Evolution
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1. Nikki and Jon were studying a type of bird called the Medium Ground Finch shown in the picture. These
birds live on one of the Galapagos Islands called Daphne Major shown in the map. Medium Ground
Finches have beaks adapted for eating small, soft seeds. Nikki and Jon learned that in 1977, a drought
reduced the amount of small, soft seeds. The drought left mostly large, tough seeds that most Medium
Ground Finches were unable to eat, and about 84% of the population died off. A year later the population
of Medium Ground Finches had an average beak size bigger than the average beak size of the population
before the drought. What caused the increase in the average beak size of the finch population after the
1977 drought?
a. Finches’ beaks grew bigger because of the lack of water.
b. Finches with small beaks were able to grow bigger beaks.
c. Finches with bigger beaks were unable to leave the island.
d. Finches with bigger beaks were able to survive and reproduce.
2. A mutation in an allele in an individual newt gave that newt faster reflexes. It is found that, after many
generations, most of the newt population has the new allele. Which of the following most likely caused
this change?
a. The newt gave its mutated allele to other adult newts.
b. Other newts learned to copy the strategies of the mutated newt.
c. The same mutation occurred in other newts as a result of environmental conditions.
d. Newts with the mutation are better able to survive and reproduce than newts without the mutation.
3. About 70 years ago, cane toads were introduced to Australia. The toads are toxic to some species of
snakes, such as Dendrelaphis punctulatus. The longer an individual snake is, the greater its chance of
survival after eating a cane toad. Which of the following did scientists most likely observe in the D.
punctulatus snake population as a result of the presence of the cane toads?
a. The entire population was killed by the toads.
b. The entire population became resistant to the toads.
c. The average body length in the population increased.
d. The average body length in the population decreased.
4. Antibiotic resistance can vary within a population of bacteria. The diagram below represents the changes
in a population of bacteria as a result of exposure to an antibiotic over time.
The changes in the population are most likely the result of which of the following?
a. exponential growth
c. immigration
b. genetic crosses
d. natural selection
5. In humans, the appendix is small and is not needed for digestion. In rabbits, the appendix is well
developed and is used in the digestion of plant fibers. Which of the following provides the best scientific
explanation for the presence of the appendix in both humans and rabbits?
a. Rabbits and humans live in environments with similar conditions.
b. Rabbits and humans are both eukaryotes with similar cell structures.
c. The appendix is evolving into a new type of organ in rabbits and humans.
d. The appendix is inherited from a common ancestor of rabbits and humans.
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6. Four students researched the classifications of the following eight whales:
•
killer whale, Orcinus orca
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gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus
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humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
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pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata
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fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus
•
minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata
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North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis
•
bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus
Spines and thorns on plants look similar, and both provide protection from herbivores. However, not all
plants with spines or thorns have descended from a recent common ancestor. Spines are modified
leaves, and thorns are modified stems. Which of the following statements best describes how this
information provides evidence for evolution?
a. It shows that different organisms sometimes look alike.
b. It shows that herbivores are the strongest selection force on organisms.
c. It shows that a variety of structures can be effective in protecting an organism from herbivores.
d. It shows that environmental pressures can cause unrelated organisms to change in similar ways.
7. The table below provides information about nutrition and cellular structure for organisms in different
kingdoms.
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8.
____
9.
____ 10.
____ 11.
What information best completes the table?
a. autotrophic, no, unicellular
c. heterotrophic, no, unicellular
b. autotrophic, yes, multicellular
d. heterotrophic, yes, multicellular
The fossil record supports which of the following descriptions of the evolution of life on Earth?
a. Life first appeared with the diversity found today.
b. The importance of natural selection diminished over time.
c. Complex organisms evolved from more simple organisms.
d. Large organisms appeared before single-celled organisms.
The Asian shore crab invaded parts of the eastern coast of the United States about 15 years ago. The Asian
shore crab preys on blue mussels. In the time since the Asian shore crab arrived, the average shell
thickness has increased in the blue mussel population. Which of the following is the most likely reason
that this increase in shell thickness has occurred?
a. Blue mussels with thick shells attract more crabs than mussels without thick shells.
b. Blue mussels with thick shells grow in larger colonies than mussels without thick shells.
c. Blue mussels with thick shells catch more food per day than mussels without thick shells.
d. Blue mussels with thick shells survive and reproduce more successfully than mussels without thick shells.
Which of the following statements gives the most likely explanation for the presence of two very similar
species of squirrels living on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon?
a. One squirrel traveled across the canyon and started a new population on the other side.
b. One squirrel traveled across the canyon and interbred with a different population on the other side.
c. Members of a single squirrel species were geographically separated by the formation of the canyon.
d. Members of two different squirrel species migrated from two different places to opposite sides of canyon
Danaus plexippus and Danaus gilippus are two species of butterflies. Which of the following statements
best explains why scientists classify them as two different species?
a. Only one of the species migrates in winter.
b. Only one of the species is found in North America.
c. The two species are not eaten by the same predators.
d. The two species cannot produce fertile offspring with each other.
____ 12. There are about 136 species of fireflies. Each species produces a different pattern of flashing light. Which
____ 13.
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____ 18.
of the following statements best explains how the different light signals help maintain separate firefly
species?
a. The light signals are flashed only during mating season.
b. A male responds only to the light signals of females of his own species.
c. The light signals change in pulse duration or frequency every few years.
d. A male uses his light signal to repel all other males of the same and other species.
Scientists believe that three species of lizards living on the Canary Islands descended from a common
ancestor. Similarities in which of the following would most strongly support the scientists’ theory?
a. body size
c. population sizes
b. main diet
d. amino acid sequences
Scientists have discovered a new type of organism. To assign the organism to a domain and kingdom,
which of the following is most important for scientists to know?
a. the organism’s cell structure
c. the organism’s social behavior
b. the organism’s population size
d. the organism’s reproductive rate
In the seven major taxonomic categories, what appears between order and genus?
a. class
c. species
b. family
d. phylum
The presence of vertebrae is found in which kingdom?
a. Plantae
c. Archaea
b. Protista
d. Animalia
People once believed that insects could spontaneously appear in a container with food. Which was the
most likely reason that this belief was revised?
a. People saw fish appear from mud.
b. Microscopes and other tools were invented.
c. More people saw the insects appear in the containers.
d. New observations were made when an experiment was conducted.
The nonpoisonous eastern scarlet snake has colored bands that closely resemble the poisonous coral
snake. This selective adaptation provides the eastern scarlet snake with —
a. a method of avoiding predation
c. increased feeding opportunities
b. increased breeding opportunities
d. the ability to attract prey
____ 19.
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 20. The table below shows several periods in Earth’s history.
Event
Estimated Time of Occurrence
earliest evidence of life
3.5 billion years ago
Paleozoic era begins
545.0 million years ago
first land plants
400.0 million years ago
Triassic period begins
248.0 million years ago
Mesozoic era begins
245.0 million years ago
first mammals and dinosaurs
225.0 million years ago
Jurassic period begins
208.0 million years ago
first birds
150.0 million years ago
Cretaceous period begins
144.0 million years ago
dinosaurs become extinct
65.0 million years ago
Cenozoic era begins
65.0 million years ago
primates appear
60.0 million years ago
humans appear
200.0 thousand years ago
At what point did a catastrophic environmental change most likely take place across the planet?
a. 65 million years ago
c. 225 million years ago
b. 144 million years ago
d. 400 million years ago
____ 21. A student came to class wanting to know if material from outer space was responsible for putting
organisms on Earth. The teacher explained that this was not a scientific question because
a. it was not true.
c. it was the best explanation.
b. it could not be tested.
d. it had already been proven to be wrong.
____ 22. When referring to any taxonomically classified organism, scientists use only those categories that
differentiate an organism from any other, such as Ursus horribilis (grizzly bear). Thus, scientists refer to
an organism by its
a. order and family.
c. species and order.
b. family and genus.
d. genus and species.
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a.
b.
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c.
d.
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b.
c.
d.
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c.
b.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
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____ 27. Two plant species found in a dry region of the western United States exhibit vastly different abilities to
survive. Species A has very slow stem growth and few leaves but is very abundant. Species B has rapid
stem growth and many leaves but is very rare. Which hypothesis is most likely supported by this
information?
a. Reduced root growth may give species A an advantage over species B.
b. Flower size and color may give species B an advantage over species A.
c. Leaf shape may give species B an advantage over species A.
d. Reduced stem growth may give species A an advantage over species B.
____ 28. Tall land plants have requirements different from those of aquatic plants. Which of these must the tall land
plants have that aquatic plants do not need?
a. A means of reproduction
c. Photosynthetic abilities
b. Thick-celled walls
d. Organelles for respiration
____ 29. These feet belong to different birds. Three of the birds spend most of their time on the ground, while one
bird rarely walks on the ground. Which foot belongs to the bird that is best adapted for grasping branches?
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 30.
A flower with this shape would use what type of pollinator?
a. Rain
c. Hummingbird
b. Wind
d. Mammal
____ 31. The nonpoisonous eastern scarlet snake has colored bands that closely resemble the poisonous coral
snake. This selective adaptation provides the eastern scarlet snake with —
a. a method of avoiding predation
c. increased feeding opportunities
b. increased breeding opportunities
d. the ability to attract prey
____ 32.
All the organisms shown above belong to the Phylum Chordata. The structural similarity in the organisms
suggests that —
a. the humerus is the same size in all chordates
b. only animals that walk on 4 legs need the humerus
c. chordates have common ancestors
d. the humerus is attached to the skeleton by immovable joints
____ 33. Which of these is capable of moving quickly in response to its environment?
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 34. Which of the following statements describes the process of natural selection?
a. Farmers select animals with desirable variations for breeding.
b. New species are formed via genetic engineering.
c. Individuals survive that have inherited traits adapted to their environment.
d. Populations sharing the same gene pool interbreed and create new species.
____ 35.
a.
b.
c.
d.
This animal is herbivorous.
This animal spends much of its time digging.
This animal has poor hearing.
This animal usually hunts for food at night.
____ 36. The island of Aldabra lies 400 kilometers off the coast of Africa and is home to the Aldabra Rail, a
long-legged wetland bird. The Aldabra Rail is flightless and much different from the rails living on the
mainland. This bird became a distinctly different species through —
a. geographic isolation
c. adaptive radiation
b. behavioral isolation
d. convergence
____ 37. During a trip to a rain forest, a scientist discovered a new organism living near some rotting logs. The
scientist observed that the organism had moist skin, no hair, and an internal skeleton and that it laid its
eggs under the logs. This organism was probably a new species of —
a. reptile
c. amphibian
b. mammal
d. Invertebrate
____ 38. Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Many years ago, streptomycin easily
controlled the bacterium. Now streptomycin is much less effective against the resistant M. tuberculosis.
The increasing resistance of
M. tuberculosis to streptomycin is most likely due to the increased —
a. use of streptomycin for bacterial infections
b. early detection of bacterial infections
c. artificial production of streptomycin
d. numbers of alternatives to streptomycin
____ 39.
a. The thickness of its bill
b. The shape of its feet
c. The crest of feathers on its head
d. The color of its wings
____ 40.
a. Dytiscidae
b. Haliplidae
c. Noteridae
d. Gyrnidae
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a.
b.
c.
d.
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b.
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a. tropical desert
b. arctic tundra
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a.
b.
c.
d.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
c. shallow marine
d. deciduous forest
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b.
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b.
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b.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
Which statement is supported by the phylogenetic tree shown?
species V is still alive today and is the oldest species
species W is still developing from a prior species
species X, Y and Z became extinct 20 million years ago
species W first came into existence 15 million years ago
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c.
b.
d.
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b.
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b.
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a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
____ 73.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Frogs are more closely related to monkeys than to sea anemones.
Frogs, monkeys, and sea anemones are classified into different kingdoms.
Sea anemones are more complex than frogs or monkeys.
Sea anemones and monkeys are adapted to similar environments.
____ 74.
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 75. The Chinquapin, a tree native to northwest Arkansas, was plentiful until it was devastated by a fungal
disease carried by the Asian chestnut tree. To restore the Chinquapin to its former numbers and maintain
biodiversity, scientists should try to
a. remove all Asian chestnut trees from Arkansas.
b. plant many Chinquapin trees near Asian chestnut trees.
c. develop a vaccine for the fungal disease which harms the Chinquapin.
d. breed the surviving Chinquapin trees that demonstrated resistance to the disease.
____ 76. A student observed different types of plants and recorded the data shown. Based on the drawings and
information in the chart, these plants are most likely
a. gymnosperms
b. angiosperm
c. mosses
d. ferns
____ 77. When a group of foxes moves to a new environment, a change in which of the following is least likely to
be a selective pressure on the foxes?
a. Temperatures
c. Decomposers
b. Food sources
d. Predator populations
____ 78. According to this fossil record chart, trilobites probably lived in what ancient environment?
a. Shallow seas
b. Mountaintops
c. Freshwater lakes
d. Terrestrial forests
____ 79. An early biological theory stated that a change in a population can occur when organisms with favorable
variations for a particular environment survive and pass these variations on to the next generation. This
theory is better known as the Theory of —
a. Natural Selection
c. Variation and Adaptation
b. Punctuated Selection
d. Acquired Characteristics
____ 80. Which figure shows an organism with radial symmetry?
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 81. Which is part of the process of radioactive dating for determining the age of fossils?
a. using the carbon 14 isotope
b. studying stratified bands of rocks
c. observing the biozones of different species
d. studying the different types of inclusions found in rock formations
____ 82. What is one evolutionary advantage angiosperms have over gymnosperms?
a. less genetic variation
c. greater protection of seeds
b. more nonvascular tissue
d. decreased need to photosynthesize
____ 83. Which organisms can live in extreme conditions, such as hot springs that have high concentrations of acid
or salt?
a. Fungi
c. Archaea
b. Protista
d. Bacteria
____ 84. To which kingdom does one type of common bread mold belong if it has cell walls, membrane-bound
organelles, and obtains its energy from decomposing bread?
a. Fungi
c. Archaea
b. Plantae
d. Animalia
____ 85. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by different types of evidence. The diagrams below show
the skeletons of two different animal species.
How does comparing the skeletons of these animals provide support for the scientific theory of
evolution?
a. It provides information about the organisms’ habitats.
b. It shows possible common ancestry between organisms.
c. It provides information to determine the organisms’ ages.
d. It shows possible chromosomal similarities between organisms.
____ 86. Organisms classified as fungi have unique characteristics. Which of the following characteristics is found
only in organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi?
a. single cells without a nucleus
b. multicellular with chloroplasts
c. multicellular filaments that absorb nutrients
d. colonies of single, photosynthetic cells that reproduce asexually
____ 87. Over time, the climate of an island became drier , which resulted in changes to the populations of various
island f inch species. Finch populations with a certain beak shape thrived, while those not having that beak
shape decreased. Which of the following describes a necessary condition for these changes in the f inch
populations to occur?
a. fewer mutations
c. limited beak variations
b. limited food resources
d. overproduction of offspring
____ 88. A variety of organic molecules have been found in meteorites that have landed on Earth, including
individual amino acids and lipid molecules. To date, however, no microspheres have been found on these
meteorites. Why is it unlikely that microspheres will ever be found on a meteorite even though lipids can
form in them?
a. Amino acids cannot form the enzymes needed to construct microspheres in a meteorite.
b. Any microspheres that formed would be destroyed by the radiation in space.
c. Groups of lipids will only form into microspheres when they are in liquid water.
d. Individual lipids can only begin to form microspheres when oxygen is present.
____ 89. How is the scientific theory of evolution supported by the comparison of the skulls and skeletons of
modern humans and extinct hominids?
a.
b.
c.
d.
By making the hip, spine, and skull comparisons, the age of different hominid specimens can be determined.
Comparison of skull and skeletons provides evidence that humans and different hominid species interacted.
Similarity in skull shapes, hands, and hips between extinct hominids and humans supports a common ancestry.
Skull and skeleton comparisons can explain why hominids were inferior and became extinct while humans
evolved.
____ 90. Due to human encroachment, the range of the Florida panther has been reduced to a very small area in
South Florida. Predict the long term effect of this isolation on the conditions required for natural selection.
a. It would boost the panthers' population by limiting their reproductive territory and would eventually decrease the
populations of their prey animals.
b. It would increase the panthers' ability to hunt successfully and would eventually lead to an increase in their
numbers.
c. It would limit the panthers' variety of food sources and they would all eventually become extinct due to starvation.
d. It would reduce the panthers' capacity for inherited variation and would leave them vulnerable to disease and
genetic abnormalities.
____ 91. Based on the illustration above, what do the similarities between human and chimpanzee hands and feet
suggest about the two different organisms?
a. Chimpanzees and humans both have hands and feet adapted for walking upright, showing they have identical
DNA.
b. Chimpanzees and humans both have similar hands for grasping, proving they make and use complex tools.
c. Humans and chimpanzees both developed five digits on their hands and feet, suggesting they have a common
ancestor.
d. Humans and chimpanzees both have thumbs, proving they eat similar foods like meat, nuts, and vegetation.
____ 92. The following table compares a human protein with the protein of other organisms. Each numbered
column is a different amino acid position in the protein. If an organism's amino acid is the same as the
human molecule, then a dash (---) is shown. Otherwise, an abbreviation for the organism's amino acid at
that location is given. Based on the information in the table, what conclusion can be made about the
relationship of humans to the other organisms?
1
2
3
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Human
Gly Asp Val Glu Lys Gly Lys Lys Ile Phe Ile Met Lys Cys Ser Gln Cys His Thr Val Glu Lys
Chicken
---
---
Ile
---
---
---
---
---
--- Val Gln
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
Dogfish
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
--- Val --- Val Gln
---
--- Ala ---
---
---
---
---
---
Asn
Fruit Fly
<<< ---
---
---
---
---
---
---
--- Leu
Val Gln Arg
Ala ---
---
---
---
---
---
Ala
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
--- Val Gln
---
--- Ala ---
---
---
---
---
---
---
Wheat
<<< --- Asn Pro Asp Ala --- Ala ---
---
--- Lys Thr
---
--- Ala ---
---
---
---
--- Asp Ala
Yeast
<<< ---
--- Ala Thr Leu --- Lys Thr Arg --- Glu Leu ---
---
---
---
Pig
a.
b.
c.
d.
Ser Ala Lys ---
---
---
Note: <<< Indicates a sequence of amino acids preceding the sequence shown here.
Humans and chickens cannot be traced to a common ancestor.
Humans and dogfish are the most closely related organisms.
Humans and pigs are related to a common ancestor.
Humans are not related to any of the other organisms.
---
---
____ 93. A group of well separated islands in the Pacific Ocean has a population of hibiscus plants that produce
either orange or white flowers. On one of the islands, most of the hibiscus plants were killed a few years
ago by a volcanic lava flow. Why is there a greater percentage of orange hibiscus plants on this island than
on the other islands?
a. Cross pollination across the islands without the lava flow caused the percentage of orange flowers to
dramatically change on these islands over time.
b. The hibiscus plants on the island that had the lava flow suffered from a higher mutation rate than plants on
other islands, causing a difference in the populations.
c. The limited population size after the lava flow resulted in a limited gene pool, causing genetic drift in
future generations of hibiscus plants on this island.
d. Orange flowering hibiscus plants were better adapted to survive lava flows, so white hibiscus were
naturally selected out of the population on the island.
____ 94. Suppose a family of black wolves migrates across a land bridge to a region supporting a large population
of gray wolves. A few generations later, the population consists entirely of wolves with black and gray
markings. Which of the following best describes the mechanism that caused this change in the population
of the wolves in the region?
a. Genetic mutations naturally occurred in the black and gray wolf populations, resulting in both groups
simultaneously developing black and gray coat markings.
b. The flow of black wolf genes across the land bridge added to the gray wolf population's gene pool,
increasing the frequency of the genes for black fur in the population.
c. The gray wolves selected other gray wolves over black wolves as mates, causing a limit to the gray wolf
gene pool that resulted in genetic drift.
d. The wolves with gray coats had to compete for resources with the successful black wolves, so they
adapted their coats to mimic the black wolves.
____ 95. In which of the domains would it be easiest to determine the phylogenetic relationships among organisms?
a. The Animalia are easiest because they are large enough that their morphological characteristics are clearly visible.
b. The Archaea are easiest because they are the most ancient and have the greatest amount of genetic variation among
them.
c. The Bacteria are easiest because they have the smallest amounts of DNA which can be sequenced quickly.
d. The Eukaryotes are easiest because they tend not to share genetic material with each other except when they are
reproducing sexually.
____ 96. In which of the following ways are the fungus like protists similar to the heterotrophic protists?
a. They both are commonly found living in dry environments.
b. They both can use photosynthesis if adequate sunlight is available.
c. They both have the ability to move around using flagella or cilia as adults.
d. They both need to gather food from their environment.
____ 97. Which of the following best describes a characteristic that distinguishes Fungi from other kingdoms?
a. Fungi are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually.
b. Fungi are eukaryotes with complex organ systems.
c. Fungi are multicellular and break down dead plant and animal matter.
d. Fungi have cell walls and specialized tissues.
____ 98. If a plant's leaves developed so that its vascular tissue only contained xylem, how would this affect the rest
of the plant's physiological processes?
a. Since most parts of the plant contain chloroplasts, the plant's cells would function as usual without a
need for glucose from the leaves.
b. The carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis would not be absorbed and transported to the leaf cells,
and photosynthesis would stop.
c. The glucose produced during photosynthesis in the leaf cells would not be able to reach the rest of the
plant, and the cellular respiration in the plant's other cells would not function.
d. The plant's ground tissues would still be able to transport the water and nutrients from the roots to the
rest of the plant, and so other processes like photosynthesis would continue as usual.
____ 99. Which of the following best describes the characteristics that differentiate animals from the
organisms of other kingdoms?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Animals have complex organ systems and reproduce sexually.
Animals have prokaryotic cells and are multicellular.
Animals have external digestion and are vertebrates.
Animals have rigid cell walls and specialized tissues.
____ 100. Look at the dichotomous key given below.
____ 101.
____ 102.
____ 103.
____ 104.
____ 105.
____ 106.
A tree with scale-like leaves are rounded, woddy cones greater than ½ inches in diameter would be
identified as which of the following?
a. Giant Sequoia
c. Juniper
b. Cypress
d. Red Cedar
Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have the capacity to
a. assemble into multicellular organisms
b. establish symbiotic relationships with other organisms
c. obtain energy from the Sun
d. store genetic information in the form of DNA
Members of which of the following phyla have the MOST species which are parasites of humans?
a. Porifera
c. Echinodermata
b. Mollusca
d. Platyhelminthes
A.I. Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane each suggested that Earth’s oceans once contained large amounts of
organic molecules that eventually gave rise to pre- cells. What is Oparin and Haldane’s idea historically
known as?
a. big bang theory
c. primordial soup model
b. cell theory
d. evolutionary model
A plant nursery only grew one type of tomato plant. All of their tomato plants died from the same disease.
What was most likely true of the tomato plant population?
a. They had a lot of resistance to disease.
b. They had a few plants that were resistant to the disease.
c. They had too much variation in their genes.
d. They had little variation in their genes.
A paleontologist is comparing the fossilized remains of two primates. Both animals had a prehensile tail.
What can be concluded from this evidence?
a. They were not related.
c. They evolved from a common ancestor.
b. They lived on the ground.
d. They had bipedal locomotion.
Which could be considered biochemical evidence of an evolutionary relationship?
a. absence of vestigial structures
c. similar anatomical structures
b. presence of embryonic gill slits
d. presence of identical protein
____ 107. How would the seeds in Figure 1 and Figure 2 be classified?
a. ferns
b. mosses
c. angiosperms
d. gymnosperms
____ 108. Which of the cells characterized in the chart below is a prokaryotic cell?
a. Cell A
b. Cell B
c. Cell C
d. Cell D
____ 109. Thousands of years ago, giraffes with short necks were common within giraffe popula- tions. Nearly all
giraffe populations today have long necks. This difference is due to
a. giraffes stretching their necks to keep their heads out of the reach of predators
b. giraffes stretching their necks so they could reach food higher in the trees
c. a mutation in genetic material controlling neck size occurring in some skin cells of a
giraffe
d. a mutation in the genetic material controlling neck size occurring in the reproductive
cells of a giraffe
____ 110. Rainfall in a tropical region is below aver- age for 10 consecutive years. Insect species adapted for dry
conditions are much more plentiful at the end of the 10 years. Which of the following statements explains
the in- crease in the population of the insects?
a. biodiversity in the region has increased due to the dry conditions
b. insects with a high tolerance for dry conditions have migrated out of the region
c. natural selection has favored insect species with a high tolerance for dry conditions
d. natural selection has selected against insect species that are adapted for dry conditions
____ 111.
What did the work of these scientists contribute to the study of biology?
it proved the theory of spontaneous generation
it supported hypotheses about the origin of life
it provided an alternative to the cell theory of life
it explained the method by which natural selection occurs
____ 112. The evolutionary pathways of seven living species are shown in the diagram below
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which two species are likely to have the most similar DNA base sequences
c. b and c
d. c and d
a. b and g
b. e and g
____ 113. Which statement provides the reason for the decrease in number of cases of bacterial pneumonia from
1940 to 1970?
a.
b.
c.
d.
the bacteria did not respond to medical treatments
antibiotics were made available for the treatment of bacterial infections
as a result of genetic engineering, humans became immune to the bacteria
as a result of sexual reproduction, the bacteria evolved into a harmless form
____ 114. Which statement explains a change in the incidence of disease in 1970?
a.
b.
c.
d.
new drugs cured diabetes
children were vaccinated against measles
the bacteria that cause pneumonia developed a resistance to drugs
new technology helped to reduce the incidence of all three diseases
____ 115. Which graph illustrates the expected change in the finch population if the environment changes to favor
small beaks?
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 116. According to the diagram, during the last 40 million years, the structure of the horse’s foot has —
a. lost its toes
b. become smaller
c. grown toes
d. remained the same size
____ 117. In examining a picture of a cell taken with an electron microscope, a student observes that the cell has a
____ 118.
____ 119.
____ 120.
____ 121.
____ 122.
____ 123.
nucleus and a cell membrane, but not a cell wall. The student can correctly conclude that the cell probably
comes from
a. a sea-weed
c. a fungus
b. a plant
d. an animal
Scientists believe that a dinosaur known as a hadrosaurus was a plant eater. Which of the following pieces
of evidence supports this conclusion?
a. fossilized plant remains are found with the fossils of the hadrosaurus
b. the regions where hadrosaurus fossils are found were heavily forested
c. the fossilized teeth of the hadrosaurus are flat like the teeth of modern herbivores
d. hadrosaurus fossils are found with fossils of other dinosaurs that were herbivores
Limited resources contribute to evolutionary change in animals by increasing
a. genetic variation within the population
b. competition between members of the species
c. the carrying capacity for the species
d. the rate of reproduction in the population
Which types of organisms developed first due to the early environmental conditions on Earth?
a. prokaryotic and aerobic
c. eukaryotic and aerobic
b. prokaryotic and anaerobic
d. eukaryotic and anaerobic
Which reproductive adaptation is more characteristic of mammals than amphibians?
a. external fertilization with internal development
b. internal fertilization with internal development
c. external fertilization with external development
d. internal fertilization with external development
A researcher sprays a new pesticide on thousands of insects of the same species that live in a large field. A
few of the insects survive. What can be concluded by the researcher?
a. The species of insects will likely become resistant to the pesticide.
b. The ideal interval between the first and second applications of the pesticide should be increased.
c. The pesticide has no effect on the species.
d. The concentration of the pesticide was too weak.
Which kingdoms have photosynthetic organisms?
a. fungi and plants
c. protists and plants
b. fungi and protists
d. plants and animals
____ 124. Which trait is best used to distinguish between Coleoptera and Hymenoptera?
a. Style of metamorphosis
b. Type of wing structures
c. Kind of mouthparts
d. Presence of an exoskeleton
____ 125. According to the theory of natural selection, a species that lacks the variations necessary to adapt to a
____ 126.
____ 127.
____ 128.
____ 129.
____ 130.
changing environment will most likely —
a. become dormant
c. become extinct
b. mutate
d. fossilize
In order for a species to survive, it must be able to —
a. consume a wide variety of food
c. maintain a constant body temperature
b. reproduce successfully
d. destroy competing species
Methanogens, thermophiles, and halophiles are some of the most primitive life-forms found on
Earth and thrive in very harsh environments. These unicellular, prokaryotic organisms most likely belong
to which of the following kingdoms?
a. Fungi
c. Protista
b. Eubacteria
d. Archaebacteria
One difference between reptiles and amphibians is that reptiles
a. can live on land.
c. lay eggs with shells.
b. are cold-blooded.
d. prey on other animals.
What type of mutation occurs when a nucleotide base is replaced with a chemically similar nucleotide
base and, therefore, there are no recognizable effects upon the organism?
a. neutral mutation
c. structural mutation
b. harmful mutation
d. beneficial mutation
Which statement best describes what happened after Darwin developed his theory of evolution?
a. It was made into a law.
b. It was automatically approved as fact.
c. It was reviewed by peers for verification.
d. t was voted on by scientists to be accepted or rejected.
____ 131. Based on the table below, which taxa do the human and armadillo have in common?
a. kingdom, order
b. order, family, genus
c. family, genus, species
d. kingdom, phylum, class
____ 132. Which skull represents an animal that is most distantly related to the other three?
a.
c.
b.
____ 133.
a.
b.
c.
d.
d.
____ 134. People long ago believed that maggots came from meat. In the late 1600s, Francesco Redi made the
hypothesis that maggots came from flies rather than from meat. Which of these experimental designs
could be used to test Redi’s hypothesis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 135. Which organism provides the best example of radial symmetry?
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 136. The scientific theory of evolution is supported by different types of evidence. The diagrams below show
the skeletons of two different animal species.
How does comparing the skeletons of these animals provide support for the scientific theory of
evolution?
a. It provides information about the organisms’ habitats.
b. It shows possible common ancestry between organisms.
c. It provides information to determine the organisms’ ages.
d. It shows possible chromosomal similarities between organisms
____ 137. Over time, the climate of an island became drier , which resulted in changes to the populations of various
island f inch species. Finch populations with a certain beak shape thrived, while those not having that beak
shape decreased. Which of the following describes a necessary condition for these changes in the finch
populations to occur?
a. fewer mutations
c. limited beak variations
b. limited food resources
d. overproduction of offspring
____ 138. Which of the following graphs represents evolution that would result from direction selection in favor of
beaks that allow finches to eat from tiny holes on the bark of a tree?
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 139. As represented in the diagram below, bacteria have cell walls like plant cells do.
Unlike the plant cell walls, however, the bacterial cell wall is made of which of the following?
c. sugars and amino acids
d. cellulose and sugars
____ 140. A population of salamanders that live in a river require clear, fresh water to survive. A flood causes tons of
sediment to be suspended in the river. Which of these most likely will happen to the salamander
population?
a. The salamanders will adapt to life on land.
b. The salamanders will move to another river.
c. The salamanders will adapt to living in the muddy water.
d. The salamanders will decrease in number because of the water quality.
a. cellulose and starches
b. chitin and fats
____ 141. The loss of habitat in a forest region has caused some plant species to become extinct, while others
survive. The process by which some plant species survive and others do not in a changing environment is
best explained by
a. natural selection
c. biological magnification
b. law of segregation
d. alternation of generations
____ 142. A local scientist has studied the population distribution of a species of snail that lives on the sandy beaches
of an island. The island experiences a volcanic eruption. The data from the scientist’s study of the snail
population is summarized below.
Percentage of
Black Snails
Percentage of Light
Brown Snails
prior to volcanic eruption
9%
91%
one year after eruption
84%
91%
16%
9%
Time
Reference
five years after eruption
ten years after eruption
75%
25%
fifteen years after eruption
51%
49%
Prior to the volcanic eruption, which of the following could explain why the percentage of black snails
was so much lower than the percentage of light brown snails?
a. The black color made them more likely to find food successfully.
b. The allele for black color is lethal in the homozygous condition.
c. The black snails were easier for predators to locate on the light-colored beach.
d. The light brown snails were better than the black snails at using all the available
resources.
____ 143. This chart represents characteristics of four different plants.
Which plant is most likely a gymnosperm?
c. Plant 3
d. Plant 4
____ 144. Scientists hypothesize that oxygen began to accumulate in Earth’s atmosphere after the appearance of
living things with the ability to –
a. breathe air
c. photosynthesize
b. form tissues
d. reproduce sexually
____ 145. The body of which of these organisms has the least specialized organization?
a. Sponge
c. Sea urchin
b. Jellyfish
d. Starfish
____ 146. Cleaner fish feed off the algae, fungi, and other microorganisms that are found on larger fish. Other
species of fish, which look like the cleaners, are able to approach the larger fish and remove large bites of
flesh. If the look-alike populations outnumber the cleaner fish, the —
a. behavior of large fish would change
b. cleaners and mimics would interbreed
c. microorganisms on large fish would decrease
d. cleaner populations would increase
a. Plant 1
b. Plant 2
____ 147. This is a dichotomous key for birds’ feet and a diagram of a bird’s foot.
1a
1b
2a
2b
3a
3b
4a
4b
5a
5b
Dichotomous Key for Birds’ Feet
two toes
four toes
two toes forward and two toes back
three toes forward and one toe back
toes webbed
toes not webbed
toes in curled position
toes flat go to 5
toes long and narrow
toes thick and feathered
Struthio camelus
go to 2
Dryocopus pileatus
go to 3
Anas platyrhynchos
go to 4
Vermivora chrysoptera
Ardea herodias
Lagopus mutus
What is the name of this bird?
a. Dryocopus pileatus
b. Vermivora chrysoptera
c. Ardea Herodias
d. Struthio camelus
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 148.
____ 149.
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 150.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
____ 151.
____ 152.
____ 153. Under a microscope, a series of cells are observed that lack membrane-bound internal organelles. Which
of these is the most likely cell type?
a. Plant cell
c. Eukaryotic cell
b. Animal cell
d. Prokaryotic cell
____ 154. A civic leader wishes to limit the amount of pollution that is carried along runoff into rivers and streams.
One plan that can help accomplish this is to limit the
a. use of fertilizers on farms.
b. use of nitrogen-fixing crops on farms.
c. amount of CO2 entering the atmosphere.
d. amount of CFCs entering the atmosphere.
____ 155. What question did both Lamarck and Darwin try to answer with their theories of evolution?
a. What is the role of DNA in the inheritance of traits?
b. What causes populations of organisms to change over time?
c. What are the patterns of heredity in sexually reproducing organisms?
d. What happens to beneficial traits when populations undergo natural selection?
____ 156. Based on the cladogram below, which statement must be true?
a. Species 1 and 2 cannot have traits in common with Species 3 and 4.
b. Species 3 and 4 are found in different ecosystems than Species 1 and 2.
c. Species 3 is more genetically similar to Species 4 than to the other species.
d. Species 1 has a less direct relationship to the common ancestor than the other species.
____ 157. Into which domain would one classify bacteria that live in hydrothermal vents?
a. Archaea
c. Eukarya
b. Bacteria
d. Extrema
____ 158. Organisms from which kingdom can cause amoebic dysentery?
a. Fungi
c. Protista
b. Plantae
d. Animalia
____ 159. Which group of vertebrates is warm-blooded?
a. fish
c. reptiles
b. birds
d. amphibians
____ 160. Which describes a change of alleles in a population over time?
a. relative frequency
c. incomplete dominance
b. biological evolution
d. independent assortment
____ 161. Which best illustrates the relationship between variations within a population and natural selection?
a. Natural selection acts upon a population since all members of the population are identical.
b. Organisms are able to change their genetic makeup to best adapt to a changing external environment.
c. Giraffes have long necks and legs from stretching to reach food in trees. This trait was then passed to
their offspring.
d. Antelopes with muscular legs are able to outrun their predators better than antelopes with poor muscle
tone. Thus they lived to reproduce.
____ 162. Use the diagram to answer the question.
The diagram shows the fossils in two different sections of rock found on opposite sides of a canyon.
Which layer in rock section one is approximately the same age as layer X in rock section two?
a. layer 1
c. layer 3
b. layer 2
d. layer 4
____ 163. The illustrations below show vestigial pelvic bones of a baleen whale and vestigial hind limb bones of an
extinct whale.
The presence of these bones in the baleen whale
and extinct whale provides evidence of
which of the following?
a. Whales can travel on land when necessary.
b. Whales evolved from four-legged animals.
c. Whales have functional legs that are hidden by
fat and skin.
d. Whales are developing into animals with four
functioning limbs.
____ 164. Some willow trees alter the chemical composition of their leaves when attacked by caterpillars. Compared
____ 165.
____ 166.
____ 167.
____ 168.
to normal leaves, the chemically altered leaves are less nutritious and are more difficult for caterpillars to
digest. Which of the following is a likely effect of this ability to alter leaf composition?
a. Willow trees with this ability will attract more caterpillars than other willow trees.
b. Willow trees with this ability will have a survival advantage over other willow trees.
c. More butterflies will lay their eggs on willow trees with this ability than on other willow trees.
d. Caterpillars that feed on willow trees with this ability will be larger than caterpillars on other willow trees.
The rock pipit and the water pipit are two types of birds found in the United Kingdom and other areas of
Europe. The rock pipit and the water pipit have similar appearances and their habitat ranges overlap.
Which of the following observations most likely caused scientists to classify the birds as separate species?
a. The rock pipit is not able to produce fertile offspring with the water pipit.
b. The rock pipit population in the United Kingdom is larger than the water pipit population.
c. The rock pipit eats insects, fish, and seeds, but the water pipit eats only insects and larvae.
d. The rock pipit remains in the United Kingdom year-round, but the water pipit only overwinters there.
There are at least 88 species of lemurs in existence today. Which of the following conditions most likely
existed and made it possible for Madagascar’s original lemur ancestors to evolve into many species on the
island?
a. presence of a deadly virus that infected only lemurs
b. complete isolation from other small mammal species
c. new niches to adapt to in the absence of a large number of competitors
d. climatic conditions that were very different from those on mainland Africa
In a population of moths, wing color became darker over time. Which of the following is the best evidence
that the change in wing color was an evolutionary change?
a. The size of the moth population changed.
b. The average length of the moths’ dark wings increased.
c. The number of eggs that females laid during each breeding season increased.
d. The frequencies of the alleles for dark wing color in the moth population changed.
The illustration below shows several wild canine species that descended from a common canine ancestor.
As a result of natural selection, canine biodiversity
increased as all of these species developed from a
common ancestor. Which of the following factors
contributed most to the evolution of these diverse
canine species?
a. differences
in c. inheritance of learned
environment
behaviors
b. selective
d.
breeding
interbreeding
with
programs
unrelated species
____ 169. The table below provides classification information for four different mammals.
____ 170.
____ 171.
____ 172.
____ 173.
Scientific Classification of Four Mammals
Classification Level
Mammal 1
Mammal 2
Mammal 3
Mammal 4
Order
Rodentia
Lagomorpha
Rodentia
Rodentia
Family
Castoridae
Leporidae
Sciuridae
Sciuridae
Genus
Castor
Sylvilagus
Sciurus
Sciurus
Species
canadensis
floridanus
niger
carolinensis
Which of these mammals are most closely related to each other?
a. 1 and 2
c. 2 and 4
b. 1 and 3
d. 3 and 4
Some scientists use molecular evidence to study evolution. One type of molecular evidence is the amino
acid sequence of particular proteins in various species. Which of the following best describes what the
study of these sequences reveals about the species?
a. The more similar the sequences are, the faster the species will coevolve.
b. The more similar the sequences are, the more closely related the species are.
c. The longer the sequences are, the earlier the species evolved in geologic history.
d. The longer the sequences are, the more adapted the species are to their
environments.
Which of the following is always a result of immigration into a population?
a. New individuals are added to the population.
b. Some individuals are forced to leave the population.
c. The survival rate of the individuals in the population increases.
d. The genetic diversity among the individuals in the population decreases.
In many cases throughout geologic history, if mutations in the genetic material of existing species had not
occurred, new species would not have appeared. Which of the following conclusions about mutations in
the DNA sequence of a gene is most consistent with the statement?
a. Mutations are always rapidly occurring.
b. Mutations are always beneficial.
c. Mutations are the only way new species arise.
d. Mutations are an important mechanism for the evolution of new species.
The bone structures of a porpoise flipper and a bat wing are shown below.
Porpoise Flipper
Bat Wing
Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the structure of each limb?
a. The porpoise and bat share a common ancestor.
b. The porpoise and bat limbs are adapted primarily for grasping.
c. The porpoise and bat evolved relatively recently in geologic history.
d. The porpoise and bat limbs are designed to support the entire weight of the animal.
____ 174. The graph below represents the range of birth weights for offspring in a mammal population.
As is typical in many mammal populations, offspring with an average weight at birth have a higher
survival rate than offspring with a very low or very high birth weight. Based on this information, which of
the following graphs is the best prediction of what will happen to the range of birth weights in this
population over time?
a.
c.
b.
d.
____ 175. Organisms from which kingdom can cause amoebic dysentery?
a. Fungi
c. Protista
b. Plantae
d. Animalia
____ 176. Scientists recovered the body of a woolly mammoth from the frozen soil of Siberia. The DNA sequence of
the woolly mammoth was very similar to the DNA sequence of the African elephant. Which of the
following conclusions is best supported by this information?
a. African elephants evolved directly from woolly mammoths.
b. The woolly mammoth and the African elephant have a common ancestor.
c. Woolly mammoths had the same number of chromosomes as African elephants.
d. The woolly mammoth and the African elephant should be classified as the same
species.
____ 177. Two populations of fruit flies both belong to the genus Drosophila. The fruit flies are able to successfully
mate within their own populations, but males from one population are unable to mate and produce
offspring with females from the other population. Based on this information, which of the following
statements could describe the fruit flies in the two populations?
a. They are classified as different orders. c. They are classified as different species.
b. They are classified in different classes. d. They are classified in different
kingdoms.
____ 178. Odontomachus bauri is a species of ant that has a trap jaw that shuts rapidly. This jaw system evolved
from basic mouth parts that all ants have, but the jaw is longer, the joint is a different shape, and the
muscles are larger. Which of the following statements best explains why this trap-jaw trait evolved?
a. The trap jaw increases the ants’ body mass.
b. The trap jaw allows the ants to eat only one kind of food.
c. The trap jaw is the ants’ only means of species recognition.
d. The trap jaw increases the ants’ chances of survival and reproduction.
____ 179
____ 180.
____ 181.
____ 182.
____ 183.
The diagram shows the ages of some fossils embedded in layers of rock. The fossils in layer F are most
likely which age?
a. 25 thousand years old
c. 61 million years old
b. 950 thousand years old
d. 125 million years old
Which of the following is the best scientific evidence that mammals evolved from reptiles?
a. similarities in the diets of extinct reptiles and modern mammals
b. similarities in the average lifespans of modern reptiles and modern mammals
c. fossils of ancient reptiles and mammals that appear together in the same layers of
rock
d. fossils that show gradual changes in skull shape from reptile-like organisms to
mammal-like organisms
Which of the following statements best explains why the chestnut-sided warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica,
and the cerulean warbler, Dendroica cerulea, are classified as closely related species?
a. They eat the same types of insects.
b. They have similar DNA sequences.
c. They show similarities in their nesting behaviors.
d. They live in the same types of woodland habitats.
The scientific name for the cougar is Puma concolor. Which of the following organisms is most closely
related to the cougar?
a. Corythaixoides concolor
c. Panthera tigris
b. Lynx rufus
d. Puma yagouaroundi
Two groups of very similar-looking finches are found on the Galápagos Islands. One group of finches is
found only on Floreana Island. The other group of finches is found on several of the islands, including
Floreana Island. On Floreana Island, these two groups of finches do not interbreed.Which of the following
conclusions is best supported by this information?
a. The two groups of finches have the same song.
b. The two groups of finches are different species.
c. The two groups of finches adapted to eat the same foods.
d. The two groups of finches descended from different ancestors.
____ 184. A scientist discovered a new organism in some caves in Pennsylvania. The organism has the following
____ 185.
____ 186.
____ 187.
____ 188.
____ 189.
____ 190.
____ 191.
____ 192.
characteristics:
• It is multicellular.
• Its cells lack cell walls.
• It is motile.
• It is heterotrophic.
Based on this information, to which kingdom does the organism belong?
a. Animalia
c. Fungi
b. Eubacteria
d. Plantae
The bones that make up the forelimbs of monkeys, cats, whales, and birds are similar. Which of the
following statements best supports the evolutionary relationship of these animals?
a. The animals have different ancestries but have adapted to similar environments.
b. The animals share a common ancestry but have adapted to different environments.
c. The animals at one time lived in different environments but now share an
environment.
d. The animals use their forelimbs for identical activities but live in different
environments
Which deals with the transmission of inherited traits from one generation to another?
a. anatomy
c. ecology
b. genetics
d. evolution
Which most likely causes competition to occur during natural selection?
a. There is a limited supply of food and habitat.
b. Organisms in a population are genetically diverse.
c. Fewer offspring are produced in a generation than can survive.
d. Population grows exponentially
Which would have the most influence on the change in the genetic traits of an animal population?
a. Stability in the population
c. animals leaving the population
b. random mating within the population d. Large population numbers
The scientific name of the gray wolf is Canis lupus, and the scientific name of the red wolf is Canis rufus.
What must be true about these animals?
a. They are classified in a different
c. They are classified as a different genus.
family.
b. They are classified as a different
d. They are the same species
species.
Which statement best describes natural selection?
a. Living organisms develop from other living things.
b. Acquired characteristics are inherited from parent to offspring.
c. Populations adapted to their environment overtime as fittest organisms pass traits to
offspring.
d. Organism adapt to their environment over the course of their life
Why is the classification system of organisms continually changing?
a. because scientists are finding new ways to compare organisms
b. Because all organisms are competing for the same resources
c. Because all organisms are close to becoming extinct
d. Because organisms evolve
The use of pesticides on crops has been a common farming practice for decades. What has been the
greatest effect of natural selection through the use of pesticides on certain insect populations?
a. Natural selection has been altered because the insects and their predators are killed.
b. The rate of selection is increased because the pesticides do not kill the insects that are naturally resistant to
it.
c. The rate of selection has decreased because the pesticides kill only young insects.
d. The pesticides have altered natural selection by causing the insect DNA to spontaneously mutate.
____ 193. This diagram shows a cladogram of six species based on amino acid similarities.
Common Ancestor
Which two species are the most closely related?
a. I and II
c. I and V
b. II and IV
d. V and VI
____ 194. Which will most likely cause variations to occur within a species?
a. competition
c. mutualism
b. mutation
d. predation
____ 195. In which populations does genetic drift most often occur?
a. in small populations
c. in marine populations
b. in large populations
d. in terrestrial populations
____ 196. The diagram below shows a phylogenetic tree for animals.
Which two groups of organisms have the most genetic differences?
a. rotifers and nematodes
c. mollusks and arthropods
b. mollusks and annelids
d. echinoderms and chordates
____ 197. Which of the following statements best explains why geographic isolation can lead to speciation?
a. Physical separation of populations reduces competition for each group.
b. Physical separation of populations prevents interbreeding and mixing of gene pools.
c. Physical separation of populations provides more space for each group’s size to increase.
d. Physical separation of populations stresses the organisms and causes mutations in their genetic code.
____ 198. Which of the following correctly describes the way animals get their nutrition?
a. They make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.
b. They eat other organisms, their parts, or products.
c. They decompose dead plant matter.
d. They make their own food through a process called cellular respiration.
____ 199. The diagram below illustrates the concept of gene flow.
What type of problem might be caused by gene flow from a crop plant engineered to be resistant to
herbicides?
a. Drug-resistant bacteria may evolve.
b. Genetically engineered plants may cause the evolution of weeds that are immune to
weed killing chemicals.
c. New species of poisonous insects may evolve.
d. Genetically engineered plants could not cause any type of environmental problem.
____ 200. Examine the physical characteristics of the birds shown below. Which of the birds is LEAST LIKELY to
survive by eating plants or animals that live in shallow water?
a. mallard duck
b. common snipe
c. red-tailed hawk
d. great blue heron
____ 201. The teeth shown in the drawings below are special teeth found in carnivores.
Look at the drawing of the molar. Carnivores use
this type of molar for slicing meat, and this type of
molar is not very good for grinding or crushing.
Herbivores, however, use their molars to grind
plant material. How might herbivore molars differ
from carnivore molars?
a. They would be larger and flatter.
b. They would be larger and sharper.
c. They would be smaller and flatter.
d. They would be smaller and sharper.
____ 202. Most adult amphibians live in water or in moist habitats. What characteristic of amphibians makes a wet
____ 203.
____ 204.
____ 205.
____ 206.
____ 207.
____ 208.
____ 209.
habitat necessary for their survival?
a. Amphibians are ectotherms.
b. Amphibians eat small invertebrates.
c. Adult amphibians can breathe through gills, lungs, or skin.
d. Amphibians eggs could easily dry out on land.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of an exoskeleton for an insect?
a. An exoskeleton supports an insect’s body.
b. An exoskeleton protects organs and other structures inside the insect’s body.
c. An exoskeleton allows an insect to bend parts of its body that do not have joints.
d. An exoskeleton holds moisture inside so that the insect can live on land without drying out.
The exoskeletons of arthropods provide a wonderful adaptation to life on land, and arthropods show a
wide range of specialization in food sources and in habitat. What do these two observations explain?
a. the aquatic nature of many arthropod species
b. the enormous evolutionary success of arthropods
c. the small number of arthropod species
d. the small size of many arthropod species
Kali’s science lab has a saltwater aquarium with different kinds of invertebrates and fish in it. She has
been investigating the structures that each creature uses for moving from place to place. Which of the
following structures would Kali NOT observe being used for moving from place to place?
a. a sea star’s tube feet
c. a lobster’s mandibles
b. a crab’s jointed legs
d. a crayfish’s swimmerets
What is the specialized structure that allows most fish to control their vertical position in water?
a. gill
c. cartilagenous fin
b. swim bladder
d. lateral line
What characteristic of amphibians makes a wet habitat necessary for their survival?
a. Amphibians are ectotherms.
b. Amphibians eat small invertebrates.
c. Adult amphibians can breathe through their gills, their lungs, or their skin.
d. Amphibians have thin skin that absorbs or loses water depending on their surroundings.
The Gila monster, a poisonous lizard, spends most of its life under rocks or burrowed in the ground.
Which hypothesis MOST LIKELY explains the Gila monster’s behavior?
a. The Gila monster has very few defenses and must hide from predators.
b. The Gila monster feeds exclusively on small insects that live in the ground or under rocks.
c. The Gila monster must hide underground or under rocks to ambush passing prey.
d. The Gila monster can only control its body temperature during hot desert days by seeking cooler places.
The type of teeth a mammal has tells a great deal about the kind of food it eats. A wolf is a carnivore with
sharp incisors and long canine teeth. It catches and eats other animals. A squirrel is a herbivore with
chisel-shaped incisors. Use this information to determine which skull above is MOST like a squirrel skull
and what foods a squirrel is MOST LIKELY to eat.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Squirrels have a skull like skull A and eat carcasses.
Squirrels have a skull like skull B and chew nuts and seeds.
Squirrels have a skull like skull A and must break open tough seeds and nuts.
Squirrels have a skull like skull B and chew grass.
____ 210. Examine the physical characteristics of the birds shown below. Which of the birds is MOST LIKELY to
survive by probing for plants or animals that live deep in the mud?
a. mallard duck
b. common snipe
c. red-tailed hawk
d. great blue heron
____ 211. Evidence exists that during the thousands of years in which the Grand Canyon formed, the canyon divided
a single population of squirrels into two populations. One of these squirrel populations now lives on the
North Rim of the canyon, and the other population lives on the South Rim. Which of the following factors
would make the evolution of the populations into separate species LESS likely?
a. Different predators live on the North and South rims of the canyon.
b. A few of the squirrels manage to cross the canyon and breed with squirrels on the other side.
c. Different trees grow on the North and South rims of the canyon because of changes in the water table.
d. A disease attacks one population of squirrels and kills most of them. The squirrels on the other side of the
canyon are not affected.
____ 212. The diagram below illustrates the concept of adaptive radiation.
Which of the following circumstances may result in this pattern?
a. the movement of a large number of individuals between populations
b. if parents are particularly selective of their mates
c. if a species enters a new environment that has relatively few other species
d. if a species enters a new environment where there is an abundance of competition
____ 213. The evolutionary model that suggests that evolution happens in sudden spurts due to drastic
environmental changes, such as ice ages, is known as
a. catastrophism.
c. gradualism.
b. punctuated equilibrium.
d. species drift.
____ 214. Darwin’s theory of natural selection was based partly on his observation that
a. DNA is the genetic material.
b. some organisms have more offspring than others do.
c. all eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.
d. garden pea plants can self-pollinate.
____ 215. What is the major source of new alleles in natural populations?
a. mutations in somatic cells
c. adaptations in individual organisms
b. mutations in sex cells
d. trait selection by natural selection
____ 216. At first, a mutation may make no difference to an individual. Even if the mutation results in a
nonfunctional protein, the body’s cell may have a functional copy of the gene as its second allele.
However, this new nonfunctioning version could be passed on as a recessive allele. This kind of mutation
is the probable origin of many recessive disorders. Only characteristics that are expressed can be targets of
natural selection. Therefore, natural selection CANNOT operate against recessive alleles, even if they are
unfavorable. What does this explain?
a. why natural selection can only act against heterozygous carriers of a recessive
disorder
b. why genetic disorders can persist in a population
c. why advantageous offspring are more likely to survive and reproduce
d. why recessive alleles are never expressed
____ 217. Carl Linnaeus was an 18th century biologist who set out to catalog all known species. To this end, he
devised a system that assigned a unique two-name scientific name to each known species. His naming
system, called binomial nomenclature, has been universally accepted. In trying to catalog every known
species, Linnaeus devised more than a naming system. He also devised a system to classify all plants and
animals known in his time. In the Linnean system of classification, organisms are grouped in successive
levels of hierarchy based on similarities in their form and structure. There are eight basic levels in the
modern Linnean system, although many new groups and some new levels have been added.
Which level of organization has the MOST individual species in it?
a. Level 1
c. Level 7
b. Level 3
d. Level 8
____ 218. Which of the following is the fundamental unit of biological classification?
a. an individual
c. a species
b. a population
d. a phylum
____ 219. Some large snakes, such as pythons, have small internal leg bones. These bones are examples of what?
a. extinction
c. polyploidy
b. fossil organs
d. vestigial structures
____ 220. Which of the following BEST summarizes the scientific theory of evolution?
a. an explanation of the origin of all species on Earth, along with fossil and genetic
evidence, that has been scientifically tested and supported
b. a guess about why there are so many different kinds of organisms living on Earth
today
c. an idea that scientists cannot come to an agreement about and argue about among
themselves
d. a logical explanation of the origin of all species on Earth that cannot be proved
because there are still missing links in the fossil record
____ 221. The drawings below illustrate a fungus, a plant, and an animal.
Which of the following is true of fungi, plants, and animals?
a. They are organisms that live only on land.
b. They are organisms that form mycorrhizae.
c. They are three successful kingdoms that evolved from protists.
d. They are three successful kingdoms that evolved from archaebacteria.
____ 222. During the Industrial Revolution, scientists in England noted that moths were changing in color from light
gray to dark gray as the trees on which they rested became soot covered. Which of Darwin’s key
observations does this transformation support?
a. Organisms tend to produce more offspring than can survive; thus, all populations must be limited by their
environment.
b. Individuals that carry advantageous traits will increase in a population over time.
c. Species are modified over time as different populations specialize in different types of food.
d. Inheritance plays a role in evolution.
____ 223. Which of the following do biologists NOT use to classify organisms?
a. homologous structures
c. appearance
b. derived characteristics
d. analogous structures
____ 224. A new animal was discovered in a remote area of Southeast Asia. The animal seems to resem- ble a
crocodile. Biologists want to classify the mystery animal and determine its evolutionary history. The first
step in this process is to analyze the characteristics in Figure 1. The second step is to use that information
to create a cladogram (Figure 2).
Where would a biologist place the mystery animal on the cladogram?
a. between the deer and the human
b. before the fish
c. between the fish and the deer
d. The mystery animal cannot be placed on this cladogram.
____ 225. In the current system of classification of organisms, kingdoms are identified by five charac- teristics: cell
type, the presence of cell walls, body type, genetics, and nutrition. Which of the following incorrectly
associates a currently recognized kingdom with the form(s) of nutrition used by the members of that
kingdom?
a. Eubacteria: autotroph or heterotroph
b. Archaebacteria: autotroph or heterotroph
c. Fungi: autotroph
d. Animalia: heterotroph
____ 226. A taxonomist discovers a new animal in a remote valley in Papua New Guinea. Using genetic testing, he is
able to classify the animal. Which of the following would result from this classification?
a. a new species name for the animal
b. the complete genetic code for the animal
c. a characterization of the animal’s ecological niche
d. an understanding of the animal’s mating and foraging behaviors
____ 227. Which of the following were MOST LIKELY the first multicellular organisms to invade land?
a. arthropods and primitive algae
c. mosses
b. plants and fungi living symbiotically
d. amphibians and flowering plants
____ 228. While cutting through the side of a mountain to build a highway, workers expose several lay- ers of rock,
as shown in the sketch below. Fossils of whale bones, shark teeth, and sand dollars are found in the rocks
that form Layer 4. Fossils of rodents, toads, and lizards are found in Layer 2.
____ 229.
____ 230.
____ 231.
____ 232.
____ 233.
The observations above support which of the conclusions below?
a. When Layer 4 formed, the mountain was near a large lake.
b. When Layer 4 formed, whales, sharks, and sand dollars lived in the mountains.
c. When Layer 4 formed, the area where the fossils were found was covered by an
ocean.
d. When Layer 4 formed, whales, sharks, lizards, toads, and rodents were in the same
food web.
Which of the following statements correctly identifies the hypothesized progression of algae to modern
plants?
a. green algae—nonvascular plants—gymnosperms—vascular plants
b. green algae—gymnosperms—vascular plants—nonvascular plants
c. green algae—gymnosperms—vascular plants—nonvascular plants—angiosperms
d. green algae—nonvascular plants—vascular plants—gymnosperms—angiosperms
Which of the following is true of fungi?
a. They are never poisonous, and therefore all mushrooms can be eaten.
b. They do not impact the world around them because they are so small.
c. They are unsuitable for use as an alternative to gasoline.
d. They can grow within human tissue to cause infections.
Which of the following is an example of coevolution?
a. plants producing spines, thorns, or nettles to protect themselves against predators
b. birds leaving the nest where they were born
c. animals learning to graze for food
d. stomach enzymes operating optimally in acid environments
Which of the following is a prediction based on the theory of evolution?
a. Closely related species will show similarities in nucleotide sequences.
b. Even if species have changed over time, their genes should remain the same.
c. Members of the same species will have identical nucleotide sequences.
d. It is very unlikely for a species to change over time.
Where does strong evidence for evolution come from?
a. forensic biology
c. works of philosophy
b. phylogenetic trees
d. the fossil record
____ 234. The diagram below shows a sampling of Galápagos finches. These finches are similar to the ones that
Charles Darwin studied when he developed the theory of evolution.
____ 235.
____ 236.
____ 237.
____ 238.
____ 239.
____ 240.
____ 241.
____ 242.
____ 243.
____ 244.
The evolution of beak sizes in Galápagos finches is a response to which of the following? A. how finches
use their beaks
a. the types of seeds available
c. the nutritional content of the seeds
b. whether the populations interbreed
Fossil evidence shows that there have been periods on Earth when many species go extinct during a
relatively short time period. Describe what is observed in the aftermath of each of Earth’s great mass
extinctions.
a. the destruction of Earth’s ecosystems c. geological and weather changes
b. a burst of evolution
d. overpopulation of bacteria
Immigration to the United States in the 1800s from eastern Europe is an example of which type of force
for genetic change?
a. gene flow through interbreeding
c. increased chance of genetic mutation
b. increased birth rate
d. genetic equilibrium
A scientist discovered a previously unknown organism. The organism did not move, eat, or make its own
food. Based on these observations, the scientist concluded that the organism was which of the following?
a. an animal
c. a plant
b. a fungus
d. a protist
Which is a characteristic of amphibians that allowed them to thrive on land?
a. swim bladder to store oxygen when on land
b. radial symmetry to allow movement in all directions
c. scales to protect against drying out
d. thin skin to allow for oxygen uptake
Which of the following traits is uniquely human among all mammals?
a. opposable thumb
c. color vision
b. rotating shoulder
d. bipeda lism
What is the advantage to the sessile sea cucumber of having a larval stage that can swim?
a. Swimming larvae provide no particular advantage to the sea cucumber.
b. By swimming around, the larvae can find more mates and increase genetic variation
in the population.
c. The larvae can disperse to new areas, so the adults will have less competition for
resources.
d. Swimming larvae find more food and grow faster than sessile larvae.
Cyanobacteria changed the early Earth’s atmosphere by giving off which gas?
a. carbon dioxide
c. hydrogen
b. ammonia
d. oxygen
After a severe fire in a forest, biologists observed that new lodgepole pine seedlings began to sprout in the
burned areas. The lodgepole pinecones are sealed with a resin that requires great heat to break open and
release seeds. Which of the following is the BEST description of this adaptation?
a. Lodgepole pine seeds sprout easily.
b. Lodgepole pine will grow where other plants cannot.
c. Lodgepole pine is adapted to frequent forest fires.
d. Not all lodgepole pine seeds are contained in a cone.
A student is examining a single-celled photosynthetic protist that forms a double shell made from silica.
Which of the following does this organism have?
a. a lysosome
c. DNA not bound in a membrane
b. a chloroplast
d. a capsule surrounding its cell walls
A mutation may be passed along to human offspring if it happens in which of the following?
a. somatic cells
b. gametes
c. introns
d. protein chains
____ 245. To which of the following does convergent evolution lead?
a. shared homologous characters
c. shared analogous characters
b. infertile hybrid offspring
d. fertile cladistic offspring
____ 246. What unique characteristic of animals distinguishes them from the members of the other kingdoms?
a. Animals are capable of more complex and rapid movements than are members of the
other kingdoms.
b. Animals have cells with rigid cell walls.
c. Animals have organs but no tissues.
d. Animals include both aquatic and terrestrial species.
____ 247. Tuberculosis was one of the first diseases to be treated with antibiotics. Scientists have studied the bacteria
that cause tuberculosis and the way patients respond to treatment. Which of the following BEST describes
these findings?
a. The bacteria have become more sensitive to antibiotics due to evolution.
b. Patients are allergic to antibiotic treatment.
c. The bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics due to natural selection.
d. Patients frequently die from the antibiotic treatment.
____ 248. In 1859, Charles Darwin proposed that the environment exerts a strong influence over which individuals
survive to produce offspring. His theory of natural selection states that in any population, there will be
organisms that inherit certain characteristics that give them an advantage over their peers. If these
individuals can pass these traits on to their offspring, their offspring will enjoy the same advantages. As
the environment changes, new characteristics may become more advantageous. Individuals who adapt to
these new conditions will live lon- ger and produce more offspring. Eventually, the population will look
very different than it did originally. Which of the following adaptations would MOST LIKELY improve
the chances that the organism will survive?
a. stronger scent that makes a frog easier to find
b. weaker scent that makes a flower less attractive to bees
c. stronger leg muscles that allow a rabbit to jump away from danger
d. weaker leg muscles that allow a gazelle to run slower
____ 249. Which kingdom represents organisms that live in environments thought to be similar to those found when
Earth first formed?
a. Archaebacteria
c. Eubacteria
b. Fungi
d. Protista
____ 250. Which of the following organisms is a prokaryote?
a. Agaricus arvensis, horse mushroom
b. Rhizopus stolonifer, bread mold fungus
c. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker’s yeast
d. Thiopedia rosea, purple sulfur bacterium
Evolution
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
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D
D
C
D
A
D
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B
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D
A
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1
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179.
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181.
182.
183.
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191.
192.
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201.
202.
203.
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205.
206.
207.
208.
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210.
211.
212.
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216.
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221.
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225.
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C
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1
1
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226.
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233.
234.
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238.
239.
240.
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244.
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248.
249.
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A
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B
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1
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Evolution ____ 1. Nikki and Jon were studying a type of bird called