Name _________________________________________________ Period ________ Date _________________
1st Semester Study Guide
*** Your study guide MUST be Neat, Clean, Legible, and Detailed! Use your Notes, textbook, or my website
to answer each question
Section 1: MINERALS (pg. 62-79)
1. How to test the hardness of a mineral (pg. 69)
- Include a picture of the Mohs Scale
*To test the hardness of a mineral you: _________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Picture of the Mohs Scale: (pg. 69) – COMPLETE THE CHART
Mohs Scale
Hardness
1
Gypsum
3
4
Apatite
Feldspar
7
8
Corundum
Diamond
2. How to perform a streak test (Pg. 71)
*To perform a streak test you need to ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Describe the difference between fracture and cleavage (Pg. 71)
*_________________ is when minerals break with uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces.
*_________________ is when minerals break along smooth flat surfaces.
4. Minerals special properties (Pg. 72)
- Magnetism attracts magnets and will pick up iron fillings
-
Chemical reaction with Calcite (Include a picture)
*When hydrochloric acid (HLC) is dropped on calcite it will ___________________.
Picture
5. Crystalline structure when magma cools fast and slow
*When magma cools slow the crystals will be ________________.
*When magma cools fast the crystals will be _________________.
Section 2: Rocks (pg. 90-109)
1. List the 3 types of rocks and their characteristics
- Igneous (difference between intrusive and extrusive) (pg. 95)
*Intrusive: Located __________________ the Earth’s surface
These type of rocks cool very ____________ and have ______________ sized crystals
*Extrusive: Located _________________ the Earth’s surface
These type of rock cool very ____________ and have ______________ sized crystals
-
Sedimentary (difference between compaction and cementation) (pg. 104)
*Compaction is when _________________ from the upper layers pushes down on the lower layers.
*Cementation: As ___________ moves through soil and rock, it picks up materials released from
minerals during ___________________. These minerals act like natural ___________, and hold the
sediments together like ____________.
- Metamorphic (difference between foliated and nonfoliated) (pg. 101,102)
* Foliated Rocks: The mineral grains line up in _____________________.
* Nonfoliated Rocks: __________________ does not occur. The mineral grains grow and
______________
2. Picture of the rock cycle (Compete the diagram with arrows and labels) pg.91
Sediments
Sedimentary Rock
Igneous Rock
Metamorphic Rock
Magma
Section 3: Natural Resources (pg 120-135)
1. Renewable resources (List and describe the 5 and give examples for each)
1. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Example: _____________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Example: _____________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Example: _____________________________________________________________________
4. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Example: _____________________________________________________________________
5. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Example: _____________________________________________________________________
2. Nonrenerable resources (Give a description of each)
- Fossil Fuels (list and describe the 3 types) (pg120-123)
1. Coal – ________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Oil –_________________________________________________________________________
Example - _____________________________________________________________________
3. Natural gas – __________________________________________________________________
Example - _____________________________________________________________________
- Nuclear (pg.127)
* Nuclear energy is an alternate energy resource produced from ________________________.
Example - ________________________________________________________________________
3. Include 1 picture for renewable and 1 picture for nonrenewable
Renewable resource picture
Nonrenewable resource picture
This is a picture of __________________
This is a picture of ___________________
Section 4: Soil (pg. 190-191)
1. Draw and label a picture of the soil profile (pg. 191)
2. Describe the characteristics of each layer (Pg. 191)
*A Horizon: Also called the __________________, and is the _________________ layer
Is covered in ___________________
Very __________ and fertile
Composed of ________________ which provides nutrients for the soil
*B Horizon: Also called the __________________
_________________________ occurs in this layer which is the removal of minerals that
have been dissolved in water.
*C Horizon: Also called the ___________________, and is the ________________ layer
Consists of _________________________
This horizon is most like the ____________________________.
3. What are the components of soil? (What is it made up of) (Pg. 190)
*Soil is made up of _____________ and _____________________________, ___________________,
_______________, and ______________________.
Section 5: Weathering (Pg. 182-186)
1. Mechanical weathering
- List the 3 types and describe the characteristics of each
1._______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2._______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2. Chemical weathering
- List the 3 types and describe the characteristics of each
1._______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2._______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. Provide 1 picture of mechanical and 1 picture of chemical weathering
Picture of mechanical weathering
Picture of Chemical Weathering
This is a pict. of _______________
This is a pict. of ________________
Section 6: Erosion and Deposition
Give examples of erosion and deposition for each erosional force.
Erosion
Erosional Force
Gravity
(pg. 210-214)
Glaciers
(Pg. 215-220)
Deposition
Wind
(pg. 222-227)
Section 7: Plate Tectonics (pg. 272-289)
1. Draw, label, and give characteristics of the 3 ways plate tectonics move
1. Divergent Boundary (pg. 281)
Pict:
These type of plates move ____________
2. Convergent Boundary (pg. 282)
Pict:
3. Transform Boundary (pg. 284)
Pict:
*These type of plates move __________________
*The denser plate will ____________ under the less
dense plate.
*The area where the plate goes under the other plate
is called the _______________________, and a
____________________ can form here.
*These type of plates occur when ______________
__________________________________________
2. Using the flow chart, describe the difference between continental drift, seafloor spreading, and plate
tectonics
1. Continental Drift
2. Seafloor Spreading
3. Plate Tectonics
3. List 5 supporting evidences that Alfred Wegner’s theory, continental drift, existed.
1. ______________________________________________________________________
2. __ ____________________________________________________________________
3. _______________________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________________
5. _______________________________________________________________________
4. Label the layers of the Earth
5. Explain how convection currents occur
- A convection current is the ___________________________, ___________________________,
_________________________, and ____________________________ of magma.
- The hot, _________________________________ magma rises, cools, and becomes
_____________________________________ causing it to sink.
- This cycle is what causes the ________________________________________________ to move.
6. Describe the age of rocks the closer and farther away they get from the mid ocean ridge.
- The closer to the mid ocean ridge, the _____________________________________ the rock.
- The farther away from the mid ocean ridge, the _________________________________ the rock.
1) When an earthquake occurs, energy is released in the form of __________.
a. seismic waves
c. magnitude
b. faults
d. tsunamis
2) What kind of a wave causes particles in rocks to move side to side at right angles to the direction of the
waves?
a. surface waves
c. secondary waves
b. primary waves
d. tsunami waves
3) What kind of waves causes particles in rocks to move back and forth in compressions in the same
direction?
a. surface waves
c. secondary waves
b. primary waves
d. tsunami waves
4) An earthquake’s _______________ is the point on Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake focus.
a. elastic limit
c. epicenter
b. focus
d. primary wave
5) The Richter scale measures the _________ of an earthquake.
a. magnitude
c. liquefaction
b. intensity
d. fault
6) Normal faults are created by _____________ forces.
a. compression
c. sliding
b. tension
d. exploding
7) Rocks are subject to the force of tension where Earth’s plates ____________.
a. slide past each other
c. move apart
b. come together
d. slide over another one
8) _____________________ forces are present where Earth’s plates come together.
a. explosive
c. tension
b. elastic
d. compression
9) At a ___________________ fault, the rocks above the fault surface are forced up and over the rocks
below the fault surface.
a. liquid
c. normal
b. strike-slip
d. reverse
10) Earthquakes create all of these types of waves EXCEPT ___________
a. tertiary
c. primary
b. secondary
d. surface