Exam Review Questions
Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science
1. Define the following:
Earth Science
Geology
Oceanography
Meteorology
Astronomy
Hydrosphere
Atmosphere
Geosphere
Biosphere
Core
Mantle
Crust
Latitude
Longitude
Topographic Map
Contour Line
Contour Interval
System
2. Define ‘Earth Science’
3. Describe the formation of Earth and the solar system
4. Describe Earth’s four major spheres
5. State the value of the theory of plate tectonics to Earth Science
6. Locate points on Earth’s surface by their latitiude and longitude
What is the purpose of contour lines on a topographic map?
What two lines mark zero degrees on the globe? In which directions do
these lines run?
7. Describe advantages and disadvantages of different types of maps
8. Explain what makes topographic maps different from other maps
9. Describe the primary goal of Earth system science
10. Describe Earth’s two major sources of energy
11. Explain how humans affect Earth’s systems
12. Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources
Chapter 2: Minerals
1. Define the following:
Element
Atomic number
Energy level
Isotope
Mass number
Compound
Chemical bond
Ion
Ionic bond
Covalent bond
Metallic bond
Mineral
Silicate
Streak
Luster
Crystal form
Hardness
Mohs Scale
Cleavage
Fracture
Density
2. Explain how elements are related to minerals
3. Identify the kinds of particles that make up atoms
4. Explain the differences between ions and isotopes
5. Explain what compounds are and describe why they form
6. Compare and contrast the three major types of chemical bonds
7. List 5 characteristics of minerals
8. Describe the processes that result in mineral formation
9. Explain how minerals can be classified
10. List some of the major groups of minerals
11. Explain why colour is often not a useful property in identifying minerals
12. Distinguish between cleavage and fracture
13. Explain density and how it can be used to identify substances
14. Describe some other properties that can be used to identify minerals
Chapter 3: Rocks
1. Define the following:
Rock
Igneous rock
Sedimentary rock
Metamorphic rock
Rock cycle
Magma
Lava
Weathering
Sediments
Instrusive igneous rock
Extrusive igneous rock
Porphyritic texture
Granitic composition
Basaltic composition
Andesitic composition
Ultramafic
Erosion
Deposition
Compaction
Cementation
Clastic sedimentary rock
Chemical sedimentary rock
Metamorphism
Contact metamorphism
Regional metamorphism
Hydrothermal solution
Foliated metamorphic rock
Nonfoliated metamorphic rock
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Identify the three major types of rocks and explain how they differ
Describe the Rock Cycle
List the forces that power Earth’s Rock cycle
Compare and Contrast Intrusive and Extrusive rocks
Demonstrate how the rate of cooling affects an igneous rock’s texture
Classify igneous rocks according to texture and composition
Describe the major processes involved in the formation of
sedimentary rocks
9. Identify the features that are unique to some sedimentary rocks
10. Predict where most metamorphism takes place
11. Distinguish contact metamorphism from regional metamorphism
12. Identify 3 agents of metamorphism and explain what changes they
cause
13. Recognize foliated metamorphic rocks and describe how they are
formed
14. Classify metamorphic rocks
Chapter 12 and 13: Geologic Time and Earth’s History
Be able to answer the Guided questions from your Summative Project
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ESS Exam Review Questions Q1

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