Kiara Moore
Mariah Morgan
Elenda Nwandu
The Skeletal System
Major Functions:
The Skeletal System…
*Protects soft body organs.
Ex. The skull protects the brain.
*Supports by providing framework that supports soft organs.
Ex. Bones in legs are like pillars to support the trunk of our bodies
when we stand.
*Provides movement by using bones as levers to move the body.
Ex. Leg muscles attached to bones help us swim and walk.
*Stores fat and minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.
* Storage of chemical energy.
*Blood cell formation.
The Skeletal System consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments and
joints.
Major Bones:
Classification…
*Compact or spongy
*Long- work as levers, short with heads of both ends mostly
compact. All bones of limbs are long
Ex. Humorous, femur, tibia
*Short- short, cube shaped. Mostly spongy bone
Ex. Wrist and ankle
*Flat- broad surfaces for protection and attachment of muscles.
Thin, flattened, usually curved
Ex. Skull, the ribs, and sternum
*Irregular- various shapes and sizes
Ex. Vertebrae, hip bones
Circulatory System
Functions:

Transports blood to the entire body.

Carries oxygen and other nutrients to all
organs and limbs.

Maintains body temperature.

Transports white blood cells.

Arteries- carry blood away from the heart

Veins- carry blood to the heart
Organs:

The heart- Pumps blood

Blood vessels- carries blood around the body

Blood- carries and breaks down oxygen and other nutrients
Features

Blood is 55% plasma, 45% cells.

Red blood cells have no nucleus
to make room for more hemoglobin.

All blood cells are made in the
bone marrow.

Red blood calls are also called
erythrocytes.
The Digestive System
By Gilbert Xue, Varun Tilva, Thomas Park
Major Functions: Break down food into macromolecules so the body
can use them to build, nourish cells, and provide energy.
Mouth – mechanical breakdown of food utilizing salivary amylase that
dissolved the food into macromolecules
Esophagus – tube connected to the mouth and stomach which moves
food to the stomach through muscular contractions called peristalsis
Stomach – “container organ” which holds food while food is being
broken down by enzymes in a low pH environment
Small Intestine – the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum: breaks down
food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver
Pancreas – secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine (breaks
down protein, fats, and carbs
Liver – process the nutrients absorbed, secretes bile into the small
intestine
Gallbladder – stores and concentrates bile then releases it into the small
intestine
Colon/Large Intestine – processes waste, absorbs water
Rectum – chamber which connects the colon to the anus: hold anything
until sphincters contracts disposing its contents
Anus – relaxes releasing its contents out of the body
Triston Antoine
Elaine Mann
Rachel Latzko
Endocrine System Notes
Anatomy, P1
Major Functions:
-
Glands secrete hormones that control a variety of things, including digestive
regulation, overall growth, heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism, and much more
-
Hormones are secreted form the glands, travel through the bloodstream to target
cells designed to receive its message
-
Also helps to control Fight or Flight response when the animal is under stress or
in danger
Major Organs and Their Purposes :
-
Hypothalamus: regulates satiety, metabolism, and temperature. Also secretes
hormones that stimulate and suppress pituitary hormones.
-
Pituitary Gland: Produces hormones that control other functions of other glands
-
Parathyroid Glands: Secrete hormones that regulate calcium levels in blood and
bone metabolism
-
Thyroid Glands: Regulates metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate, digestion,
muscle tone, growth, and reproductive functions
-
The Adrenal Glands: Regulate human metabolism, the salt to water concentration
in the blood, the immune system, and sexual functions
-
The Pancreatic Gland: Secretes digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagons.
-
Gonads: Create necessary hormones for growth and reproduction such as
Testosterone estrogen and progesterone
Integumentary
Summary: The Integumentary System is an external body covering also known as
our skin. It protects deeper tissues from bumps, acids and bases, bacterial damage,
Ultraviolet radiation, thermal damage, and dessication (drying out).

Major Organs:
1. Skin: is an external body covering that is essential because it keeps
water and other molecules in the body as well as water and other
things out. With out our skin we would quickly become prey to
bacteria and perish from water and heat loss.
-Epidermis: upper layer of the skin that acts as the body’s major
barrier to the environment.
-Dermis: The middle layer of the skin that is strong and stretchy
which helps hold the body together.
-Subcutaneous tissue: The bottom layer of the skin which anchors
it to the underlying organs.
2. Epithelial Membrane: There are three types of these membranes
 Mucous Membrane: Lines all of the body cavities that open to
the exterior of body, such as the respiratory, digestive, urinary,
and reproductive tracts. Ex. So that your stomach acid doesn’t
leak through out your body.
 Serous Membrane: They line the closed body cavities so that
your organs don’t rub up against each other.
 Cutaneous Membrane: The outer most layer of your skin that
touches air, etc. It is a dry membrane. This membrane keeps
things from entering your body.
3. Connective Tissue Membrane: Membranes that contain all connective
tissue and no epithelial cells.
 Synovial Membrane: They line the fibrous capsules
surrounding the joints where they provide a smooth surface
and secrete a lubricating fluid. They also cushion organs
moving against each other during muscle activity. Ex. Tendon
across bone.
Major Functions as a whole:
 Mechanical Damage: The physical barrier contains keratin, which toughens
cells and pressure receptors, which alert the nervous system to possible
damage.
 Chemical Damage: Has impermeable keratinized cells which contain pain
receptors which alert the nervous system.
 Bacterial Damage: Phagocytes ingest foreign substances and pathogens
which prevents them from penetrating into deeper body tissues.
 Ultraviolet radiation: Melanocytes produce melanin which offers protection.
 Thermal damage: contains heat/cold pain receptors.
 Dessication(drying out): contains waterproofing keratin.
The Muscular System
Major Functions:
- manipulation of the environment
- locomotion
- facial expression
- posture
- produces heat
Muscle Types:




-
Skeletal: attached to bones or skin, long and cylindrical cell shape, voluntary and
involuntary muscle movement
(Everywhere along skeleton);
Deltoid- back of the shoulder
Biceps- Upper arm
Triceps- Upper arm
Hamstrings- Back of thigh

Cardiac: only found in the walls of the heart, cells are in chains, involuntary
muscle movement (regulated by pacemaker)
Heart



Smooth: organ walls, single cells, involuntary muscle movement
Stomach
Urinary bladder
Respiratory
Molly Snapp
Vivian Bethea
9.13.10
NERVOUS SYSTEM


The body’s control system
Contains the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory perceptors
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM



Brain helps to control all body systems and organs
Allows us to think, feel, remember, and imagine
Communicates with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and the nerves


Spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that is protected by the backbone
Receives messages from the brain and sends them to the nerves
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Neurons carry messages in the form of electric impulses
AS A WHOLE

Three overlapping functions:
o Monitors changes that occur inside and outside the body
o Interprets sensory input and makes decisions
o Affects the response by activating muscles and glands
The Reproductive System
 Main function is to produce offspring.
 In order for system to fulfill its function, the organs from both organisms must
work properly in order to allow the male sperm cell to make it to the female egg
cell.
 Organs differ between males and females.
The Male Reproduction System

Purpose: To produce male hormones and to produce, maintain, and eject sperm.

Main Organs:
Prostate Glad - neutralizes vaginal acids
Bulb urethral glands - neutralize urine in urethra
Penis - Deposits semen and releases urine.
Accessory glands - Nourish and energize the sperm
Testicles - create and store sperm cells, and produces male sex hormones.
The Female Reproduction System
 Purpose: to create eggs and to nourish, grow, and protect the developing
embryo; and to nurse the newborn after birth.
 Main Organs:
Uterus (or womb) - Host the fetus until time of birth, produces vaginal and uterine
secretions, and passes the sperm into the fallopian tubes.
Ovaries – produce the female’s egg cells/ ova and secrete hormones. About 400,000 eggs
are produced by the ovaries before birth.
Fallopian tubes (or Oviducts) – two tubes that transport ovum. When or if the sperm
meets and merges with the egg/ ovum, the egg become fertilized. The zygote is then
transported to the uterus where it grows.
Vagina – Leads to the uterus and where the male sperm enters the female.
Cervix – lower portion of the uterus that joins with the top end of the vagina.
Mammary glands – Found in the breasts of females. They produce milk that is fed to the
offspring.
The Urinary System
By: Aleshba, Mariel, and Sana
Urinary system- a system of the body that disposes the nitrogen-containing waste from
the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.
-regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood
-also called the excretory system
Kidneys:
- The kidneys are bean-shaped organs
about the size of your fists.
- The kidneys remove urea from the
blood through tiny filtering units.
Ureters:
-From the kidneys, urine travels down
two thin tubes called ureters to the
bladder.
-The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches
long.
Small amounts of urine are emptied into
the bladder from the ureters about every
10 to 15 seconds.
Bladder:
- Sores urine until you are ready to go to the bathroom to empty it.
- It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty.
- The bladder is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a balloon.
- It sits in your pelvis and is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs
and the pelvic bones.
- If the urinary system is healthy, the bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of
urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours.
Urethra:
-The tube that allows urine to pass outside the body.
-When you feel you need to urinate, the brain signals your bladder muscles to relax
causing urine to exit the body through the urethra.
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yoururinary/#1
Puja Parmar
Audrey Cheng
Samantha Stull
9-10-10
Pd. 6 Anatomy
Respiratory System
Function:
To keep the body’s blood supply constantly full of oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide.
The respiratory system also contributes to the keeping the acid base balance of the blood
stable.
Major organs:
Conducting Passageways: allow air into the lungs and also purify, humidify, and warm
the incoming air

In the Nasal passages, the air enters the nose and is warmed as it flows through
the mucosa lined nasal cavity which rests on blood rich connective tissues into the
pharynx

The Pharynx is a 5 inch muscular passage commonly referred to as the throat is
the passageway for food and air. It deposits the air into the larynx

The Larynx is the voice box which is formed by 8 rigid cartilages and the
epiglottis. The largest cartilage forms the Adams apple. The Larynx passes air to
the lower respiratory passages.

The Trachea is lined with ciliated mucosa. The cilia beat continuously against the
incoming air and propel the mucus, which is loaded with particles/debris, away
from lungs.

The Bronchi are formed by the division of the trachea. The right bronchus is
larger in diameter and is straighter than left so more things get stuck in it. The
bronchi connect to lungs.
The Lungs are the main organ of the respiratory system, occupying most of thoracic
cavity. They contain alveoli (terminal air sacs) which conduct the major gas exchange of
oxygen to carbon dioxide through the blood.
Caitlin Phillips
Karthik Krishnan
Kate Kamischke
Anatomy & Physiology – Period 1
08 September 2010
The Immune/Lymphatic System
Major Functions:



To protect the body from pathogens
To return leaked fluid from the blood
and returns it into the blood stream
Absorbs fat from the digestive tract and
transports to the circulatory system
Major Organs:




Lymph nodes and the Lymphatic Vessels
(vein-like tubes that connect them):
Hold and transport a fluid known as
lymph, which contains the excess fluids
and debris in the body
Spleen: Cleanses blood and removes all
bacteria/dead blood cells
Thymus Gland: Matures White Blood
Cells
Bone Marrow: Produces White Blood
Cells
Definitions:
Lymph Nodes – A group of lymphatic tissue
Pathogens – Disease-causing microorganism such as bacteria or viruses
White Blood Cells - Antibodies that help protect the body from foreign infections
Antibodies – White Blood Cells produced in the Bone Marrow
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The Urinary System