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Appendix 2 of Supporting Information
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Fitness measures reported in the literature that were considered synonyms of fitness
main categories used in the analyses.
Fitness category
examined in the
analysis
Adult fecundity
Fitness measures reported and considered as synonyms
Juveniles produced per adult; lifetime breeding success of cubs;
maximum litter size (number of pups), minimum litter size (number of
pups); offspring per adult group member produced; offspring per non
breeder produced; probability to breed by the offspring
Adult survival
Adult annual mortality (%); adult survival rate; annual survival of adults;
annual survival of nonbreeders; daily predation rate of adults; survival
of adults over winter after 2nd or 3rd breeding season; survival of
females through the next age stage; survival of yearling female offspring
to second breeding season; annual survival of breeding females; adult
female survival to next year; survival of breeding females; survival of
females to the following year; survival of adult males; survival of
adolescent males; annual survival of breeding males
Female fecundity
Age to first breeding; age to sexual maturity
birth rates in females; births per adult female; births per year during
female tenure; births per year during female tenure; breeding success
(per capita offspring produced); cubs per lactating female; emergent
litters with pups; female interbirth interval; fertility - whether females
breed in a reproductive season; interbirth interval with surviving
offspring per female; lifetime number of litters per female; lifetime per
capita number of offspring reared to weaning; litter size per breeding
attempt; litter size per tenure; litters per female; mean number of
offspring reared per female per year; mean number offspring per female
to emergence in all groups; mean number offspring per female to
emergence in communal litters; number of emergent offspring per
breeding female; number of female daughters produced to breeding
age; number of immature per female; number of infants
born/female/year that survived to at 1 year of age (RO); number of
infants born per female per year (BR); number of juveniles of females;
number of litters per year by the dominant female; number of offspring
per female; number of offspring produced (litter size); number of
yearlings of females; number offspring per adult female at weaning
(litter size); number offspring per adult female weaned within 1 year;
offspring weaned per female; offspring born per female per year;
offspring born per sexually mature female; offspring number produced
per breeding female; offspring per adult female produced; offspring per
female per year; offspring per female per year produced; offspring per
female surviving to year 1; offspring per litter at emergence; offspring
produced by the most successful female in the group; offspring
produced over 2 years; offspring produced over lifetime by females that
survived from spring until the following autumn; offspring produced per
female per year; offspring weaned (litter size); per capita immature
produced by the females; per capita infants produced by the females;
per capita litter size; per capita offspring of female reproductive year;
per capita offspring of females per year; per capita offspring per year;
per capita offspring produced (emergent) by the females; per capita
offspring produced at emergence (12 days); per capita offspring
produced by the females; per capita offspring produced that reach
sexual maturity (30 days); per capita offspring produced to sexual
maturity (30 days); per female number of litters; per female number of
offspring; probability of breeding per 3 month period; probability of
group litters to produce 1 or more offspring to emergence; probability
of breeding per 3 month period; reproductive rate of females (interbirth
interval); surviving births per female; time to first parturition
Group fecundity
Number of second generation litters; annual offspring produced by all
females in the group; group productivity (total number offspring
produced per group); Infants surviving to weaning; litter size (number of
cubs at weaning); litter size (number of offspring emerging from natal
lodge); litter size (number of pups); mean group interconception
interval; mean number of foals born in harem; number of infants per
group; number of juveniles per group; number of offspring per group;
number offspring surviving to 0.5 years; number yearlings (1 year old
offspring) produced per group; offspring produced to yearling per
group; offspring surviving to year 1; overall (gross) reproductive rate;
proportion of offspring (within litters) surviving to year 1; reproductive
rate per year; total number of offspring produced by each group over 5
years that survived to 1 year of age (GRO); total offspring born per
group; total offspring per group; total offspring produced; total offspring
produced (litter size)
Male fecundity
Female fertility (exclude 9 males only briefly as harem holders); mean
number of foals sired by harem stallion (male); number of immature per
male; number of litters per male; number of young per male; offspring
sired by each extra harem male; offspring sired by each intra-harem
male; offspring per adult male produced; offspring per male per year;
offspring produced by the most successful male in the group; offspring
produced over lifetime by males that survived from spring until the
following autumn; offspring produced per year of tenure in males;
offspring survival to age four; per capita immature produced by the
males; per capita infants produced by the males; per male number of
litters; per male number of offspring
Offspring survival
survival of caves to 1 yr; Percent juveniles surviving through winter (5
months span); early juvenile survival per female; foal survival; infant
mortality; infant mortality within 1 year of age; infants per female that
survived to 1 year of age (S); juvenile survival per group; juvenile
surviving per female from sprig to fall; litter survival (at emergence);
mortality rate of offspring by the females; number of 2 year olds of
females; number of infants born/female/year that survived to at 1 year
of age (RO); number of infants born per female per year (BR); number of
offspring surviving to year 1 per male; number of offspring that survived
to the age of 2 years; number offspring surviving; offspring mortality per
group; offspring number surviving to adult age; offspring number
surviving to emergence; offspring number surviving to weaning;
offspring surviving to yearling; offspring per female surviving to year 1;
offspring per female surviving to year 2; offspring per litter surviving to
weaning; offspring survival; offspring survival (1/mortality %); offspring
survival from emergence to 1 year of age; offspring survival per group;
offspring survival rate; offspring survival to age 1; offspring survival to
age 3; offspring survival to age of 2 years old; offspring survival to age of
2 years old; offspring survival to year 1; offspring survival to year 2;
offspring survival to year 3; offspring surviving through impendence (3
months); offspring surviving to 0.5 years (%); offspring surviving to 6
weeks; offspring surviving to independence; offspring surviving to year 1
within a 2 year period; per capita lifetime offspring surviving to breeding
age (10 months); per capita offspring of females that survived to
independence; per female number of offspring surviving to year 1; per
female offspring surviving to adulthood; probability of litter survival per
breeding attempt; probability of offspring to survive to 3 months of age;
proportion of emergent pups surviving per litter; proportion of
emergent pups surviving per tenure; proportion of offspring surviving to
2 months of age; survival (time) of juveniles; survival of cubs to 1 year;
survival of emergent offspring of dominant female that survived to
independence; survival of emergent offspring surviving to
independence; survival of litters (%) to emergence from burrows;
survival of offspring to 3 months after emergence; survival of offspring
to year 1; yearling survival rate; yearling surviving per female
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