AP Biology test 1 essay rubric- 10 points x 2
6 points maximum for parts (a) and (b)
Maximum of 4 points for any polymer
Cellulose
Macromolecule: carbohydrate
Glucose polymer/ polysaccharide
Beta- glucose form
Special Beta-glycosidic linkages (1-4)
Straight, unbranched molecule (rigid)
Water-insoluble
Often bond in parallel bundles=
Microfibrils (fibers)
Starch
Macromolecule: carbohydrate
Glucose polymer
Alpha- glucose form
Special alpha glycosidic limkages (1-4)
Helix shape/ branched
Water- soluble
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Plant cell wall component
Digestible for some microbes
Indigestible for others (fiber)
Shape/firmness/stability
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Fuel storage in plants
Digestible by most organisms
Broken down to maltose in seed germ.
Triglyceride
Macromolecule: lipid
Glycerol backbone with three lipid
“tails”
Ester linkage between –COOH and -OH
Neutral fat- lack polar groups
Tails can be saturated or unsaturated
Phospholipid
Macromolecule: lipid
Glycerol backbone with two lipid “tails”
and phosphate group
Hydrophobic tail, hydrophilic head
Tails can be saturated or unsaturated
Self assembles into bilayers
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Fat storage in animals
Can cause arterioschlerosis in humans
High energy molecule/stored energy
Feet in penguins and reindeer
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Important part of cell membranes
Used to form barriers
Disaccharide
Macromolecule: carbohydrate
Composed of two monosaccarides
Glycosidic linkage (1-4)
Water- soluble
Example- sucrose from glucose and
fructose
Oligosaccharide
Macromolecule: carbohydrate
Composed of several (5-10)
monosaccarides
Glycosidic linkage (1-4)
Water- soluble
Used as energy source in living things
Used as markers in cell membrane
Used to communicate cell differentiation
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AP Biology test 1 essay rubric