Period 3 (1754-1800): Multiple Choice Exam
Questions 1-4 refer to the following image:
Advertisement, Charleston, South Carolina, 1780s
1. Which of the following BEST reflects the perspective of the above image?
a. Slaves represent a public health threat.
b. The importation of slaves is a legitimate enterprise.
c. The importation of slaves needs to be halted
d. Smallpox was a continuous danger to Charleston
2. During the 1780s, which of the following was the most widespread crop cultivated by slaves in
North America?
a. Wheat
b. Sugar
c. Tobacco
d. Cotton
3. Following the American Revolution, many Founding Fathers believed which of the following?
a. Slavery would gradually disappear in the United States.
b. The freeing of slaves should be outlawed.
c. Slavery would be the foundation of the American economy.
d. Freed slaves deserved government reparations for their suffering.
4. Which of the following was a reference to slavery in the Constitution?
a. The banning of slavery in the Northwest Territory.
b. Slavery was outlawed above the Mason-Dixon Line.
c. Slavery could not be outlawed.
d. A prohibition for 20 years of any law banning the importation of slaves.
Questions 5-8 refer to the quotation below.
Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation; the last arguments to
which kings resort. I ask, gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us
to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in
this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? Let us not, I beseech you,
sir, deceive ourselves. Sir, we have done everything that could be done, to avert the storm which is now
coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated
ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the
ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional
violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt,
from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and
reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope.
It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The
war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of
resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that
gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the
price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for
me, give me liberty or give me death!
- Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775
5. The sentiments expressed by Patrick Henry led most directly to which of the following?
a. The Declaration of Independence
b. The Albany Plan
c. The Boston Tea Party
d. The Constitution of the United States
6. In this passage, the phrases “martial array” and “accumulations of navies and armies” most
likely refers to
a. French defenses that were threatening American colonies
b. The dangers of standing armies
c. British military presence in New England
d. British forces compiled in order to address Pontiac’s Rebellion
7. In this passage, Henry expresses an abiding American concern about which of the following?
a. No entangling alliances with foreign countries
b. The dangers of standing armies
c. Self-government
d. The separation of church and state
8. The “storm” that Henry refers to was most directly the result of which of the following?
a. American efforts to trade with Spain and France
b. British efforts to shrink a budget deficit after the French and Indian War
c. British unwillingness to fight Indian tribes on the frontier
d. British impressments of American sailors and interference with American trade
Questions 9-11 refer to the quotation below.
“These colonies ought to regard the act with abhorrence. For who are a free people? Not those over
whom government is reasonably and equitably exercised but those who live under a government, so
constitutionally checked and controlled, that proper provision is made against its being otherwise
exercised. The late act is founded on the destruction of constitutional security.… In short, if they have a
right to levy a tax of one penny upon us, they have a right to levy a million upon us. For where does that
right stop?...To use the words of Mr. Locke, ‘What property have we in that, which another may, by
rights take, when he pleases, to himself?’…We are therefore—I speak it with grief—I speak with
indignation—we are slaves.”
John Dickinson, Letter from a Farmer, 1768
John Dickinson, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies (New
York: The Outlook Company, 1903), 75–78.
9. The passage above was written in response to
a. calls for a stronger central government.
b. British efforts to tax the colonies.
c. debates over the issue of slavery.
d. the perceived corruption of the British government.
10. Which of the following historical developments most directly precipitated the conditions leading
to the argument in the passage above?
a. The growth of the Atlantic economy during the 18th century
b. The spread of French revolutionary ideas throughout Europe
c. The large British debt incurred from the Seven Years’ War
d. The indifference of the British government to colonial governance
11. Which group would most likely have supported the sentiments expressed in the passage above?
a. Loyalists in the 1770s and 1780s
b. Backcountry rebels in the 1780s and 1790s
c. Whigs in the 1830s and 1840s
d. Republicans in the 1850s and 1860s
Questions 12-16 refer to the quotation below.
The Sedition Act, 1798
“SECTION 1…If any persons shall unlawfully combine or conspire together, with intent to oppose
any measure or measures of the government of the United States…, or to impede the operation
of any law of the United States, or to intimidate or prevent any person holding…office in or
under the government of the United States, from undertaking, performing or executing his trust
or duty, and if any person or persons, with intent as aforesaid, shall counsel, advise or attempt
to procure any insurrection, riot, unlawful assembly, or combination…, he or they shall be
deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and on conviction...shall be punished by a fine not
exceeding five thousand dollars, and by imprisonment during a term not less than six months
nor exceeding five years…
SECTION 2…If any person shall write, print, utter or publish, or shall cause or procure to be
written, printed, uttered or published…, any false, scandalous and malicious writing or writings
against the government of the United States, or either house of the Congress of the United
States, or the President of the United States, with intent to defame the said government…or to
bring them...into contempt or disrepute; or to excite against them...the hatred of the good
people of the United States…, or to aid, encourage or abet any hostile designs of any foreign
nation against the United States…, then such person, being thereof convicted…shall be punished
by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars, and by imprisonment not exceeding two years.”
The Sedition Act, 1798
Excerpted text from congressional bill, July 14, 1798.
12. The excerpt above best serves as evidence of the
a. influence of Enlightenment ideals.
b. difficulty of creating a multiethnic American identity.
c. bitter political debates of the 1790s.
d. challenges faced by traditional imperial systems.
13. Of the following groups, who would most likely NOT support the Act
a. a federalist
b. an Antifederalist
c. John Adams
d. A Democratic Republican
14. Passage of the above legislation was most consistent with the sentiments of
a. British laws passed after the end of the Seven Years’ War.
b. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.
c. the Declaration of Independence.
d. the Articles of Confederation.
15. The legislation above was passed in response to which of the following challenges?
a. The constant fear of Indian attacks along the border
b. The limitations of the Articles of Confederation
c. The potential for loyalist criticism and sabotage
d. The threat posed by foreign alliances and entanglements
16. Which of the following continuities in United States history is best demonstrated by the excerpt
a. The debate over voting rights and citizenship
b. The debate between federal and states’ rights
c. The debate over the balance of liberty and order
d. The debate between executive and legislative power
Question 17-20 refers to the following image:
A buxom young woman in a windblown diaphanous dress and garlanded with flowers offers a
feeding cup to a swooping eagle, symbol of the proud new nation. Floating in the sky are the
liberty cap mounted on the pole of the American flag. Under her right foot Liberty tramples
implements of English tyranny, including chains, scepter, key, and medal.
17. Women’s status during the late 1700s changed as they
a. began to earn the right to vote in some places.
b. gained new standing in American political culture.
c. Gained equality through organized protest
d. became involved in various reform efforts outside the home.
18. All of the following are themes in the above image EXCEPT
a. Impressment
b. Republican Motherhood
c. Civic virtue
d. National values
19. Women were important in the war effort because they
a. Provided much of the financial backing for the colonial cause
b. Wrote influential articles in colonial newspapers urging the colonies to
resist the British
c. Provided clothing and blankets for the frozen troops at Valley Forge
d. Maintained economic stability in the colonies by managing
households across the colonies while men were off fighting the
20. Which of the following is the best example of how women participated in the
politics of the new republic under the authority of the Constitution?
a. Actual representation in states like New Jersey
b. Serving as educators to their sons and daughters
c. Enlisting in the Quasi War with France in order to be prepared in the event
of a shortage of soldiers
d. Serving as foreign ambassadors for presidential cabinets
Questions 21-24 refer to the quotation below.
“[The] Constitution, which, by the undefined meaning of some parts, and the ambiguities of expression
in others, is dangerously adapted to the purposes of an immediate aristocratic tyranny; that...from the
difficulty, if not impracticability of its operation, must soon terminate in the most uncontrolled
despotism…[1.]…[The] best political writers have supported the principles of annual elections…2. There
is no security in the proffered system, either for the rights of conscience, or liberty of the press. 3. There
are no well-defined limits of the Judiciary Powers…4. The Executive and Legislative are dangerously
blended as to give just cause of alarm…9. There is no provision for a rotation, nor any thing to prevent
the perpetuity of office in the same hands for life…14. There is no provision by a bill of rights to guard
against the dangerous encroachments of power…15. The…impracticability, of exercising the equal and
equitable powers of government by a single legislature over an extent of territory that reaches from
Mississippi to the…Atlantic ocean…And it is to be feared we shall soon see this country rushing into the
extremes of confusion and violence, in consequence of the proceedings of a set of gentlemen, who
disregarding the purposes of their appointment, have assumed powers unauthorized by any
commission, have unnecessarily rejected the confederation of the United States, and annihilated the
sovereignty and independence of the individual governments.”
Mercy Otis Warren, Observations on the New Constitution, and on the Federal and State Conventions, by
a Columbian Patriot, Boston, 1788.
21. The excerpt above most clearly reflects the
a. limitations of the Articles of Confederation.
b. growth of a more participatory democracy.
c. fears many people had of centralized federal power.
d. challenge posed by democracy to traditional imperial systems.
22. The excerpt above was most clearly written in response to
a. compromises at the Constitutional convention over representation.
b. debates over the ratification of the United States Constitution.
c. concern that hereditary privilege would replace individual talent.
d. fears of the impact of revolutionary ideas from France, Haiti, and Latin America.
23. The arguments expressed in the passage above most clearly warn against the perceived dangers
a. A democracy.
b. republicanism.
c. a strong central government.
d. limited government.
24. Some of the concerns expressed in the passage above were best echoed in the legislative
reforms supported by which of the following political parties?
a. The Federalists
b. The Whigs
c. The Democratic-Republicans
d. The Republicans
Questions 25-26 refer to the quotation below.
“I need not inform you that a Majority of our Assembly is composed of Lawyers, Clerks, and
others in Connection with them.…We have not the least Reason to expect the Good of the
Farmer, and consequently of the Community, will be consulted by those who hang on Favor, or
depend on the Intricacies of the Laws.…What is the Remedy against this malignant Disease?
I will venture to prescribe a sovereign one if duly applied; that is, as you have now a fit
Opportunity, choose for your Representatives or Burgesses, such Men as have given you the
strongest Reason to believe they are truly honest: Such as are disinterested, public spirited, who
will not allow their private Advantage once to stand in Competition with the public Good.”
Herman Husband, a North Carolina Regulator, 1769
Herman Husband, An Impartial Relation of the First and Causes of the
Recent Differences in Public Affairs Etc. (North Carolina, 1770).
25. Which of the following most directly contributed to the sentiments expressed in the letter
a. British attempts to consolidate imperial control
b. Social and economic inequalities in colonial society
c. Political debates caused by the spread of French revolutionary ideas
d. The role of colonial elites in fueling revolutionary sentiment
26. The sentiments expressed in the letter above foreshadowed later 18th-century
a. calls for a stronger central government.
b. backcountry social and ethnic tensions.
c. fears about dangers of divisive political parties.
d. difficulties over trade and foreign relations.
Questions 27-32 refer to the quotation below.
“The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations to
have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements
let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop.…The Unity of Government which
constitutes you one people…is a main Pillar in the Edifice of your real independence…your tranquility at
home; your peace abroad.…I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with
particular reference to founding them on geographical discriminations.…The Spirit of Party…is
inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under
different shapes, in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled or repressed; but in those of the
popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy. The alternate dominion
of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge…is itself a frightful despotism; but this
leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.”
George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796
From James D. Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1896–1899), 1:205–216 passim.
27. The speech above best reflects which of the following continuities in United States history?
a. Debates over the relationship between the executive and legislative branches
b. Debates over the relationship between federal and state governments
c. Debates over how to properly interpret the Constitution
d. Debates over the proper role of political parties
28. Which of the following most directly prompted the arguments in the speech above?
a. The French withdrawal from North America and renewed Indian attacks
b. Disagreements over the French Revolution and foreign policy
c. Internal unrest and backcountry rebellions against federal taxation
d. Debates over calls to abolish slavery and expand democracy
29. One of the strong reasons Washington and others warned against political parties was concern
a. Damages to the national reputation
b. Divisive sectionalism
c. Rights of property owners
d. Unavoidable wars
30. Which of the following did Washington believe was very important for the United States to
a. Excesses of patriotism
b. Foreign alliances
c. Raising taxes
d. Religious obligations
31. The partisan conflict President Washington was alluding to in his Farewell Address was between
American supporters of which two competing European powers?
a. Britain and France
b. Spain and France
c. Russia and Japan
d. Britain and Russia
32. U.S. foreign policy during which of the following time periods was most closely aligned with the
ideas expressed in the speech above?
a. Expansionism prior to the Civil War
b. Imperialism prior to the Spanish-American War
c. Neutrality prior to World War I
d. Containment prior to the Korean War
Question 33 and 34 refer to the following maps:
1796 Presidential Election Map
1800 Presidential Election Map
33. The maps above are best seen as evidence of the
a. expansion of voting rights to greater numbers of white men.
b. continued influx of immigrants to the United States.
c. bitter nature of partisan politics in the 1790s.
d. regional basis of early American political parties.
34. During the 1790s, disagreements in which area were LEAST responsible for the emergence of
political parties?
a. Economics
b. Partisan politics
c. Slavery
d. Foreign Policy
Questions 35-37 refer to the quotation below.
“The national dignity and justice require that the arms of the Union should be called forth in
order to chastise the Creek nation of Indians, for refusing to treat with the United States on
reasonable terms, and for their hostile invasion of the State of Georgia.…The most effectual
mode of reducing the Creeks to submit to the will of the United States…would be by an adequate
army, to be raised and continued until the objects of the war should be accomplished.…But, in
future, the obligations of policy, humanity, and justice, together with that respect which every
nation sacredly owes to its own reputation, unite in requiring a noble, liberal, and disinterested
administration of Indian affairs.…In the administration of the Indians, every proper expedient
that can be devised to gain their affections, and attach them to the interest of the Union, should
be adopted.…Missionaries, of excellent moral character, should be appointed to reside in their
nation.…They should be their friends and fathers.”
Secretary of War Henry Knox, 1789
From Henry Knox to George Washington, July 7, 1789, in American State Papers, Class II:
Indian Affairs (Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1832), 1:52–54.
35. The proposals outlined in the excerpt above are most similar to the prior approach of which
European country toward American Indians in the 1600s and 1700s?
a. England
b. France
c. Portugal
d. Spain
36. The excerpt above is most clearly a response to
a. American Indian tribes repeatedly adjusting their alliances with Europeans, other tribes,
and the federal government.
b. the failure of the Constitution to define the relationship between American Indian
tribes and the federal government.
c. American Indian tribes’ worldviews on land and gender roles.
d. the competition and violent conflict for land in the West among white settlers, American
Indian tribes, and Mexican Americans.
37. During the late 1700s, which of the following was the most difficult challenge for most American
Indian groups?
a. Gaining free navigation of the Mississippi River
b. Navigating frontier conflicts between England, Spain, and the United States
c. Treaty disputes and the seizure of Indian lands
d. Unwanted attempts to assimilate Indian groups into American society
Questions 38 and 39 refer to the following passage.
“… we are enabled this Day to add one more Step to universal Civilization by removing as much as
possible the Sorrows of those, who have lived in undeserved Bondage…
And whereas, the Condition of those Persons who have heretofore been denominated Negroe, has been
attended with Circumstances which not only deprived them of the common Blessings that they were by
Nature entitled to… In Justice therefore to Persons so unhappily circumstanced and who, having no
Prospect before them whereon they may rest their Sorrows Commemoration of our own happy
Deliverance, from that State of unconditional Submission, to which we were doomed by the Tyranny of
Excerpted from the Pennsylvania Emancipation Act, 1780
38. The ideas expressed in the excerpt are most similar to which of the following?
a. The idea that slavery is immoral and must be ended
b. The public education reform movement, because education was considered the great
social equalizer and therefore should be offered to slaves.
c. The abolitionist movement as part of the Second Great Awakening, which valued
religious awakening and service to society.
d. The prison reform movement, the idea that prisons should be made more humane and
focus on rehabilitation
39. Which of the following best explains the motivations behind this declaration?
a. The king had forced slavery upon the Americas and was no longer in power over the
newly independent states.
b. Slavery had been declared illegal in several Northern states, and Pennsylvania was
pressured to free their slaves.
c. Just as Americans had fought for their freedom from Britain, so too did Pennsylvania
believe it right to free those held in bondage within their state along with other
Northern colonies.
d. The tyranny of Great Britain had forced slavery onto the people of Pennsylvania;
Pennsylvania was no independent and ended the institution.
Questions 40-42 refer to the following passage.
And whereas, it is in my judgment necessary under the circumstances of the case to take
measures for calling forth the militia in order to suppress the combinations aforesaid, and to
cause the laws to be duly executed; and I have accordingly determined so to do, feeling the
deepest regret for the occasion, but withal the most solemn conviction that the essential interests
of the Union demand it, that the very existence of government and the fundamental principles of
social order are materially involved in the issue, and that the patriotism and firmness of all good
citizens are seriously called upon, as occasions may require, to aid in the effectual suppression of
so fatal a spirit;
Therefore, and in pursuance of the proviso above recited, I. George Washington, President of the
United States, do hereby command all persons, being insurgents, as aforesaid, and all others
whom it may concern, on or before the 1st day of September next to disperse and retire
peaceably to their respective abodes. And I do moreover warn all persons whomsoever against
aiding, abetting, or comforting the perpetrators of the aforesaid treasonable acts; and do require
all officers and other citizens, according to their respective duties and the laws of the land, to
exert their utmost endeavors to prevent and suppress such dangerous proceedings.
George Washington, 1794
40. George Washington’s use of federal troops reflects
a. The government’s liberal stance on insurrections
b. The authority given to central government under the new Constitution
c. The authority designated to the Pennsylvania state militia
d. The Authority expressed under the Articles of Confederation
41. All of the following are true of the Whiskey Rebellion EXCEPT
a. The insurrection was composed of Western farmers in Pennsylvania
b. The tax on Whiskey was imposed in order to collect revenue to pay for debts incurred
during the American Revolution and therefore, the tax expired in 1803.
c. George Washington avoided getting involved in the event since he was one of
America’s largest distillers of Whiskey
d. Whiskey boys were already upset because there was an economic downturn in the early
42. One of the main outcomes of the Whiskey Rebellion was that
a. It showed the flaws in the old system under the Articles of Confederation
b. It proved that states needed to have more power and authority for dealing with
c. It led to the demise of the Federalist party
d. It served as a major victory and rallying point for Anti-federalists
Question 43-45 refers to the following image:
43. The event depicted in this engraving of 1770 entitled “The Bloody Massacre”
a. Quickly led to the outbreak of war between the British and the American colonists
b. Had relatively little immediate impact because it coincided with the repeal of four of
five Townshend duties
c. Was strongly condemned by John Adams, winning him the admiration of the Patriots
d. Never actually occurred; Paul Revere’s engraving was falsely used as propaganda to
encourage rebellion in Boston harbor.
44. When John Adams described the victims of the massacre as “a motley rabble of saucy boys,
negroes and mulattoes, Irish teagues and outlandish jack tars,” he was
a. Implying that one motive behind the disturbance that led to the massacre might have
been resentment of British soldiers by those who were competing with them for jobs
b. Affirming the right of the common people to organize a demonstration against
oppressive British policies
c. Making a plea to his fellow colonists to respect the rights of immigrants and members of
racial and ethnic minority groups
d. Criticizing the British soldiers for firing on a group of poor innocent victims
45. In the immediate aftermath of the Boston massacre, many of the citizens of the city of Boston
a. Decided to enlist in the British army in order to obtain weapons to defend themselves
b. Organized the Boston Tea Party
c. Became more receptive to the pleas of radicals such as Samuel Adams, who saw the
need for vigilance in view of signs of increasing British oppression
d. Looked to George Washington to organize and lead a new colonial military force
Questions 46-49 refer to the following map.
The Northwest Ordinance, officially titled "An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the
United States North West of the River Ohio," was adopted by the Confederation Congress on July 13,
46. In reference to the Western Territories, which of the following events impacted American
migration westward in the pre-Revolutionary years?
a. The Proclamation of 1763
b. The English defeat of the French and Indians in the Seven Years’ War
c. The proclamation of the writs of assistance
d. The passage of the Declaratory Act
47. As the United States began to occupy the region west of the Appalachian Mountains, which of
the following developed as the most significant issue to impact the country in the late 18th
a. The question of whether the new states should be slave or free
b. The development of industrialization
c. The settlers’ desire for free navigation of the Mississippi River
d. The issue of whether the new states should be on an equal level with the 13 original
48. All of the following are true of the Northwest Ordinances EXCEPT
a. Many settlers crossed the Mississippi River and settled in the Dakota Territory.
b. The Land Ordinance of 1785 set aside the 16th section of each township for schools
c. Sale of lands would help pay of the national debt
d. The sale of the Old Northwest was much more orderly than the helter-skelter settling
that often took place in the South.
49. All of the following are true of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 EXCEPT
a. established guidelines for attaining statehood. A former territory of at least 60,000
people would have equal status to that of the existing states
b. banned slavery north of the Ohio river
c. helped insure slavery in the future states of the Midwest.
d. Was one a few successes under the problematic Articles of Confederation
Questions 50-52 refer to the following quote:
“Commotions of this sort, like snow-balls, gather strength as they roll, if there is no
opposition in the way to divide and crumble them. Do write me fully, I beseech you,
on these matters; not only with respect to facts, but as to opinions of their tendency
and issue. I am mortified beyond expression that in the moment of our
acknowledged independence we should by our transatlantic foe, and render
ourselves ridiculous and contemptible in the eyes of all Europe.”
Letter from George Washington to David
Humphreys, October 22, 1786
50. The major weakness of the Articles of Confederation, and the one that sparked the
“commotion” that Washington addresses, was that Congress could not
a. Create treaties
b. Levy taxes
c. Control the sale of lands
d. Draft militia soldiers into service
51. Shays’s Rebellion occurred in Massachusetts as a result of
a. Foreclosures on the lands of farmers in Massachusetts
b. Unfair taxes placed on farmers by Congress
c. Mandatory enlistment into the militia of Massachusetts
d. Indian raids on the frontier
52. Washington’s fear, along with many other politicians’ fears, of rebellion sweeping through the
nation uncontrollably, eventually led to
a. A renewed debate over a stronger central government
b. Amendment of the Articles of Confederation
c. Emergence of pro-British sentiments through America
d. Alliances with foreign nations to improve America’s military forces
Questions 53-55 refer to the following quote:
“Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the
principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style
and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general
government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving,
each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the
general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force....”
“That this would be to surrender the form of government we have chosen, and to live under one
deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-States, recurring to
their natural right in cases not made Federal, will concur in declaring these acts void and of no force.”
Thomas Jefferson (anonomously), Kentucky Resolutions,
November 16, 1798
53. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were issued in reaction to the
Ratification of the Bill of Rights
Passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts
The revelations about the XYZ Affair
The declaration of the Proclamation of Neutrality
54. According to the passage, the final decision on whether a federal law or action was legal should
be made by
a. Congress
b. The president
c. The Supreme Court
d. Each State
55. Which individual or group among the following would be the strongest supporter of the
Kentucky Resolution?
a. John Adams
b. Democratic-Republicans
c. Federalists
d. Alexander Hamilton
Period 3 Short Answer Questions
Question 1 is based on the following passages:
The following are among the principal advantages of a bank: First. The augmentation of the active or
productive capital of a country. Gold and Silver, when they are employed merely as the instruments of
exchange and alienation, have been not improperly denominated dead Stock; but when deposited in
Banks, to become the basis of a paper circulation, which takes their character and place, as the signs or
representatives of value, they then acquire life, or, in other words, an active and productive quality… It
is evident, for instance, that the money which a merchant keeps in his chest, waiting for a favourable
opportunity to employ it, produces nothing, until that opportunity arrives. But if instead of locking it up
in this manner, he either deposits it in a Bank, or invests in the Stock of a Bank, it yields a profit, during
the interval.
Alexander Hamilton
If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation,
then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of
all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered… I believe
that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies… The issuing power
should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.
Thomas Jefferson
1. Based on these passages concerning the creation of the Bank of the United States in 1791,
complete the following three tasks.
a. Briefly explain the main point made by Alexander Hamilton in passage 1.
b. Briefly explain the main point made by Thomas Jefferson in passage 2.
c. Explain how one of the perspectives above reflected debates about the Constitution in
1790s. Provide at least one piece of evident to support your explanation.
2. During the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies, sparking
an independence movement and ultimately a war against England.
a. Briefly explain ONE political or economic pressure faced by the colonies during
this time.
b. Briefly explain ONE action taken by the colonists to address the pressure
explained in Part A.
c. Briefly explain ONE response by the British government to the action explained
in Part B.
3. Use your knowledge of United States history to answer parts A, B, and C.
a. Briefly explain ONE social development in the 13 colonies between 1754 and
b. Briefly explain ONE economic development in the 13 colonies between 1754 and
c. Briefly explain the impact of the development explained in Part A or Part B on
the United States between 1776 and 1800.
4. During the 1790s, the new American nation faced a series of challenges.
a. Briefly explain ONE political or economic challenge faced by the U.S.
government during the 1790s.
b. Briefly explain ONE foreign policy challenge faced by the U.S. government
during the 1790s.
c. Briefly explain ONE action taken by the federal government to respond to the
challenge explained in Part A or Part B
5. Answer parts a, b, and c.
a. Choose ONE of the choices below, and explain why it best supports this
statement: “America’s first foreign policy under Presidents Washington and
Adams had the primary goal of avoiding war.”
i. Citizen Genet controversy
ii. Jay Treaty
iii. XYZ Affair
b. Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that
option is not as good as your choice.
c. Briefly explain an argument for war involving ONE of the choices provided OR
another situation during this period of the first two presidents.
Question 1 Answer Key
Possible responses include the following:
Alexander Hamilton was the first secretary of treasury. Bank to strength central
government. Bank would allow for deposits, support business through loans,
stimulate the economy through secured paper money, facilitate commerce,
provide a secure place for government funds, make it easier to pay off debts,
and a place for the government to keep money for financial transactions with
foreign countries.
Possible responses include the following:
Thomas Jefferson a Virginia planter was the first secretary of state. Suspicious
of Hamilton’s support of commercial interests, Bank was modeled on the Bank
of England, too much power in a central government, favored lawmakers, bank
could manipulate currency values, counter to agrarian beliefs that he viewed as
the backbone of the country, saw banks as a gateway to urban corruption, and
Possible responses include the following: Jefferson believed in limited
government and strict interpretation of the Constitution. TJ believed that
chartering a bank was a power reserved to the states. He does not view a
national bank as an expressed power in the Constitution Hamilton supported a
strong central government and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Implied
power. “Necessary and proper” clause. George Washington was convinced and
Congress created a first Bank of the United States in 1791, and chartering it for
20 years.
Question 2 Answer Key
Possible responses include the following:
Among the political pressures faced by the colonists were taxes imposed by the
British Parliament even though the colonies had no representation in
Parliament. These taxes included the Stamp Act, The Townshend Duties, and
the Tea Act, among others.
The Proclamation of 1763 imposed by the British attempted to limit colonial
settlement to the lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. This was an attempt
to appease American Indians living in the areas to the west.
Economic pressures included a range of new tax laws, among which were the
Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Navigation, and Currency Acts. All were attempts to
raise revenue from the colonies and/or control colonial trade in favor of Great
Possible responses include the following:
The colonists reacted to British actions in a number of ways. Passage of the
Stamp Act led to the convening of the Stamp Act Congress. The Townshend
Duties led to nonconsumption (boycott) actions as well as the formation of
groups such as the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberties. Occasional
protests led to acts of mob violence, which led to events such as the Boston
Massacre. The passage of the Tea Act led to the Boston Tea Party.
Possible responses include the following:
The British government responded in a variety of ways. While they did repeal
the Stamp Act in response to colonial protests, the British Parliament
simultaneously passed the Declaratory Act, which reiterated Parliament’s
sovereignty over the colonies. While the Townshend Duties were also repealed,
the British government responded by sending troops to restore order in Boston.
And the Boston Tea Party led to a series of repressive measures known as the
Coercive Acts, which required, among other actions, that colonists house and
feed British soldiers (quartering).
TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation|Contextualization
MSC: Key Concepts: 3.1.II.A|3.1.II.B|3.1.II.C
Question 3 Answer Key
Possible responses include the following:
Among social developments were the westward migration of colonists, a
decline in colonial need for British protection, and a growing identity among
colonists of being “American.”
Possible responses include the following:
Among the economic developments were British efforts to increase taxation to
pay off war debts, including but not limited to, passage of the Stamp Act, Sugar
Act, Townshend Acts, and Tea Act.
Possible responses include the following:
Westward expansion led to growing backwoods unrest over both safety
concerns (e.g., Regulator movements) and economic concerns (e.g., Shays’
Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion). Because of expansion, there were also ongoing
debates both during and after the American Revolution over states’ claims to
western lands. The growing identity of being “American”—and the conflicts
with the British over taxes, led to the Declaration of Independence and
American Revolution, severing political ties with Great Britain.
OBJ: ID-4|ID-5|ID-6|PEO-5|POL-1|ENV-4
TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation|Periodization|Use of Evidence
MSC: Key Concepts: 3.1|3.1.II|3.3.I
Question 4 Answer Key
Possible responses include the following:
Among the political challenges faced by the U.S. government was the fact that
the government itself was a new and untested form of government. Because of
this, interpreting the Constitution, the role of the Supreme Court, and deciding
on the legality of institutions, such as a National Bank, carried particular
weight. The 1794 Whiskey Rebellion challenged the right of the federal
government to levy taxes. The 1790s also saw the emergence of factions and
early political parties, as well as sectional divisions.
Among the economic challenges was the inability of the federal government to
repay debts, the weak economy, and the problem of state debts incurred during
the American Revolution. The new government also faced land pressures and
Indian attacks on the frontier. The British attempted to undermine U.S.
manufacturing economically by selling its manufactured goods in the United
States at significantly deflated prices. The United States also disputed with
Spain over the right to access the port of New Orleans and to ship goods up the
Mississippi River.
Possible responses include the following:
The French Revolution—and debates over U.S. support for the French or the
British—was a major foreign policy challenge in the 1790s. Another challenge
was the continuing presence of British troops at forts along the U.S. frontier and
British support for American Indians within the boundaries of the United States.
Possible responses include the following:
Among other actions, the United States crushed the Whiskey Rebellion. The
new nation sought to clarify political rights with passage of the first 10
amendments to the Constitution (the Bill of Rights). In response to criticisms of
the Adams administration, Congress pushed through the Alien and Sedition
Acts (1798), which were later rescinded.
Foremost among economic actions was the financial plan of Alexander
Hamilton, which called for raising revenue through tariffs and excise taxes, the
establishment of a national bank, the creation of a national deficit to ensure
“investment” in the new nation, funding at par (agreement to pay back debt with
interest), and the assumption by the federal government of state government
In terms of foreign policy actions, the United States issues a Neutrality
Proclamation in relation to the French Revolution. The U.S. government
negotiated Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain in 1794 to avoid war and settle
outstanding issues from the American Revolution. The United States in 1795
negotiated Pinckney’s Treaty (also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo) with
the Spanish, which guaranteed U.S. access to the port of New Orleans. In terms
of western lands and threats from Indians, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the
United States negotiated the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 with tribes from the
Ohio Valley, establishing an expansion of U.S. boundaries.
TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation|Contextualization
MSC: Key Concepts: 3.2.II.D
Long-Essay Questions
1. “Shays’ Rebellion tested the Articles of Confederation, which led to the Constitutional
Convention and the call for a stronger central government.” Support, modify, or refute this
contention using specific evidence.
2. How did the Enlightenment influence the American Revolution? Provide examples and
3. “The American Revolution was inevitable.” Explain the key causes of the American Revolution
and support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence.
4. It has been argued that the American Revolution came about primarily through an evolving
series of meetings, conventions, and congresses. Support, modify, or refute this contention
using specific evidence.
5. It has been argued that the United States Constitution came about primarily through an evolving
series of meetings, conventions, and congresses. Support, modify, or refute this contention
using specific evidence.

Period 3 (1754-1800): Multiple Choice Exam Questions 1