CH 19 – VOCABULARY & SEC 1-2
KEY
Using your textbook (pp 454-473), find the correct vocabulary words to match the definitions below:
OPEC
BILINGUAL
SERVICE INDUSTRIES
MAQUILADORAS
FOLKTALES
FRAUD
NAFTA
GLOBAL WARMING
BOOM & BUST CYCLE
AGRIBUSINESS
EMBARGO
TALIBAN
Organization started to increase control of the oil industry (amount produced
and the price per barrel)
Environment where two languages are spoken (such as in schools)
Businesses providing services (banking/transportation) instead of making goods
or products (oil/electronics)
Factories in Mexico that are owned by foreign investors (non-Mexican citizens)
Stories and beliefs of a people
Something illegal that is said or done to trick someone in order to get something
unfairly
US, Mexico, and Canada agree to remove trade barriers (such as tariffs)
Gases in the atmosphere trap sunlight which causes change in temperature and
weather patterns
A long period of great profits followed by a sharp decline (drop) in profits
Large corporation whose business is farming (business not individual owns farm)
When a country stops or refuses to trade with another country
Religious, fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan
USING YOUR TEXTBOOK, FILL IN THE BLANKS ON THE FOLLOWING:
1. Women in Politics (p 456):
In the 1960’s, a call for EQUAL rights for WOMEN swept the nation. More WOMEN sought public
OFFICE. Barbara Jordan BECAME the first Texas WOMAN elected to CONGRESS . The Texas WOMANS
POLITICAL CAUSUS formed in 1971 to help women who ran for office. Texans ELECTED Ann Richards as
GOVERNOR in 1990. The only other woman was “Ma” Ferguson. Many other female LEADERS have served
the state.
What group formed in 1971 to help women who ran for office? WOMANS POLITICAL CAUCUS
Who were the only two female governors in the history of Texas? ANN RICHARDS & MA FERGUSON
2. African Americans in Politics (p 456):
For many years, AFRICAN AMERICANS were discouraged from VOTING and running for OFFICE . Congress
passed the VOTING RIGHTS Act. It removed RACIAL barriers to VOTING . African American LEADERS
have helped the STATE in many ways. Mickey Leland used his POWER in the U. S. Congress to FIGHT world
hunger.
3. Hispanic Americans in Politics (p 456):
HISPANICS also launched a CIVIL RIGHTS movement in the 1960s. GROUPS such as the League of United
Latin AMERICAN Citizens (LULAC) and La Raza Unida Party (RUP) helped them GAIN more economic,
SOCIAL, and political POWER. LULAC formed in 1929. It became the first NATIONWIDE Mexican American
civil RIGHTS group. In 1976 , fewer than
half a million HISPANICS were REGISTERED to vote in Texas. By 1995, that NUMBER had almost TRIPLED.
Several HISPANICS rose to high POSITIONS . Henry Cisneros became MAYOR of San Antonio.
4. Ongoing Challenges (457):
Texas has FACED many CHALLENGES since 1970. The POPULATION had grown to more than 20 MILLION
by 2000. EDUCATION had long been a CONCERN . For many YEARS , Texas students scored POORLY on
national TESTS . In the 1970’s , spending for EDUCATION rose to almost HALF of the state’s BUDGET .
The budget was also a big CONCERN during this PERIOD . Oil prices FELL , causing TEXAS to lose one
fourth of its tax REVENUE . The state fell into DEBT . To ease the BURDEN , the GOVERNMENT tried to
lower its EXPENSES.
The Link between the Texas and Mexican Economies:
5. Border Economy (458-459):
Texas TRADES with many STATES and NATIONS , but Mexico is the state’s LARGEST trading PARTNER .
Texas and MEXICO have a close trade RELATIONSHIP for many reasons. The long BORDER between
TEXAS and Mexico makes it easy to ship PRODUCTS between them. MAQUILADORAS are a major part of
the Texas BORDER economy. These are FACTORIES in Mexico OWNED by foreign INVESTORS . Many
American FIRMS set up FACTORIES in Mexico along the BORDER . They build there because of the low
TAXES and wages in Mexico.
What country is Texas’ largest trading partner? MEXICO
What are maquiladoras? FACTORIES IN MEXICO OWNED BY FOREIGN INVESTORS
Why do many American firms (businesses) set up factories in Mexico along the border? LOW TAXES AND
WAGES IN MEXICO
6. Conflicts on the Border (459):
Some people claim that MAQUILADORAS often close and LEAVE workers without JOBS . Others say that
the FACTORIES mistreat workers and PAY them very low WAGES . Some people criticize the PLANTS
for polluting the AIR and WATER along the Rio Grande. Yet SUPPORTERS of the PLANTS see them as an
EXAMPLE of Texas and Mexico WORKING together.
What are some complaints about the maquiladoras? FACTORIES CLOSE AND LEAVE WORKERS WITHOUT
JOBS, MISTREAT WORKER AND PAY THEM LOW WAGES
Changes in Established Businesses:
7. Changes in farming and ranching (459-460):
The Texas ECONOMY went through MAJOR changes from 1970 to 2000. Through most of its history, Texas
had been a FARM state. This CHANGED in the years after WWII. The NUMBER of farms DROPPED by
more than half. The number of RANCHES fell, too. However, the SIZE of farms grew as LARGE businesses
bought small FAMILY farms. Agribusiness—large CORPORATIONS whose business was FARMING,
controlled AGRICULTURE . Several factors caused the DECLINE of small family FARMS. Water was a
MAJOR problem for Texas FARMERS . Some years, droughts took a heavy toll on crops. The shift to
MECHANIZED agriculture also hurt small FARMERS . Foreign COMPETITION caused more woes for Texas
farmers. Cheap IMPORTS from other COUNTRIES reduced farmers’ profits. Many farmers and ranchers
ADAPTED to the new situation. Ranchers used HYBRID seeds to boost the cattle-feed INDUSTRY .
Farmers used CHEMICALS and better SEED varieties to increase production. They also planted new CROPS
to tap new MARKETS . Today, Texas still has MORE THAN TWICE as many FARMS as any other STATE.
What percentage of Texans were farmers in 1990? 1%
What is agribusiness? LARGE CORPORATIONS (BUSINESSES) WHOSE BUSINESS IS FARMING
Name 2 things that were problems for farmers? NOT ENOUGH WATER, COST OF MACHINERY, FERTILIZER,
AND FUEL, FOREIGN COMPETITION
How much money a year does farming bring to Texas? $40 BILLION
8. Changes in the Petroleum Industry (460):
Oil has been a MAJOR industry in TEXAS since the Spindletop GUSHER in 1901. Texas had its PEAK
(highest) oil production in 1972 . When TENSIONS in the Middle EAST created a WORLDWIDE oil crisis
the next year (1973), the PRICE of Texas oil TRIPLED . The oil BOOM lasted into the next DECADE . Oil
INCOME was almost TRIPLE that of the state’s farm INCOME . In 1983, other OIL PRODUCING nations
lowered their PRICES and increased PRODUCTION . Oil firms STRUGGLED to stay in BUSINESS . Oil
prices STABILIZED around $18 per BARREL , but the boom YEARS did not return. EMPLOYMENT in oil
and gas fell by one third. The PETROCHEMICAL industry expanded even while the OIL industry
STRUGGLED . Today, Texas LEADS the nation in this INDUSTRY.
What caused a world oil crisis in 1973? TENSIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE OPEC OIL EMBARGO
How did this help Texans? OIL INDUSTRY PROFITS INCREASED CREATING JOBS AND INCREASED
REVENUE FOR STATE FROM OIL COMPANIES
How did this hurt Texans? HIGHER PRICE OF OIL MEANT HIGHER GASOLINE PRICES FOR ALL AS
WELL AS GASOLINE SHORTAGES
What year did Texas have its peak or largest oil production? 1972
What industry does Texas lead the nation in? PETROCHEMICALS
What is the cycle called where you have a period of great profits following by a sharp drop in profits?
BOOM AND BUST CYCLE
Modern Industries:
9. Technology and electronics (461):
In TEXAS , the electronics INDUSTRY began in the 1950’S. Large FIRMS moved to Dallas, FT. WORTH,
and Houston. By the 1990s, AUSTIN had grown as a GLOBAL technological center. HIGH TECH firms
such as Dell Computer CORPORATION brought money, JOBS , and new people to TEXAS .
What Houston company is a leader in the personal computer market? COMPAQ COMPUTER
10. Other Industries (461):
Other INDUSTRIES flourished in Texas. SERVICE industries experienced enormous GROWTH from the
1970s to 2000. Service INDUSTRIES do not produce GOODS ; instead, they PROVIDE services, such as
transportation, BANKING , retail trade (stores) , and ENTERTAINMENT.
What airline made Dallas its headquarters? AMERICAN AIRLINES
Name 3 service industries that you use today: RESTAURANTS, STORES LIKE WALMART AND LOWES,
THEATERS, BANKS, BUSES AND TAXIS
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ch 19 – vocabulary & sec 1