Unit 8 Guide: Concepts of Earth Science
Minerals and Rocks
Key Concepts and Questions to Be Able to Explain and Answer:
1. What are the four characteristics shared by all minerals? Be able to determine whether a
substance is a mineral based on the presence of these characteristics.
2. What is a crystal? What are the possible shapes a crystal can have?
3. What are silicates and why are they important? What are the major classes of nonsilicate
minerals? Be able to classify a mineral as a silicate or nonsilicate.
4. Be able to name and describe the common physical properties of minerals: color, hardness,
luster, density, streak, cleavage, and fracture.
5. Apply Mohs scale to determine the hardness of common materials and minerals.
6. Be able to explain the processes that change rocks during the rock cycle.
7. What is Bowen’s Reaction Series? Be able to summarize what is happening on both the
continuous and discontinuous side.
8. How can an igneous rock form? Compare and contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks.
9. How are rocks that form from felsic, intermediate, and mafic magma different? Be able to
identify and name examples of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that form from each of
the three types of magma.
10. Be able to name and describe various intrusive igneous rock structures: batholiths, stocks,
laccoliths, sills, dikes.
11. How can a sedimentary rock form? Compare and contrast clastic, chemical and organic
sedimentary rocks.
12. How can grain size and shape be used to classify clastic sedimentary rocks? Be able to
identify and name examples of clastic sedimentary rocks with various grain shapes and sizes.
13. Be able to name and describe various sedimentary rock features: cross beds and graded
bedding, stratification, ripple marks, etc.
14. How can a metamorphic rock form? Compare and contrast regional and contact
metamorphism.
15. How are foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic rocks different? Be able to identify and
name examples of foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic rocks.
Assessments
Mineral Quiz
Unit 8 Test
Rock Lab
Date: _____________
Date: _____________
Date: _____________
Reading Assignments:
Students will be assigned readings from the following pages in the text book.
Chapter 5
102-123
Chapter 6
124-153
Vocabulary
mineral
silicate mineral
nonsilicate mineral
inorganic
crystal
carbonates
halides
native elements
oxides
sulfates
sulfides
streak
luster
cleavage
fracture
Mohs hardness scale
Vocabulary (continued)
rock cycle
Bowen’s Reaction Series
igneous rock
intrusive
extrusive
felsic
mafic
sediment
weathering
erosion
compaction
cementation
chemical sedimentary rock
organic sedimentary rock
Rock Types You Should be able to Classify and Describe:
Gabbro
Rhyolite
Schist
Diorite
Pumice
Gneiss
Granite
Scoria
Quartzite
Basalt
Obsidian
Marble
Andesite
Slate
clastic sedimentary rock
metamorphism
contact metamorphism
foliated
nonfoliated
limestone
rock salt
fossil rich limestone
chalk
coal
sandstone
conglomerate
siltstone
shale
breccia
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Unit 8 Guide: Concepts of Earth Science Minerals and Rocks Key