Period 3 (1754-1800): Multiple Choice Exam Questions 1-4 refer to the following image: Advertisement, Charleston, South Carolina, 1780s 1. Which of the following BEST reflects the perspective of the above image? a. Slaves represent a public health threat. b. The importation of slaves is a legitimate enterprise. c. The importation of slaves needs to be halted d. Smallpox was a continuous danger to Charleston 2. During the 1780s, which of the following was the most widespread crop cultivated by slaves in North America? a. Wheat b. Sugar c. Tobacco d. Cotton 3. Following the American Revolution, many Founding Fathers believed which of the following? a. Slavery would gradually disappear in the United States. b. The freeing of slaves should be outlawed. c. Slavery would be the foundation of the American economy. d. Freed slaves deserved government reparations for their suffering. 4. Which of the following was a reference to slavery in the Constitution? a. The banning of slavery in the Northwest Territory. b. Slavery was outlawed above the Mason-Dixon Line. c. Slavery could not be outlawed. d. A prohibition for 20 years of any law banning the importation of slaves. Questions 5-8 refer to the quotation below. Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation; the last arguments to which kings resort. I ask, gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves. Sir, we have done everything that could be done, to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! - Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775 5. The sentiments expressed by Patrick Henry led most directly to which of the following? a. The Declaration of Independence b. The Albany Plan c. The Boston Tea Party d. The Constitution of the United States 6. In this passage, the phrases “martial array” and “accumulations of navies and armies” most likely refers to a. French defenses that were threatening American colonies b. The dangers of standing armies c. British military presence in New England d. British forces compiled in order to address Pontiac’s Rebellion 7. In this passage, Henry expresses an abiding American concern about which of the following? a. No entangling alliances with foreign countries b. The dangers of standing armies c. Self-government d. The separation of church and state 8. The “storm” that Henry refers to was most directly the result of which of the following? a. American efforts to trade with Spain and France b. British efforts to shrink a budget deficit after the French and Indian War c. British unwillingness to fight Indian tribes on the frontier d. British impressments of American sailors and interference with American trade Questions 9-11 refer to the quotation below. “These colonies ought to regard the act with abhorrence. For who are a free people? Not those over whom government is reasonably and equitably exercised but those who live under a government, so constitutionally checked and controlled, that proper provision is made against its being otherwise exercised. The late act is founded on the destruction of constitutional security.… In short, if they have a right to levy a tax of one penny upon us, they have a right to levy a million upon us. For where does that right stop?...To use the words of Mr. Locke, ‘What property have we in that, which another may, by rights take, when he pleases, to himself?’…We are therefore—I speak it with grief—I speak with indignation—we are slaves.” John Dickinson, Letter from a Farmer, 1768 John Dickinson, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies (New York: The Outlook Company, 1903), 75–78. 9. The passage above was written in response to a. calls for a stronger central government. b. British efforts to tax the colonies. c. debates over the issue of slavery. d. the perceived corruption of the British government. 10. Which of the following historical developments most directly precipitated the conditions leading to the argument in the passage above? a. The growth of the Atlantic economy during the 18th century b. The spread of French revolutionary ideas throughout Europe c. The large British debt incurred from the Seven Years’ War d. The indifference of the British government to colonial governance 11. Which group would most likely have supported the sentiments expressed in the passage above? a. Loyalists in the 1770s and 1780s b. Backcountry rebels in the 1780s and 1790s c. Whigs in the 1830s and 1840s d. Republicans in the 1850s and 1860s Questions 12-16 refer to the quotation below. The Sedition Act, 1798 “SECTION 1…If any persons shall unlawfully combine or conspire together, with intent to oppose any measure or measures of the government of the United States…, or to impede the operation of any law of the United States, or to intimidate or prevent any person holding…office in or under the government of the United States, from undertaking, performing or executing his trust or duty, and if any person or persons, with intent as aforesaid, shall counsel, advise or attempt to procure any insurrection, riot, unlawful assembly, or combination…, he or they shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and on conviction...shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, and by imprisonment during a term not less than six months nor exceeding five years… SECTION 2…If any person shall write, print, utter or publish, or shall cause or procure to be written, printed, uttered or published…, any false, scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either house of the Congress of the United States, or the President of the United States, with intent to defame the said government…or to bring them...into contempt or disrepute; or to excite against them...the hatred of the good people of the United States…, or to aid, encourage or abet any hostile designs of any foreign nation against the United States…, then such person, being thereof convicted…shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars, and by imprisonment not exceeding two years.” The Sedition Act, 1798 Excerpted text from congressional bill, July 14, 1798. 12. The excerpt above best serves as evidence of the a. influence of Enlightenment ideals. b. difficulty of creating a multiethnic American identity. c. bitter political debates of the 1790s. d. challenges faced by traditional imperial systems. 13. Of the following groups, who would most likely NOT support the Act a. a federalist b. an Antifederalist c. John Adams d. A Democratic Republican 14. Passage of the above legislation was most consistent with the sentiments of a. British laws passed after the end of the Seven Years’ War. b. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. c. the Declaration of Independence. d. the Articles of Confederation. 15. The legislation above was passed in response to which of the following challenges? a. The constant fear of Indian attacks along the border b. The limitations of the Articles of Confederation c. The potential for loyalist criticism and sabotage d. The threat posed by foreign alliances and entanglements 16. Which of the following continuities in United States history is best demonstrated by the excerpt above? a. The debate over voting rights and citizenship b. The debate between federal and states’ rights c. The debate over the balance of liberty and order d. The debate between executive and legislative power Question 17-20 refers to the following image: A buxom young woman in a windblown diaphanous dress and garlanded with flowers offers a feeding cup to a swooping eagle, symbol of the proud new nation. Floating in the sky are the liberty cap mounted on the pole of the American flag. Under her right foot Liberty tramples implements of English tyranny, including chains, scepter, key, and medal. 17. Women’s status during the late 1700s changed as they a. began to earn the right to vote in some places. b. gained new standing in American political culture. c. Gained equality through organized protest d. became involved in various reform efforts outside the home. 18. All of the following are themes in the above image EXCEPT a. Impressment b. Republican Motherhood c. Civic virtue d. National values 19. Women were important in the war effort because they a. Provided much of the financial backing for the colonial cause b. Wrote influential articles in colonial newspapers urging the colonies to resist the British c. Provided clothing and blankets for the frozen troops at Valley Forge d. Maintained economic stability in the colonies by managing households across the colonies while men were off fighting the British 20. Which of the following is the best example of how women participated in the politics of the new republic under the authority of the Constitution? a. Actual representation in states like New Jersey b. Serving as educators to their sons and daughters c. Enlisting in the Quasi War with France in order to be prepared in the event of a shortage of soldiers d. Serving as foreign ambassadors for presidential cabinets Questions 21-24 refer to the quotation below. “[The] Constitution, which, by the undefined meaning of some parts, and the ambiguities of expression in others, is dangerously adapted to the purposes of an immediate aristocratic tyranny; that...from the difficulty, if not impracticability of its operation, must soon terminate in the most uncontrolled despotism…[1.]…[The] best political writers have supported the principles of annual elections…2. There is no security in the proffered system, either for the rights of conscience, or liberty of the press. 3. There are no well-defined limits of the Judiciary Powers…4. The Executive and Legislative are dangerously blended as to give just cause of alarm…9. There is no provision for a rotation, nor any thing to prevent the perpetuity of office in the same hands for life…14. There is no provision by a bill of rights to guard against the dangerous encroachments of power…15. The…impracticability, of exercising the equal and equitable powers of government by a single legislature over an extent of territory that reaches from Mississippi to the…Atlantic ocean…And it is to be feared we shall soon see this country rushing into the extremes of confusion and violence, in consequence of the proceedings of a set of gentlemen, who disregarding the purposes of their appointment, have assumed powers unauthorized by any commission, have unnecessarily rejected the confederation of the United States, and annihilated the sovereignty and independence of the individual governments.” Mercy Otis Warren, Observations on the New Constitution, and on the Federal and State Conventions, by a Columbian Patriot, Boston, 1788. 21. The excerpt above most clearly reflects the a. limitations of the Articles of Confederation. b. growth of a more participatory democracy. c. fears many people had of centralized federal power. d. challenge posed by democracy to traditional imperial systems. 22. The excerpt above was most clearly written in response to a. compromises at the Constitutional convention over representation. b. debates over the ratification of the United States Constitution. c. concern that hereditary privilege would replace individual talent. d. fears of the impact of revolutionary ideas from France, Haiti, and Latin America. 23. The arguments expressed in the passage above most clearly warn against the perceived dangers of a. A democracy. b. republicanism. c. a strong central government. d. limited government. 24. Some of the concerns expressed in the passage above were best echoed in the legislative reforms supported by which of the following political parties? a. The Federalists b. The Whigs c. The Democratic-Republicans d. The Republicans Questions 25-26 refer to the quotation below. “I need not inform you that a Majority of our Assembly is composed of Lawyers, Clerks, and others in Connection with them.…We have not the least Reason to expect the Good of the Farmer, and consequently of the Community, will be consulted by those who hang on Favor, or depend on the Intricacies of the Laws.…What is the Remedy against this malignant Disease? I will venture to prescribe a sovereign one if duly applied; that is, as you have now a fit Opportunity, choose for your Representatives or Burgesses, such Men as have given you the strongest Reason to believe they are truly honest: Such as are disinterested, public spirited, who will not allow their private Advantage once to stand in Competition with the public Good.” Herman Husband, a North Carolina Regulator, 1769 Herman Husband, An Impartial Relation of the First and Causes of the Recent Differences in Public Affairs Etc. (North Carolina, 1770). 25. Which of the following most directly contributed to the sentiments expressed in the letter above? a. British attempts to consolidate imperial control b. Social and economic inequalities in colonial society c. Political debates caused by the spread of French revolutionary ideas d. The role of colonial elites in fueling revolutionary sentiment 26. The sentiments expressed in the letter above foreshadowed later 18th-century a. calls for a stronger central government. b. backcountry social and ethnic tensions. c. fears about dangers of divisive political parties. d. difficulties over trade and foreign relations. Questions 27-32 refer to the quotation below. “The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop.…The Unity of Government which constitutes you one people…is a main Pillar in the Edifice of your real independence…your tranquility at home; your peace abroad.…I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to founding them on geographical discriminations.…The Spirit of Party…is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes, in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled or repressed; but in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy. The alternate dominion of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge…is itself a frightful despotism; but this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.” George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796 From James D. Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1896–1899), 1:205–216 passim. 27. The speech above best reflects which of the following continuities in United States history? a. Debates over the relationship between the executive and legislative branches b. Debates over the relationship between federal and state governments c. Debates over how to properly interpret the Constitution d. Debates over the proper role of political parties 28. Which of the following most directly prompted the arguments in the speech above? a. The French withdrawal from North America and renewed Indian attacks b. Disagreements over the French Revolution and foreign policy c. Internal unrest and backcountry rebellions against federal taxation d. Debates over calls to abolish slavery and expand democracy 29. One of the strong reasons Washington and others warned against political parties was concern about a. Damages to the national reputation b. Divisive sectionalism c. Rights of property owners d. Unavoidable wars 30. Which of the following did Washington believe was very important for the United States to avoid? a. Excesses of patriotism b. Foreign alliances c. Raising taxes d. Religious obligations 31. The partisan conflict President Washington was alluding to in his Farewell Address was between American supporters of which two competing European powers? a. Britain and France b. Spain and France c. Russia and Japan d. Britain and Russia 32. U.S. foreign policy during which of the following time periods was most closely aligned with the ideas expressed in the speech above? a. Expansionism prior to the Civil War b. Imperialism prior to the Spanish-American War c. Neutrality prior to World War I d. Containment prior to the Korean War Question 33 and 34 refer to the following maps: 1796 Presidential Election Map 1800 Presidential Election Map 33. The maps above are best seen as evidence of the a. expansion of voting rights to greater numbers of white men. b. continued influx of immigrants to the United States. c. bitter nature of partisan politics in the 1790s. d. regional basis of early American political parties. 34. During the 1790s, disagreements in which area were LEAST responsible for the emergence of political parties? a. Economics b. Partisan politics c. Slavery d. Foreign Policy Questions 35-37 refer to the quotation below. “The national dignity and justice require that the arms of the Union should be called forth in order to chastise the Creek nation of Indians, for refusing to treat with the United States on reasonable terms, and for their hostile invasion of the State of Georgia.…The most effectual mode of reducing the Creeks to submit to the will of the United States…would be by an adequate army, to be raised and continued until the objects of the war should be accomplished.…But, in future, the obligations of policy, humanity, and justice, together with that respect which every nation sacredly owes to its own reputation, unite in requiring a noble, liberal, and disinterested administration of Indian affairs.…In the administration of the Indians, every proper expedient that can be devised to gain their affections, and attach them to the interest of the Union, should be adopted.…Missionaries, of excellent moral character, should be appointed to reside in their nation.…They should be their friends and fathers.” Secretary of War Henry Knox, 1789 From Henry Knox to George Washington, July 7, 1789, in American State Papers, Class II: Indian Affairs (Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1832), 1:52–54. 35. The proposals outlined in the excerpt above are most similar to the prior approach of which European country toward American Indians in the 1600s and 1700s? a. England b. France c. Portugal d. Spain 36. The excerpt above is most clearly a response to a. American Indian tribes repeatedly adjusting their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the federal government. b. the failure of the Constitution to define the relationship between American Indian tribes and the federal government. c. American Indian tribes’ worldviews on land and gender roles. d. the competition and violent conflict for land in the West among white settlers, American Indian tribes, and Mexican Americans. 37. During the late 1700s, which of the following was the most difficult challenge for most American Indian groups? a. Gaining free navigation of the Mississippi River b. Navigating frontier conflicts between England, Spain, and the United States c. Treaty disputes and the seizure of Indian lands d. Unwanted attempts to assimilate Indian groups into American society Questions 38 and 39 refer to the following passage. “… we are enabled this Day to add one more Step to universal Civilization by removing as much as possible the Sorrows of those, who have lived in undeserved Bondage… And whereas, the Condition of those Persons who have heretofore been denominated Negroe, has been attended with Circumstances which not only deprived them of the common Blessings that they were by Nature entitled to… In Justice therefore to Persons so unhappily circumstanced and who, having no Prospect before them whereon they may rest their Sorrows Commemoration of our own happy Deliverance, from that State of unconditional Submission, to which we were doomed by the Tyranny of Britain.” - Excerpted from the Pennsylvania Emancipation Act, 1780 38. The ideas expressed in the excerpt are most similar to which of the following? a. The idea that slavery is immoral and must be ended b. The public education reform movement, because education was considered the great social equalizer and therefore should be offered to slaves. c. The abolitionist movement as part of the Second Great Awakening, which valued religious awakening and service to society. d. The prison reform movement, the idea that prisons should be made more humane and focus on rehabilitation 39. Which of the following best explains the motivations behind this declaration? a. The king had forced slavery upon the Americas and was no longer in power over the newly independent states. b. Slavery had been declared illegal in several Northern states, and Pennsylvania was pressured to free their slaves. c. Just as Americans had fought for their freedom from Britain, so too did Pennsylvania believe it right to free those held in bondage within their state along with other Northern colonies. d. The tyranny of Great Britain had forced slavery onto the people of Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania was no independent and ended the institution. Questions 40-42 refer to the following passage. And whereas, it is in my judgment necessary under the circumstances of the case to take measures for calling forth the militia in order to suppress the combinations aforesaid, and to cause the laws to be duly executed; and I have accordingly determined so to do, feeling the deepest regret for the occasion, but withal the most solemn conviction that the essential interests of the Union demand it, that the very existence of government and the fundamental principles of social order are materially involved in the issue, and that the patriotism and firmness of all good citizens are seriously called upon, as occasions may require, to aid in the effectual suppression of so fatal a spirit; Therefore, and in pursuance of the proviso above recited, I. George Washington, President of the United States, do hereby command all persons, being insurgents, as aforesaid, and all others whom it may concern, on or before the 1st day of September next to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes. And I do moreover warn all persons whomsoever against aiding, abetting, or comforting the perpetrators of the aforesaid treasonable acts; and do require all officers and other citizens, according to their respective duties and the laws of the land, to exert their utmost endeavors to prevent and suppress such dangerous proceedings. - George Washington, 1794 40. George Washington’s use of federal troops reflects a. The government’s liberal stance on insurrections b. The authority given to central government under the new Constitution c. The authority designated to the Pennsylvania state militia d. The Authority expressed under the Articles of Confederation 41. All of the following are true of the Whiskey Rebellion EXCEPT a. The insurrection was composed of Western farmers in Pennsylvania b. The tax on Whiskey was imposed in order to collect revenue to pay for debts incurred during the American Revolution and therefore, the tax expired in 1803. c. George Washington avoided getting involved in the event since he was one of America’s largest distillers of Whiskey d. Whiskey boys were already upset because there was an economic downturn in the early 1790s. 42. One of the main outcomes of the Whiskey Rebellion was that a. It showed the flaws in the old system under the Articles of Confederation b. It proved that states needed to have more power and authority for dealing with uprisings c. It led to the demise of the Federalist party d. It served as a major victory and rallying point for Anti-federalists Question 43-45 refers to the following image: 43. The event depicted in this engraving of 1770 entitled “The Bloody Massacre” a. Quickly led to the outbreak of war between the British and the American colonists b. Had relatively little immediate impact because it coincided with the repeal of four of five Townshend duties c. Was strongly condemned by John Adams, winning him the admiration of the Patriots d. Never actually occurred; Paul Revere’s engraving was falsely used as propaganda to encourage rebellion in Boston harbor. 44. When John Adams described the victims of the massacre as “a motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes and mulattoes, Irish teagues and outlandish jack tars,” he was a. Implying that one motive behind the disturbance that led to the massacre might have been resentment of British soldiers by those who were competing with them for jobs b. Affirming the right of the common people to organize a demonstration against oppressive British policies c. Making a plea to his fellow colonists to respect the rights of immigrants and members of racial and ethnic minority groups d. Criticizing the British soldiers for firing on a group of poor innocent victims 45. In the immediate aftermath of the Boston massacre, many of the citizens of the city of Boston a. Decided to enlist in the British army in order to obtain weapons to defend themselves b. Organized the Boston Tea Party c. Became more receptive to the pleas of radicals such as Samuel Adams, who saw the need for vigilance in view of signs of increasing British oppression d. Looked to George Washington to organize and lead a new colonial military force Questions 46-49 refer to the following map. The Northwest Ordinance, officially titled "An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North West of the River Ohio," was adopted by the Confederation Congress on July 13, 1787. 46. In reference to the Western Territories, which of the following events impacted American migration westward in the pre-Revolutionary years? a. The Proclamation of 1763 b. The English defeat of the French and Indians in the Seven Years’ War c. The proclamation of the writs of assistance d. The passage of the Declaratory Act 47. As the United States began to occupy the region west of the Appalachian Mountains, which of the following developed as the most significant issue to impact the country in the late 18th century? a. The question of whether the new states should be slave or free b. The development of industrialization c. The settlers’ desire for free navigation of the Mississippi River d. The issue of whether the new states should be on an equal level with the 13 original states 48. All of the following are true of the Northwest Ordinances EXCEPT a. Many settlers crossed the Mississippi River and settled in the Dakota Territory. b. The Land Ordinance of 1785 set aside the 16th section of each township for schools c. Sale of lands would help pay of the national debt d. The sale of the Old Northwest was much more orderly than the helter-skelter settling that often took place in the South. 49. All of the following are true of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 EXCEPT a. established guidelines for attaining statehood. A former territory of at least 60,000 people would have equal status to that of the existing states b. banned slavery north of the Ohio river c. helped insure slavery in the future states of the Midwest. d. Was one a few successes under the problematic Articles of Confederation Questions 50-52 refer to the following quote: “Commotions of this sort, like snow-balls, gather strength as they roll, if there is no opposition in the way to divide and crumble them. Do write me fully, I beseech you, on these matters; not only with respect to facts, but as to opinions of their tendency and issue. I am mortified beyond expression that in the moment of our acknowledged independence we should by our transatlantic foe, and render ourselves ridiculous and contemptible in the eyes of all Europe.” - Letter from George Washington to David Humphreys, October 22, 1786 50. The major weakness of the Articles of Confederation, and the one that sparked the “commotion” that Washington addresses, was that Congress could not a. Create treaties b. Levy taxes c. Control the sale of lands d. Draft militia soldiers into service 51. Shays’s Rebellion occurred in Massachusetts as a result of a. Foreclosures on the lands of farmers in Massachusetts b. Unfair taxes placed on farmers by Congress c. Mandatory enlistment into the militia of Massachusetts d. Indian raids on the frontier 52. Washington’s fear, along with many other politicians’ fears, of rebellion sweeping through the nation uncontrollably, eventually led to a. A renewed debate over a stronger central government b. Amendment of the Articles of Confederation c. Emergence of pro-British sentiments through America d. Alliances with foreign nations to improve America’s military forces Questions 53-55 refer to the following quote: “Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force....” “That this would be to surrender the form of government we have chosen, and to live under one deriving its powers from its own will, and not from our authority; and that the co-States, recurring to their natural right in cases not made Federal, will concur in declaring these acts void and of no force.” - Thomas Jefferson (anonomously), Kentucky Resolutions, November 16, 1798 53. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were issued in reaction to the a. b. c. d. Ratification of the Bill of Rights Passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts The revelations about the XYZ Affair The declaration of the Proclamation of Neutrality 54. According to the passage, the final decision on whether a federal law or action was legal should be made by a. Congress b. The president c. The Supreme Court d. Each State 55. Which individual or group among the following would be the strongest supporter of the Kentucky Resolution? a. John Adams b. Democratic-Republicans c. Federalists d. Alexander Hamilton Period 3 Short Answer Questions Question 1 is based on the following passages: The following are among the principal advantages of a bank: First. The augmentation of the active or productive capital of a country. Gold and Silver, when they are employed merely as the instruments of exchange and alienation, have been not improperly denominated dead Stock; but when deposited in Banks, to become the basis of a paper circulation, which takes their character and place, as the signs or representatives of value, they then acquire life, or, in other words, an active and productive quality… It is evident, for instance, that the money which a merchant keeps in his chest, waiting for a favourable opportunity to employ it, produces nothing, until that opportunity arrives. But if instead of locking it up in this manner, he either deposits it in a Bank, or invests in the Stock of a Bank, it yields a profit, during the interval. - Alexander Hamilton If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered… I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies… The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs. - Thomas Jefferson 1. Based on these passages concerning the creation of the Bank of the United States in 1791, complete the following three tasks. a. Briefly explain the main point made by Alexander Hamilton in passage 1. b. Briefly explain the main point made by Thomas Jefferson in passage 2. c. Explain how one of the perspectives above reflected debates about the Constitution in 1790s. Provide at least one piece of evident to support your explanation. 2. During the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies, sparking an independence movement and ultimately a war against England. a. Briefly explain ONE political or economic pressure faced by the colonies during this time. b. Briefly explain ONE action taken by the colonists to address the pressure explained in Part A. c. Briefly explain ONE response by the British government to the action explained in Part B. 3. Use your knowledge of United States history to answer parts A, B, and C. a. Briefly explain ONE social development in the 13 colonies between 1754 and 1775. b. Briefly explain ONE economic development in the 13 colonies between 1754 and 1775. c. Briefly explain the impact of the development explained in Part A or Part B on the United States between 1776 and 1800. 4. During the 1790s, the new American nation faced a series of challenges. a. Briefly explain ONE political or economic challenge faced by the U.S. government during the 1790s. b. Briefly explain ONE foreign policy challenge faced by the U.S. government during the 1790s. c. Briefly explain ONE action taken by the federal government to respond to the challenge explained in Part A or Part B 5. Answer parts a, b, and c. a. Choose ONE of the choices below, and explain why it best supports this statement: “America’s first foreign policy under Presidents Washington and Adams had the primary goal of avoiding war.” i. Citizen Genet controversy ii. Jay Treaty iii. XYZ Affair b. Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice. c. Briefly explain an argument for war involving ONE of the choices provided OR another situation during this period of the first two presidents. Question 1 Answer Key ANS a. Feedback Possible responses include the following: Alexander Hamilton was the first secretary of treasury. Bank to strength central government. Bank would allow for deposits, support business through loans, stimulate the economy through secured paper money, facilitate commerce, provide a secure place for government funds, make it easier to pay off debts, and a place for the government to keep money for financial transactions with foreign countries. b. Possible responses include the following: Thomas Jefferson a Virginia planter was the first secretary of state. Suspicious of Hamilton’s support of commercial interests, Bank was modeled on the Bank of England, too much power in a central government, favored lawmakers, bank could manipulate currency values, counter to agrarian beliefs that he viewed as the backbone of the country, saw banks as a gateway to urban corruption, and doesn’t. c. Possible responses include the following: Jefferson believed in limited government and strict interpretation of the Constitution. TJ believed that chartering a bank was a power reserved to the states. He does not view a national bank as an expressed power in the Constitution Hamilton supported a strong central government and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Implied power. “Necessary and proper” clause. George Washington was convinced and Congress created a first Bank of the United States in 1791, and chartering it for 20 years. Question 2 Answer Key ANS a. b. c. Feedback Possible responses include the following: Among the political pressures faced by the colonists were taxes imposed by the British Parliament even though the colonies had no representation in Parliament. These taxes included the Stamp Act, The Townshend Duties, and the Tea Act, among others. The Proclamation of 1763 imposed by the British attempted to limit colonial settlement to the lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. This was an attempt to appease American Indians living in the areas to the west. Economic pressures included a range of new tax laws, among which were the Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Navigation, and Currency Acts. All were attempts to raise revenue from the colonies and/or control colonial trade in favor of Great Britain. Possible responses include the following: The colonists reacted to British actions in a number of ways. Passage of the Stamp Act led to the convening of the Stamp Act Congress. The Townshend Duties led to nonconsumption (boycott) actions as well as the formation of groups such as the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberties. Occasional protests led to acts of mob violence, which led to events such as the Boston Massacre. The passage of the Tea Act led to the Boston Tea Party. Possible responses include the following: The British government responded in a variety of ways. While they did repeal the Stamp Act in response to colonial protests, the British Parliament simultaneously passed the Declaratory Act, which reiterated Parliament’s sovereignty over the colonies. While the Townshend Duties were also repealed, the British government responded by sending troops to restore order in Boston. And the Boston Tea Party led to a series of repressive measures known as the Coercive Acts, which required, among other actions, that colonists house and feed British soldiers (quartering). OBJ: ID-1|WOR-1|CUL-2|CUL-4 TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation|Contextualization MSC: Key Concepts: 3.1.II.A|3.1.II.B|3.1.II.C Question 3 Answer Key ANS a. b. c. Feedback Possible responses include the following: Among social developments were the westward migration of colonists, a decline in colonial need for British protection, and a growing identity among colonists of being “American.” Possible responses include the following: Among the economic developments were British efforts to increase taxation to pay off war debts, including but not limited to, passage of the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, Townshend Acts, and Tea Act. Possible responses include the following: Westward expansion led to growing backwoods unrest over both safety concerns (e.g., Regulator movements) and economic concerns (e.g., Shays’ Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion). Because of expansion, there were also ongoing debates both during and after the American Revolution over states’ claims to western lands. The growing identity of being “American”—and the conflicts with the British over taxes, led to the Declaration of Independence and American Revolution, severing political ties with Great Britain. OBJ: ID-4|ID-5|ID-6|PEO-5|POL-1|ENV-4 TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation|Periodization|Use of Evidence MSC: Key Concepts: 3.1|3.1.II|3.3.I Question 4 Answer Key ANS a. Feedback Possible responses include the following: Among the political challenges faced by the U.S. government was the fact that the government itself was a new and untested form of government. Because of this, interpreting the Constitution, the role of the Supreme Court, and deciding on the legality of institutions, such as a National Bank, carried particular weight. The 1794 Whiskey Rebellion challenged the right of the federal government to levy taxes. The 1790s also saw the emergence of factions and early political parties, as well as sectional divisions. Among the economic challenges was the inability of the federal government to repay debts, the weak economy, and the problem of state debts incurred during the American Revolution. The new government also faced land pressures and Indian attacks on the frontier. The British attempted to undermine U.S. manufacturing economically by selling its manufactured goods in the United b. c. States at significantly deflated prices. The United States also disputed with Spain over the right to access the port of New Orleans and to ship goods up the Mississippi River. Possible responses include the following: The French Revolution—and debates over U.S. support for the French or the British—was a major foreign policy challenge in the 1790s. Another challenge was the continuing presence of British troops at forts along the U.S. frontier and British support for American Indians within the boundaries of the United States. Possible responses include the following: Among other actions, the United States crushed the Whiskey Rebellion. The new nation sought to clarify political rights with passage of the first 10 amendments to the Constitution (the Bill of Rights). In response to criticisms of the Adams administration, Congress pushed through the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798), which were later rescinded. Foremost among economic actions was the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton, which called for raising revenue through tariffs and excise taxes, the establishment of a national bank, the creation of a national deficit to ensure “investment” in the new nation, funding at par (agreement to pay back debt with interest), and the assumption by the federal government of state government debts. In terms of foreign policy actions, the United States issues a Neutrality Proclamation in relation to the French Revolution. The U.S. government negotiated Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain in 1794 to avoid war and settle outstanding issues from the American Revolution. The United States in 1795 negotiated Pinckney’s Treaty (also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo) with the Spanish, which guaranteed U.S. access to the port of New Orleans. In terms of western lands and threats from Indians, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the United States negotiated the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 with tribes from the Ohio Valley, establishing an expansion of U.S. boundaries. OBJ: POL-2|POL-5|WOR-5|CUL-4 TOP: Historical Thinking Skills: Causation|Contextualization MSC: Key Concepts: 3.2.II.D Long-Essay Questions 1. “Shays’ Rebellion tested the Articles of Confederation, which led to the Constitutional Convention and the call for a stronger central government.” Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 2. How did the Enlightenment influence the American Revolution? Provide examples and evidence. 3. “The American Revolution was inevitable.” Explain the key causes of the American Revolution and support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 4. It has been argued that the American Revolution came about primarily through an evolving series of meetings, conventions, and congresses. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 5. It has been argued that the United States Constitution came about primarily through an evolving series of meetings, conventions, and congresses. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence.