______1.
Which of the following Big Five trait
dimensions is most descriptive of an individual who
is organized and disciplined in managing his or her
work?
a.
extraversion
b.
agreeableness
c.
conscientiousness
d.
openness
e.
candidness.
____ 2.
A highly anxious and insecure
personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension
of
a.
agreeableness.
b.
openness.
c.
extraversion.
d.
neuroticism.
e.
displacement.
____ 3.
Which of the following are the “Big
Five” personality factors?
a.
compassionate, actualized, noble, optimistic,
even-tempered
b.
esteem, oppressive, nonviolent, academic,
conventional
c.
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion,
agreeableness, neuroticism
d.
avoidant, calculating, nonconforming,
excitable, overconfident
e.
collectivist, accepting, anxious, objective,
empathic
____ 4.
The person-situation controversy
involves a debate regarding the influence of
________ and ________ on behavior.
a.
self-concept; self-esteem
b.
optimism; pessimism
c.
environments; traits
d.
the real self; the ideal self
e.
the id; the superego
____ 5.
Most psychologists would agree that
personality traits
a.
appear to be stable over time.
b.
are not useful predictors of mortality,
divorce, or occupational attainment.
c.
seem to be stable across situations.
d.
stabilize early in life.
e.
are not socially significant.
____ 6.
People's scores on personality tests
often fail to predict their behavior in a real-life
situation. According to Walter Mischel, this should
make us more cautious about emphasizing the
consistency of (give a short answer explanation):
____ 7.
Which perspective most clearly
emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and
situations on human behavior?
a.
trait perspective
b.
psychoanalytic perspective
c.
social-cognitive perspective
d.
humanistic perspective
e.
functionalist perspective
____ 8.
According to Bandura, reciprocal
determinism involves multidirectional influences
among
a.
mind, body, and behavior.
b.
thoughts, emotions, and actions.
c.
behaviors, internal personal factors, and
environmental events.
d.
id, ego, and superego.
e.
learned helplessness, locus of control, and
optimism.
____ 9.
Within the framework of Bandura's
reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control
refers to a(n)
a.
behavior.
b.
genetic predisposition.
c.
environmental factor.
d.
cognitive factor.
e.
defense mechanism.
____ 10.
Sasha believes that the questions on
her biology tests are so unrelated to course work
that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly
illustrates
a.
reciprocal determinism.
b.
the false consensus effect.
c.
an external locus of control.
d.
the spotlight effect.
e.
the Barnum effect.
____ 11.
Laura fails to recognize any
connection between her unsafe sexual practices and
the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted
infection. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best
illustrates the dangers of
a.
free association.
b.
the self-reference phenomenon.
c.
the spotlight effect.
d.
an external locus of control.
e.
unconditional positive regard.
____ 12.
An individual who perceives an
internal locus of control would most likely show
signs of a
a.
weak id.
b.
strong id.
c.
weak ego.
d.
strong ego.
e.
weak superego.
____ 13.
Learned helplessness is MOST likely
to be associated with
a.
self-serving bias.
b.
an external locus of control.
c.
the false consensus effect.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
the spotlight effect.
____ 14.
Compared with those who made a
purchase choice from among 30 different brands of
jam or chocolate, those who chose from among just
6 brands expressed more satisfaction with their
choice. WHY???
____ 15.
Compared with European-American
students, Asian-American students express a
somewhat greater ________ about their future
performance, which may help to explain their
impressive academic achievements.
a.
unconditional positive regard
b.
self-serving bias
c.
false consensus effect
d.
pessimism
e.
optimism
____ 16.
Excessive self-confidence is
especially likely to be facilitated by the difficulty in
recognizing
a.
personal control.
b.
free association.
c.
one's own incompetence.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
superego.
____ 17.
The best indicator of a person's level
of optimism is his or her
a.
ideal self.
b.
gender identity.
c.
attributional style.
d.
unconditional positive regard.
e.
self-esteem.
____ 18.
According to the social-cognitive
perspective, one of the best ways to predict a
person's future behavior is to
a.
identify that person's most central traits by
having him or her take a personality inventory.
b.
observe that person's behavior in various
relevant situations.
c.
assess that person's general level of selfesteem.
d.
uncover that person's hidden motives, as
revealed by projective tests.
e.
measure that person's unconscious conflicts
and use of defense mechanisms.
____ 19.
Which of the following personality
assessments would most likely be used by socialcognitive psychologists?
a.
asking test-takers to describe a series of
inkblots
b.
administering an objective inventory that
measures specific traits, such as extraversion
c.
observing and evaluating a student teacher's
performance
d.
asking people to fill out questionnaires
describing their ideal and real selves
e.
conducting an in-depth interview of a
particular person
____ 20.
A criticism of the social-cognitive
perspective has been that it
a.
overestimates the importance of unconscious
factors in personality.
b.
is inconsistent with research demonstrating
the pervasive nature of self-serving bias.
c.
underestimates the importance of enduring
personality traits.
d.
is inconsistent with the results of
contemporary research on learning processes.
e.
overestimates the value of projective
personality test scores.
____ 21.
The social-cognitive perspective is
LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the
importance of
a.
environmental influences.
b.
unconscious motives.
c.
personality traits.
d.
genetic influences.
e.
the collective unconscious.
SHORT ANSWER
1.
Briefly explain how trait theorists
develop and test theories such as the “Big Five”
personality factors.
2.
The personality traits that Tonya
demonstrates at parties with her friends are very
different from those she exhibits when she
participates in class activities. Using your
knowledge of reciprocal determinism to explain
why the variability of Tonya's behavior in different
situations is not surprising.
3.
The behavioral psychologist B. F.
Skinner emphasized that people are largely
controlled by forces outside themselves. Critique
the practical implications of personally accepting
Skinner's position in light of contemporary research
on locus of control.