Level 3 Writing: Grammar focus – Logical connectors for examples Look at these body paragraphs from an essay about the reasons for and against moving to big cities. Underline the phrases used to introduce examples: On one hand, there are several important reasons why people should move to live in cities. The most important one is that the opportunities for work and promotion are much better than in the countryside. For example, all major companies are based in big cities, so people who want to get a highlevel job in a big company need to live in a city. Another reason is that cities have more facilities for people to use, such as good hospitals and schools. As a result, many families live in major cities because they need good healthcare and education for their children. On the other hand, there are many reasons why moving to the city is not a good idea. The main one is that the environment is often not clean. As so many people live so close together, there is usually more pollution in big cities than in small towns. For instance, many big cities have problems with noise and air pollution from traffic. Hence, cities can be unhealthy places to live. In addition, crime is a serious problem in most major cities. This is because criminals have many more places to hide in large cities than in small towns. Consequently, cities can be dangerous places for the people who live there. Grammar – Linkers to show example – For example, / For instance, / …, such as For example, for instance, and such as all have the same meaning. They all introduce examples. However, the way that we use them in sentences is different. Look at the following example sentences. Identify and label the subjects and verbs. 1. For example, all major companies are based in big cities. 2. For instance, many big cities have problems with noise and air pollution. 3. Cities have more facilities for people to use, such as good hospitals and schools. Use the examples above to complete the grammar rules in the box. 1. Which two linkers go before a subject and verb (a clause)? for example / for instance / such as 2. Which one is followed by a noun (or a list of nouns) with no verb? for example / for instance / such as 3. Use a comma after ________________ or ________________ but before ___________. Practice 1 Write For example / such as in the sentences below. Add commas where you need them. a) In cities there can be more sources of pollution __________________ factories and traffic. b) _________________________ accommodation is often more expensive in cities. c) _________________________ there are company head offices and large government departments. d) Cities offer different types of accommodation _________________________ apartments and townhouses. Level 3 Writing: Grammar focus – Logical connectors for examples Practice 2 Use your own ideas to complete the sentences below with nouns or clauses, add the appropriate punctuation ( , or .), and correct capital letters . The first two have been done as examples. Example: Obesity is harmful to people’s health. For example, it can cause diabetes or heart disease. Obesity can cause serious diseases, such as diabetes or heart disease. a) There are some educational television programs such as ____________________________________. b) Driving in the desert can be dangerous for instance _______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. c) At university, students can get help with their studies for example ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. d) There are many things we can do to save water such as _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. e) There are many things we can do to save water for instance ________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. One more thing – items in a list. When we use such as, it often sounds good to give more than one example. A list of three things can sound nice. Compare the following. Which gives you a more complete understanding? 1. He enjoys active sports, such as football. 2. He enjoys active sports, such as football, rugby, and tennis. If you do this, or any time that you write a list, use a comma to separate the items of the list, except for the last one. Show it is last by using and. This is the same if the list items are phrases instead of words. She has time for many things in the afternoon, such as visiting friends, doing homework, and making dinner. Practice Complete the following sentence with a 3 item list, using commas and and. There are many problems with big cities, such as ________________________________________________. Answers Clause,+ such as + Noun phrase For example, + Clause a) In cities there can be more sources of pollution, such as factories and traffic. b) For example, accommodation is often more expensive in cities. c) For example, there are company head offices and large government departments. d) Cities offer different types of accommodation, such as apartments and townhouses. a) Obesity can cause serious diseases, such as diabetes or heart disease. b) There are some educational television programs, such as nature documentaries. c) Driving in the desert can be dangerous. For instance, people can easily get lost and die of thirst. d) At university, students can get help with their studies. For example, there is a Writing Centre where students can meet tutors to improve their writing. e) For their holidays, some people like to go to other countries, such as Thailand or Malaysia. f) There are many things we can do to save water, such as turning off the tap when we are brushing our teeth. g) There are many things we can do to save water. For instance, we can turn off the tap when we are brushing our teeth. Improve the following body paragraph from an essay on reasons for and against mobile phones by cutting out some words and putting in linkers for the examples. Use for example, for instance or such as: On the other hand, there are reasons why mobile phones are not a good thing. The main one is that they are very noisy in public places, such as restaurants or movie theatres. As a result, many people have been disturbed by a loud mobile phone. For example, a pop tune can be annoying when it is very loud and coming from someone’s mobile phone next to you. Because of this, movie theatres ask their customers to turn off their phones. In addition, some people use their mobiles too much and fail to focus on their work or studies. For instance, some students spend too much time texting their friends. When they do this, they have less time for their school work. Consequently, they may get bad grades in school.