Study Guide Answer Sheet
Vocabulary:
 Archaeology – the study of past people and cultures.
 Technology – the skills and tools use to meet their basic needs
 Artifact – objects made by human beings. Ex: tools, weapons, jewelry,
clothing.
 Nomad – moving from place to place as they followed game animals and
ripening fruit.
 Domesticate – taming animals.
 Civilization – a complex, highly organized social order.
 Polytheistic – the belief in more than one god.
 Artisans – skilled craftworker.
 City-state – a political unit that included a city and its surroundings
lands and villages.
 Silt – soil.
 Cataract – waterfall.
 Delta – a triangular of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth
of some rivers.
 Dynasty – a ruling family
 Pharaoh – Egyptian rulers who organized a strong, centralized state.
 Vizier – chief minister.
 Mummification – the preservation of the dead.
 Hieroglyphics – Egyptian picture writing used to keep important
records
 Ideograms – pictures that symbolized an idea or action.
 Papyrus – a plant that grows along the bank of the Nile.
 Decipher - decode
 Hierarchy – a system of ranks.
 Ziggurat – a pyramid-temple that soared toward the heavens.
 Cuneiform – earliest known form of writing involved using a reed pen.
 Criminal Law – branch of laws deals with offenses against others such as
robbery, assault, or murder.
 Civil Law – branch of law deals with private rights and matters.
Nine Themes of History: Define the 9 themes of World History: (you will
the need the definition as well as to be able to interpret scenarios using
the themes)
 Political and Social Systems - Kings and queens, presidents and
dictators, elected congress – each society has a way to govern itself. A
government tries to keep order within a society and protect it from
outside threats. Societies have important institutions including the most
basic – family. Social classes rank people based on wealth, ancestry,
occupation or education.
 Economics and Technology - are usually linked in that as technology has
improved over the years the economy has changed. Certain aspects of
the economy have caused trading networks, wars, and contributed to
the rise or decline of nations.
 Religion and Value Systems - How was the world created? How can we
tell right from wrong? What happens to us after death? Example of value
system: respect for parents, equality, and justice.
 Continuity and Change - change is something that is taking place among
all societies. For example: the shifting role of women. Continuity is the
enduring of traditions. For example: the political system today is
affected by standards set 3000 years ago.
 Geography - influences the work people do, the clothes they wear, the
food they eat, and how they travel. Example: Nile River in Egypt was
used to transport goods and people.
 Global Interaction - There are many ways people interact: trade,
migration, foreign policy, war, and transportation.
 Impact of the Individual - People have such an impact on events that we
remember them long after they die. Example: Martin Luther King Jr.
fought for equality between white and black Americans during the
1960s.
 Diversity - the term generally means “different.” Throughout the world,
there are many types of diversity: language, government, social class,
culture.
 Art and Literature - people create art and literature to reflect their lives
and values. Examples: Temples, Buildings, Cave paintings, and portraits.
8 Features of Civilization: Be sure to provide some examples for each
feature.
 Cities - emerged after farmer began cultivating lands along river valleys
and producing a surplus of food
 Public Works - People working for the benefit of the people, irrigation
systems, roads, bridges, and defense walls.
 Job Specialization - Urban people developed so many new crafts that a
single person could no longer master all the skills leading to artisans
 Art and Architecture - expressed beliefs and values of people who
created them
 Strong Central Government - forms of government arose to oversee
irrigation, and maintain large food supplies. Priests initially had the
greatest power, eventually taken by warrior kings.
 Complex Religion - most people were polytheistic – belief in more than
one god.
 Writing - early writings made of pictographs or simple drawings, as
writing grew more complex only specialized people (scribes) could
write
 Social Classes - people were ranked according to their jobs, priests and
nobles usually occupied the top level, a small class of wealthy
merchants, artisans, bottom was peasant farmers (vast majority of
people)
Paleolithic and Neolithic
Explain the difference between the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras? – the
Paleolithic was known as the Old Stone Age. People were nomadic tribesmen
migrating from one place to another. Paleolithic people hunted and gathered
foods for their tribes. Neolithic era is known as the New Stone Age and
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution. The Neolithic period introduced the method
of farming and people settled in permanent villages instead of migration.
Both gender roles provided roles in prehistoric society. Were both
gender roles similar during both Paleolithic and Neolithic? Why or Why
not? – No. During the Paleolithic period, both men and women hunted and/or
gathered foods for their tribe(s). In the Neolithic period, Men dominated all
roles in society relating to political, economic, and social matters. Women
were considered as housewives: cleaning, cooking and taking care of children.
How did the new technologies improved society during the Neolithic
era? – Farming was the biggest technology during the time period. Because of
farming, pre-historic people could: IN ORDER TO FARM PRODUCTIVELY PEOPLE
HAD TO INVENT NEW TECHNOLOGIES
o HAD TO FIGURE OUT WAYS TO PROTECT CROPS AND MEASURE OUT
ENOUGH SEED FOR THE NEXT YEAR’S HARVEST
o HAD TO BE ABLE TO MEASURE TIME ACCURATELY TO DETERMNE THE
APPROPRIATE TIME TO PLANT – GRADUALLY THEY CREATED THE FIRST
CALENDERS
o LEARNED HOW TO USE ANIMALS TO PLOW THE FIELDS
o ABOUT 5,000 YEARS AGO THE ADVANCEMENTS MADE BY EARLING
FARMING COMMUNITIES LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OR EMERGENCE OF
CIVILIZATIONS
Ice Man
Approximately how many years ago did the Ice Man lived?
The Ice Man lived about 5,000 years ago
Based on the artifacts discovered near the Ice Man, how would you
describe the day-to-day life in pre-historic society?
Life in pre-historic society is described as a society when people hunted or
gathered for food in order to survive. People lived in cold regions, due to the
cape fragment. Sometimes people migrated from one place to another to
search for a better dwelling or more food. Due to the copper axe, people in
pre-historic society developed better technology for their society.
Develop three possible theories on the Ice Man’s occupation in prehistoric society?
Possible Occupations:
1. Hunter/Gatherer
2. Migrate herder
3. Shaman
4. Chief Leader
5. Warrior
6. Explorer
Ancient Egypt and Sumer
Based on the chart on Ancient Egypt and Sumer, choose three topics and
compare and contrast the two civilizations.
Examples for each:
Government:
Religion:
Economy
Egypt
Pharaoh
Supernatural Gods
Foreign Conquest
Geography
Nile River
Social Classes
Accomplishments
Ruling Family (Upper)
Pyramids
Sumer
City-States
Human-like Gods
Trade brought
riches to cities
Tigris and
Euphrates
Slaves (Lower)
Cuneiform
Describe Ancient Egyptian “belief of the afterlife.”
The Egyptians were polytheistic, belief in many gods and goddesses. Such
gods and goddesses include: Amon-Re, Osiris, Isis, Horus. The Egyptians
believed in an afterlife. The pharaoh, besides being a political leader, was a
descendant to the gods. The Egyptians believed they have to pass a test in
order to get into the afterlife. Osiris, the god of the underworld, would
determine the fate by measuring a heart and feather of truth. Egyptians would
preserve the bodies to protect from evil spirits, mummification. The mummies
would be placed into tombs with their personal belongings to bring into the
afterlife.
Explain the significance of Lower and Upper Egypt.
Lower Egypt is located in the North, where the Nile empties out towards the
Mediterranean Sea. It is below sea level, where the soil becomes fertile and
farmers can be able to grow crops. Upper Egypt is located South of Egypt that
stretches towards the first cataracts. The region is above sea level, which the
land is all mountains and desert and less permanent villages; hard to grow
crops.
Know the leaders, accomplishments and decline of the Old, Middle, and
New Kingdom.
Old
Middle
New
Leadership:
Pharaohs
Vizier
Accomplishments Pyramids
Pharaohs
Ramses II
Hatshepsut
Irrigation systems
Military tech.
Decline
Cost of Pyramids
Power struggle
Crop failure
Hyksos were kicked
out of Egypt, led
towards New
Kingdom
First peace
treaty
First female
pharaoh
Invaders
Power struggle
How did the Sumerians try to survive the dangerous floods from the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers? Support your answer.
Both the Tigris and Euphrates rivers would flow instantly wiping out crops
and destroying mud-brick villages. In order to survive, Sumerian villages had
to work together, leadership was included to prevent floods from destroying
villages, and people constructed dikes to prevent floods from destroying their
villages and crops.
How did Hammurabi keep society within order? Based on the Code of
Hammurabi: provide an example for civil and criminal law.
Due to the harsh and cruel laws of Hammurabi’s code, the laws ensures that
the government enforces the laws and people must follow in order to
maintain order, otherwise a society without laws will go chaotic. Example of
Civil Law: if a person knocks out a tooth of his equal, he shall knock his own
tooth. Criminal law: If somebody kidnaps a child, he shall be put to death.