. – Micrometeorology
PROFESSOR GIACOMO GEROSA
Text under revision. Not yet approved by academic staff.
COURSE AIMS
Micrometeorology deals with the turbulent processes involved in the exchanges of
energy and matter between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Knowledge of
this subject is crucial in the study of interactions between air pollutants and the
biosphere, and in particular vegetation.
COURSE CONTENT
1- Introduction. Scales of investigation: PBL and ASL. Quantities and overview
of thermodynamics applied to the atmosphere. Meteorology and
micrometeorology.
2- Surface energy balance. Equations and applications to different surfaces
(ground, vegetation and bodies of water). Solar radiation and surface radiation
balance. Short and long wave radiation. Net radiation. Light interception,
absorption and reflection by ground cover. Remote sensing. Surface
temperature and heat transfer to and from the soil.
3- PBL. Thermal characteristics. Vertical profiles of temperature, humidity and
wind. Stability, mixing layers and inversions.
4- ASL and turbulence in the boundary layer. Laminar flow and development of
boundary layers. Turbulent motions: general characteristics. Continuity
equation and Reynolds decomposition. Vortices and the scale of motions.
Kolmogorov's theory. Taylor's hypothesis. Mathematical description of
turbulent flows. Dimensional analysis and the Monin-Obukhov similarity
theory.
5- Stability in the boundary layer. Neutral conditions. Wind speed profile
equations and surface roughness parameters. Conditions of stability and
instability. Monin-Obukhov length and similarity functions.
6- Methods for investigating the boundary layer. Measuring instruments for
atmospheric and turbulence parameters. Energy balance methods. Bowen
ratio. Eddy Correlation. Aerodynamic gradient.
7- Micrometeorology
of
terrestrial
ecosystems.
Evaporation
and
evapotranspiration. Resistive analogy and Penman-Monteith description.
Stomas and evaporation: Jarvis's description of stomatal behaviour. Coupled
canopy-atmosphere. Profiles and fluxes of energy and matter. Pollutant flows
in ecosystems. Examples and maps.
READING LIST
P. ARYA, Introduction to micrometeorology, Academic Press, San Diego, California, 2001
J.L. MONTEITH - M.H. UNSWORTH, Principles of Environmental Physics, 3rd edition. Elsevier
Science & Technology, 2014.
F. VENTURA - P. ROSSI PISA, Strumenti per l’agrometeorologia, Aracne Editore for consultation, 2004
R.B. STULL, An introduction to boundary layer meteorology, Kluwer, 1988.
P. CECCON - M. BORIN, Elementi di Agrometeorologia e Agroclimatologia, Ed. Imprimitur, 1995.
TEACHING METHOD
Lectures, group workshops, laboratory activities and - possibly - visits to
micrometeorological installations
ASSESSMENT METHOD
Oral examination with discussion of a micrometeorology paper chosen by the candidate.
Optional individual short dissertation.
NOTES
Further information can be found on the lecturer's webpage
http://www2.unicatt.it/unicattolica/docenti/index.html or on the Faculty notice board.
at