GRAMMAR BOOT CAMP – KNOW THESE OR BE PREPARED
FOR PUSH-UPS! (just kidding, sort of)
VERBS:
1. The VERB of a sentence is what is happening. This can be an action or a
state of being. WE UNDERLINE VERBS TWICE.
Sample: My mom had expected a catalogue in the mail today. (what
did somebody do? Had expected!)
2. We mark action verbs AND helping/being verbs (see back of this page
for the HELPING VERB RAP – it’s why “had” got underlined)
3. Remember to SKIP adverbs like “very” “not” “always” “never” and those
pesky “-ly” adverbs.
Sample: We should have already recognized his talent and ability.
SUBJECT (remember not EVERY noun is the subject!):
1. The subject of the sentence is NOT who/what the sentence is about
(somebody might have told you that before). The subject is the
who/what that is DOING the action – performing the VERB.
Sample: The freshman and her little sister are still waiting for their ride.
(verb first – what action? are waiting. WHO are waiting? “Freshman” and
“sister”)
2. We underline simple subject(s) ONCE.
3. NOTE – we ONLY mark the simple subjects. DO NOT underline any
adjectives or articles before the subjects (so “the” and “her little” don’t
get underlined).
PHRASES, PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
A phrase is any group of words containing a NOUN or a VERB, but NEVER
BOTH.
1. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
a. ALWAYS start with a preposition – see page L125 in the grammar
book.
b. ALWAYS end with a noun or pronoun (so they won’t ever
contain……)
c. Can be ANYWHERE in a sentence, including back to back with
other prep phrases.
d. NEVER contain the SUBJECT or VERB of the sentence. Because
of this, find the prep phrase first, then go on to the verb and subject.
e. We put Prep Phrases in ( ) (prep … noun/pronoun)
Sample 1: The leaves on that tree in the middle of that field are already turning
colors.
Sample 2: Before the end of this class you should ask for the names of two of
your neighbors.
PUT IT ALL TOGETHER AND TRY THESE. Remember to mark ( ) FIRST,
VERBS SECOND, SUBJECTS THIRD.
1. We did not get our real schedules until this morning during first
block.
2. After school I must go to the office and request a Chemistry
textbook.
3. Of the movies from this summer Prince of Persia was not my
favorite.
4. At this point in time the best department store in our mall is Macy’s.
THE HELPING VERB RAP: Learn this and you’ll never have to solo for the
class…
AM
IS
ARE
WAS
WERE
BE
BEING
BEEN
HAVE
CAN
HAS
COULD
HAD
SHALL
DO
SHOULD
DOES
(clap)
DID
WILL
MAY
WOULD
MIGHT
-HUH-
MUST
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Grammar Starter notes "Bootcamp"