+ Teenage Pregnancy and the Menstrual Cycle By Sachi Minami + What is reproduction? Reproduction is a the process where organisms make more organisms like themselves. Two types of sex cells/gametes is involved in the human reproduction process: sperms and egg cells or ovum. + What is sex? Differences between protected and unprotected sex Sex is when men and women becomes in a sexual relationship and have sexual intercourse. There are two types of sex: protected and unprotected sex. Protected sex is when you have sexual intercourse with someone with protection such as condoms. However, unprotected sex is when you have sexual intercourse with someone without protection. Possible process when you have unprotected sex is when men inserts their penis, which 2 is an organ that can send sperm cells into a women’s vagina where it eventually fertilizes with the egg cells. If you have unprotected sex, there is a huge possibility that you can get pregnant. + Male and Female Reproductive Systems Male Reproductive System Male reproductive system starts with two testicles/testes to produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells. Testicles produce sperm cells and hormones such as testosterone which is a major part of puberty in males. Once males goes through puberty, they produce even more sperm cells (makes millions of it everyday), starting to develop their deep voices, bigger muscles, and body and facial hair. Alongside of the testicles, there is a part call epididymis which is a set of coil tubes for each testicle that connects to Vas Deferens which is a muscular tube that passes upward and alongside the testicles and transports the sperm-containing fluid called semen. Then, they go to the prostate glans, which produces parts of semen that surrounds ejaculatory and ducts at the base of urethra, a channel that carries the seem to the outside of the body, through the penis below the bladder. Urine passes through the urethra as well and exits the body. Teenage Pregnancy and the Menstrual Cycle Female Reproductive System There are 5 different parts in the female reproductive system. One of them is ovaries. Ovaries are where it produce eggs and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. This connects to the fallopian tube where the ovary release their eggs. Uterus is a pear-shaped organ which can expand during pregnancy. On the bottom, there is a lower portion of uterus where it opens through the vagina called a cervix. Vagina is a tube-like organ which connects to the uterus where the baby passes through pregnancy and where sperm cells go through. An ovulation is a process where a tiny egg leaves one of the ovaries and travel down to the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. Before the ovulation, estrogen hormone stimulates the uterus to build up its lining with extra blood and tissue which makes walls thicker in the uterus in order to prepare for pregnancy. When the egg is fertilized: by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the wall of the uterus. Menstruation also known as period, is a major stage of puberty for girls, in other words, a sign that a girl is turning into a woman. Menstruation comes every 21-34 days and according to my experience, Menstruation takes less than 7 days. Period happens until a woman reaches menopause and no longer release any eggs from ovaries. On the other hand, menarche is the start of periods. Menstruation doesn’t happen until all the parts of the girl’s reproductive system get matured and work together. It starts between ages 8-13 or older. Hormones stimulates new physical development: for example, growth, growth in breasts, and emotions. However, menstruation can cause women to get cramps, premenstrual syndrome which is an emotional change where they can get depressed or angry, acne flare-up, etc. 3 + Teenage Pregnancy Figure 1: Top 28 of the rate of teenage pregnancy (%) Teenage pregnancy is common today: 15.8% is the average of teenage pregnancy around the world. There are some people who choses to have an abortion: 44 million abortions are done around the world each year. Abortion is where when you are pregnant, you kill the baby because you don't want to give birth. It can put an end to their pregnancies forever. Abortion can only happen if the child was still an undeveloped embryo or fetus. 4 These are the possible contraception: Contraception: possible things that can avoid pregnancy Blue Text: Male Contraception Hormone pills: pills that you can take in order to prevent ovulation. However, it is artificial so its not good for your body. Norplant Implant: when you implant a hormone chip under your skin which has an ability to give up hormones so it can make your body to think that you are not pregnant Condom: Condoms is for males where they cover their penis with rubber in order to prevent from insertion Red Text: Female Contraception Black Text: Both gender Contraception Contraceptive sponge: sponge you put out of your vagina so when you have sex, the semen would soak up into the sponge without getting into the female's body Diaphragm: cream you put into the outer of your vagina that turns into rubber: more like girl condoms Spermicidal foams, jellies, and creams: Another prevention from becoming pregnant for females which can kill sperms in your body. Rhythm: ovulation method for example if your menstrual date was 28 days in total, your ovulation is in about 14th day so in the 14th-28th day, you should not have sex at that time if you don’t want to be pregnant Withdrawal: male withdrawals his penis out of the vagina in order to prevent from getting pregnant No sex: if you don't want to be pregnant, you can just avoid sex 5 + Main TOPIC! Is it true that you can’t get pregnant if you have unprotected sex at specific times/days within your menstrual cycle? There is a myth that you can be able to prevent from getting pregnant although having unprotected sex at the same time. It depends at the specific time/day within your menstrual cycle. For example, when you have your period and have unprotected sex, you won’t get pregnant. Also, there is an ovulation method for example if your menstrual date was 28 days in total, your ovulation is in about 14th day so in the 14th-28th day, you should not have sex at that time if you don’t want to be pregnant. However, it is 100% never safe to have unprotected sex. Especially when you have sex during your period, it would be sanitary bad. There are some people who followed their ovulation date and eventually became pregnant. Every year in the US, there are about 750,000 teenagers who becomes pregnant although they didn’t plan to. Unprotected sex is never safe although you kept track on the dates and time because sperm cells can live for 48 hours in the body after sex. If you have a short period cycle, you will start ovulating by the end of the period. In addition, the day of ovulation is not predictable. It also has a possibility to get STDs with no protection. Lesson for today: If you don’t want to get pregnant, don’t have from the first place. 6 + References About birth control: what you need to know . (n.d.). Teens health from Nemours . Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/contraception/contraception.html All about Menstruation . (n.d.). Teens health from Nemours . Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/teen/ sexual_health/girls/menstruation.html# Boy logo [Technology]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-6435.html Calendar [Technology]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://dumais.us/newtown/blog/?tag=calendar Condom [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.rubbersbymail.com/condoms/durex_performax.html Diaphragm [Technology ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/japanese_health_contraception2/ %E3%83%9A%E3%83%83%E3%82%B5%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC_diaphragm__cervical_cap_ Dowshen, S., MD. (2010). Male reproductive system . Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/ changing_body/male_repro.html# Girl after sleeping with a guy [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.health.com/health/gallery/ 0,,20418342,00.html Girl logo [Technology]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.clker.com/clipart-6437.html Head, T. (n.d.). What is abortion? . In About.com . Retrieved from http://civilliberty.about.com/od/abortion/f/ what_abortion.htm Heart [Photography]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.heartratemonitorstoday.com/ Hormone pills [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.humangrowthhormonepills.net/ Ishihara, M. (2012 , May 11). Human reproduction system . Lecture presented at Canadian Academy. Norplant [Technology ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.birthcontrolimplant.org/norplant/ Pearce, C. (n.d.). Can you get pregnant before or after your period? In eHow:mom. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5471865_can-pregnant-before-after-period.html Sex [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://g8rk8.wordpress.com/2011/01/06/everything-you-ever-wanted-toknow-about-the-menstrual-cycle/ 7 + References [Spermicidal foam, cream, gel, film, suppository, sponge ] [Technology ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.birthcontrol-comparison.info/spermicide.htm Teenage birth rate (most recent) by country [Technology ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/ graph/peo_tee_bir_rat-people-teenage-birth-rate Teenage couple [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cutecouplez.tumblr.com/post/23852312079 Teenager pregnancy check [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://whatafy.com/teenage-pregnancy-and-itsimpact.html Teenager pregnant [Photography ]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://whatafy.com/teenage-pregnancy-and-itsimpact.html You can’t get pregnant if you have sex when you’re having your period. (n.d.). Get the facts . Retrieved from http://www.getthefacts.health.wa.gov.au/2/88/1/ you_cant_get_pregnant_if_you_have_sex_when_youre_h.pm THANK YOU FOR READING!