Activity 3.1.2: Sickle Cell Diaries
Component:
Function:
Plasma
The function of this
cell is to fight
diseases. Each plasma
cell produces a special
antibody for an
antigen. Upon entrance
of the body, this
antigen first binds with
a B cell, which forms
plasma cells.
1.
Red Blood Cells
(Erythrocytes)
The function of these
cells is to transport
oxygen and carbon
dioxide. Only a portion
of oxygen is carried by
the red blood cells,
while 95% of the CO2
is carried.
White Blood Cells
(Leukocytes)
The function of these
cells it to defend the
body against infection.
There are two types of
white blood cells:
*Phagocytes
*Lymphocyptes
Phagocytes are these
cells that detect
foreign particles, cell
wastes and bacteria.
Lymphocyptes
produce antibodies
that attack organisms
harmful to the body.
Platelets (Thrombocytes)
The function of this
cell, is to contribute to
the hemostatic
process. It does this in
two ways: 1. Through
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the adhesive and
cohesive functions,
which lead to a
hemostatic plug. 2.
Activating coagulation
mechanisms through a
phospholipidic
surface.
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Find on the Internet images of a healthy red blood cell and sickle cell and
copy and paste it below:
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Conclusion
2. You fall down and scrape your hand – describe what each component of blood
would be doing at the injury site.
3. Vasoconstriction- This involves blood vessels leading to the wound,
reducing the blood flow in the area I have been injured.
4. Platelets- These cells join together, travelling towards the torn blood
vessels, forming a plug.
5. Clotting proteins- These unite to form a net, holding the platelet plug in
place, protecting the wound. In less than few minutes or seconds, bleeding
is prevented. A scab is then formed.
6. As a way of preventing infection, white blood cells come into play,
destroying any germs that could enter the wound.
7. Fibroblasts- These cells play their role in producing collagen, which would
fill in the wound under the scab, creating new capillaries that would allow
blood rich in oxygen to recover the wound.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12. Anna has a condition called sickle cell anemia, a blood disorder. Based on the
differences you observed between the normal blood slide and Anna’s blood slide,
what do you think is a defining feature of this disease? Explain your answer.
13. Based on my observation, I think Hemaglobin is a defining feature of this
disease because by it forming long chains, it allows this shape of a sickle
cell to occur, which in turn prevents the accurate intake of oxygen and
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nutrients. This would eventually lead to cause the blood cells to be
blocked, not flowing properly.
14.
15.
16.
17. How does the abnormal shape of a sickled red blood cell affect its movement
through blood vessels?
18.
19. The abnormal shape of a sickled red blood cell affects its movement
through blood vessels by allowing it to not flow as it should. It would get
clogged in the Capillary.
20.
21.
22. People with sickle cell anemia often experience episodes of severe pain in their
joints, chest, and abdomen and swelling in their hands and feet. Using what you
know about the function of blood, why do you think the abnormal shape of sickled
red blood cells causes these symptoms?
23.
24.
I think the abnormal shape of sickled red blood cells causes these
symptoms because with the Capillary becoming blocked by the blood cells
that are not able to flow as it should, the amount of oxygen and blood
needed to pass through would be insufficient causing many of these health
problems after all, the body requires a huge amount of oxygen and blood
flow to be able to function well.
25.
26.
27.
28. Anna’s autopsy shows that the nails on her fingers were a blue/gray color. How
does Anna’s hematocrit level relate to these symptoms?
29. Anna's hematocrit level relates to these symptoms, by being lower than the
normal hematocrit rate. It was 20%.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35. How might sickle cell disease have been related to Anna’s death?
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Sickle Cell disease might have been related to Anna's death, as her blood
oxygen levels were lower than normal, her spleen was seen as abnormal,
as well as her hands and feet were swollen.
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Conclusion
36. Based on what you know about blood, why would having a sickle cell anemia
crisis result in a reduced red blood cell count, an elevated white blood cell count,
and a reduced hematocrit?
37. Having a sickle cell anemia crisis would result in a reduced red blood cell
count, an elevated white blood cell count as well as a reduced hematocrit,
because hemoglobin S, an abnormal protein that causes sickle cell anemia,
changes the red blood cells into sickles, which allows less oxygen to be
transported. The elevated white blood cells, would occur as they would
work together to fight off an foreign particles in the body that may come
with having sickle cells. The hematocrit level may reduce because, by
having such a crisis, several blood tests has to be carried out, monitoring
this patient's blood flow therefore, the level of blood this person would
have becomes unbalanced.
38.
39.
40.
41. Based on what you learned in the previous activity, why did having sickled red
blood cells lead to the symptoms documented in Anna’s medical history when
she was 14 months old?
42.
43. Having sickled red blood cells, lead to the symptoms documented in Anna's
medical history at 14 months, because she was a diabetic. Her case of Type 2
diabetes, became worse overtime, as her lens in her right eye became cloudy.
Her blood vessels in both eyes became swollen, allowing her vision to be
impaired.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48. Describe three ways daily life is affected for those who have sickle cell anemia.
49. Three ways daily life is affected for those who have sickle cell anemia are:
50. 1. They must follow a healthy diet. (i.e eating fruits and vegetables, whole
grains and products low in fat)
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51. 2. Thy must exercise regularly, avoiding activities that would make their
bodies worn out and feel very weak.
52. 3. They must sleep and rest often.
53.
54.
55.
56. Describe at least five symptoms of a sickle cell crisis.
57. Five symptoms of a sickle cell crisis are:
58. 1. Shortness of breath
59. 2. Dizziness
60. 3. Headaches
61. 4. Cold feeling in the hands and feet
62. 5. Jaundice ( a yellow color in the skin or white in the eyes)
63.
64. Describe the pros and cons of the treatments used for each of the sickle cell
anemia patients investigated in this activity.
65. Pros:
o Exercise
o Drinking lots of fluids
o Resting as often as Possible
o Changing their diet by eating healthier
66. Cons:
o Having to be tested often (blood tests)
o Getting an Ultrasound of the head as a way of monitoring blood
flow to the brain.
o Having to use an oxygen mask to help you breathe regularly.
o Having to take antibiotics daily
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