sports command the biggest television audiences, led by the summer Olympics, World Cup Football and
Formula One racing.
17. Korfball is the only sport played with mixed teams, consisting of 4 men and 4 women.
18. The Major League Baseball teams use about 850,000 balls per season.
19. About 42,000 tennis balls are used in the plus-minus 650 matches in the Wimbledon Championship.
20. A baseball ball has exactly 108 stitches, a cricket ball has between 65 and 70 stiches.
21. A soccer ball is made up of 32 leather panels, held together by 642 stitches.
22. The baseball home plate is 17 inches wide.
23. Basketball and rugby balls are made from synthetic material. Earlier, pigs’ bladders were used as rugby
balls.
24. Golf the only sport played on the moon – on 6 February 1971 Alan Shepard hit a golf ball.
25. Bill Klem served the most seasons as major league umpire – 37 years, starting in 1905. He also officated
18 World Series.
26. The oldest continuous trophy in sports is the America’s Cup. It started in 1851, with Americans winning
for a straight 132 years until Australia took the Cup in 1983.
27. Volleyball was invented by William George Morgan of Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1895.
28. A badminton shuttle easily travels 180 km/h (112 mph).
29. Ferenc Szisz from Romania, driving a Renault, won the first Formula One Grand Prix held at Le Mans,
France in 1906.
COUNTRIES AND THEIR NATIONAL SPORTS
Australia
Cricket
Canada
Ice Hockey
China
Table Tennis
England
Cricket and Rugby Football
India
Hockey
Japan
Ju-Jitsu
Russia
Chess
Scotland
Rugby Football
Spain
Bull Fighting
USA
Baseball
Sites of Summer Olympic
YEAR
CITY
1896
Athens
1900
Paris
1904
St. Louis
1908
London
1912
Stockholm
1920
Antwerp
1924
Paris
1928
Amsterdam
1932
Los Angeles
1936
Berlin
1948
London
1952
Helsinki
1956
Melbourne
1960
Rome
1964
Tokyo
1968
Mexico City
1972
Munich
1976
Montreal
1980
Moscow
1984
Los Angeles
1988
Seoul
1992
Barcelona
1996
Atlanta
2000
Sydney
2004
Athens
2008
Beijing
2012
London (Scheduled)
SPORTS AND THE TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH THEM
Badminton
Angled Drive Serve, Backhand Low Serve, Bird, Deuce, Double Droup, Fault, Flick Serve, Forehand Smash, Let, Lob, Love All,
net Shots, Rush, Smash.
Baseball
Base, Battery, Bunting, Catcher, Diamond, Hitter, Home Infield, Outfield, Pinch, Pitcher Plate, Pullout, Short Stop, Strike.
Basketball
Ball, Basket, Blocking, Dribbling, Free Throw, Held Ball, Holding, Jump Ball, Multiple Throws, Pivot.
Billiards
Baulk Line, Break, Bolting, Cannon, Cue, Hazard, In-off, Jigger, Long jenney, Pot, Scratch, Screw Back, short Stop, Strike.
Boxing
Ausiliary Point System, Babit Punch, Break, Cut, Defence, Down, Hook, Jab, Lying On, Knock, Seconds out, Slam, Upper Cut,
Weight In, Win by Knock-out.
Bridge
Auction, Bid, Chicane, Cut, Declarer, Doubleton, Dummy, Finesse, Grand Slam, Little Slam, Notrumps, Over-trick, Revoke,
rubber, Ruff, Shuffle, Suit, Vulnerable.
Chess
Bishop, Capture, Castling, Checkmate, En Passant, Gambit, Grand Master, King, Knight, Pawn, Queen, Rook, Stalemate,
Under Promoting.
Cricket
Ashes, Banana, Boundary, Bowling, Caught, Chinaman, Cover Drive, Crease, Doosra, Duck, Duckworth-Lewis Rule, Fine Leg,
Follow On, Full Toss, Gardening, Googly, Gully, Hat-trick, Hit Wicket, Inswinger, l.b.w., Leg-break, Leg-bye, Leg Glance, late
Cut, maiden Over, No Ball, Off Break, On Drive, Out, Outswinger, Over, Mandatory Over, over Pitch, Popping Crease, Rubber,
Run Down, Run Out, Short Pitch, Silly Point, Slip, Square Leg, Stone Walling, Straight Drive, Stumped, Short leg, Spin,
Swing, Thirdman, Yorker.
Croquet
Hoops, Mallet, Peg Out.
Draughts
Huff
Football
Advantage Clause, Blind Side, Centre Forward, Corner Kick, Dead Ball, Direct Free Kick, Dribble, Goal kick, Golden Goal, Hattrick, Marking, OffSide, Penalty Kick, Penalty Shootout, Red Card, Striker, Throw In, Tripping.
Golf
Best-ball Foursome, Bogey, Bunker, Caddie, Dormy, Fairway, Fourball, Foursome, Greed Holes, Links, Niblic, Par, Put, Rough,
Stymied, Tee, Threesome.
Gymnastics
A-bars, Ariel, Blocks, Cone of Swing, Dish, Flairs, Giants, Inlocate, Kip, Planche, Tariff, Tumble, Virtuosity, Wrap.
Hockey
Advantage, Back-stick, Bully, Cary, Centre Forward, Corner, Dribble, Flick, Free-hit, Goal Line, Green Card, Halfway Line,
Hat-trick, Off-side, Red Car, Roll -in, Scoop, Short Corner, Sixteen-yard hit, Square Pass, Stick, Striking Cirele, Tackle, Tiebreaker, Zonal Marking.
Horse Racing
Jockey, Punt, Steeplechase, Thorough Bred.
Judo
Ashi-waza, chui, Dan, Dojo, Gyaku, Hajime, Ippon, Jigotai, Kaeshiwaza, Koka, Makikomi, Nage-waza, O-goshi, Randori,
Scarf, Tani-Otoshi, Uchi-komvi, Waki-gatame, Yoshi, Yuko.
Karate
Age Zuki, Ai-uchi, Aka, Chakugan, Dachi, Encho Sen, Fudotachi, Gedan, Geri, Hajime, Ibuki, Jion, Kakato, Koka, Makiwara,
Nidan, Obi, Rei, Sanbon, Shiro, Tobigeri, Ude, Waza-ari, Yoko-geri, Zanshin, Zen-no.
Polo
Bunker, Chukker, Mallet.
Rowing
Bow, Bucket, Cow, Ergometer, Feather, Paddle, Regatta.
Rugby Football
A Trackle, Lines, Scrum, Touch, Try.
Shootng
Bag, Bull's Eye, Marksmanship, Muzzle, Plug.
Skiing
Tobogganing.
Swimming
Breast Stroke, Crawl.
Table Tennis
Anti Loop, Backspin, Chop, Loop, Penhold Grip, Push, Spin, Twiddle.
Tennis
Ace, Backhand Stroke, Deuce, Deep Volley, Deuce, Double Fault, Fault, Ground Stroke, Half Volley, Let, Love, Slice, Smash,
Volley
Volleyball
Ace, Base-line, Blocking, Doubling, Foot Fault, Heave, Holding, Jump Set, Lob Pass, Love All, Point, Quick Smash, Scouting,
Service, Spike, Tactical Ball, Volley, Windmill Service.
Wrestling
Half-Nelson, Head Lock, Heave, Hold, Rebouts, Scissor.
AREA/MEASUREMENTS OF VARIOUS SPORTS FIELDS
Badminton
44ft by 20ft. (doubles); 44ft. By 17 ft (singles)
Baseball
Diamond shaped ground; 90ft on each side and 127ft. Along the diagonal
Basketball
85ft by 46ft (maximum dimensions)
Billiards
10ft. Long, 5ft. Side and 3ft. High
Cricket
Ground: Round or oval shaped; Wickets: 22 yds. Apart; Ball: 8 13/14 to 9 inches in circumference and 5 3/4 oz. in weight;
Bat: 4 1/4 inches maximum width and 38 inches maximum length; Bowling crease: 8 ft. and 8 inches in length; Popping
crease: 4 ft. fro
Derby Course
1 1/2 miles (2.4 km).
Football
Length: 100 yds. To 130 yds.; breadth 50 yds; Goal width: 8 yds., Bar: 8 ft. from ground; Area 6 yds., from each goal-post;
Ball: 27 inches to 28 inches in circmference; Duration: 90 minutes maximum.
Golf
Hole 4 1/2 inches; Ball: 1 1/2 oz. in weight.
Hockey
Ground 100 yds. By 55 to 60 yds.; Duration of game: two periods of 30 minutes each plus extra time in case of draw or
suspension of game for some reason; Goal perpendicular posts: 8 yds. Apart joined together by a horizontal cross bar 7 ft.
from ground; B
Marathon Race
26 miles, 385 yards.
Polo
Ground: 300 yds. By 200 yds.
Table Tennis
9 ft. x 6 ft. x 2 1/2 ft.
Tennis
78 ft. by 28 ft. (singles), 78 ft. by 36 ft. (doubles).
Volleyball
Rectangular 30 ft. by 30 ft.
TROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS SPORTS & GAMES
Air Racing
Jawaharlal Challenge Trophy, King's Cup, World Cup.
Archery
Federation Cup
Athletics
Charminar Trophy, Federation Cup, World Cup.
Badminton
Agarwal Cup, Amrit Diwan Cup, Asia Cup, Austrelasia Cup, Chadha Cup, European Cup, Harilela Cup, Ibrahim Rahimatollah
Challenge Cup, Konica Cup, Narng cup, Sophia Kitiakara Cup, Konica Cup, S. R. Ruia Cup, Thomas Cup, Tunku Abdul
Rahman Cup, Uber Cup, World Cup, Yonex Cup.
Basketball
Basalat Jha Trophy, B. C. Gupta Trophy, Federation Cup, S. M. Arjuna Raja trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, William Jones
Cup.
Billiards
Arthur Walker Trophy, Thomas Cup.
Boat Rowing
American Cup (Yacht racing), Wellington Trophy (India).
Boxing
Aspy Adjahia Trophy, federation Cup, Val iBaker Trophy.
Bridge
Basalat Jha Trophy, Holkar Trophy, Ruia Gold Cup, Singhania Trophy.
Chess
Naidu Trophy, Khaitan Trophy, Limca Trophy, Linares City Trophy, World Cup.
Cricket
Anthony D'Mellow Trophy, Ashes, Asia Cup, Benson and Hedges Cup, Bose Trophy, Champions Trophy, Charminar Challenge
Cup, C. K. Nayudu Trophy, Cooch-Behar Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Gavaskar-Border Trophy, Duleep Trophy,
Gavaskar-Border Trophy, G. D. Birla Trophy, Gillette Cup, Ghulam Ahmad Trophy, hakumat Rai Trophy, ICC World Cup,
Interface Cup, Irani Trophy, Jawaharlal Nehru Cup, Lombard World Challenge Cup, McDowells Challenge Cup, Merchant
Trophy, Moin-ud-Dowla Cup, NatWest Trophy, Prudential Cup (World Cup), Rani Jhansi Trophy, Ranji Trophy, Rohinton Baria
Trophy, Rothmans Cup, Sahara Cup, Sharjah Cup, Sheesh Mahal Trophy, Sheffield Shield, Singer Cup, Sir Frank Worrel
Trophy, Texaco Cup, Titan Cup, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Vijay Merchant Trophy, Vizzy Trophy, Wisden Trophy, Wills Trophy,
World Series Cup.
Football
African Natons Cup, Airlines Cup, america Cup, Asia Cup, Asian Women's Cup, Bandodkar Trophy, B. C. Roy Trophy, Begum
Hazrat Mahal Cup, Bicentennial Gold Cup, BILT Cup, Bordoloi Trophy, Colombo Cup, Confederations Cup, DCM Cup, Durand
Cup, European Cup, FA Cup, Federation Cup, G. V. Raja Memorial Trophy, gold Cup, Governor's Cup, Greek Cup, Great Wall
Cup, IFA Shield, Independence Day Cup, Indira Gandhi Trophy, Inter-Continental Cup, Jawaharlal Nehru Gold Cup, Jules
Rimet Trophy, Kalinga Cup, Kings Cup, Kirin Cup, Lal Bahadur Shastri Trophy, McDowell Cup, Merdeka Cup, Nagjee Trophy,
Naidunia Trophy, Nations Cup, NFL Trophy, Nehru Gold Cup, Nizam Gold Cup, Raghbir Singh Memorial Cup, Rajiv Gandhi
Trophy, Rovers Cup, Sanjay Gold Cup, Santosh Trophy, Scissors Cup, Sir Ashutohs Mukherjee Trophy, Stafford Cup, Subroto
Cup, Supercup Trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, UEFA Cup, US Cup, Vittal Trophy, Winner's Cup, World Cup.
Golf
Canada Cup, Eisenhower Trophy, Inter-Continental Cup, Maekyung LG Fashion Open Trophy, Muthiah Gold Cup, Nomura
Trophy, Paralamdi Trophy, President's Trophy, Prince of Wales Cup, Ryder Cup, Solheim Cup, Topolino Trophy, Walker Cup,
Waterford Crystal Trophy, World Cup.
Hockey
Agha Khan Cup, Allwyn Asia Cup, Azlan Shah Cup, Beighton Cup, Bhim Sain Trophy, BMW Trophy, Bombay Gold Cup,
Champions Trophy, Clarke Trophy, Dhyan Chand Trophy, Esanda Champions Cup, European Nations Cup, Gurmeet Trophy,
Guru Nanak Cup, Gyanvati Devi Trophy, Indira Gandhi Gold Cup, Intercontinental Cup, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan Cup,
Kuppuswamy Naidu Cup, Lady Rattan Tata Cup (women), Lal Bahadur Shastri Cup, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Gold Cup, Modi
Gold Cup, Murugappa Gold Cup, Nehru Trophy, Obaidullah Gold Cup, Prime Minister's Gold cup, Rangaswami Cup, Ranjit
Singh Gold Cup, Rene Frank Trophy, Sanjay Gandhi Trophy, Scindia gold Cup, Shriram Trophy, Tunku Abdul Razak Cup,
Wellington Cup, World Cup, Yadavindra Cup.
Horse Racing
Beresford Cup, Blue Riband, Derby, Grand Natonal Cup.
Kabaddi
Federation Cup
Kho-Kho
Federation Cup
Netball
Anantrao Pawar Trophy.
Polo
Ezar Cup, Gold Cup, King's Cup, President Cup, Prithi Singh Cup, Radha Mohan Cup, Winchester Cup.
Rowing
Beefeather's Gin.
Rugby Football
Bledisloe Cup; Calcutta Cup, Webb Ellis Trophy.
Shootng
North Wales Cup, Welsh Grand Prix.
Snooker
Team Tournament Asean Cup.
Table Tennis
Asian Cup, Berna Bellack Cup, Corbillion Cup (women), Electra Gold Cup, Gasper-Giest Prize, Grand Prix, Jayalaxmi Cup
(women), Kamala Ramanunjan Cup, Marcel Corbillon Cup, Pithapuram Cup (men), Swaythling Cup (men), Travancore Cup
(women), U Thant Cup, World Cup.
Tennis
Ambre Solaire Cup, A T&T Cup, Champions Cup, ATP President's Cup, Davis Cup, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Cup, Edgbaston Cup,
Evert Cup, Federation Cup, Ghafar Cup, Grand Prix, Grand Slam Cup, Nations' Cup, Watson's Water Trophy, Wightman Cup,
Wimbledon Trophy, World Cup, World Team Cup.
Volleyball
Centennial Cup, Federation Cup, Indira Pradhan Trophy, Shivanthi Gold Cup, World Cup, World League Cup.
Weightlifting
World Cup.
Wrestling
Bharat Kesari, Burdwan Shield, World Cup.
Yachting
America Cup
IMPORTANT SPORTS VENUES
Athletics
Commonwealth Stadium (Canada), Olympic Stadium (Athens), Stadium Australia (Sydney)
Baseball
Brooklyn (USA), Dodger Stadium (USA), Qualcomm Stadium (USA), Veterans Stadium (USA).
Basketball
Alamodome (Texas)D, Charlotte Coliseum (USA).
Boat Rowing
Putney (England).
Boxing
Madison Square Garden (USA), Yankee Stadium (USA).
Cricket
Asgiriya Stadium (Kandy), Arbal-Niaz Stadium (Peshawar), Bangabandhu National Stadium (Dhaka), Barabati Stadium
(Cuttack), Brabourne Stadium (Mumbai), Chinnaswamy Stadium (Bangalore), Eden Gardens (kolkata), Eden Park
(Auckland), Ferozeshah Kotla Ground (Delhi), Gaddafi Stadium (Lahore), Green Park (Kanpur), Indira Priyadarshini Stadium
(Visakhapatnam), Iqbal Stadium (Faisalabad), Jinnah Stadium (Gujranwala), Khettarama Stadium (Colombo), Lal Bahadur
Stadium (Hyderabad), Leeds (London, England), Lords (London, England), M. A. Chidambaram Stadium (Chennai),
Melbourne (Australia), National Stadium (Karachi), Nehru Stadium (Pune), Nehru Stadium (New Delhi), nehru Stadium
(Goa), Old Trafford (Manchester, England), Oval (London, England), Pindi Stadium (Rawalpindi), Sabina Park (West Indies),
Sawai Man Singh Stadium (Jaipur), Sinhalese Sports Club Stadium (Colombo), Trent Bridge (England), Wankhede Stdium
(Mumbai), Wanderers (South Africa).
Football
Ambedkar Stadium (New Delhi), Athens Olympic Stadium (Greece), Brookland (England), Corporation Stadium (Kolkata),
Fed Ex Field (USA), Millennium Stadium (UK), Nehru Stadium (New Delhi), Oita Big Eye Stadium (Japan), Pontiac Silverdome
(USA), Salt Lake Stadium (Kolkata), San Januario Stadium (Brazil), Veterans Stadium (USA), Wembley (London), Yokohama
Internatioinal Stadium (Japan).
Golf
Augusta National Club (USA), Lyon Golf Club (France), Metropolitan Club (Melbourne), Sendy Lodge (Scotland), Yangon Club
(Myanmar).
Greyhound Racing
White City (England).
Hockey
Dhyan Chand Stadium (Lucknow), Lal Bahadur Stadium (Hyderabad), Merdeka Stadium (Kuala Lumpur), Major Dhyan Chand
Stadium (formerly National Stadium, New Delhi), Nehru Stadium (New Delhi), Sawai Man Singh Stadium (Jaipur), Shivaji
Stadium (New Delhi), Wagener Stadium (The Netherlands).
Horse Racing
Aintree (England), Doncaster (England), Epsom (England), Flemington (Melbourne).
Lawn Tennis:
DLTA Grounds (New Delhi), Wimbledon (England), Forest Hill (USA).
Polo
Hurlington (England), Jaipur Pologrounds.
Rugby Football
Blackheath, Twickenham (England), Millennium Stadium (Cardiff, UK).
Shootng
Bisley (England), Markopoulo Center (Athens).
Snooker
Blackpool (England).
Swimming
Subhas Sarovar (Kolkata), Talkatora Swimming Pool (New Delhi).
Swimming and Rowing:
Cape Griz Zen Putney-Mort -Lake (England), Sleen Sports Complex (Australia).
Table Tennis
NDMC Indoor Stadium (New Delhi).
Tennis
Foro Italico Stadium (Rome), Rolland Garros Stadium (Paris), Flushing Meadows (New York).
Commonwealth Game History
History: Reverend Ashley Cooper was the first person to propose the idea of having a Pan-Britannic sporting contest to
foster a spirit of goodwill and understanding within the British Empire. In 1928, a key Canadian athlete, Bobby Robinson, was
given the task of organizing the first ever Commonwealth Games. These Games were held in 1930, in the city of Hamilton,
Ontario, Canada and saw the participation of 400 athletes from eleven countries.
Since then, the Commonwealth Games have been held every four years, except for the period during the Second World War.
The Games have been known by various names such as the British Empire Games, Friendly Games and British
Commonwealth Games. Since 1978, they have been known as the Commonwealth Games. Originally having only single
competition sports, the 1998 Commonwealth Games at Kuala Lumpur saw a major change when team sports such as cricket,
hockey and netball made their first appearance.
In 2001, the Games Movement adopted the three values of Humanity, Equality and Destiny as the core values of the
Commonwealth Games. These values inspire and connect thousands of people and signify the broad mandate for holding the
Games within the Commonwealth.
After Olympics, Commonwealth Games is the second largest sports festival in the world. The Games are held once in four
years but only in between the Olympic years. The Games were originally known as the British Empire Games. The first
Commonwealth Games were held in 1930 at Hamilton, Canada. The 10th Commonwealth Games were held at Christchurch,
New Zealand in 1974, the 11th in Edmonton (Canada) in 1978, the 12th in Brisbane (Australia) in 1982, the 13th in
Edinburgh (Scotland) in 1986, the 14th in Auckland (New Zealand) in 1990 and the 15th in Victoria (Canada) in 1994, where
about 3,350 athletes from a record 64 nations (including South Africa, which joined the family of Commonwealth athletes
after 36 years) participated. Namibia also, which gained its independence in 1990, made its debut while Hong Kong made its
final appearance in the Games before being ceded to China in 1997.
S. No
Venue
Year
No of Countries
1
Hamilton, Canada
1930
11
2
London, United Kingdom
1934
16
3
Sydney, Australia
1938
15
4
Auckland, New Zealand
1950
12
5
Vancouver, Canada
1954
24
6
Cardiff, United Kingdom
1958
35
7
Perth, Australia
1962
35
8
Jamaica, West Indies
1966
34
9
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
1970
42
10
Christchurch, New Zealand
1974
38
11
Edmonton, Canada
1978
48
12
Brisbane, Australia
1982
47
13
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
1986
26
14
Auckland, New Zealand
1990
55
15
Victoria, Canada
1994
64
16
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1998
70
17
Manchchester, United Kingdom
2002
72
18
Melbourne, Australia
2006
71
19
New Delhi, India
2010
71
ASIAN GAMES
India played a leading role to organise sports festival for Asian countries on Olympic lines. 'Ever Onward' is the motto of the
Asian Games and 'a bright full rising sun with interlocking rings' is its emblem. The first Asian Games were held at New Delhi
in 1951 followed by Manila, Philippines (1954); Tokyo, Japan (1958); Jakarta, Indonesia (1962); Bangkok, Thailand (1966,
1970, 1978 & 1998); Teheran, Iran (1974); New Delhi, India (1982); Seoul, South Korea (1986); Beijing, China (1990);
Hiroshima, Japan (1994); Bangkok, Thailand (1998); Busan, South Korea (2002); Doha, Qatar (2006). The next editions of
the Games is scheduled to be held in and Guangzhou, China (2010).
SAP GAMES
The South Asian Federation Games (SAP Games) is a sport festival of South Asian countries. The South Asian Sports
Federation comprising India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives was formed in New Delhi in
November, 1982. The first SAP Games were held in Kathmandu in 1984 followed by Dhaka (1985), Kolkata (1987),
Islamabad (1989), Colombo (1991), Dhaka (1993) and Chennai (1995). The Eighth SAF Games (September 25-Octobcr 4,
1999) were held in Kathmandu. Three new events—badminton, rowing and karate were introduced for the first time in the
9th SAP Games.
New Name for SAF Games: The SAP Games have been rechristencd as South Asian Games, according to a decision taken
by the South Asian Sports Federation at its 32nd meeting held in Islamabad (Pakistan) on April 2, 2004.
Wimbledon Tennis
The Championships, Wimbledon, or simply Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is considered the
most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in the London suburb of Wimbledon since 1877. It is one of the
four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, and the only one still played on the game's original surface, grass, which gave the
game of lawn tennis its name. The tournament takes place over two weeks in late June and early July.
MEN'S SINGLE
2010
Mens Single
Rafael Nadal (Spain) defeated Tomas Berdych(Czch Republic)
2009
Mens Single
Roger Federer(Switzerland) defeted Andy Roddick (USA)
2008
Mens Single
Rafel Nadal(Spain) defeated Roger Federer(Switzerland)
2007
Mens Single
Roger Federer(Switzerland) defeted Rafel Nadal(Spain)
WOMEN'S SINGLE
2010
Womens Single
Serena Williams(USA) defeated Vera Zvonareva(Russia)
2009
Womens Single
Serena Williams (USA) defeted Venus Williams (USA)
2008
Womens Single
Venus Williams (USA) defeated Serena Williams (USA)
2007
Womens Single
Venus Williams (USA) defeted Marion Bartoli (France)
MEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Mens Double
Jürgen Melzer(Austria) and Philipp Petzschner(Germany) defeated
Robert Lindstedt(Sweeden) and Horia Tecau(Romania)
WOMEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Womens Double
Vania King(USA) and Yaroslava Shvedova(Kazakhstan) defeated
Elena Vesnina(Russia) and Vera Zvonareva(Russia)
MIXED DOUBLES
2010
Mixed Double
Leander Paes(India) and Cara Black(Zimbabwe) defeated Wesley
Moodie(South Africa) and Lisa Raymond(USA)
US Open Tennis
The "US Open Court of Champions" honors the greatest champions in the 122-year history of the U.S. Championships, which
spans three centuries, beginning in 1851, becoming the US Open.
MEN'S SINGLE
2010
Mens Single
Rafel Nadal (Spain) defeted Novak Djokovic (Sarbia)
2009
Mens Single
Juan Martin
(Switzerland)
2008
Mens Single
Roger Federer (Switzerland) defeated Andy Murry (UK)
2007
Mens Single
Roger Federer (Switzerland) defeated Novak Djokovic
Del
Potro
(Argentina)
defeated
Roger
Federer
WOMEN'S SINGLE
2010
Womens Single
Vera Zvonareva (Russia) defeated Kim Clijsters (Belgium)
2009
Womens Single
Kim Clijsters (Belgium) defeated Caroline Wozniacki (Denmark)
2008
Womens Single
Serena Willams (USA) defeated Jelena Jankovic(Serbia)
2007
Womens Single
Justine Henin-Hardenne (Belgium) defeated Svetlana Kuznetsova
(Russia)
MEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Mens Double
Bob Bryan (USA) and Mike Bryan (USA) defeated Rohan Bopanna
(India) Aisam-Ul-Haq Qureshi (Pakistan)
WOMEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Womens Double
Vania King (USA) and Yaroslava Shvedova (Kazaksthan) defeated
Liezel Huber (USA)and Nadia Petrova (Russia)
MIXED DOUBLES
2010
Mixed Double
Liezel Huber (USA) and Bob Bryan (USA) defeated Kveta Peschke
(CZE) and Aisam-Ul-Haq Qureshi (Pakistan)
Australian Open Tennis
The Australian Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It is the first Grand Slam event of the year. It
took place at the Melbourne Park in Melbourne, Australia, in January - February.
MEN'S SINGLE
2010
Mens Single
Roger Federer(Switzerland) defeated Andy Murray(UK)
2009
Mens Single
Rafel Nadal (Spain) defeted Roger Federer (Switzerland)
2008
Mens Single
Novak
Djokovic
Petsonga(France)
2007
Mens Single
Roger Federer (Switzerland) defeated Fernando Francisco González
Ciuffardi (Chili)
(Serbia)
defeated
Jo-Wilfried
Tsonga
WOMEN'S SINGLE
2010
Womens Single
Serena Williams(USA) defeated Justine Henin(Belgium)
2009
Womens Single
Serena Williams (USA) defeted Dinara Safina (Russia)
2008
Womens Single
Maria Sharapova (Russia) defeated Ana Ivanovic (Serbia)
2007
Womens Single
Serena Williams (USA) defeated Maria Sharapova (Russia)
MEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Mens Double
Bob
Bryan(USA)
and
Mike
Bryan(USA)
Nestor(Canada)and Nenad Zimonjic(Serbia)
defeated
2009
Mens Double
Bob Bryan(USA) and Mike Bryan(USA) defeated
Bhupathi(India)and Mark Knowles(The Bahamas) .
Daniel
Mahesh
WOMEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Womens Double
Serena Williams(USA) and Venus Williams(USA) defeated Cara
Black(Zimbabwe) and Liezel Huber(USA)
2009
Womens Double
Serena Williams(USA) and Venus Williams(USA) defeated Daniela
Hantuchova(Slovakia) and Ai Sugiyama(Japan)
MIXED DOUBLES
2010
Mixed Double
Cara Black(Zimbabwe) and Leander Paes(India) defeated Ekaterina
Makarova(Russia) and Jaroslav Levinsky(Czch Republic)
2009
Mixed Double
Sania Mirza(India) and Mahesh Bhupathi(India) defeated Nathalie
Dechy(France) and Andy Ram(Israel)
French Open Tennis
The French Open is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June in Paris, France, at the
Stade Roland Garros. It is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar and the premier clay
court tennis tournament in the world. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam still held on clay and ends the spring clay court
season.
MEN'S SINGLE
2010
Mens Single
Rafael Nadal(Spain) defeated Robin Söderling(Sweeden)
2009
Mens Single
Roger Federer (Switzerland) defeted Robin Soderling (Swdeen)
2008
Mens Single
Rafel Nadal (Spain) defeted Roger Federer (Switzerland)
2007
Mens Single
Rafel Nadal (Spain) defeted Roger Federer (Switzerland)
WOMEN'S SINGLE
2010
Womens Single
Francesca Schiavone (Itali) defeated Samantha Stosur (Australia)
2009
Womens Single
Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) defeted Dinara Safina (Russia)
2008
Womens Single
Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) defeted Dinara Safina (Russia)
2007
Womens Single
Justine Henin Hardenne (Belgium) defeated Ana Ivanovic (Serbia)
MEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Mens Double
Daniel Nestor(Canada) and Nenad Zimonjic (Serbia) defeated Lukas
Dlouhy(Czech Republic) and Leander Paes(India)
2009
Mens Double
Lukas Dlouhy(Czch Republic) and Leander Paes(India) defeated
Wesley Moodie(South Africa) and Dick Norman(Belgium)
WOMEN'S DOUBLES
2010
Womens Double
Serena Williams(USA) and Venus Williams(USA) defeated Kveta
Peschke(Czech Republic) and Katarina Srebotnik(Slovenia)
2009
Womens Double
Anabel Medina Garrigues(Spain) and Virginia Ruano Pascual(Spain)
defeated Victoria Azarenka(Belarus) and Elena Vesnina(Russia).
MIXED DOUBLES
2010
Mixed Double
Katarina Srebotnik(Slovenia) and Nenad Zimonjic(Serbia) defeated
Yaroslava Shvedova(Kazaksthan) and Julian Knowle(Austria)
2009
Mixed Double
L Huber(USA) and B Bryan(USA) defeated A-L Gronefeld(Germany)
and M Knowles(The Bahamas)
World Cup Cricket
The idea of organising a World Cup of cricket was mooted and agreed to in principle in 1971 when such a proposal was
discussed at a meeting of the International Cricket Conference in London. However, due to various commitments the
tournaments could not be staged until 1975 when the original plan of a South African team's visit to England fell through
following opposition to the country's racial policy. England's Prudential Assurance Company came forward with sponsorship
and for three consecutive years— 1975, 1979 and 1983—the one-day limited overs cricket tournament was held in
England. It became famous as the Prudential Cup.
In the first two tournaments, apart from the six full members of the International Cricket Conference (England, Australia,
West Indies, New Zealand, India and Pakistan), Sri Lanka, before being elevated to Test status in 1981, had joined East
Africa in 1975 and Canada in 1979 (two top teams among the associate members) to complete the groups in the
tournaments proper. The West Indies, under Clive Lloyd, not only won the first two tournaments in 1975 and 1979 but in
true Calypso style they produced sparkling cricket and confirmed I heir unassailable supremacy in this game.
India broke the West Indian stranglehold in 1983 to open a new chapter in the brief annals of this prestigious tournament.
Apiirt from some sparkling individual performances, the competition witnessed thrills and upsets. India with a poor total of
183 bowled themselves back into the game and became memorable winners by 43 runs at the sensational final at Lord's.
When India managed a total of 183 in the final with useful contributions from Srikkanth (38), Amarnath (26) and Sandeep
Patil (27), it seemed an easy total for the West Indies to overcome, but they surprisingly folded up for 140 runs and India
pulled off one of the cricket's greatest upsets. Amarnath's performance earned him the coveted Man of the Match award.
WORLD CUP CRICKET HISTORY
Year
Venue
Result
1975
UK
West Indies beat Australia by 17 runs
1979
UK
West Indies beat England by 92 runs
1983
UK
India beat west Indies by 43 runs
1987
India & Pakistan
Australia beat England by 7 runs.
1992
Australia
Pakistan beat England by 22 runs.
1996
India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka beat Australia by 7 wickets
1999
UK
Australia beat Pakistan by 8 wickets.
2003
South Africa, Kenya & Zimbabwe
Australia beat India by 125 runs
2007
West Indies, Bermuda
Australia beat Sri Lanka
World Cup Football
The World Cup football tournament is organised by the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) once in four
years since 1930. It was on July 18, 1930 that the first-ever World Cup match was played between Uruguay and Chile, at the
newly built Centenary Stadium in Montevideo (Uruguay). The World Cup now officially designated as Jules-Rimet Cup, named
after the French lawyer who was the President of FIFA from 1921 to 1953, is 12 inch high and made of solid gold.
WORLD CUP FOOTBALL AT A GLANCE
Year
Venue
Winner
Runner
Others awards related to this event
2006
Germany
Italy
France



Adidas Golden Ball: Zinedine ZIDANE (FRA)
Adidas Golden Shoe: Miroslav KLOSE (GER)
Yashin Award for the Best Goalkeeper: Gianluigi
BUFFON (ITA)
2002
Korea/Japan
Brazil
Germany



Best Young Player Award: Lukas PODOLSKI (GER)



Adidas Golden Ball: Oliver KAHN (GER)
FIFA Fair Play award: Spain, Brazil
FIFA Award for the Most Entertaining Team: Portugal
Adidas Golden Shoe: RONALDO (BRA)
Yashin Award for the Best Goalkeeper: Oliver KAHN
(GER)


FIFA Fair Play award: Belgium
FIFA Award for the Most Entertaining Team: Korea
Republic
1998
France
France
Brazil



Adidas Golden Ball: RONALDO (BRA)
Adidas Golden Shoe: Davor SUKER (CRO)
Yashin
Award
for
the
Best
Goalkeeper:
Fabien
BARTHEZ (FRA)
1994
USA
Brazil
Italy


FIFA Fair Play award: England, France


Adidas Golden Ball: ROMARIO (BRA)
FIFA Award for the Most Entertaining Team: France
Adidas Golden Shoe: Oleg SALENKO (RUS), Hristo
STOICHKOV (BUL)

Yashin
Award
for
the
Best
Goalkeeper:
Michel
PREUDHOMME (BEL)
1990
1986
1982
1978
Italy
Mexico
Spain
Argentina
Germany FR
Argentina
Italy
Argentina
Argentina
Germany FR
Germany FR
Netherlands


FIFA Fair Play award: Brazil



Adidas Golden Ball: Salvatore SCHILLACI (ITA)



Adidas Golden Ball: Diego MARADONA (ARG)



Adidas Golden Ball: Paolo ROSSI (ITA)


Golden Shoe: Mario KEMPES (ARG)
FIFA Award for the Most Entertaining Team: Brazil
Adidas Golden Shoe: Salvatore SCHILLACI (ITA)
FIFA Fair Play award: England
Adidas Golden Shoe: Gary LINEKER (ENG)
FIFA Fair Play award: Brazil
Adidas Golden Shoe: Paolo ROSSI (ITA)
FIFA Fair Play award: Brazil
FIFA Fair Play award: Argentina
1974
Germany
Germany FR
Netherlands
1970
Mexico
Brazil
Italy
1966
England
England
Germany FR
1962
Chile
Brazil
Czechoslovak
ia

Golden Shoe: Grzegorz LATO (POL)

Golden Shoe: Gerd MUELLER (GER)

Golden Shoe: EUSEBIO (POR)

Golden Shoe: Florian ALBERT (HUN), Valentin IVANOV
(URS), Drazen JERKOVIC (YUG), Leonel SANCHEZ (CHI),
VAVA (BRA), GARRINCHA (BRA)
1958
Sweden
Brazil
Sweden
1954
Switzerland
Germany FR
Hungary
1950
Brazil
Uruguay
Brazil
1938
France
Italy
Hungary
1934
Italy
Italy
Czechoslovak
ia
1930
Uruguay
Uruguay
Argentina

Golden Shoe: Just FONTAINE (FRA)

Golden Shoe: Sandor KOCSIS (HUN)

Golden Shoe: ADEMIR (BRA)

Golden Shoe: LEONIDAS (BRA)

Golden Shoe: Oldrich NEJEDLY (TCH)

Golden Shoe: Guillermo STABILE (ARG)
Strange Facts
Strange Facts
1. The North Atlantic gets 1 inch wider every year.
2. It takes approximately 12 hours for food to entirely digest.
3. The only rock that floats in water is pumice.
4. The first ten feet of the ocean hold as much heat as the Earth’s entire atmosphere.
5. Alexander Graham Bell, who invented the telephone, also set a world water-speed record of over
seventy miles an hour at the age of seventy two.
6. The United States consumes 25% of all the world’s energy.
7. The planet Saturn has a density lower than water. So, if placed in water it would float.
8. It takes 70% less energy to produce a ton of paper from recycled paper than from trees.
9. Hawaii is moving toward Japan 4 inches every year.
10. The rocket engine has to supply its own oxygen so it can burn its fuel in outer space.
11. The average person falls asleep in seven minutes.
12. Tigers have striped skin, not just striped fur.
13. Everyone’s tongue print is different.
14. Moths have no stomach.
15. Hummingbirds can’t walk.
16. On average, our bodies constantly resist an atmospheric pressure of about 1 kilogram per square inch.
17. Cheetah’s can accelerate from 0 to 70 km/h in 3 seconds.
18. The highest temperature on Earth was 136°F (58°C) in Libya in 1922.
19. Sunlight can penetrate clean ocean water to a depth of 240 feet.
20. The temperature can be determined by counting the number of cricket chirps in fourteen seconds and
adding 40.
21. The moon is one million times drier than the Gobi Desert.
22. Ten minutes of one hurricane contains enough energy to match the nuclear stockpiles of the world.
Strange Laws
Strange Laws
1. It is a law offence to put livestock like cattles or pets on a school bus in Florida.
2. In Virginia a law code of 1930 prohibits corrupt practices or bribery by any person, but it is not same on
political candidates according to a statue by code of 1930.
3. In the state of Colorado, a pet cat, if loose, must have a tail-light !
4. In Georgia, it’s against the law to spread a false rumor.
5. In Missouri, a man must have a permit to shave.
6. In Texas, it is a “hanging offense” to steal cattle.
7. In Michigan, married couples must live together or be imprisoned.
8. In Kentucky, it is illegal for a merchant to force a person into his place of business for the purpose of
making a sale.
9. In New York, it is against the law for children to pick up or collect cigarette and cigar butts.
10. In New Jersey, cabbage can’t be sold on Sunday.
11. In Singapore, to maintain clinliness it is illegal to chew gum.
12. In Massachusetts, it is against the law to put tomatos in clam chowder.
13. In Washington State, you can’t carry a concealed weapon that is over 6 feet in length.
14. In New York, it is against the law for a blind person to drive an automobile.
15. In Texas, it’s against the law for anyone to have a pair of pliers in his or her possession.
16. A barber is not to advertise prices in the State of Georgia.
17. In Illinois, the law is that a car must be driven with the steering wheel.
18. In West Virginia, only babies can ride in a baby carriage.
19. In Arkansas it is against the law to mispronounce the name of the that State.
20. In Tennessee, it is against the law to drive a car while sleeping.
Trivia Questions to Test Your IQ
Trivia Questions To Test Your IQ
General knowledge quiz questions are the best way of testing your IQ level. So, here we give you an
opportunity to answer the below mentioned trivia questions to test your IQ.
Below mentioned are some of the easy general knowledge questions. Try to answer these questions and is
unable to answer them, go to the end of this page for answers.
Questions:
1.
What does `The Cherry Orchard’ has in common with old editions of `Startrek’?
2.
In Australia, how is the date of Mothers’ Day calculated?
3.
Which President of the USSR encouraged the policy of Glassnost?
4.
What was built by inmates taken from Changi Prison Camp?
5.
What is the world’s largest desert?
6.
Nino Culotto was his pen-name. What was his REAL name?
7.
What is the last letter of the Greek alphabet?
8.
Who wrote `The Entertainer’, music made famous by the film,`The Sting’?
9.
In Greek legend, what was eaten on the island of Jerba?
10.
What was the name of Ulysses’ son, who grew to manhood in his absence?
11.
Which Knight caused the death of the Lady of Shallott?
12.
What monument occupies centre stage in Trafalgar Square?
13.
Which book catapulted Germaine Greer to fame?
14.
What was the classical standard language of ancient India?
15.
Who directed and starred in films such as `The little Tramp’?
16.
Name the three types of classical architectural column.
17.
Who was Doctor Zhivago’s great love?
18.
Name the commoner who ruled England in 1658-59.
19.
Which ghost ship is the theme of an 1841 opera by Richard Wagner?
20.
What career did the Duke of Wellington pursue after the Battle of Waterloo?
21.
Which popular hymn was composed by Sir Arthur Sullivan of Opera Fame?
22.
What is the literal meaning of `pince-nez’. glasses?
23.
Beneath which Paris monument is the tomb of France’s Unknown Soldier?
24.
What type of puppets are t hose whose movements are controlled by strings?
25.
Which drug is best known for its use in preventing malaria?
26.
Identify the 15th century British war fought by the Houses of Lancaster and York
27.
Which sea is so named because it is too salty to maintain life?
28.
What is the most indispensable instrument in astronomy?
29.
Which literary doctor owns a parrot called `Polynesia’?
30. Name the Australian singer whose first hit, in the 1960s, was `I Remember You’.`Four On The Floor’
pertain? 31. What is Sydney’s equivalent to San Francisco’s `Bay To Breakers’ footrace’?
32.
Which independent island is Australia’s nearest neighbour to the west?
33.
At the end of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet’, which of the principals are dead?
34.
What is the name of Greg Norman’s business?
35.
Name a state of U.S.A. beginning with `B’.
36.
Whom did Yoko Ono marry only to lose to an assassin?
37.
Wo dubbed Australia `The Lucky Country’ in one of his novels?
38.
Which biblical event supports the superstition that 13 is an unlucky number?
39.
How much was 240 pence in predecimal currency
40.
Which comic- strip drake is a multi-billionaire?
41.
What was the first event decided at the 1896 Olympics?
42.
Which is the only continent occupied by one nation?
43.
What inspired the convex golden disc as the Order of Australia?
44.
How long does it take for light to reach the Earth from sun?
45.
How long is a blink of a human eye?
United Nations
United Nations
THE UNITED NATIONS: ORGANIZATION
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization
to draw up the United Nations Charter. The Organization officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter
had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other
signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October.
Charter
The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of Member States, and
establishing the Organization's organs and procedures.
Purposes
The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop
friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems
and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of
nations in attaining these ends.
Structure
The six principal organs of the United Nations, are the: General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social
Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat.
General Assembly
It consists of all member states of the U.N. Each member nation can send five delegates but each nation has only one vote.
The General Assembly meets in regular session beginning in September each year.
Security Council
It is the executive body of the U.N. It consists of total 15 members, out of which 5 members are permanent and the
remaining 10 members are non-permanent. China, France, Russia, UK and USA are the permanent members. tHe nonpermanent members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years from among the member states. The permanent
members of the security council have got veto power. Any matter supported by the majority of the members fails to be
carried through if negative vote is cast by any of the permanent members.
Economic and Social Council
This organ of the U. N. consists of 54 representatives of the member countries elected by a two third majority of the General
Assembly.
International Court of Justice
It is the principal judicail organ of the United Nations. The headquarters of the International court of justice is at the Hague
(Netherland). The court consists of 15 judges.
Trusteeship Council
This organ consists of 14 members out of which five are the permanent members of the security council.
Secretariat
This organ of the United nations is the chief administrative office which coordnates and supervises the activites of the U. N.
This secretariat is headed by a Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recomendation of the
Security Coulcil' Secretary General of the U. N. is elected for five years and eligible for re-election. The present Secretary
General is Baan ki Moon
The United Nations family, however, is much larger, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies.
Budget
The budget for the two years 2000-2001 is $2,535 million. The main source of funds is the contributions of Member States,
which are assessed on a scale approved by the General Assembly.
The fundamental criterion on which the scale of assessments is based is the capacity of countries to pay. This is determined
by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors,
including their per capita incomes. In addition, countries are assessed -- in accordance with a modified version of the basic
scale -- for the costs of peacekeeping operations, which stood at around $2 billion in 2000.
The United Nations family
The United Nations family of organizations is made up of the United Nations Secretariat, the United Nations programmes and
funds -- such as the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) -- and the specialized
agencies. The programmes, funds and agencies have their own governing bodies and budgets, and set their own standards
and guidelines. Together, they provide technical assistance and other forms of practical help in virtually all areas of economic
and social endeavour.
INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY
One of the primary purposes of the United Nations is the maintenance of international peace and security. Since its creation,
the United Nations has often been called upon to prevent disputes from escalating into war, to persuade opposing parties to
use the conference table rather than force of arms, or to help restore peace when conflict does break out. Over the decades,
the United Nations has helped to end numerous conflicts, often through actions of the Security Council — the primary organ
for dealing with issues of international peace and security.
The Security Council, the General Assembly and the Secretary-General all play major, complementary roles in fostering
peace and security. United Nations activities cover the areas of prevention and peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace-building
and disarmament.
Civil conflicts
During the 1990s, there have been major changes in the patterns of conflict with more than 90 per cent of conflicts taking
place within, rather than between, states.
The United Nations has therefore reshaped and enhanced the range of instruments at its command, emphasizing conflict
prevention, continually adapting peacekeeping operations, involving regional organizations, and strengthening post-conflict
peace-building.
To deal with civil conflicts, the Security Council has authorized complex and innovative peacekeeping operations. In El
Salvador and Guatemala, in Cambodia and in Mozambique, the UN played a major role in ending war and fostering
reconciliation.
Other conflicts, however — in Somalia, Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia — often characterized by ethnic violence, brought
new challenges to the UN peacemaking role. Confronted with the problems encountered, the Security Council did not
establish any operation from 1995 to 1997.
But the essential role of peacekeeping has once more been dramatically reaffirmed.
Continuing crises in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, East Timor, Kosovo, Sierra Leone,
and Ethiopia-Eritrea led the Council to establish six new missions in 1998-2000.
Peace-building
The experience of recent years has also led the United Nations to focus as never before on peace-building — action to
support structures that will strengthen and consolidate peace. Experience has shown that keeping peace, in the sense of
avoiding military conflict, is not sufficient for establishing a secure and lasting peace. Such security can only be achieved by
helping countries to foster economic development, social justice, human rights protection, good governance and the
democratic process.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Although most people associate the United Nations with the issues of peace and security, the vast majority of its resources
are devoted to economic development, social development and sustainable development. United Nations development efforts
have profoundly affected the lives and well-being of millions of people throughout the world. Guiding the United Nations work
is the conviction that lasting international peace and security are possible only if the economic and social well-being of people
everywhere is assured.
Many of the economic and social transformations that have taken place globally in the last five decades have been
significantly affected in their direction and shape by the work of the United Nations. As the global centre for consensusbuilding, the United Nations has set priorities and goals for international cooperation to assist countries in their development
efforts and to foster a supportive global economic environment.
Common interests
International debate on economic and social issues has increasingly reflected the common interest of rich and poor countries
in solving the many problems that transcend national boundaries. Issues such as the environment, refugees, organized
crime, drug trafficking and AIDS are seen as global problems requiring coordinated action. The impact of poverty and
unemployment in one region can be quickly felt in others, not least through migration, social disruption and conflict.
Similarly, in the age of a global economy, financial instability in one country is immediately felt in the markets of others.
Coordinating development activities
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is the principal body coordinating the economic and social work of the United
Nations. It is serviced by the Department for Economic and Social Affairs. The entire family of United Nations organizations
works for economic, social and sustainable development.
HUMAN RIGHTS
Virtually every United Nations body and specialized agency is involved to some degree in the protection of human rights.
One of the great achievements of the United Nations is the creation of a comprehensive body of human rights law, which, for
the first time in history, provides us with a universal and internationally protected code of human rights, one to which all
nations can subscribe and to which all people can aspire.
Not only has the United Nations painstakingly defined a broad range of internationally accepted rights; it has also established
mechanisms with which to promote and protect these rights and to assist governments in carrying out their responsibilities.
Human rights law
The foundations of this body of law are the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted
by the General Assembly in 1948. Since then, the United Nations has gradually expanded human rights law to encompass
specific standards for women, children, disabled persons, minorities, migrant workers and other vulnerable groups, who now
possess rights that protect them from discriminatory practices that had long been common in many societies. Rights have
been extended through groundbreaking General Assembly decisions that have gradually established their universality,
indivisibility and interrelatedness with development and democracy.
Human rights action
Education campaigns have tirelessly informed the world’s public of their inalienable rights, while numerous national judicial
and penal systems have been enhanced with United Nations training programmes and technical advice. The United Nations
machinery to monitor compliance with human rights covenants has acquired a remarkable cohesiveness and weight.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights works to strengthen and coordinate United Nations work for the
protection and promotion of all human rights of all persons around the world. The Secretary-General has made human rights
the central theme that unifies the Organization’s work.
DECOLONIZATION
More than 80 nations whose peoples were under colonial rule have joined the United Nations as sovereign independent states
since the UN was founded in 1945. Many other Territories have achieved self-determination through political association with
other independent states or through integration with other states. The United Nations has played a crucial role in that historic
change by encouraging the aspirations of dependent peoples and by setting goals and standards to accelerate their
attainment of independence. The Organization has also supervised elections leading to independence — in Togoland (1956
and 1968), Western Samoa (1961), Namibia (1989) and most recently a popular consultation in East Timor (1999).
Self-determination and independence
The decolonization efforts of the United Nations derive from the Charter principle of “equal rights and self-determination of
peoples”, as well as from three specific chapters in the Charter devoted to the interests of dependent peoples. Since 1960,
the United Nations has also been guided by the General Assembly’s Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial
Countries and Peoples, by which Member States proclaimed the necessity of bringing colonialism to a speedy end. The
Organization has also been guided by General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960, which defined the three options
offering full self-government for Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Important UN Agencies
Name
Estd.
Headquarters
Purpose
1919
Geneva
To improve conditions and
living standard of workers.
1948
Geneva
attainment of highest
possible level of health by
all people.
Paris
To promote collaboration
among nations through
education, science and
culture.
Vienna
To promote peaceful uses
of atomic energy.
United Nation's International Children's Emergency
1946
Fund (UNICEF)
New York
To promote children's
welfare all over the world.
United Nations
(UNHCR)
1950
Geneva
To provide protection of
refugees.
1967
New York
For formulating population
policies.
1977
Rome
For financing agricultural
prjects in the world to raise
the economic growth.
Geneva
Promotes international
trade to accelerate
economic growth of
developing countries.
1947
Montreal
Promotes safety of
International aviation.
1945
Washington D. Promotes international
C.
monetary cooperation.
1956
Promote economic
development by
Washington D.
encouraging private
C.
enterprise in its member
countries.
1947
Beme
Improve various postal
services in the world.
1972
Nairobi
Promotes international cooperation in human
environment.
Geneva
Sets international
regulations for radio,
telegraph, telephone and
space radio communication.
1945
Rome
To improveliving condition
of rural population.
1945
Development of economics
Washington D. of members by facilitating
C.
investment of capitals by
providing loans.
1950
Geneva
International Labour Organization (ILO)
World Health Organization (WHO)
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO)
1946
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
High
Commissioner
for
1957
Refugees
United Nations Fund for Population Activitie (UNFPA)
International Fund for Agricultural Development
United Nations Conference on Trade and development
(UNCTAD)
1964
International Civil Aviation Organizatio(ICAO)
International Monitery Fund(IMF)
International Finance Corporation(IFC)
Universal Postal Union (UPU)
United Nations Enviornmental Programme (UNEP)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO)
1967
Food and Agricultursl Organization (FAO)
International
Bank
Development (IBRD)
for
Reconstruction
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
and
Promote international
exchange of weather
reports.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Geneva
Setting rules for the world
trade to reduce tariffs.
New York
Help developing countries
increase the wealth
producing capabilities of
their natural and human
resources.
1958
London
Promotes co-operation on
technial matters of
maritime safety, navigation
and encourages anti
pollution measures.
1960
An affiliate to the World
Washington D. Bank, aims to help underC.
developed countries raise
living standards.
1995
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
1995
Inter Government Maritime Consultative Organization
(IMCO)
International Development Associassion (IDA)
International Tele Communication Union (ITU)
Geneva
Sets international
regulations for radio
telegraph, telephone and
space radio
communications.
1965
New York
Provides training and
research to help faciliated
UN objectives of world
peace and security and of
economic and social
progress.
1949
New York
Provides basic amenities
and education for the victim
of Arab-Israel War.
New York
Studying population
dynamics, collecting
population data,
formulating and evolving
population policies, family
planning and related
programmes.
1947
United nations Institute for Training and Research
(UNITAR)
United Nations Relief
Refugees (UNRWA)
and
United Nations
(UNFPA)
for
Fund
Work
for
Palestine
Population
Activities
1967
Other UN Agencies
Name of Groups/Agencies
Objectives/Headquarters/Established
The Common Wealth
It was originally known as 'The British Commonwealth of
Nations'. It is an association of sovereing and independent states
which formally made up the British empire. It's headquarter is
located at London. The British Monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) is
the symbolic head of the commonwealth. The Commonwealth
heads of government meet (CHOGM) is held in every 2 years.
Arab League
The Arab League was established on March 22, 1945. The
objective was to promote economic, social, political and military
cooperation. The headquarter of this organization is located at
Cairo (egipt), which have 23 members.
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
The APEC was established on November, 1989. The basic
objective of this organization is to promote trade and investment
in the pacific basin. It has 21 member.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
It was established on december 19th 1966. The basic objective
was to promote regional economic cooperation. he headquarter of
this organization is located at Manila and it has 59 members.
Association
(ASEAN)
of
South-East
Asian
Nations The ASEAN was established on 8th August,1967. The basic
objective of this organization was regional, economic, social and
cultural co-operation among the non-commercial countries of
South-East asia. The members of this organization are Brunei,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philipines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam,
Laos, Mayanmar, Cambodia. It's headquarter is located at
Djakarta.
Common Wealth of Independent states (CIS)
This organization was established on December 8th, 1991.
Thebasic objective of this oeganization is to coordinae intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the
orderly dissolution of the USSR. It has 12 members and
headquarter located at Kirava (Belarus)
Group of 8 or G-08
It was established on Sept. 22, 1985, to promote co-operation
among major non-cmmunist economic powers., Members:
France, Germany, Japan, UK, US, Canada, Italy, and Russia.
Group of 15 (G-15)
It is sstablished on 1989, to promote economic co-operation
among developing nations. It has 19 members.
Group of 77 (G-77)
It was established on Oct., 1967, to promote economic cooperation among developing nations. It has 27 members.
International
(INTERPOL)
Criminal
Police
Organisation It was established on 1914, to promote international cooperation
among criminal police authorities. It has 178 members, and it's
headquarters located at France.
International Olympic Committee (IOC)
It was established on June 23, 1894, to promote the olympic
ideals and administer olympic games. It has 167 members and
it's headquarters located at Swizerland
International Organisation for Standardisation It is established on Feb., 1947, to promote the development of
international standards,
It has 140 members and its
(ISO)
headquarters located at Switzerland.
International
Movement
Red
cross
And
Non-aligned Movement (NAM)
Red
Crescent It is established on 1928, to promote worldwide humanitarian
aid, It's headquarters located at Geneva.
It is established on Sept. 1961, the main objective was political
co-operation and separate itself from both USA and USSR (in the
cold-war era). It has 116 members. The credit of evolving the
concept goes to Pt. Jawahar lal Nehru. The other contributors
were Marshal tito (President of Yugoslavia), Dr. Sukarno
(President of Indonesia) and General Nasser (President of Egypt).
Bandung conference in Indonesia became the forum for the birth
of NAM.
European Union
It was established on Apr. 8, 1965. Effective on July 1, 1967.,
The objective was to create a united Europe in which member
countries would have such strong economic and political bonds
that war would cease to be a recurring fact., It has 25 members.
(The ten new countries which joined in 2004 are Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Estonia, Hungary, latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland,
Slavakia and Slovania)., It's headquarters located at Brussels
(Belgium). The common European, currency, Euro, was launched
on Jan. 1, 1999.
North Atlantic Treaty organisation (NATO)
It was estableshed on April 4, 1949. The objective of this
organization is to provide mutual defence and cooperation. It has
more than 26 members like Russia. It's headquarters located at
Brussels.
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries It was established on Sept, 1959. The objective was to set world
prices by controlling oil production and also persues member
(OPEC)
interest in trade and development. It has 13 members (Algeria,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, UAE, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Gabon, Equador and Venezuela). It's headquarters at
Vienna (Austria).
South
Asian
Association
Cooperation (SAARC)
For
Regional It was established on Dec. 8, 1985, to promote economic, social
and cultural cooperation. The members are Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Srilanka., Headquarters:
Kathmandu.
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)
It was established on Oct 11, 1947, effective from April 4, 1951.,
Thw main objective was specialised UN agency concerned with
meteorological cooperation., It's headquarter at Geneva and it
has 162 member.
Amnesty International (AI)
It was established on 1961, To keep a watch over human rights
violation worldwide., headquarters at London, Got Nobel Prize in
1977 for Peace.
Organisation of The Islamic conference (OIC)
It was established 1969, to promote Islamic solidarity among
member states and to consolidate cooperation among members.,
It has 57 members, and it's headquarters at Saudi Arabia.
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
It was established on June 7, 2002, to develop mutual
cooperation., Members: Russia, China, Kazakhistan, Uzbekistan,
kyrghiztan and Tajikistan.
Scouts and Guides
It was establishedon 1907 by Lt. Gen. Baden Powell., to
encourage good character, loyalty to god and country, service to
other people and physical and mental fitness., It has about 13
million members of around 115 nations., World Scouts Bureau:
Geneva (Switzerland).
World Wildife Fund for Nature (WWF)
It was established on Sept. 11, 1961, to save the wildlife from
extinction, Members: All the countries of the world, headquarters
at Gland (Switzerland).
World General Knowledge
World General Knowledge
1. The London University was the first British University to admit women for degree courses.
2. New York is popularly known as the city of Skyscrapers
3. Madagascar is popularly known as the Island of Cloves
4. Thailand is the country known as the Land of White Elephant.
5. Korea is known as the Land of Morning Calm.
6. Bhutan is known as the Land of Thunderbolts
7. Salto Angel Falls in Venezuela is the highest waterfalls in the world.
8. United States Library of Congress in Washington DC is the largest library in the world is the
9. The author of Harry Potter Books is JK Rowling
10. Nickname of New York city is Big Apple
11. Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest President of the USA.
12. Brazil is the largest coffee growing country in the world.
13. Verkoyansk in Siberia is the coldest place on the earth.
14. The length of the English channel is 564 kilometres.
15. Damascus is the world’s oldest known city.
16. Detroit in the USA is the city which is the world’s biggest centre for manufacture of automobiles.
17. The country which is the largest producer of rubber in the world is Malaysia.
18. Amazon River carries maximum quantity of water into the sea.
19. Cuba is known as the Sugar Bowl of the world.
20. The length of the Suez Canal is 162.5 kilometers.
21. James Cook discovered Australia.
22. Mohammed Ali Jinnah was the first Governor General of Pakistan.
23. Alexander Eiffel was the person who built Eifel Tower.
24. Rose is the national flower of Britain.
25. The national flower of Italy is Lily.
26. World Environment Day is observed on 5th June.
27. The earlier name of Sri Lanka was Ceylon
28. United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in the year 1945.
29. Admiral Robert E. Peary was the first man to reach North Pole.
30. The place known as the Roof of the world is Tibet.
31. The first Pakistani to receive the Nobel Prize was Abdul Salam.
32. The first woman Prime Minister of Britain was Margaret Thatcher
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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE