Ancient Rome outline Notes
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Ancient Rome
Early Romans
Latins, Greeks, Estruscans
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Latins settled
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Greeks organized
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Estruscans left culture (writing, architecture)
Republic
“public affairs”
A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their
leaders.
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Free males
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Copy the chart on page 157
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Power Struggle
Patricians – wealthy landowners who held most of the power.
Plebeians – majority of population (farmers, artisans, workers), had right to vote but could not
hold government positions
Tribunes – representatives chosen by plebeians, they protected the rights of plebeians
Government
Consuls – two; one directed the military and one directed the government (executive)
Senate – made laws and helped organize the government (legislative)
Senate at first only for wealthy, later allowed plebeians and established more of a true republic
Dictator appointed in times of crisis
Military
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Ancient Rome outline Notes
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All citizens who owned land required to serve
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Anyone seeking public office required to serve
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Well organized (legions)
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Military organization and fighting skill helped lead to Rome’s greatness
Expansion
Defeated all Greeks and Etruscans
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Created alliances with conquered people
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Allowed others to become Roman citizens
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Tolerance helped Rome expand
Punic Wars
Rome’s location gave it access to all lands around Mediterranean
Led to competition
Carthage – wealthy port in North Africa
Punic Wars – wars between Rome and Carthage
Hannibal – leader of Carthage; surprise attack through Alps; highly successful
Rome defeats Hannibal with allies, gains control of western Mediterranean
COLLAPSE OF THE Republic
Gap between rich and poor grew too wide
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Small farmers/soldiers became poor
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Civil war
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Military leaders cause problems
Julius caesar
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Ancient Rome outline Notes
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Military leader
Joined with Crassus and Pompey
Triumvirate – a group of three rulers
Caesar leads his men to victory in Gaul (France)
Pompey fears Caesar’s power and orders him to return
Caesar’s troops will defeat Pompey’s troops; he will return to Rome a hero
Senate names him dictator for life
Caesar’s reforms
Ruled as an absolute ruler
Granted Roman citizenship to many
Expanded the Senate to include supporters from different regions
Created jobs
New public buildings
Started colonies
Increased pay for soldiers
Caesar’s Death
Fearing his growing power, many Senators plot against Caesar
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Stabbed to death (23 times) in the Senate chamber
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Included his friend Marcus Brutus
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“Et, tu brute?”
Roman empire
Upon Caesar’s death, his supporters will defeat the assassins
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Octavian joins with a powerful general Mark Antony, and a powerful politician Lepidus
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Lepidus forced to retire, Mark Antony and Octavian become bitter rivals
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Ancient Rome outline Notes
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While leading troops, Mark Antony meets Cleopatra Queen of Egypt
Civil war arises between Mark Antony and Octavian
augustus
Octavian defeats Mark Antony and becomes the unchallenged ruler of Rome
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Augustus – “exalted one”
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Imperator – supreme military commander – emperor
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Pax romana
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Period of little fighting for some 200 years
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Great growth in population and territory
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Efficient government and strong rulers
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Great buildings
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Civil service jobs
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“Roman peace”
Empire declines
Rulers in the later stage of the Pax Romana did not know how to deal with such a large empire
Disrupted trade
Raising of taxes
Inflation – drop in the value of money combined with a rise in prices
Food shortage
Disease
Mercenaries replace soldiers
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Ancient Rome outline Notes
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Constantine
Diocletian divides the empire to efficiently rule
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Constantine gains control of western empire
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Then gains control of eastern empire
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Moves the capital to Byzantium – Constantinople
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Germanic Invasion
With capital in east, western empire begins to crumble
Germanic people lived peacefully on the borders of Rome
Asian nomads called the Huns destroyed all those in their path, forcing the Germanic peoples
into Rome
Germans begin to overrun Rome
Attila
Unified 100,000 Huns and terrorized the Roman empire from east to west
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Conquered 70 major Roman cities
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Roman empire in final stages, Germanic invaders able to take control after Attila’s death
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Greco-Roman
The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures
Art reflected Roman ideals of strength, permanence, and solidarity
Pompeii – Roman town preserved in volcanic ash, shows evidence of Roman art
Virgil – Roman poet who wrote the Aeneid
Rome’s Legacy
Latin language – adopted by many and developed into other languages
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Ancient Rome outline Notes
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Romance Languages – French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian
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English also influenced heavily by Latin
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Rome’s legacy
Grand architecture (Colosseum p.182)
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Arch, dome, and concrete invented
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Aqueducts – used to bring water into cities, relied on arches p. 181
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Roman roads constructed from stone, bricks, and concrete
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Many famous buildings in U.S. based off of Roman architecture (U.S. Capitol)
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Rome’s legacy
Roman law – fair, equal, and applied to all citizens
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All persons equal under law
Person considered innocent until proven guilty
Burden of proof rested with the accuser and not the accused
Any law that seemed unreasonable or unfair could be banned
Serves as basis for laws around the world
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Ancient Rome Outline Notes