Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Name: ________________________________ Date:___________ Class: STEM Gr. 6 Hour:_______
Section 1: The Rock Cycle
Objectives
•
Describe two ways rocks have been used by humans.
•
Describe four processes that shape Earth’s features.
•
Describe how each type of rock changes into another type as it moves through the rock
cycle.
•
List two characteristics of rock that are used to help classify it.
The Value of Rock

What Is Rock? Scientists define rock as _______________________________________ __________________________________ _ _______________________________________ __________________________________ _ _______________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________________.

Why Is Rock Important? Rock has been an important natural resource for as long as
humans have existed. Early humans used rock to make tools. Ancient and modern
civilizations have used rock _______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
Processes That Shape the Earth
•
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Weathering, erosion, and deposition are all
processes that ______________________________________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________________ .
•
Heat and Pressure Sedimentary rock can form when
_______________________________________ __________________________________
________________________________________ __________________________________ _. If
the temperature and pressure are high enough,
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
•
How the Cycle Continues Buried rock is exposed at the Earth’s surface by a
combination of uplift and erosion. This continues the rock cycle.
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Illustrating the Rock Cycle
•
The Flow of Rock The rock cycle is _______________________________________ __________________________________ _ _______________________________________ __________________________________ _ _______________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________________.
Round and Round It Goes
•
Rolling Stones The sequence of events in the rock cycle depends on processes, such as
weathering, erosion, deposition, pressure, and heat, that change the rock material. Look
at the illustrated rock cycle on the next slide and identify what processes are taking
place at each stage.
Rock Classification
•
Composition The composition of a rock is determined by
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
Texture The texture of a rock is determined by the
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Name: ________________________________ Date:___________ Class: STEM Gr. 6 Hour:_______
Section 2: Igneous Rock
Bellringer
Do you think rocks that cooled and solidified from lava on Earth’s surface would look different
from those that cooled and solidified from magma inside the Earth? Would you be more likely
to find igneous rock in the Rocky Mountains or in the Hawaiian Islands?
Explain your answer in your science journal.
Objectives
•
Describe three ways that igneous rock forms.
•
Explain how the cooling rate of magma affects the texture of igneous rock.
•
Distinguish between igneous rock that cools within Earth’s crust and igneous rock that
cools at Earth’s surface.
Origins of Igneous Rock
•
Formation Igneous rock forms _______________________________________ __________________________________ ________________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________________.
Composition and Texture of Igneous Rock
•
Appearance Determined by Cooling Rate Igneous rocks can be composed of
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
The texture of igneous rock is determined by
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
Igneous Rock Formations
•
Intrusive Igneous Rock When magma intrudes, or pushes, into surrounding rock below
the Earth’s surface and cools, the rock that forms is called intrusive igneous rock.
Intrusive igneous rock usually has a coarse-grained texture because it is well insulated
by surrounding rock and cools very slowly. Some intrusive igneous formations are
illustrated on the next slide.
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
•
Extrusive Igneous Rock Igneous rock that forms _______________________________ __________________________________ _ _______________________________________ called extrusive igneous rock. Extrusive rock is common around ___________________
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Name: ________________________________ Date:___________ Class: STEM Gr. 6 Hour:_______
Section 3: Sedimentary Rock
Bellringer
Tree rings are formed each year of a trees life cycle. Tree rings exist because the weather
changes of the seasons are reflected in the trees bark as the tree grows. Sedimentary rock is
formed in layers over time much the same way. Events like forest fires and droughts will be
visible in tree rings just as they are visible in sedimentary rock layers. How are layers in
sedimentary rock alike or different from rings in a tree? What can geologists infer from
examining sedimentary rock layers?
Record your answers in your science journal.
Objectives
•
Describe the origin of sedimentary rock.
•
Describe the three main categories of sedimentary rock.
•
Describe three types of sedimentary structures.
Origins of Sedimentary Rock
•
How Sedimentary Rock Is Formed Through _______________________________________
__________________________________ ________________________________________ __________________________________ _, called sediment, are moved from one place to
another. Eventually, the sediment is deposited in layers. The layers develop into a
natural cement that binds _______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
Where Sedimentary Rock Is Formed Sedimentary rock forms at or near the Earth’s
surface.
Composition of Sedimentary Rock
•
Clastic Sedimentary Rock Clastic sedimentary rock forms when
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
Chemical Sedimentary Rock Chemical sedimentary rock forms from
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _ .
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Organic Sedimentary Rock Organic limestone forms from
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
Sedimentary Rock Structures
•
Common Structures Sedimentary structures include
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
•
Stratification The most important feature of _____________________ _____ is
stratification. ___________________is the process in which
_______________________________________ __________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________.
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Name: ________________________________ Date:___________ Class: STEM Gr. 6 Hour:_______
Section 4: Metamorphic Rock
Bellringer
Write a brief description of how cookies are made. How is the mixture of raw ingredients
like sedimentary rock? Do the raw ingredients of a cookie look the same after they are
done baking? Describe how cookie dough metamorphoses when it is baked in an oven.
Record your responses in your science journal.
Objectives
•
Describe two ways a rock can undergo metamorphism.
•
Explain how the mineral composition of rocks changes as the rocks undergo
metamorphism.
•
Describe the difference between foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic rock.
•
Explain how metamorphic rock structures are related to deformation.
Origins of Metamorphic Rock
•
Contact Metamorphism One way rock can undergo metamorphism is by
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
When magma moves
_________________________________________________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________.
•
Regional Metamorphism When pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below
other rock formations or when large pieces of the Earth’s crust collide with each other,
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _.
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Composition of Metamorphic Rock
•
Changes in Composition As rocks undergo metamorphism _______________________
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
_______________________________________ __________________________________ _
•
Index Minerals Many of these new minerals form only in metamorphic rock. These
minerals are known as index minerals, and are used to estimate the temperature, depth,
and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism.
Textures of Metamorphic Rock

Foliated Metamorphic Rock Foliated metamorphic rock has ________________ _______________________________________ _________________________________

Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock Nonfoliated rocks have _______________________________________
Metamorphic Rock Structures
•
Deformation _______________________________________ _____________________ are
caused by deformation.
Chapter 2 Rocks: Minerals & Mixtures
Guided Notes
Concept Map
Use the following terms to complete the concept map: clastic, exclusive, igneous,
intrusive, metamorphic, regional, rocks, sedimentary.
Download

Ch-2-Rocks-Minerals-Mixtures-Guided-Notes-Student