Period 5: Stimulus-Based Multiple-Choice Questions
Questions 1-3 refer to the following quotation.
I want to say a few words about this matter. I am a woman's rights. I have as much muscle as any
man, and can do as much work as any man. I have plowed and reaped and husked and chopped
and mowed, and can any man do more than that? I have heard much about the sexes being equal.
I can carry as much as any man, and can eat as much too, if I can get it. I am as strong as any man
that is now. As for intellect, all I can say is, if a woman have a pint, and a man a quart -- why
can't she have her little pint full? You need not be afraid to give us our rights for fear we will take
too much, -- for we can't take more than our pint'll hold. The poor men seems to be all in
confusion, and don't know what to do. Why children, if you have woman's rights, give it to her
and you will feel better. You will have your own rights, and they won't be so much trouble. I can't
read, but I can hear. I have heard the bible and have learned that Eve caused man to sin. Well, if
woman upset the world, do give her a chance to set it right side up again. The Lady has spoken
about Jesus, how he never spurned woman from him, and she was right. When Lazarus died,
Mary and Martha came to him with faith and love and besought him to raise their brother. And
Jesus wept and Lazarus came forth. And how came Jesus into the world? Through God who
created him and the woman who bore him. Man, where was your part? But the women are
coming up blessed be God and a few of the men are coming up with them. But man is in a tight
place, the poor slave is on him, woman is coming on him, he is surely between a hawk and a
buzzard.
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Sojourner Truth, abolitionist and former slave, speech to a Women’s Convention in Ohio, 1851
1. Sojourner Truth strongly rejects criticisms of women that are based on which of the
following?
a. The ideas of transcendentalism
b. The cult of domesticity
c. The teachings of religion
d. The working status of women
2. Sojourner Truth saw connection between the women’s rights movement and
a. The Second Great Awakening
b. The antislavery movement
c. The cult of domesticity
d. The Constitution
3. The most widely supported and successful reform movement in the early nineteenth
century was
a. Communalism
b. abolition
c. women's rights
d. temperance
Questions 4-10 refer to the following quotation.
“The Republic of Texas has made known her desire to come into our Union, to form a part of our
Confederacy and enjoy with us the blessings of liberty secured and guaranteed by our
Constitution.…Foreign powers should therefore look on the annexation of Texas to the United States, not
as the conquest of a nation seeking to extend her dominions by arms and violence, but as the peaceful
acquisition of a territory…thereby diminishing the chances of war and opening to them new and everincreasing markets for their products.…None can fail to see the danger to our safety and future peace if
Texas remains an independent state, or becomes an ally or dependency of some foreign nation more
powerful than herself.…Whatever is good or evil in the local [slave] institutions of Texas will remain her
own, whether annexed to the United States or not.”
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President James K. Polk, Inaugural Address, 1845
Address by James K. Polk. 1845, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.
4. The excerpt above can best been seen as an example of the United States seeking dominance
over the North American continent through
a. military actions.
b. judicial actions.
c. diplomatic efforts.
d. the expansion of slavery.
5. The expansion of national borders during the antebellum era most directly led to
a. wide-scale federal funding of internal improvements.
b. national debates over how to use the new territories.
c. much greater foreign trade with Latin America and Asia.
d. increased European immigration to the South and West.
6. The sentiments expressed by Polk in the speech above were most similar to those of
a. imperialists before the Spanish-American War.
b. President Wilson before World War I.
c. Americans during World War II.
d. supporters of containment during the Cold War.
7. Which of the following was NOT an example of Manifest Destiny?
a. The annexation of Texas
b. Attempts to purchase California
c. Negotiations over the Oregon border
d. Demilitarizing the Great Lakes
8. Policies based on the idea of Manifest Destiny led to all of the following EXCEPT
a. War with Mexico
b. The decline of the Democratic Party and formation of the Whig Party
c. The annexation of Texas
d. Increased conflict over slavery on the border states and in the territories
9. The United States refused to annex Texas in 1836 because
a. Texans did not want to be annexed to the United States
b. the American government was opposed to armed rebellions against established
governments
c. of probable Spanish backlash
d. of fear that it would provoke war with Mexico
10. Who of the following would most likely agree with excerpt written by John L. O’Sullivan?
a. A male Irish immigrant living in Boston
b. A white male squatter from Tennessee
c. A female factory worker in New England
d. A plantation owner from Georgia
Questions 11-13 refer to the following quote.
“I stand up here in a more solemn court, to assist in a far greater cause; not to impeach the character of
one man, but of a whole people; not to recover the sum of a hundred thousand dollars, but to obtain the
liberation of two millions of wretched, degraded beings, who are pining in hopeless bondage – over
whose sufferings scarcely an eye weeps, or a heart melts, or a tongue pleads either to God or man. I
regret that a better advocate had not been found, to enchain your attention and to warm your blood.
Whatever fallacy, however, may appear in the argument, there is no flaw in the indictment; what the
speaker lacks, the cause will supply.”
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William Lloyd Garrison, address to the American Colonization Society, 1829
11. Garrison was a outspoken opponent of
a. Immigration restriction
b. Westward expansion
c. Slavery
d. Executive power
12. The goal of American Colonization Society was to
a. Relocate free blacks to Africa
b. Free slaves in the South through the Underground Railroad
c. Provide education for free blacks after the Civil War
d. Use politics to promote emancipation of slaves
13. The abolitionist movement
a. Became a popular movement in the South that led to many slaves being emancipated
by their owners
b. Was generally unpopular throughout the United States prior to the 1850s
c. Gained much support in Congress, which in turn issued gag orders on any proslavery laws
d. Accepted the institution of slavery in the South but opposed its expansion west
Questions 14-18 refer to the excerpt below.
“In one view the slaveholders have a decided advantage over all opposition. It is well to notice this
advantage- the advantage of complete organization. They are organized; and yet were not at the pains of
creating their organizations. The State governments, where the system of slavery exists, are complete
slavery organizations. The church organizations in those States are equally at the service of slavery;
while the Federal Government, with its army and navy, from the chief magistracy in Washington, to the
Supreme Court, and thence to the chief marshalship at New York, is pledged to support, defend, and
propagate the crying curse of human bondage. The pen, the purse, and the sword, are united against the
simple truth, preached by humble men in obscure places.”
-
Frederick Douglass, 1857
14. In his opinion on the case Dred Scott v. Sandford, Chief Justice Roger Taney upheld the
sentiment above by stating that
a. “separate but equal” facilities for people of different races was constitutional
b. Corporations were entitled to the same protections guaranteed individuals under the
Fourteenth Amendment
c. School prayer violated the principle of “separation of church and state”
d. Congress had no right to regulate slavery in United States territories
15. In what way did the actions of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 contradict Douglass’s sentiments in
the quote above?
a. Lincoln promoted the freedom of settlers within territories to determine the slave
status of their new state.
b. Lincoln passed the Homestead Act to give free land to all western settlers.
c. Lincoln favored the exclusion of slavery from any of the new territories.
d. Lincoln enacted the policy of giving newly freed slaves “forty acres and a mule.”
16. The excerpt from Frederick Douglass is most clearly an example of which of the following
developments in the mid-nineteenth century?
a. Southern influence upon the federal government to defend the institution of
slavery
b. The gradual replacement of indentured servants with African slaves
c. The preservation of African culture through cultural adaption
d. The success of abolitionists to sway majority public opinion
17. Which of the following groups would be most likely to support the perspective of Frederick
Douglass?
a. Southern Deomcrats in the 1880s
b. Western ranchers in the 1850s
c. Southern farmers in the 1830s
d. Northern Republicans in the 1860s
18. Frederick Douglass was most influenced by which of the following social movements?
a.
b.
c.
d.
First Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
Manifest Destiny
Popular Sovereignty
Questions 19-23 refer to the excerpt below.
“On the 4th of March next this party [the Republican Party] will take possession of the government. It has
announce that the South shall be excluded from the common territory, that the judicial tribunal shall be
made sectional, and that a war must be waged against slavery until it shall cease throughout the United
States. The guarantees of the Constitution will then no longer exist; the equal rights of the states will be
lost. The slaveholding states will no longer have the power of self-government or self-protection, and the
federal government will have become their enemy. Sectional interest and animosity will deepen the
irritation; and all hope of remedy is rendered vain by the fact that the public opinion at the North has
invested a great political error with the sanctions of a more erroneous religious belief.
“We, therefore, the people of South Carolina, by our delegates in convention assembled, appealing to the
Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, have solemnly declared that the Union
heretofore existing between this state and the other states of North America is dissolved; and that the state
of South Carolina has resumed her position among the nations of the world, as [a] separate and
independent state, with full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce,
and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do.”
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South Carolina defines the causes of secession, 1860
19. Which of the following was an immediate consequence of the secession of South Carolina?
a. Southern Democrats appealed to the powers of Congress to stop military action
against South Carolina
b. Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation
c. Other Southern states seceded from the Union, forming the Confederacy
d. Jefferson Davis drafted Confederate soldiers into war, defending the siege on Fort
Sumter.
20. The sentiments above are most consistent with which of the following ideologies?
a. States’ Rights
b. Nullification
c. Neutrality
d. Civil Disobedience
21. In the excerpt above, the reference to “the sanctions of a more erroneous religious belief”
most probably refers to
a. Southern Baptist justification of slavery on the grounds of white racial superiority
b. The Puritan abolition of slavery in New England states
c. Jewish acceptance of slavery in the Torah
d. Christian abolitionist rejection of slavery on moral grounds
22. Which of the following best explains why South Carolina chose to secede from the Union in
1860?
a. The failures of the Compromise of 1850 hindered South Carolina’s trade
relationships with Western states, leading to severe economic recession
b. The Battle of Fort Sumter occurred in Charleston, prompting public outrage over
Union aggression
c. President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, thus undermining slavery
in the South.
d. Lincoln’s election on a Free Soil platform led Southern politicians to conclude
that secession was necessary.
Questions 23-25 refer to the cartoon below.
Sumner-Brooks Cartoon, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA / The
Bridgeman Art Library
23. The sentiments such as those depicted in the cartoon above most directly contributed to
which of the following?
a. Breakdown in trust between sectional leaders
b. The willingness of abolitionists to use violence to achieve their goals
c. Repeated attempts at political compromise
d. The secession of Southern states
24. Which group was most likely the intended audience of the cartoon above?
a. White Americans in the South
b. State governments in the North
c. Members of the Republican Party
d. Voluntary organizations promoting religious and secular reforms
25. The cartoon above is best understood in the context of the
a. North’s increasing reliance on a free-labor manufacturing economy.
b. variety of proposals leaders made that ultimately failed to reduce sectional
conflict.
c. willingness of abolitionists to use violence to achieve their goals.
d. weakening of loyalties to the two major parties.
Questions 26 and 27 refer to the following quotation.
“In the spring of 1853 we grew tired of our diggings because we were entirely dependent on the rains for
water and determined to seek a better place to mine. So James, Rezin Anderson, and I took our respective
rolls of bedding on our backs and our rifles on our shoulders and started for Rabbit Creek in Sierra
country. We arrived at Rabbit Creek when the snow was sixteen feet deep. All of the miners’ cabins had
steps cut in the snow down to the doors…The mines were all deep gravel channels from 25 to 125 feet
deep on mountain spurs and ridges, and were worked by hydraulic pipes in which water was piped down
into the cuts and thrown against the banks which were composed of quartz, gravel and sand. These
immense gravel beds were once ancient river beds before the mountains and ridges upheaved, and all
contained enough fine gold to pay richly for washing them away by hydraulic process. Through lines of
sluice boxes the sand and gravel was dumped into the surrounding canyons which drained into the North
fork of the Yuba River. Here the claims were 200 feet square. No man could have more than one claim.
Every mining district in California in those days had their own laws made by the miners and by them
enforced.”
Granville Stuart, A Memoir from California, 1852–1853
Granville Stuart, Forty Years on the Frontier, edited by Paul C. Phillips (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark
Company, 1925).
26. The ideas expressed in the excerpt above reflect which of the following continuities in United
States history?
a. Individuals challenging their prescribed “place” in society
b. The competition for land in the West leading to increasingly violent conflict
c. Battles between business interests and conservationists over unspoiled wilderness
d. The desire for resources causing environmental transformation
27. The passage above best reflects which of the following historical trends or patterns?
a. The acquisition and settlement of new territory in the West
b. The expansion of the industrial workforce through internal migration
c. Whites, Asians, and African Americans seeking new economic opportunities
d. Increased questions about the status and legal rights of American Indian groups
Questions 28 and 29 refer to the excerpt below.
“I stand before you under indictment for the alleged crime of having voted in the last presidential election,
without having a lawful right to vote. It shall be my work this evening to prove to you that in thus doing, I
not only committed no crime, but instead simply exercised my citizen’s right, guaranteed to me and all
United States citizens by the National Constitution beyond the power of any State to deny.…If once we
establish the false principle that United States citizenship does not carry with it the right to vote in every
state in this Union, there is no end to the petty tricks and cunning devices which will be attempted to
exclude one and another class of citizens from the right of suffrage.…Establish this precedent, admit the
State’s right to deny suffrage, and there is no limit to the confusion, discord, and disruption that may
await us. There is and can be but one safe principle of government—equal rights to all.”
Susan B. Anthony, Speech before the Court, 1873
Ida Husted Harper, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony, Volume II (Indianapolis: The
Hollenbeck Press, 1898).
28. The excerpt above is best understood in the context of
a. the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments.
b. Radical Republicans’ efforts to change Southern attitudes.
c. the end of the Civil War.
d. efforts to limit the political power of immigrants.
29. Which of the following was a major consequence of the ideas expressed in the passage
above?
a. Supreme Court decisions began stripping away the civil rights of women.
b. Some women’s equality activists abandoned the movement to grant and protect
African American rights.
c. Short-term successes opened up some political opportunities to women that
previously had not existed.
d. The movement for women’s suffrage was temporarily halted in order to concentrate
on granting African Americans and immigrants equal protection under the laws.
Questions 30-32 refer to the quotation below.
“When we came in sight of the camp, I saw the American flag waving and heard Black Kettle tell the
Indians to stand around the flag, and there they were huddled—men, women, and children. This was
when we were within fifty yards of the Indians. I also saw a white flag raised. These flags were in so
conspicuous a position that they must have been seen. When the troops fired the Indians ran, some of the
men into their lodges, probably to get their arms. They had time to get away if they had wanted to…After
the firing the warriors put the squaws and children together, and surrounded them to protect them. I saw
five squaws under a bank for shelter. When the troops came up to them they ran out and showed their
persons to let the soldiers know they were squaws and begged for mercy, but the soldiers shot them
all.…There seemed to be indiscriminate slaughter of men, women, and children.…The squaws offered no
resistance. Everyone I saw dead was scalped.”
Testimony of Robert Bent, Colorado rancher, before a U.S. Senate Committee investigating
the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864, 1867
30. The excerpt above best serves as evidence of which of the following?
a. The rise of a major, often violent nativist movement in the United States
b. The new economic opportunities sought by Asian, African American, and white
peoples in the West
c. The increasing conflict between the U.S. government and American Indians as
the country expanded territorially
d. The efforts of the U.S. government to end American Indian tribal identities through
assimilation
31. The excerpt quoted above would be most helpful to historians analyzing the
a. attempts of the federal government to assert authority over the states.
b. U.S. government interaction and conflict with American Indians.
c. limited cultural influence of American Indians.
d. increased settlement in areas forcibly taken from American Indians.
32. The excerpt above is best understood in the context of
a. a broad debate in the 1850s and 1860s over national goals, priorities, and strategies.
b. public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use new territories.
c. the desire for access to western resources.
d. a sense of American cultural and racial superiority.
Questions 33-35 refer to the cartoon below.
33. Which of the following best expresses the perspective of Thomas Nast in the cartoon above?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The Reconstruction of the South is going well.
The government is not adequately protecting freed slaves.
White people in the South need to stand together.
The Reconstruction of Southern society was a bad idea.
34. The Southerners in the cartoon above wanted a “Union” characterized by which of the
following?
a. Sovereignty centered in the federal government
b. An “American System” of internal improvements
c. Sovereignty centered in the states.
d. The anti-nullification nationalism of Andrew Jackson.
35. The ideas in the cartoon above most directly reflect which of the following continuities in
U.S. history?
a. Debates about civil rights
b. Debates about the use of military power
c. Debates about gun control
d. Debates about the role of political parties
Questions 36 and 37 refer to the excerpt below.
“Section 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, that no negro shall be allowed to
pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer…
Section 3… no negro shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within said parish…
Section 4…Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person or former owner,
who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro…
Section 7…No negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry fire-arms, or any kind of
weapons, within the parish…
Section 11…It shall be the duty of every citizen to act as a police officer for the detection of offences and
the apprehension of offenders, who shall immediately be handed over to the proper captain or chief of
patrol.”
The Louisiana Black Code, 1865
Senate Executive Document No. 2, 39th Cong., 1st Sess.
36. Which 19th-century group would most likely oppose the regulations in the legislation above?
a. New international migrants
b. The Supreme Court
c. Republican Party members
d. Supporters of Social Darwinism
37. The excerpt above is best understood in the context of
a. Northern idea of American identity.
b. altered power relationships between the states and the federal government in the postCivil War period.
c. the temporary rearrangement of relationships between white and black people in the
South.
d. Southern resistance to Radical Republicans’ efforts to change Southern
attitudes.
Questions 38-41 refer to the cartoon below.
Kurz and Allison, Storming Fort Wagner, July 8th, 1863, Library of Congress
38. Prior to 1863, African American soldiers were primarily used
a. for noncombat purposes
b. as combat infantry soldiers in the army
c. only for naval reconnaissance missions
d. as cavalry on the Plains for fighting Indians
39. The scene depicted in the image above was most directly a result of
a. a rearrangement of the relationships between black and white people in the South.
b. the North’s greater manpower and resources.
c. the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery.
d. Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
40. The image above best serves as evidence of which of the following?
a. The changing purpose of the Civil War
b. Unresolved questions of power and social patterns
c. The mobilization of Union society to wage the war
d. The opening up of political opportunities to former slaves
41. Each of the following was true of black soldiers in the 54th of Massachusetts EXCEPT
a. They received proportionally lower casualties rates than white soldiers
b. They were paid $10 dollars a month instead of normal army wage of $13 a month
c. They received high rates of casualties during the attack on Ft. Wagner
d. They were initially delayed in receiving rifles, shoes, and uniforms
Questions 42-44 refer to the source below.
“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in
Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great
civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.…It is
for us, the living…to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far
so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that this
nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people,
and for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
President Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, July 1863
42. The passage above best serves as evidence of which of the following?
a. Union victory in the Civil War
b. The mobilization of the Union economy and society to wage the war
c. Unresolved questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship
rights
d. The changing purpose of the Civil War
43. Which of the following actions of the Lincoln administration best exemplified the belief
expressed in the quotation above?
a. The altering of the power relationships between states and the federal government
b. The waging of war even while facing considerable home front opposition
c. The decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
d. Their efforts to prevent the Confederacy from gaining diplomatic support from
European powers
44. The ideas expressed in the passage above most directly led to political controversies in the
1870s and 1880s over
a. new definitions of citizenship.
b. the expansion of slavery into western territories.
c. the proper balance between liberty and order.
d. a sense of American cultural superiority.
Questions 45-47 refer to the excerpt below.
“GENTLEMEN: I have your letter of the 11th, in the nature of a petition to revoke my orders removing
all the inhabitants from Atlanta. I have read it carefully, and give full credit to your statements of the
distress that will be occasioned by it, and yet shall not revoke my orders.…We must have peace, not only
at Atlanta but in all America. To secure this we must stop the war that now desolates our once happy and
favored country. To stop war we must defeat the rebel armies that are arrayed against the laws and
Constitution, which all must respect and obey.…You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War
is cruelty and you cannot refine it.…But you cannot have peace and a division of our country.…We don't
want your negroes or your horses or your houses or your lands or anything you have, but we do want, and
will have, a just obedience to the laws of the United States.…I want peace, and believe it can now only be
reached through union and war, and I will ever conduct war with a view to perfect an early success. But,
my dear sirs, when that peace does come, you may call on me for anything. Then will I share with you the
last cracker, and watch with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every quarter.
Now you must go, and take with you the old and feeble, feed and nurse them and build for them in more
quiet places proper habitations to shield them against the weather until the mad passions of men cool
down and allow the Union and peace once more to settle over your old homes at Atlanta.”
-
Letter from General William T. Sherman to the Atlanta Mayor and City Council, 1864
United States War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official
Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing
Office, 1892).
45. Which of the following most directly resulted from the excerpt above?
a. The Confederacy was prevented from gaining full diplomatic support from European
powers.
b. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
c. The South’s environment and infrastructure was increasingly destroyed.
d. The Confederacy faced considerable home front opposition to the mobilization of
their society to wage the war.
46. The message in the letter above best reflects which of the following continuities in U.S.
history?
a. Arguments over the proper relationship between the federal government and the
states
b. The application of effective economic and industrial strategies to warfare
c. Debates over how to properly interpret the Constitution
d. A popular commitment to advancing democratic ideals
47. The excerpt above would be most useful to historians analyzing the
a. initiative and daring of Confederate leadership in the war.
b. ways that the purposes of the Civil War changed over time.
c. “Total War” strategies and leadership of the Union Army.
d. Northern idea of national identity and national purpose.
Questions 48-50 refer to the excerpt below.
“The van of the Caucasian race now atop the Rocky Mountains, and spread down upon the shores of the
Pacific. In a few years a great population will grow up there, luminous with the accumulated lights of
European and American civilization. Their presence in such a position cannot be without its influence
upon eastern Asia.…Civilization, or extinction has been the fate of all people who found themselves in
the track of the advancing Whites, and civilization, always the preference of the Whites, has been pressed
as an object, while extinction has followed as a consequence of its resistance. The Black and Red races
have often felt their ameliorating influence.”
Congressional Speech by Senator Thomas Hart Benton, 1846
48. The passage above was most likely a reaction to which of the following events or processes?
a. The controversy over whether to allow slavery in the western territories
b. The assertion of U.S. power in the Western Hemisphere
c. Debates over whether slavery should be abolished
d. The desire for access to western resources
49. Which of the following 20th-century ideas or developments were most similar to those
described in the excerpt above?
a. Arguments that Americans were destined to expand their culture and norms to
non-white nations prior to World War I
b. The isolationist foreign policy pursued by the United States after World War I
c. The ideological and economic concerns that shaped U.S. involvement in the Middle
East in the mid- and later 20th century
d. The assertion of global leadership by the United States after World War II
50. The excerpt above is best understood in the context of the
a. policies of imperialism.
b. theory of Social Darwinism.
c. idea of Manifest Destiny.
d. U.S. interest in expanding trade westward to Asia.
Questions 51-53 refer to the excerpt below.
“It is a fact well known to every intelligent Southerner that we are compelled to go to the North for almost
every article of utility and adornment, from shoepegs and paintings to cotton-mills, steamships and
statuary…owing to the absence of a proper system of business amongst us, the North becomes, in one
way or another, the proprietor and dispenser of all our floating wealth, and that we are dependent on
Northern capitalists…and that, instead of building up…our own States, cities, and towns, we have been
spending our substance at the North, and are daily augmenting and strengthening the very power which
now has us so completely under its thumb.…It is not so much in its moral and religious aspects that we
propose to discuss the question of slavery, as in its social and political character and influences.”
Hinton R. Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South, 1857
Hinton R. Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It (New York: Burdick
Brothers, 1857).
51. Which of the following most directly supports the assertion expressed in the excerpt above?
a. The defense of slavery by Southerners as a positive good
b. The slow population growth of the South
c. Attempts by abolitionists to campaign against slavery
d. The intensified sectionalism of the 1840s and 1850s
52. The excerpt above was most likely a reaction to which of the following historical trends?
a. Racist stereotyping in the South
b. Regional economic and demographic changes between the North and South
c. The emergence of sectional political parties
d. The breaking down of trust between sectional regions
53. Which of the following was most likely the intended audience of the excerpt above?
a. Northern leaders who were proposing economic and political compromise
b. The emerging middle and working classes
c. Agriculturalists of the Southeast and Southwest
d. African Americans seeking economic refuge in the West
Questions 54 and 55 refer to the excerpt below.
“The old South rested everything on slavery and agriculture, unconscious that these could neither give nor
maintain healthy growth. The new South presents a perfect democracy, the oligarchs leading in the
popular movement- a social system compact and closely knitted, less splendid on the surface, but stronger
at the core- a hundred farms for every plantation, fifty homes for every palace- and a diversified industry
that meets the complex need of this complex age.”
-
Henry Grady, The New South, 1886, 1889
54. Based on the excerpt of Henry Grady’s New South, which of the following statements best
describes the change in the description of the American identity?
a. After the Civil War, the South accepted the new status of the African American as an
equal citizen.
b. The South had done away with the hierarchical plantation system and replaced
it with a more egalitarian society.
c. The new South was the first region to grant political equality to women.
d. The South had become as industrialized as the North.
55. Which of the following pieces of evidence would contradict the ideal of the new South as
described by Henry Grady?
a. The development of the iron and steel industry in Birmingham, Alabama.
b. Industrial development in New Orleans and other Gulf Coast cities.
c. The restructuring of the South’s agricultural system
d. The existence of sharecropping and the crop-lien system
Questions 1-4 refer to the excerpt below.
“On the 4th of March next this party [the Republican Party] will take possession of the government. It has
announce that the South shall be excluded from the common territory, that the judicial tribunal shall be
made sectional, and that a war must be waged against slavery until it shall cease throughout the United
States. The guarantees of the Constitution will then no longer exist; the equal rights of the states will be
lost. The slaveholding states will no longer have the power of self-government or self-protection, and the
federal government will have become their enemy. Sectional interest and animosity will deepen the
irritation; and all hope of remedy is rendered vain by the fact that the public opinion at the North has
invested a great political error with the sanctions of a more erroneous religious belief.
“We, therefore, the people of South Carolina, by our delegates in convention assembled, appealing to the
Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, have solemnly declared that the Union
heretofore existing between this state and the other states of North America is dissolved; and that the state
of South Carolina has resumed her position among the nations of the world, as [a] separate and
independent state, with full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce,
and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do.”
-
South Carolina defines the causes of secession, 1860
1. Which of the following was an immediate consequence of the secession of South
Carolina?
a. Southern Democrats appealed to the powers of Congress to stop military action
against South Carolina
b. Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation
c. Other Southern states seceded from the Union, forming the Confederacy
d. Jefferson Davis drafted Confederate soldiers into war, defending the siege on
Fort Sumter.
2. The sentiments above are most consistent with which of the following ideologies?
a. States’ Rights
b. Nullification
c. Neutrality
d. Civil Disobedience
3. In the excerpt above, the reference to “the sanctions of a more erroneous religious belief”
most probably refers to
a. Southern Baptist justification of slavery on the grounds of white racial
superiority
b. The Puritan abolition of slavery in New England states
c. Jewish acceptance of slavery in the Torah
d. Christian abolitionist rejection of slavery on moral grounds
4. Which of the following best explains why South Carolina chose to secede from the Union
in 1860?
a. The failures of the Compromise of 1850 hindered South Carolina’s trade
relationships with Western states, leading to severe economic recession
b. The Battle of Fort Sumter occurred in Charleston, prompting public outrage over
Union aggression
c. President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, thus undermining
slavery in the South.
d. Lincoln’s election on a Free Soil platform led Southern politicians to
conclude that secession was necessary.
Questions 1 and 2 refer to the following quotation.
“In the spring of 1853 we grew tired of our diggings because we were entirely dependent on the rains for
water and determined to seek a better place to mine. So James, Rezin Anderson, and I took our respective
rolls of bedding on our backs and our rifles on our shoulders and started for Rabbit Creek in Sierra
country. We arrived at Rabbit Creek when the snow was sixteen feet deep. All of the miners’ cabins had
steps cut in the snow down to the doors…The mines were all deep gravel channels from 25 to 125 feet
deep on mountain spurs and ridges, and were worked by hydraulic pipes in which water was piped down
into the cuts and thrown against the banks which were composed of quartz, gravel and sand. These
immense gravel beds were once ancient river beds before the mountains and ridges upheaved, and all
contained enough fine gold to pay richly for washing them away by hydraulic process. Through lines of
sluice boxes the sand and gravel was dumped into the surrounding canyons which drained into the North
fork of the Yuba River. Here the claims were 200 feet square. No man could have more than one claim.
Every mining district in California in those days had their own laws made by the miners and by them
enforced.”
Granville Stuart, A Memoir from California, 1852–1853
Granville Stuart, Forty Years on the Frontier, edited by Paul C. Phillips (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark
Company, 1925).
1. The ideas expressed in the excerpt above reflect which of the following continuities in United
States history?
a. Individuals challenging their prescribed “place” in society
b. The competition for land in the West leading to increasingly violent conflict
c. Battles between business interests and conservationists over unspoiled wilderness
d. The desire for resources causing environmental transformation
2. The passage above best reflects which of the following historical trends or patterns?
a. The acquisition and settlement of new territory in the West
b. The expansion of the industrial workforce through internal migration
c. Whites, Asians, and African Americans seeking new economic opportunities
d. Increased questions about the status and legal rights of American Indian groups
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Period 5: Stimulus-Based Multiple-Choice Questions Questions 1

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