Prehistory
Before 4000 BC
Stone Age
 Migration from Africa to Southeast Asia
 Hunters/Gatherers/Fishermen
 Nomadic Tribes
 Stone Tools
 Discovery of Fire – migration to colder climates
 Agricultural Revolution –Seeds produce plants – stay in one place
 Domestication of Animals – pastoral people moved with their herds
 Food surpluses allow artisan class
 Artifacts – items left behind by humans
Ancient Civilization
4000 – 1000 BC
Mesopotamia River Valley
 Fertile Crescent – Tigris and Euphrates River
 Irrigation – moving water for farming / agriculture
 Warring City-States – ruled by monarchs before Empires evolved
 Sumerians – Assyrians – Babylonians – Phoenicians – Hebrews*
 Polytheistic – Idol Worship – Ziggurats – Priest meets with gods
 Epic of Gilgamesh – Sumerians (Flood Story)
 Hammurabi Code – laws written down for the first time
 Cuneiform - wedges and lines - Scribes
 Phoenician Alphabet – easier for people to learn to read and write
 Phoenicians – sailed the Mediterranean Sea selling goods (purple dye)
 *Judaism - Monotheistic – Abraham – Famine in Canaan – Travel to Egypt
 Moses – Exodus from Egypt – Ten Commandment – influence laws
Egypt River Valley
 Nile River – Upper and Lower Egypt – silt/farming – trade
 Desert – Provided protection from invasions
 Monarch – Dynasty - Pharaohs – Ramses II - Cleopatra
 Polytheistic – Many gods – Pyramids – Mummification – Afterlife
 Ra / Sun Osiris / underworld - Isis / protector & divine mother
 Alexandria – Largest library of scrolls (Classic Age)
 Hieroglyphs – developed to keep track of growing wealth
India River Valley
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Ganges/Indus Rivers – Himalaya Mt. (great barrier to the north)
Mixture of Aryan/Indian Culture created:
Hinduism – Reincarnation – Upanishads – after death soul is reborn
Caste System – social class same as parents
Mohenjo Daro – first city with clay drainage pipes under the street
Cotton / textiles – chess – zero – weights & measures – ocean tides
Siddhartha Gautama – prince/suffering - Buddhism
China River Valley
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Yellow River or Huang He River – Great Wall of China
Farming – steep slopes using terraces
Family is the most important unit (ancestor worship)
Dynasties – A new dynasty would begin when a strong ruler defeated local rulers –
large dynasties were difficult to govern (Mandate of Heaven)
Qin's terracotta army – first emperor of China
Confucius – Chinese philosopher – government posts - qualified
Buddhism – Reincarnation – Nirvana – spread to China by missionaries
Paper from trees (bamboo) invented during Han Dynasty
Mongol Invasions – Genghis Khan – Kublai Khan
China’s Riches – silk – Silk Road (land trade route) – bronze – pottery - tea
Classical Age
1000 BC – 500 AD
Greeks
 Independent City-States – separated by mountains and water
 Athens – first democracy
 Sparta – monarch (king)
 Trojan War – Epics The Iliad and The Odyssey by Homer
 Philosophers - Socrates – Plato – Aristotle
 Plato wrote The Republic – society ruled by philosopher kings
 Polytheistic – Greek gods – Zeus, Athena – Mt. Olympus
 Visited Oracles to ask advice of gods
 First Olympics to honor gods – 776 BC
 Appreciation for the arts, drama, architecture (columns) Parthenon
 Alexander the Great – conquered most of the known world to the East (Persian
Empire) and established many cities spreading Greek culture.
Romans
 Tiber River – Rome – located at the center of the Mediterranean Sea (Roman Lake)
 Romans created a Republic – citizens vote for their leaders
 Julius Caesar conquered Gaul – became dictator for life (absolute rule) – stabbed
 Caesar Augustus – first emperor – Pax Romana – period of Roman peace
 Roman army conquered new lands – allowed people to continue life and follow their
own religions
 Polytheistic – adapted Greek gods; later Christianity – Jesus - Crucified
 Cruel Emperors – Nero and Caligula – Persecute Christians
 Weak economy – money lost value – return to barter economy
 Diocletian splits into Eastern and Western Empire
 Emperor Constantine moves capital to Byzantium later renamed Constantinople
 Constantine stops persecution of Christians & became a Christian before his death
 Latin – basis for Romance Languages
 Architecture – concrete – domes – arches – aqueducts (carry water) – roads
 Coliseum – gladiators – slaves who fought to the death
Byzantine Empire
 Old Eastern Roman Empire
 Constantinople – Crossroads of Trade between Europe and Asia
 Justinian I updates Roman Laws – Justinian Code – basis for most modern European
countries
 Theodora influences Justinian to include laws for women
 Christianity splits – Great Schism of 1054
 Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Christian Church (Icons)
 Mosaics – pictures using small pieces of tile or stone
Christianity
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Founded by Jesus – first century
Jesus was a Jewish teacher said to be the Messiah and son of God
Jesus was crucified by the Roman government – said to have risen after 3 days
Followers believe the only way to know God is through faith in Jesus.
Bible – holy text – 39 books /Old Testament & 27/New Testament
Spread after Jesus death on Rome's advance road system
At first they were treated fairly by the Romans but later were persecuted – Nero
Constantine – Edit of Milan – religious tolerance - Christianity
Middle Ages
500 – 1500 AD
Middle Ages
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Europe – Holy Roman Empire - Charlemagne
Feudalism – Manor System – Land owned by king or church
Theocracy – government by church rulers
Serfs – unofficial slaves
Viking Invasions
Christianity accepted religion – Roman Catholic Church thrives – unified Europe
Pope – great political power
Islam spreads across Northern Africa – Charles Martel
Crusades – Christians prevented from entering Jerusalem by Muslim Turks
Interest in trade revived after Crusades
William the Conqueror – Battle of Hastings – 1066
Inquisitions – punished heretics (non-Christians or those who went against the
church)
King John and the Magna Carta – 1215 – restricted the king's power – England
Black Death – horrible disease – plague – killed 100 million Europeans - rats
Hundred Years’ War – Joan of Arc – freed France from England – burned at the stake
Renaissance
1300 – 1600 AD
Renaissance
 Begins in Italy – Spreads throughout Europe
 Rebirth in art, science, thought, and learning
 New interest in Classical Civilizations – Greek and Roman – called humanism
 Gutenberg – Printing Press – Gutenberg Bible
 Galileo – Telescope
 Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa – Last Supper
 Michelangelo – Sculptures of David and Moses – Sistine Chapel
 Nicolo Machiavelli – The Prince
 William Shakespeare – 37 plays
 Martin Luther – Protestant Reformation 1517 (follow the Bible not the pope)
 Catholic Church selling indulgences
 Henry VIII – (Tudors) English Reformation - Church of England
 Elizabeth I – King Phillip II – Spanish Armada
Exploration
1200 – 1600 AD
Exploration
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Marco Polo – Trade Routes to the East (India, Japan & China) – 1275 (paper money)
Genghis Khan – Mongols – Central Asia - 13th century – cultural diffusion – traded
Muslim Turks capture Constantinople and close land route in 1453 – monopoly
Prince Henry – Navigational School in Portugal – 1420
Vasco da Gama – Ocean Route to Asia around Africa – 1487 and 1497
Columbus – Reach Asia by sailing West – 1492 (four voyages)
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella - $$$ for Columbus – Spanish Inquisition
Amerigo Vespucci and Balboa – New Continent and Ocean – 1502 and 1513
Ferdinand Magellan – First to Circumnavigate the globe - 1519-1522
African Slave Trade – Portugal – West Africa
Civilizations of the Americas
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Polytheistic (many gods) - Beliefs based on Nature
Two sides of the ocean - unaware the other existed – Disease/Conquered by Europeans
Olmec – Central America – Mother Civilization – Stone faces
Maya – Central America – Stone Temples – step pyramids – calendar - astronomy
Aztec Empire – Central American Warriors – Human Sacrifice – Rich in Gold – conquered by Cortes
Inca Empire – Western South America, Andes Mtns. of Peru - Rich in Gold
Conquered by Pizarro – Machu Picchu believed to be a palace
Eastern Woodlands – Lands east of the Mississippi River – Forests/deer - Wigwams
The Plains – West of MS River and East of Rocky Mtns. – Buffalo/Tepee
Desert Southwest – Southwest U.S. – Adobes – Woven Cloth
Northwest Coast – Coastline from California to Alaska – Fishermen – Totem Poles
Inuit – Arctic regions – winter Igloos / summer tents – seals, caribou & polar bears
Time Periods
Prehistoric
Before 4000 BC
Middle Ages
500 – 1500 AD
Ancient Civilization
4000 – 1000 BC
Renaissance
1300 – 1600 AD
Classical Age
1000 BC – 500 AD
Exploration
1200 – 1600 AD
Components of Culture
Language
Common Values
Governments
- the way people
- what a person(s) believes to - leadership & structure
- make and enforce the rules of a
communicate verbally and in be important
society
writing
Traditions
- customs passed down
through generations
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beliefs
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religion
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rituals
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celebrations
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practices
Literature
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Novels
Poems
Epics
Written works
Art
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Painting
Sculpture
Dance
Music
Acting
Lifestyles
- how people live
their day-to- day life
Professions
Archaeologist
Anthropologist
- studies artifacts from - understands and
the past
compare cultures
Geologist
- studies the earth
Historian
- studies the past
Environment and Migration
How Environment Impacts Culture
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2.
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Fertile land – land good for growing plants (Fertile Crescent, river valleys)
Bodies of water – fishing, shipping, trading, travel, ports (Nile, Athens, Carthage)
Location & resources – dress, survival, tools, weapons, climates, occupations
Religion – landscape and weather influenced worship (Egypt, Native Americans)
Migration – when people move from one place to another.
Cultural Diffusion (caused by migration)
- occurs when parts of one culture spreads and becomes part of another culture.
1. Spread of Religion – migration & slavery
2. Empire Building – conquer & control
3. Exploration – interaction & trade
Cultural diffusion influences language
 exposure to new words – languages mix
Major Religions
Religion – set of teachings – beliefs about god or gods – creation of the universe –
morality – how to live – what happens after death
Hinduism
 Polytheistic
 Deities – Brahma (World Soul) – Shiva (Destroyer) – Ganesha (elephant head)
 Reincarnation (rebirth)
 Karma (good & bad depending on actions)
 Moksha (breaking the cycle of reincarnation)
 India – Asia – founded by Aryans
 Ganges River – holy river
 Caste system
Buddhism
 Not centered around a god
 Meditation - quest for inner enlightenment (understanding of truth)
 Siddhartha Gautama – Buddha - enlightened one – prince/teacher
 “Middle Way” - path to nirvana – rejected over indulgence & extreme self-denial
 Nirvana (enlightenment)
 Four Noble Truths
 India – China, Japan & East Asia
Shinto
 Polytheistic
 Japan
 All natural things have souls (people, animals, plants, rocks, water)
Judaism
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Monotheistic (one God) – first monotheistic religion
Abraham – founder – Left Ur – Famine in Canaan – Travel to Egypt
Moses – Exodus from Egypt – Ten Commandment – influenced laws – Mount Sinai
Torah (Laws of Moses) – first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible is called the Old Testament by Christians
Jews – followers of Judaism
Israel is God's Promised Land to his chosen people – 12 Tribes of Israel
Jerusalem – David's capital – Holy Temple – Wailing Wall
Diaspora – the scattering of Jews to other lands
Christianity
 Monotheistic (one God)
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Linked with Judaism – Abraham - Ten Commandment – Old Testament
Founded by Jesus – first century
Jesus was a Jewish teacher said to be the Messiah (Savior) and son of God
Jesus was crucified by the Roman government – said to have risen after 3 days
Christians believe Jesus died to pay for humankind's sins.
Followers believe the only way to know God is through faith in Jesus.
Bible – holy text – 39 books /Old Testament & 27/New Testament
Spread after Jesus death on Rome's advance road system
12 Apostles – traveled with Jesus – spread his teaching after his death
Disciples – teach & follow Jesus' teachings
At first they were treated fairly by the Romans but later were persecuted
Constantine and Justinian established Christianity as a major religion
Pope is the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Christianity spread through Europe
Crusades – wars to take back the Holy lands from the Muslims
Islam
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Monotheistic (Allah)
Muhammad – founder - 7th century
 Gabriel the Angel
 Claimed Abraham, Moses & Jesus were prophets
 Believed Jews & Christians misunderstood the prophets' teachings
 Converted most of Arabia to Islam
 Social justice and equality
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Believe they are descended from Abraham's son Ishmael
Mecca – Muhammad's birthplace
Muslims – followers of Islam
Qur'an – holy book
Five Pillars of Islam
The Shahada – recite creed about Allah
Prayer – 5 times a day facing Mecca
Fasting – during the month of Ramadan – no eating between sun rise & sun set
Alms for the poor – give to the poor
The Haj – pilgrimage to Mecca
Art – NO images of people or objects – used geometric patterns
Calligraphy - writing as art
Technology
Technology
 Any invention that serves to make a process easier, more effective or more
productive.
1. Irrigation – 5000 BC – moving water for farming – Mesopotamia / Egypt
2. Wheel – 3000 BC – Sumer – pottery wheel - transportation
3. Iron Tools - 1300 BC – better than bronze – weapons – Mesopotamia
4. Scythe – 500 BC – long curved blade for farming – improved agriculture
5. Magnetic Compass – 300 BC – China – traveling long distances
6. Printing Press – 1440 AD – Gutenberg – more books faster/ spread ideas
7. Microscope – 1590 AD – see small objects - discover the source of various diseases
8. Telescope – 1608 AD – study the universe – Earth goes around the sun
Writing
Cuneiform – Sumerians/Mesopotamia – wedge shapes – oldest writing – clay tablets
Hieroglyphics – pictographs – Egypt - papyrus paper – Rosetta Stone
Sanskrit – India – 600 symbols – we still cannot read this writing
Phoenician Alphabet – first alphabet (letters stand for sounds) influenced Greek
alphabet than Latin by the Romans
 Hebrew - writing of the Ancient Israelites – Hebrew Bible – Old Testament
 Other hieroglyphics / pictographs – Native American, Mayan, Chinese
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Literature
Epic - long narrative poem that tells a story.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Sumerian / Mesopotamia
King looks for the plant of
immortality after his best
friend Enkidu dies fighting a
bull that escaped from the
gods.
Iliad
By Homer – Greek
Story of the Trojan War, the
Greeks wanted Helen back,
who was stolen by Paris.
Mahabharata
India – Sanskrit – struggle for control of the
kingdom by 10 cousins, Krishna gives a speech
before the great battle at the end - Hinduism –
nobility, morality and mortality.
Odyssey
By Homer – Greek
Odysseus's (Ulysses in Roman)
journey home from the Trojan
War. He didn't thank the gods
so it takes him 10 years to
return home.
Ramayana
India - Sanskrit – Prince Rama fights to get his
wife back from the evil demon king with the
help of warrior monkeys. Teaches to be a good
father, wife, daughter, son and ruler. Hinduism
Economics
Economics
 study of how people use resources to produce and consume goods and services.
Good – a tangible product (real object)
 examples - food, clothing, books, furniture, buildings, plants, toys and cars
Service – intangible
 examples - medical care, education, entertainment and providing transportation
Supply
 how much of a good or service is available.
Producer
 those who produce the supply of a good or service.
Demand
 how much people want a good or service.
Consumer
 people who purchase a good or service (customer)
Needs
 required in order to survive
 examples – food, water, shelter, clothing, & medicine
Wants
 thing's people don't need but still desire.
 Examples – junk food, fancy shoes, toys, new car, mansion & lots of money
Profit
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amount of money a producer makes after sell a good or service and paying for the
cost to make the good.
Types of Economy
Subsistence economy
 people produce only what they need
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Nomadic societies, Africa, early Native Americans, early farmers
Barter economy
 trading goods and services without using money
 end of the Roman Empire, early ancient civilizations
Market economy
 competitive prices– supply and demand – profits - colonization
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early farmers who began growing extra food to sell, river valley civilizations
Feudal economy
 Europe – Middle Ages – working for the landlord
Trade Routes
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Better boat designs increased trade and shipping across the Indian & Atlantic Oceans and the
Mediterranean Sea
Silk Road
 Trade routes that connected Eastern, Central & Southwest Asia, North African and
parts of Europe
 Merchants influenced cultural diffusion, ideas spread along with goods.
 Silk was China's most important export.
Economics Impact on History Cause and Effect
Supply & demand – finding more resources - leads to Exploration.
Exploration results in European control of trade routes.
European control leads to colonization.
Europeans wanting power and wealth started colonies in Asia, Africa and America.
Resulting in slave trade.
Exploration
 exploring new lands for resources.
Colonization
 When people in one country claim land in a foreign land and establish their own
control over it.
Geography
Geography – the study of the earth.
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Climate
Different countries
Natural resources
Earth's resources
How people live
Maps – 2-D image of some portion of the earth.
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National - countries
Political – political boundaries, patterns or trends
Climate – weather conditions
Topographic – landscape, bodies of water, mountains, deserts
Population – people
Globes – 3-D model of the earth.
Geography - Parts of a Map
Compass rose
 Tells which direction on the map is north, south, east or west.
Map key (legend)
 Tells what the symbols on a map stand for.
Cardinal directions
 Directions – North is up, south is down, west is left and east is right.
Distance
 How far one place is from another.
Scale
 The amount of distance that a measurement represents on a map.
 Example; 1 inch = 100 miles.
Sphere
 Round like a ball.
Hemisphere
 Half a sphere
 Earth has 4 hemispheres; northern, southern, eastern and western
 You are always in 2 hemispheres; either in the northern or southern and either in the
western or eastern.
Equator
 Imaginary line that runs around the earth at its center.
 Divides the northern and southern hemispheres
Latitude
 Marks the location of a place north or south of the equator.
 Side to side lines
Prime Meridian
 Imaginary line that runs from pole to pole through England, Western Europe, Africa
and Antarctica.
 Divides the eastern and western hemispheres
Longitude
 Marks the location of a place east or west of the prime meridian.
 Up and down lines
Graphs
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Images that depict data (information) – bar – line – circle/pie
Physical Geography
1. Landforms
Continents – large area of land
Continents
Asia
Africa
South America
North America
Antarctica
Europe
Australia
Island
 Land surrounded by water on all sides.
Peninsula
 Land surrounded by water on three sides - Italy and Florida
Mountain Range
 Long chain of mountains – Himalayas, Andes, & Alps
Plateaus
 Elevated land with at least one steep side and a flat top.
Plains
 Massive grasslands, flat with few trees.
Coastal Plains
 Flat, low-lying areas that lie along the coastlines of oceans and sea.
Deserts
 Land with less than 10 inches of rain a year.
 Sahara in Africa & Arabian in Southwest Asia
2. Bodies
of Water
Oceans
 Largest bodies of water ¾ of earth surface.
 Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, & Arctic Ocean
Sea
 Body of salt water smaller than an ocean, Mediterranean, Arabian Sea
Bay
 Body of water connected to an ocean but is surrounded by land on 3 sides
Gulf
 Same as a bay but larger - Persian Gulf
Lake
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Body of water completely surrounded by land - the Dead Sea is a lake.
River
 Large stream of water that flows across land into a large body of water.
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Nile in Egypt, Amazon in South America, Huang He in China, Indus in Southern Asia,
Tigris and the Euphrates in Southwest Asia
Geography and Early Civilizations
1. Impact of Rivers & Coastlines
 First civilization along river valleys - fresh water – flooding - fertile farm land
 Nile - Egypt
 Tigris and Euphrates – Mesopotamia
 Indus – India
 Huang He – China
 Coastlines - trade, travel, exploration, and naval activities
 Greece
 Rome
1. Impact of Deserts & Mountains
 Mountains - limited growth & limited cultural diffusion – subsistence economy
 Deserts – nomadic communities always looking for food and water
1. Impact of Climate
 Mild climates were preferred, near the Mediterranean
Government and Civics
Roles of Government
Establishing and upholding laws – rule of law – structure – order – crime & punishment
 Managing conflicts – order & peaceful among citizens
 Meeting needs – food – medical – income – trade – natural disasters (flood, tornado)
 Territory and defense – set boundaries – protection – police – army
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Rise of Governments
Nomadic communities
Informal government – not very structured – small groups – chiefs – tribes
Farming communities
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leaders – small city-states – independent – villages – towns - Sumer
City states
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kings – large city & surrounding area – Babylon - Athens
States
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conquering city-states – market economy – kings – nations - Mesopotamia
Empires
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emperors – conquering states – capitals – leaders ruling regions – Rome
Types of Governments
Monarchy
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ruled by a king or queen – absolute (all-powerful) – constitutional (limited)
Democracy
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all citizens have a voice – direct (all vote) – indirect (vote for leaders) - Athens
Republic
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elected leaders select other leaders – constitution (set of laws) – Rome
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branches of government – checks and balances (not all-powerful)– term limits
Theocracy
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ruled by religion – early Israel (Jewish laws) – Islam – Pope
Dictatorship
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all-powerful ruler – rule by force – military leader – Julius Caesar
Feudalism
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monarch gives land to lords - lords own land – vassals work for the lords
Written Laws
Hammurabi’s Code – 1700BC – Mesopotamia – earliest written laws – criminal & civil
Justinian Code – Byzantine Empire – 530 AD – rewritten Roman laws – gave women
more rights – influenced Western laws – Emperor Justinian & Empress Theodora
Magna Carta – 1215 AD – limited king's power – King John - England
Roles of Citizens
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Citizens – live under a certain political system – democracy – republic
Subjects – live under an authoritative government - monarchy
Caste System - India – cannot change castes - Hinduism
City-State – Greece – loyal to the city – loyal to the city's king
Feudal System – Europe – lords owned land – vassals served lords
Class System
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upper class rich & powerful – middle class some wealth – lower class poor
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Social mobility – people can move up and down in this class system