Discussion with Issaka Dan Dano, Program Manager: CARE Niger
Please provide a brief history of your CLTS programming (donors? Volume of
funding, number of years, standalone funding or integrated into wider programs?)
WASH activities are carried out under the Natural Resources Management Program,
Climate Change Adaptation and prevention of rural conflicts, which is the emanation
of the Multi-Year Strategic Plan CARE Niger. WASH component of the initiatives fall
into three sub-areas:
o The creation of a favorable environment: everything related to the
governance of water through the establishment and capacity building of
management structures and advocacy for a change in practice and policy.
o The right of access to water quality: creation and management of water
points for all, including for women and other vulnerable groups. Including
the right to hygiene and sanitation for communities
o Equal access for pastors to water resources and construction of water points,
especially the management mechanisms that ensure secure access of pastoral
communities to water and pasture.
The WASH achievements were made through the following projects:
o Global Water Initiative (GWI) (BUFFET Foundation, 2009-2012) for about $ 4
million (in addition to the integrated management of water resources, the
project worked on ATPC)
o Wells Peace I and II (EU and DANIDA Across CARE Denmark) (2006-2011
and 2011-2015) $ 3.4 million. This project worked on joint management of
water resources in pastoral areas. With the results of this project we
conducted a plea which resulted in the adoption by the Government of the
National Pastoral hydraulic Strategy in June 2014 (I forwarded the
documents yesterday on this project).
o Draft Water Sanitation and Ecological Fertilization (PEAFEC) (European
Union and DANIDA Care Across Denmark) $ 2.7 million. This project is
working on access to water through the construction of multi villages water
supply and ecological fertilization.
o We also had WASH actions through emergency activities.
CLTS has been implemented through the GWI project and conduct in the Tarka
Valley in the Tahoua region (south central Niger). It is in this same area comes in
PEAFEC project that also works on ecological fertilization. This is to transform
human excreta (urine and facies) fertilizer through the promotion of Ecosan
latrines. CLTS and ecological fertilization have had remarkable success in this area.
Did the CO seek or receive any external TA from CARE International members during
the conception or implementation of the program?
In preparation for the initiatives outlined above, CARE Niger received support from
CARE Denmark in the formulation, funding and implementation of these projects.
CARE France also supported the development and research of financing a WASH
initiative in the Tarka area, which unfortunately failed.
Have you made any innovations or adaptations to the traditional CLTS framework? If
so, what innovations/adaptations?
We utilized CLTS in the GWI project, according to the approach of animation-based
behavior change in combination with the construction of water points. Hand washing
and household waste management were considered.
Given the reality of pollution of the water table, which was contaminated by the heavy
use of chemical fertilizer by vegetable growers and human waste, the PEAFEC project
was implemented. We chose a productive sanitation approach through ecological
fertilization with the distribution of subsidized Ecosan latrine, which offer more
durability than traditional latrines.
What do you consider to be the successes of your CLTS approach? Challenges?
Major challenges:
- Reluctance in early handling of human excreta, including urine, in an
environment where culture and religion make it a very harmful waste.
- The short duration of traditional latrines (one year)
- The cost of Ecosan latrines is relatively high for the poorest
Success:
- Acceptance of ecological fertilization throughout the area (productive
sanitation)
- The reduction of pollution of the water table in the concentration areas
o Experience has shown that the use of environmentally friendly fertilizer is
more efficient than chemical fertilizers (production of more speculation has
increased significantly: onion, Moringa Olifera, etc.)
- The adoption of a national government pastoral Water Strategy
CLTS is intended to end the practice of open defecation through encouraging
households to construct and use toilets. Did you find that ODF villages was an
outcome of your CLTS approach?
In CLTS villages, defecation in the open area was abandoned, but we have found in
some villages a few years after the GWI project, some households have abandoned
latrines because they degrade quickly (one year) to return to open defecation. However,
Ecosan latrines are more durable and at the same time provide fertilizer, they respond
better to the concern of sustainability posed by traditional latrines.
Did you follow a strictly non-subsidized approach, or did the project offer inputs
(materials, labor) to the community or poor HHs?
The GWI project used an unsubsidized approach, but with PEAFEC, given the cost
latrines and the innovative nature of Ecosan latrines, the project in addition to the
contributions of the beneficiaries (local materials, labor) provided a grant.
What were other outcomes of your approach (including non-WASH-related outcomes
[prompt: e.g. women’s empowerment)? Were those gains sustained over time?
The results are in general: the time savings for women who have water in the village
and no longer need to travel to neighboring villages (the projects have built wells
and mini drinking water supply); the preservation of dignity for women who no
longer go behind the village to defecate; risk reduction because they do not come
out at night to relieve themselves behind the village; there also disease reduction
related to water and sanitation for children.
However, in some CLTS villages GWI found abandonment of public health practices
and even traditional latrines after a few years (3 years).
What monitoring and evaluation of impact have you undertaken and how does your
program approach the challenge of sustaining ODF status over time? Are monitoring
systems in place to detect “slippage” back to open defecation?
The project set up village officers and safety committees that are responsible for
ensuring sustainability. Masons are trained and brought into contact with the villages
and are able to build latrines and standards at an affordable cost. The project worked
with local officials, for common ownership achievements and to ensure replication of
activities.
Do you perceive that CLTS implementation creates or contributes to inequities at the
community level?
CLTS contributes to reducing inequalities especially between men and women. The
animation process takes into account women, especially women heads of household.
The subsidy mechanisms allow the poorest households (usually households headed by
women) to access latrines.
Has the CO produced any materials related to CLTS (e.g. reports, case studies, job
aids, sanitation marketing materials, reflections around gender)?
There animation tools that were used. Currently teachers and researchers from the
University of Maradi are working to document the ecological fertilization process
(productive sanitation). The result of this work will be released in late April, 2015.
Advice for other COs looking to implement CLTS or adapted versions of CLTS?
In order to create sustainable interventions, it is important to emphasize
community empowerment and consider CLTS funded to improve the quality of
latrines.
It is also important to include activities in schools already to prepare children for
hygiene and sanitation activities.
The best solution for sustainability is to focus on the productive sanitation approach
in addition to hygiene; it provides interest to people around the availability of
organic crops.
Our outlook for the production of knowledge:
o We are currently working for a project owner of the water by communities in
pastoral areas, we plan to establish a process to capitalize on the success.
o We are also working on a new concept in pastoral areas experiencing water
and low-cost pumps to allow farmers to access water quality alongside
pastoral wells. The documentation of this process is part of an advocacy
approach to the Ministry of Water exchange paradigm for drinking water in
pastoral areas.
o Working with University of Maradi to fund the ecological fertilization process
(productive sanitation). The work must end in late April.
We are currently developing a new initiative that values acquired GWI PEAFEC
knowledge and projects in ecological fertilization and socio land situation of women
in the Tarka Valley.
For more information on CARE Niger’s programs, please contact Issaka Dan Dano, Program
Manager: CARE Niger : [email protected]
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Niger Discussion Guide