Modal Verbs
Integrantes:
 AUGIER MATIAS
 IBRAHIM GERMAN
 NAVARRO CARLA
 PASCUAL FERNANDO
 PEREA ANDREA
WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS?
All the auxiliary verbs except be, do and have are called modals. Unlike other auxiliary
verbs modals only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone as the main verb in a
sentence.
Be, do, and have also differ from the other auxiliaries in that they can also serve as
ordinary verbs in a given sentence.
The modal verbs are:CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT / MUST / SHALL / SHOULD / OUGHT TO / WILL / WOULD
Modal
Example
Uses
Can
They can control their own budgets.
Ability / Possibility
We can’t fix it.
Inability / Impossibility
Can I smoke here?
Asking for permission
Can you help me?
Request
Could I borrow your dictionary?
Asking for permission.
Could you say it again more slowly?
Request
We could try to fix it ourselves.
Suggestion
I think we could have another Gulf War.
Future possibility
He gave up his old job so he could work for
us.
Ability in the past
May I have another cup of coffee?
Asking for permission
Could
May
China may become a major economic power. Future possibility
Might
We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be Present possibility
eating their dinner now.
Future possibility
They might give us a 10% discount.
Must
We must say good-bye now.
Necessity / Obligation
They mustn’t disrupt the work more than
necessary.
Prohibition
Ought to We ought to employ a professional writer.
Saying what’s right or
correct
Shall
Offer
Shall I help you with your luggage?
Shall we say 2.30 then?
(More
common
Shall I do that or will you?
in the UK
than the
US)
Suggestion
Should
Saying what’s right or
correct
We should sort out this problem at once.
I think we should check everything again.
Profits should increase next year.
Asking what to do
Recommending action
Uncertain prediction
Will
I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.
Instant decisions
I'll do that for you if you like.
Offer
I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.
Promise
Profits will increase next year.
Certain prediction
Would
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with Asking for permission
me?
Request
Would you pass the salt please?
Request
Would you mind waiting a moment?
Making arrangements
"Would three o`clock suit you?" - "That’d be
Invitation
fine."
Would you like to play golf this Friday?
Preferences
"Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "I’d like
tea please."
Next, We will talk about the modal verbs “ought
to” and “should”
"Ought to" vs. "Should."?
Palmer (The English Verb) distinguishes three uses of should.
1. to lay a tentative obligation
You should come to the party tomorrow.
2. to express a probability
They should be at their destination by now.
3. 'evaluative' should
It's strange that he should say such a thing.
He makes the following observations:
In the first meaning, ought to and should are completely interchangeable:
You ought to come to the party tomorrow.
In the second, ought to is theoretically possible, but is rarely used with this meaning.
They ought to be at their destination by now.
In the third, ought to is not used.
* It's strange that he ought to say such a thing.
By telling "ought to" you suggest someone what is one of the last options one
has or something that one can't easily avoid, for example, any longer.
By telling "should" you suggest someone that something is good to be done or
something that after all is meaningful.
The difference is in importance you give when you say "ought to" or "should".
"Ought to" wants to say that you think that it is more important something to
be done.
As well, "should" more expresses something than it is explicit. "Ought to" is
more explicit, closer to a request than "should".
The difference between "ought to" and "should", when they mean "giving a
suggestion", is better understood when you examine expressions and
examples.
For example if I like a cake very much and I want to suggest someone to try it I
would say: "You ought to try this cake." In this case if we use "You should try
this cake", it says not much about how strong I liked it.
If someone is leaving the house after the diner, a polite way to invite him again
is
"You ought to visit us again." In this case if we use "You should visit us again",
it does not give that strong expectation. With "you ought to visit us again" you
compliment to the person that has visited you far more than with "you should
visit us again".
"ought to" is sometimes a synonym to "cannot avoid". "should" is almost never
a synonym to "cannot avoid".
"That ought to be easy." expresses the expectations that might not be true. For
example, you tried to solve a problem, but it just doesn't go the way you want.
"That should be easy" contains far less negative feelings. (In this case "That
ought to be easy." is almost equal to "That should've been easy")
With correct usage, both "should" and "ought to" have their very precise places
in modern English. What makes confusion is that people are using them
carelessly, as is the case with other expressions or verbs in English.
With "ought to" instead of "should", you can make your thought more precise,
but you can as well make someone puzzled why you have used "ought to" at
all. If someone cannot feel the difference between "ought to" and "should", it is
safe to always use "should". Actually, people or learner of English tend to do
El verbo 'ought to' es igual al 'should' y expresa una obligación débil. Significa debería, tendría
so, thus it looks that "ought to" is rare. It is not rare, it only has a more specific
que.
usage than "should".
I ought to - debería / tendría que
"Ought to" almost always holds a strong warning about the consequences, or
emphasizes good features of consequences if it is something positive.
Affirmative


Helen ought to be more careful.
Helen debería tener más cuidado.

I ought to stay in bed.
Yo debería quedarme en la cama.

We ought to go together.
Deberíamos ir juntos.

They ought to be here already.
Ellos ya deberían estar aquí.

You ought to eat more vegetables.
Deberías comer más vegetales.

Tom ought to take her home.
Tom debería llevarla a casa.

It ought to work properly.
(Esto) Debería funcionar correctamente.
Negative


You ought not to drink so much.
No deberías beber tanto.

They ought not to go camping without a torch.
Ellos no deberían ir de camping sin una linterna.

George ought not to wear someone else's glasses.
George no debería usar los anteojos de otra persona.
Interrogative


Ought Rachel to be here so early?
¿Debería Rachel estar aquí tan temprano?

Ought they to live there?
¿Deberían ellos vivir allí?
Ought to + have


You ought to have read the book for today.
Deberían haber leído el libro para hoy.

They ought to have gone to the supermarket.
Ellos deberían haber ido al supermercado.

We ought to have listened to the guard.
Deberíamos haber escuchado al guardia.
Ought To
"Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or
expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought
not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less
formal forms "should not" or "had better not."
Examples:

You ought to stop smoking. recommendation

Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it.

This stock ought to increase in value. probability

Mark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no "to")
Using "Ought to" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to
learn how "ought to" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use
ought to
recommendation,
advice
Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past 3. =
Future
1. Margaret ought to
exercise more.
1. Margaret ought not exercise
too much. It might cause
injury.
2. Margaret ought to
have exercised more so
she would be better
prepared for the
marathon.
3. Margaret ought to
come to the fitness
center with us tonight.
2. Margaret ought not have
run the marathon. She wasn't
in good shape.
You
can
also
use:
should
3. Margaret ought not stay at
home in front of the TV. She
should go to the fitness center
with us.
1. She ought to have the
package by now.
ought to
assumption,
expectation,
probability
2. She ought to have
received the package
yesterday.
3. She ought to receive
the package tonight.
"Ought not" is used primarily
to express negative
recommendations. (See
above.)
should
Should
"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to
express obligation as well as expectation.
Examples:

When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. recommendation

You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice

I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation

By now, they should already be in Dubai. expectation
Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to
learn how "should" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use
Positive Forms
1. = Present 2. = Past 3. =
Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present 2. =
Past 3. = Future
You can
also use:
1. Sarah shouldn't
smoke so much. It's
not good for her
health.
1. People with high cholesterol
should eat low-fat foods.
should
recommendation,
advisability
2. Frank should have eaten lowfat foods. That might have
prevented his heart attack.
3. You really should start eating
better.
should
obligation
I should be at work before 9:00.
2. Sarah shouldn't
have smoked so
much. That's what
caused her health
problems.
ought to
3. Sarah shouldn't
smoke when she
visits Martha next
week. Martha hates
when people smoke
in her house.
NO NEGATIVE
FORMS
be
supposed
to
We should return the video
before the video rental store
closes.
"Should" can also express
something between
recommendation and obligation.
"Be supposed to" expresses a
similar idea and can easily be
used in the past or in negative
forms.
1. Susan should be in New York
by now.
should
expectation
2. Susan should have arrived in
New York last week. Let's call
her and see what she is up to.
3. Susan should be in New York
by next week. Her new job starts
on Monday.
1. Susan shouldn't be
in New York yet.
2. Susan shouldn't
have arrived in New
York until
yesterday.
3. Susan shouldn't
arrive in New York
until next week.
ought to,
be
supposed
to
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Modal Verbs Integrantes: AUGIER MATIAS IBRAHIM GERMAN