Biology 9 Fermentation, Cell Division, Mitosis, Meiosis
Study Guide
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Figure 10–10
Interpret Visuals What cell process does Figure 10–10 represent? How do you
know if this is an animal cell or a plant cell?
It shows various stages of mitosis in an animal cell. We know this is an animal
cell because of the presence of centrioles and the shape of the cells.
Infer What is the chromosome number of the cell shown in Figure 10–10?
The chromosome number of the cell shown is 4
Infer Identify the structures labeled X and Y in Figure 10–10.
Structure X is a centriole; Y is a spindle fiber.
Apply Concepts Using letters, List the correct order for the diagrams in Figure 10–
10. D,A,C, B
Predict After the steps shown in Figure 10–10 are arranged in the correct order,
what would a diagram of the next step show?
The next step would be cytokinesis. It would show two daughter cells forming.
Also accept interphase or G1.
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Figure 10–8
6. Identify the structure labeled A: Structure A is the Cell Plate
Figure 10–7
7. Identify the phase of mitosis in each step. A interphase, B prophase, C
metaphase, D Anaphase, E Telophase, F cytokinesis
8. Prokaryotes reproduce by an asexual process known as binary fission.
9. Distinguish between sexual in asexual reproduction in terms of the type of
offspring produced.
During sexual reproduction, cells can produce genetically different offspring,
whereas during asexual reproduction, cells produce genetically identical
offspring.
10. How do the number of chromosomes found in gametes compare to the number of
chromosomes found in body cells?
An organism’s gametes have half the number of chromosomes found in the
organism’s body cells.
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Figure 9–4
11. Identify each of the pathways in figure 9-4.
Pathway A – Lactic Acid Fermentation, B – Alcoholic Fermentation, C – Cellular
Respiration
12. Name 3 problems that growth causes cells.
1) Difficulty taking nutrients in, difficulty removing wastes, & too much
demand on cell DNA
13. Name the phases of mitosis in correct sequence
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
14. What are the 2 main types of fermentation?
The 2 main types of fermentation are alcoholic and lactic acid
15. Where does lactic acid fermentation occur? Lactic acid fermentation occurs in
body’s muscles
16. What process causes bread dough to rise, and gives bread a spongy texture?
Alcoholic fermentation is responsible for bread dough rising
17. How does the body continue producing ATP beyond 90 seconds of activity?
The body continues to generate ATP through cell respiration
18. As a cell grows larger – what happens to the cells volume compared to its surface
area?
As a cell grows larger, its volume increases faster than its surface area
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19.
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
Advantage:
Genetic diversity
Fast reproduction; more numerous
offspring
Disadvantage:
Longer process
Lacks genetic diversity – may limit
ability to adapt to changing
environment
Similarities
Both produce offspring and pass genetic information from parent to offspring
Differences
2 parents; genetically different
offspring
Single parent; genetically identical
offspring
20.
Cell Cycle
Cell grows – Letter A
G1
DNA is copied – Letter B
S
G2
Cell continues to grow; prepares for
mitosis – Letter C
M
P- prophase
M- metaphase  Letter D
A- anaphase
T- Telophase
Cytoplasm splits – Letter D
Cytokinesis
Figure 10–3
21. What process produces gametes?
Gametes are produced through a process called meiosis
Figure 11–4
22. What process is occurring in figure 11-4
Crossing-over occurs during prophase I
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23. Through what process and during which phase do chromosomes form tetrads?
During Meiosis I, prophase I – homologous chromosome pairs form tetrads
24. What is formed at the end of meiosis?
Meiosis results in the formation of 4 haploid cells.
Mitosis
Meiosis
Form of reproduction
Number of daughter cells
Change in chromosome number
Number of cell divisions
Difference in alleles between
parent cell and daughter cells
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