FINAL REPORT:
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria:
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Management Plan
Number: 11776
SPONSOR
Paisley Manor Pty Ltd
16 January 2012
EP Reference: 3115
CULTURAL HERITAGE ADVISORS:
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd
REPORT AUTHORS:
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd
HEAD OFFICE: MELBOURNE: 292 Mt Alexander Rd, Ascot ValeVIC 3032 GEELONG: PO Box 8048, Newtown VIC 3220
FINAL REPORT:
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria:
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Management Plan:
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Management Plan
Number: 11776
ACTIVITY SIZE:
Medium
ASSESSMENT:
Complex
SPONSOR:
Paisley Manor Pty Ltd
CULTURAL HERITAGE ADVISORS:
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
AUTHORS:
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
DATE:
16 January 20122010
HEAD OFFICE: MELBOURNE: 292 Mt Alexander Rd, Ascot ValeVIC 3032 GEELONG: PO Box 8048, Newtown VIC 3220
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Introduction
This complex Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) has been prepared for the
proposed residential development of land on the western side of Ash Road, Leopold, Victoria
(City of Greater Geelong) (Map 1, Page 89). St Quentin Consulting, on behalf of Paisley
Manor Pty Ltd, is proposing to rezone, and subsequently develop, nine parcels of land on the
western side of Ash Road at Leopold, Victoria. The lands are currently within Farming Zone
(FZ). The lands will be rezoned as Residential 1 Zone (R1Z) similar to lands to the north and
west. Paisley Manor will also seek a Development Plan Overlay (DPO); lands adjoining the
western boundary of the application area currently fall under DPO18 (Leopold Urban
Expansion Area 2).
The activity area is approximately 25.4 ha in size and is bounded by Ash Road to the east,
residential properties in the north, farming land to the west, and rural properties in the south
(Map 2, Page 90).
Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd was commissioned by St Quentin Consulting to
prepare this complex CHMP. This CHMP will be evaluated by the Registered Aboriginal
Party (RAP) for the activity area, the Wathaurung Aboriginal Corporation (WAC).
Methods
Ecology and Heritage Partners was commissioned in July 2011 to prepare a complex CHMP
for the activity area. An Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment was previously completed
by TerraCulture in July 2011 and the results of that assessment was used for the desktop and
standard assessment components of this CHMP. The original archaeological site survey was
completed by Monica Toscano (TerraCulture Pty Ltd) on 15 April 2011. Ecology and
Heritage Partners completed a subsequent complex assessment of the activity area in August September 2011. A total of two Shovel Test Probes (STP), 89 Shovel Test Holes (STH) and
eight Random Test Holes (RTH) were excavated. The soil from all test pits (STPs, STHs and
RTHs) were manually sieved using 5 mm mesh. The stratigraphy of all test pits was recorded.
The stratigraphy of all the STPs was also drawn and photographed.
Results
Desktop Assessment
The desktop assessment indicated that there have been 29 Aboriginal heritage sites previously
recorded within a 5 km radius of the activity area (Map 6, Page 94). None of these sites were
located in the activity area. The desktop assessment concluded that artefact scatters and
isolated artefacts were the types of Aboriginal sites most likely to occur within the activity
area, followed by scarred trees and shell middens.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
1
Standard Assessment
The activity area was surveyed on 15 April 2011 by TerraCulture Pty Ltd
Archaeologist/Cultural Heritage Advisor Monica Toscano, with representatives1 from the
WAC. The entire activity area was surveyed, with the exception of a portion of 146-155 Ash
Road, as it was under crop at the time.
A follow up standard assessment of the eastern portion of 146-155 Ash Road (previously
under crop) was undertaken on 20 September 2011 by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd
Archaeologists/Cultural Heritage Advisors Mollie Harbour and Terence MacManus, with
Jodie McRedmond and Tim Kennedy representing the WAC.
The standard assessment undertaken by TerraCulture Pty Ltd in April 2011 identified two
isolated artefact sites (VAHR 7721-1172 and 1173) (Map 7, Page 95). Both sites are located
in the southernmost property, on a slight rise.
Complex Assessment
The complex assessment was conducted on 9, 12 and 15 August, and between 20-21
September 2011 by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd Archaeologists/Cultural Heritage
Advisors Mollie Harbour and Terence MacManus, with Bert Fagan, Jodie McRedmond, Kacie
Mitchell, Tammy Gilson, Mick Castrisios, Chris Fry and Tim Kennedy representing the
WAC.
A total of 89 shovel test holes (STHs), measuring 400 mm x 400 mm, were excavated from 17
transects and eight radial test holes (RTHs) Appendix 4 and (Map 8, Page 96). The radial
testing included site extent testing for the two sites (VAHR 7721-1172 and 1173) found
during TerraCulture’s survey.
The excavation located one subsurface artefact from one shovel test hole at 160-172 Ash Road
(VAHR 7721-1174) and one surface artefact located in a vehicle track at 146-155 Ash Road
(VAHR 7721-1141).
These two isolated artefact sites are discussed in detail in Section 6, Page 58 (Map 9, Page
97).
The coordinates of each transect start and end points appear in Appendix 4, while the
coordinates of all shovel test pits excavated within the activity area appear in Appendix 4,
Page 112.
1
Names of the Wathaurung representatives were not provided in the TerraCulture survey report.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
2
The recommendations and contingency plans in Part 2 of this CHMP must be adhered to at all
times.
SUMMARY OF MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS from page72
146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
The site is an isolated artefact, found on the ground surface (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 1 and
Plates 9 and 10).
Recommendations to Avoid Harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
Harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations to Minimise Harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
Harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations for the Salvage of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
The activity cannot avoid impacting upon the Aboriginal archaeological site 146-155 Ash
Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171), therefore the following salvage and reburial program is
recommended prior to any construction works in the activity area commencing:

A surface salvage will be implemented to salvage the surface artefact at this site
(Map 10, Page 98).

Subsurface testing at the site did not identify a subsurface component to this site,
therefore a salvage excavation is not considered to be warranted.

Custody of the Aboriginal cultural heritage from 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 77211171) shall be given to the WAC, and the artefact will be reburied in an allocated area
of public open space approximately 30 m south of isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash
Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) after landscaping works are completed
(Map 10, Page 98);

It is suggested low root stock plantings take place. Future maintenance of this area
should be minimal. There is no requirement for the placement of geofabric. No
underground infrastructure is to be installed at the allocated reburial location.

Machines are not to drive through, scrape or excavate the reserved parts of the site after
artefact reburial.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
3
160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
The site is an isolated artefact, found on the ground surface (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 1 and
Plates 9 and 10).
Recommendations to Avoid Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations to Minimise Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations for the Salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
The activity cannot avoid impacting upon the Aboriginal archaeological site 160-172 Ash
Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174). Radial shovel test holes were excavated around the isolated
artefact to determine the site extent and no further artefacts were found, therefore salvage is
not required.
Custody of the isolated artefact (VAHR 7721-1174) will be given to the WAC prior to works
commencing, and reburial of the artefact is recommended after landscaping works are
completed:

The artefact will be reburied in an allocated area of public open space approximately
30 m south of isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) after
landscaping works are completed (Map 10, Page 98);

It is suggested low root stock plantings take place. Future maintenance of this area
should be minimal. There is no requirement for the placement of geofabric. No
underground infrastructure is to be installed at the allocated reburial location.

Machines are not to drive through, scrape or excavate the reserved parts of the site after
artefact reburial.
160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Site 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) is located in the centre of a pre-existing tree
line, now cut down (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 3 and Plate 13).
Recommendations to Avoid Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) cannot be avoided.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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Recommendations to Minimise Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations for the Salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further recommendations are required.
160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1171)
Site 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1171) was located at approximately the centre of
the northern fence line in an area of good ground surface visibility (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 3
and Plate 14).
Recommendations to Avoid Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1171)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations to Minimise Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1171)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) cannot be avoided.
Recommendations for the Salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1171)
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further recommendations are required.
SUMMARY OF CONTINGENCY PLANS
Contingency regarding the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Unexpected Discovery of Isolated or Dispersed Scatters of Aboriginal Cultural
Heritage
It is unlikely that previously unknown Aboriginal cultural heritage will be discovered within
the activity area during the activity. This Aboriginal cultural heritage is likely to be isolated
stone artefacts. However, if a person discovers or suspects that they have discovered
Aboriginal cultural heritage during the activity, and the actual or suspected cultural heritage is
an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five stone artefacts, the following contingency plan
must be followed:

The person in charge or site manager of the activity within the activity area must be
notified immediately;

The person in charge or site manager must immediately suspend all activities and
works at the location of the discovery and within five metres of the extent of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage;
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
5

Within a period of two business days, the person in charge or site manager must
contact an appropriately qualified and experienced Cultural Heritage Advisor and
inform them of the discovery;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must be engaged to consult with the RAP to assess the
discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage, record the cultural heritage material and
update or complete new site cards for the discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must catalogue and analyse all discovered cultural
heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor will then notify AAV of the discovery by lodging either
a new or updated Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register site record card within a
timely manner.

Work in the excluded area may recommence provided:

The discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage has been identified, inspected,
recorded and collected for reburial by a Cultural Heritage Advisor;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor has identified the discovered cultural heritage as
being an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five stone artefacts; and

New or updated Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register site record cards have
been completed and forwarded to AAV
Failure of parties to reach an agreed course of action in this manner will be classed as a
dispute under this agreement and the contingency plan in this CHMP regarding dispute
resolution must be followed.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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Contingency regarding the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Unexpected Discovery of Other Aboriginal Cultural Heritage
It is unlikely that previously unknown Aboriginal cultural heritage other than isolated stone
artefacts or dispersed artefacts will be discovered within the activity area during the activity.
However, if a person discovers or suspects that they have discovered Aboriginal cultural
heritage during the activity, and the actual or suspected cultural heritage is cultural heritage
other than an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five stone artefacts the following
contingency plan must be followed:

The person in charge or site manager of the activity within the activity area must be
notified immediately;

The person in charge or site manager must immediately suspend all activities and
works at the location of the discovery and within twenty metres of the extent of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage;

Within a period of two business days, the person in charge or site manager must
contact an appropriately qualified and experienced Cultural Heritage Advisor and
inform them of the discovery;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must be engaged to consult with the RAP to assess the
discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage, record the cultural heritage material and
update or complete new site cards for the discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage; and
assess the significance of the cultural heritage in conjunction with the RAP;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must catalogue and analyse all discovered cultural
heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor will then notify AAV of the discovery by lodging either
a new or updated Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register site record card within a
timely manner;

The Sponsor must make all reasonable attempts to avoid or minimise harm to the
newly discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage;

Where it is not possible to avoid harming the Aboriginal cultural heritage, mitigation
in the form of salvage will be required;

Where salvage of discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage is required, decisions about
how to proceed with salvage excavation must be made on a case-by-case basis by the
Cultural Heritage Advisor, in conjunction the RAP. Aboriginal Affairs Victoria may
also be consulted. The methodology of any salvage excavation must be appropriate to
the site type(s) discovered and the nature, extent and significance of the site(s). All
salvage must abide by Regulation 61 of the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 and
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
7
be undertaken in accordance with proper archaeological practice and the results of the
excavations must be reported to AAV; and


Work in the excluded area may recommence provided:

The discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage has been identified, inspected,
recorded and collected for reburial by a Cultural Heritage Advisor;

The Sponsor has taken appropriate measures to avoid harming the Aboriginal
cultural heritage, including appropriate protection measures as agreed upon by
the Sponsor and the RAP;

If the Sponsor cannot avoid harming the Aboriginal cultural heritage, the
Sponsor has taken appropriate measures to minimise harm to Aboriginal
cultural heritage, including appropriate protection measures as agreed upon by
the Sponsor and the RAP;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor has undertaken the appropriate salvage
excavations or collections; and

New or updated Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register site record cards have
been completed and forwarded to AAV.
Failure of parties to reach an agreed course of action in this manner will be classed as
a dispute under this agreement and the contingency plan in this CHMP regarding
dispute resolution must be followed.
Contingency regarding the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage - Unexpected
Discovery of Human Remains
Under Section 4 of the Coroner’s Act 2008, if the body of a deceased person is found in
Victoria (s.4 (1)(a)) and the identity of the deceased is unknown (s. 4(2)(g)) then the death is
reportable and under Section 12 of the Coroner’s Act 2008 there is an obligation to report
death. If any suspected human remains are found during any activity, works must cease. The
State Coroner’s Office on 1300 309 519 and Victoria Police on 03 9684 4387 should be
notified immediately (s. 12 (1)). If there are reasonable grounds to believe that the remains are
Aboriginal, the Department of Sustainability and Environment’s Emergency Coordination
Centre must be contacted immediately on 1300 888 544. This advice has been developed
further and is described in Section 9.3.
WAC have requested that the following additional clause be added to this contingency:

No photographs or digital images of Aboriginal human remains are to be taken without
prior approval. It is noted that under the Coroner’s Act 2008, photographs may be
required during initial inquiries.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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Contingency for the Removal, Curation, Custody and Management of Aboriginal
Cultural Heritage (Artefacts) Discovered during the Activity
Should any Aboriginal cultural heritage be discovered during the activity, the custody of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage must comply with the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and be
assigned in the following order of priority, as appropriate:

Any relevant RAP for the land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been
salvaged;

Any relevant registered native title holder for the land from which the Aboriginal
cultural heritage has been salvaged;

Any relevant native title party (as defined in the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006) for the
land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been salvaged;

Any relevant Aboriginal person or persons with traditional or familial links with the
land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been salvaged;

Any relevant Aboriginal body or organisation which has historical or contemporary
interests in Aboriginal heritage relating to the land from which the Aboriginal cultural
heritage has been salvaged;

The owner of the land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been salvaged;
and

The Museum of Victoria.
It should be noted that any Cultural Heritage Advisor engaged to investigate any Aboriginal
cultural heritage should be able to retain initial custody of Aboriginal cultural heritage for a
reasonable period of time for the purposes of analysis. In accordance with the Aboriginal
Heritage Act 2006, during the period that the Cultural Heritage Advisor has custody of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage, the Cultural Heritage Advisor must:

Label and package collected artefactual material with reference to provenance; and

Arrange storage of the material in a secure location together with copies of the
catalogue, assessment documentation, management plan and results of the analysis.
Following the repatriation of Aboriginal cultural heritage held by the Cultural Heritage
Advisor to any of the above people or groups (except Museum Victoria), should any of the
above people or groups wish to rebury the Aboriginal cultural heritage, the following must
take place:

The site record card must be updated, including an object collection component form;
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
9

The reburial location must be known, relocatable and in an area which is protected
from future development or disturbance;

Where possible, the Aboriginal cultural heritage should be reburied within the
boundaries of the Aboriginal archaeological site from which the Aboriginal cultural
heritage was originally collected or excavated;

Artefacts must be reburied in a durable container which may or may not be open
bottomed to allow contact between the artefacts and the soil whilst allowing the
reburied material to be readily identified as such; and

An additional enclosed durable container must be buried next to the artefacts which
contains copies of all documentation relating to the artefacts, including a copy of the
relevant site card, artefact database and any other relevant documentation.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
10
Table of Contents
Executive Summary ...................................................................................................1
PART 1 - ASSESSMENT ..........................................................................................17
1
Introduction ...................................................................................................17
1.1
Background and Scope of Works ....................................................................17
1.2
Location of Activity Area ..................................................................................17
1.3
Reasons for Preparing the CHMP ...................................................................18
1.4
Name of Sponsor ............................................................................................19
1.5
Name of Cultural Heritage Advisors ................................................................19
1.6
Name of Owners and Occupiers of the Activity Area ......................................22
1.7
Registered Aboriginal Parties ..........................................................................22
1.8
Notice of Intent to Prepare a Management Plan .............................................23
1.9
Report Review and Distribution .......................................................................23
1.10
Heritage Legislation ........................................................................................23
2
Extent of Activity Area ..................................................................................24
3
Activity Description ......................................................................................26
4
Documentation of Consultation ...................................................................27
4.1
Consultation in Relation to the Assessment ....................................................27
4.2
Participation in the Conduct of the Assessment ..............................................28
4.3
Consultation in Relation to the Recommendations..........................................28
4.4
Summary of Outcomes of Consultation ...........................................................29
5
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment ..................................................30
5.1
Desktop Assessment ......................................................................................30
5.1.1
Environmental context ............................................................................................................ 30
5.1.2
Aboriginal context ................................................................................................................... 36
5.1.3
Database searches .................................................................................................................. 37
5.1.4
Previous archaeological investigations ................................................................................ 38
5.1.5
Aboriginal archaeological site prediction statement .......................................................... 44
5.1.6
Desktop assessment - conclusions ...................................................................................... 46
5.2
Standard Assessment .....................................................................................47
5.2.1
Methodology of the standard assessment ........................................................................... 47
5.2.2
Limitations of the standard assessment .............................................................................. 47
5.2.3
Results of the standard assessment ..................................................................................... 47
5.2.4
Results of standard assessment ........................................................................................... 50
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5.3
Complex Assessment .....................................................................................50
5.3.1
Aims of the complex assessment ......................................................................................... 50
5.3.2
Methodology of the complex assessment ............................................................................ 50
5.3.3
Limitations of the complex assessment ............................................................................... 52
5.3.4
Results of the complex assessment ..................................................................................... 52
5.3.5
Complex assessment - conclusions ..................................................................................... 57
6
Details of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage in the Activity Area ......................58
6.1
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage in the Activity Area ..............................................58
6.1.1
Assessment of the Aboriginal cultural heritage .................................................................. 58
6.1.2
RAP information regarding the Aboriginal cultural heritage .............................................. 59
6.1.3
Results of the Assessment of the Aboriginal cultural heritage ......................................... 59
6.2
146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) ......................................................60
6.2.1
Location of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) .......................................................... 60
6.2.2
Extent of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) .............................................................. 60
6.2.3
Nature of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) .............................................................. 60
6.2.4
Significance of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) .................................................... 60
6.3
160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) ......................................................62
6.3.1
Location of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) .......................................................... 62
6.3.2
Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) .............................................................. 62
6.3.3
Nature of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) .............................................................. 62
6.3.4
Significance of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) .................................................... 62
6.4
160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ....................................................64
6.4.1
Location of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ........................................................ 64
6.4.2
Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ............................................................ 64
6.4.3
Nature of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 7721-1172 [VAHR]) ........................................................... 64
6.4.4
Significance of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) .................................................. 64
6.5
160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ....................................................66
6.5.1
Location of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ........................................................ 66
6.5.2
Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ............................................................ 66
6.5.3
Nature of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ............................................................ 66
6.5.4
Significance of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) .................................................. 66
7
Consideration of Section 61 Matters – Impact Assessment .....................68
7.1
Section 61 Matters in relation to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) ...68
7.1.1
Avoidance of harm .................................................................................................................. 68
7.1.2
Minimisation of harm .............................................................................................................. 68
7.1.3
Management measures ........................................................................................................... 68
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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7.2
Section 61 Matters in relation to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) ...69
7.2.1
Avoidance of harm .................................................................................................................. 69
7.2.2
Minimisation of harm .............................................................................................................. 69
7.2.3
Management measures ........................................................................................................... 69
7.3
Section 61 Matters in relation to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) .70
7.3.1
Avoidance of harm .................................................................................................................. 70
7.3.2
Minimisation of harm .............................................................................................................. 70
7.3.3
Management measures ........................................................................................................... 70
7.4
Section 61 Matters in relation to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) .71
7.4.1
Avoidance of harm .................................................................................................................. 71
7.4.2
Minimisation of harm .............................................................................................................. 71
7.4.3
Management measures ........................................................................................................... 71
7.5
General Requirements ....................................................................................71
7.5.1
Requirement for contingency plans ...................................................................................... 71
7.5.2
Requirement for arrangements for the custody and management of Aboriginal cultural
heritage (artefacts) ............................................................................................................................... 71
PART 2 – CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS ..........72
8
Specific Cultural Heritage Management Requirements .............................72
8.1
146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) ......................................................72
8.1.1
Recommendations to avoid harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) ................ 72
8.1.2
Recommendations to minimise harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) .......... 72
8.1.3
Recommendations for the salvage of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) .............. 72
8.1.4
Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and management of Aboriginal
cultural heritage (artefacts) from 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) ................................... 73
8.2
160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) ......................................................74
8.2.1
Recommendations to avoid harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) ................ 74
8.2.2
Recommendations to minimise harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) .......... 74
8.2.3
Recommendations for the salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) .............. 74
8.2.4
Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and management of Aboriginal
cultural heritage (artefacts) from 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) ................................... 75
8.3
160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ....................................................76
8.3.1
Recommendations to avoid harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) .............. 76
8.3.2
Recommendations to minimise harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ........ 76
8.3.3
Recommendations for the salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ............ 76
8.3.4
Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and management of Aboriginal
cultural heritage (artefacts) from 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)................................. 76
8.4
160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ....................................................76
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8.4.1
Recommendations to avoid harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) .............. 76
8.4.2
Recommendations to minimise harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ........ 76
8.4.3
Recommendations for the salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ............ 77
8.4.4
Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and management of Aboriginal
cultural heritage (artefacts) from 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)................................. 77
8.5
Other Recommendations ................................................................................77
8.5.1
Recommendations for cultural awareness training ............................................................ 77
8.5.2
Provisions for Aboriginal people to visit cultural heritage places within the activity area
77
9
Contingency Plans ........................................................................................78
9.1
Contingency regarding Section 61 Matters .....................................................78
9.2
Contingency regarding Dispute Resolution .....................................................78
9.3
Contingency regarding the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage .............79
9.3.1
Unexpected discovery of isolated or dispersed scatters of Aboriginal cultural heritage
79
9.3.2
Unexpected discovery of other Aboriginal cultural heritage .............................................. 80
9.3.3
Unexpected discovery of human remains ............................................................................ 81
9.4
Reporting the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage during the Activity ....83
9.5
Contingency for the Removal, Curation, Custody and Management of
Aboriginal Cultural Heritage (Artefacts) Discovered during the Activity .....................83
9.6
Compliance with the Cultural Heritage Management Plan ..............................85
9.6.1
Reviewing compliance with the Cultural Heritage Management Plan ............................... 85
9.6.2
Remedying non-compliance with the Cultural Heritage Management Plan ...................... 87
Maps..........................................................................................................................88
Appendices ..............................................................................................................99
References .............................................................................................................155
Tables
Table 1: Consultation in Relation to the Assessment ............................................................................ 27
Table 2: Consultation in Relation to the Recommendations .............................................................. 28
Table 3: Summary of Previously Identified Sites within 5 km of the Activity Area ........................ 38
Table 4: Archaeological Reports Relevant to the Activity Area ......................................................... 40
Table 5: Effective Coverage Calculation ................................................................................................... 48
Table 6: Stratigraphic Test Pits Excavated within the Activity Area (Map 8, Page 96) ................ 54
Figures
Figure 1: Map of Parish of Moolap circa 1869. Activity area falls within sections XV and XVI. 35
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
14
Figure 2: Stratigraphic Profile of STP01.................................................................................. 54
Figure 3: Stratigraphic Profile of STP02.................................................................................. 55
Plans
Plan 1: Extent of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) ................................................... 61
Plan 2: Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) ................................................... 63
Plan 3: Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) ................................................. 65
Plan 4: Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) ................................................. 67
Maps
Map 1: Location of Activity Area ........................................................................................... 89
Map 2: Extent of Activity Area and areas of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Sensitivity ............. 90
Map 3: Proposed Development Plan .................................................................................... 91
Map 4: Location of the Activity Area and the Relevant Bioregion .......................................... 92
Map 5: Location of the Activity Area and the Relevant Geology ............................................ 93
Map 6: Aboriginal Archaeological Sites Located in the Vicinity of the Activity Area ............... 94
Map 7: Surveyed Areas and Location and Extent of Aboriginal Archaeological Sites Identified
During Standard Assessment ....................................................................................... 95
Map 8: Location of Subsurface Testing Transects, Shovel Test Holes and Stratigraphic Test
Pits ............................................................................................................................... 96
Map 9: Location and Extent of Aboriginal Archaeological Sites within the Activity Area
Identified During the Standard and Complex Assessments ........................................... 97
Map 10: Location of Specific Management Requirements .................................................... 98
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
15
Acknowledgements
We thank the following people and organisations for their contribution in the project:

Chris Mason (St Quentin Consulting) for project and site information.

Chris Wellam (Paisley Manor Pty Ltd) for project and site information.

Wathaurung Aboriginal Corporation for assistance in the field, cultural heritage
information and evaluation of the report.

Aboriginal Affairs Victoria.
PROTOCOLS FOR HANDLING SENSITIVE INFORMATION
Some of the information contained within this Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) is
culturally sensitive. Before releasing the contents of this CHMP to the public, permission
should be sought from the relevant authorities and communities.
Cover Photo: Background- 160-172 Ash Road facing west; Top Right: artefact from VAHR 7721-1174; Bottom
Right- 134 Ash Road facing north; Left: stratigraphic profile of STP01 (photos by Ecology and Heritage Partners
Pty Ltd)
Copyright © Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd
This document is subject to copyright and may only be used for the
purposes for which it was commissioned. The use or copying of this
document in whole or part without the permission of Ecology and
Heritage Partners Pty Ltd is an infringement of copyright.
Disclaimer
Although Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd have taken all the
necessary steps to ensure that an accurate document has been
prepared, the company accepts no liability for any damages or loss
incurred as a result of reliance placed upon the report and its content.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
16
PART 1 - ASSESSMENT
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Scope of Works
Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd was commissioned by St Quentin Consulting and
Paisley Manor Pty Ltd to prepare a complex Cultural Heritage Management Plan (CHMP) for
the proposed rezoning and subsequent development of land on the western side of Ash Road,
Leopold, Victoria (City of Greater Geelong) (Map 1, Page 89).
The project brief agreed upon by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd and the Sponsor is as
follows:

Review the relevant heritage databases (e.g. Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register
[VAHR] at Aboriginal Affairs Victoria [AAV], Local Government Heritage Overlays,
Heritage Victoria Inventory and Register, National Trust and other relevant available
literature;

Provide a brief review of land use for the activity area;

Conduct a site assessment by a qualified Cultural Heritage Advisor to identify any
Aboriginal cultural heritage within the activity area;

Identify and provide a series of maps as required for a CHMP showing any Aboriginal
archaeological heritage or areas likely to contain Aboriginal cultural heritage;

Provide information in relation to any implications of Commonwealth and State
environmental legislation and Government policy associated with the proposed
development;

Discuss any opportunities and constraints associated with the activity area;

Liaise with the key stakeholders, the Registered Aboriginal Party (RAP), the
Wathaurung Aboriginal Corporation, local government and AAV; and

Produce a CHMP suitable for evaluation by the appropriate evaluation party (RAP/s or
DPCD).
1.2 Location of Activity Area
The activity area is located in Ash Road, Leopold, Victoria (City of Greater Geelong). The
activity area is approximately 25.4 ha in size and is bounded by Ash Road to the east,
residential properties in the north, farming land to the west, and rural properties in the south.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
17
The cadastral details of the activity area are as follows:

Volume #: 8491, Folio #: 585, Lot 3 LP63799, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8491, Folio #: 584, Lot 2 LP63799, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8509, Folio #: 796, Lot 2 LP65178, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8509, Folio #: 795, Lot 1 LP65178, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 261, Lot 1 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 262, Lot 2 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8341, Folio #: 436, Lot 2 LP48473, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8431, Folio #: 435, Lot 1 LP48473, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8390, Folio #: 119, Lot 2 LP87651, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8861, Folio #: 599, Lot 1 LP87651, Parish of Moolap.
A more detailed description of the activity area is contained within Section 2, Page 24.
1.3 Reasons for Preparing the CHMP
This CHMP has been prepared in accordance with Part 4 of the Victorian Aboriginal Heritage
Act 2006 and is required by the Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 (s. 47). The
specific Regulations which trigger the requirement for this plan are:

Under Regulation 46, the proposed activity is a high impact activity as it involves the
subdivision of land;

Under Regulation 22, the activity area is located within an area of cultural heritage
sensitivity as it is located within 50 metres of two registered cultural heritage places
which is/are listed on the Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register (VAHR):


VAHR 7721-1172 (160-172 Ash Road IA2); and

VAHR 7721-1173 (160-172 Ash Road IA3)
Part or all of the activity area has not been subject to previous significant ground
disturbance as defined by the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 (r. 4).
This CHMP does not contain detailed information regarding non-Aboriginal historical
heritage issues relating to the activity area. Non-Aboriginal historical heritage issues are dealt
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
18
with in a separate report (Harbour 2012) which has been lodged with the Sponsor and with
Heritage Victoria.
1.4 Name of Sponsor
The Sponsor of this CHMP is St Quentin Consulting, on behalf of Paisley Manor Pty Ltd
(ABN: 94 107 872 251).
1.5 Name of Cultural Heritage Advisors
The Cultural Heritage Advisors of this CHMP are Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers. The
authors of this CHMP are Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers. The quality assurance review was
undertaken by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd Director/Principal Heritage Advisor
Oona Nicolson. The field work was undertaken by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd
Archaeologists/Cultural Heritage Advisors Mollie Harbour and Terence MacManus. Mapping
was provided by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd GIS Officers, Amanda Feetham and
Bill Fish.
Oona Nicolson
Oona Nicolson is a Director and the Principal Heritage Advisor at Ecology and Heritage
Partners Pty Ltd She is a heritage specialist with over 14 years experience in the
archaeological consulting sector, working in Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, and
Tasmania. Oona regularly appears before VCAT and independent panels as an Expert Witness
in the areas of Aboriginal and historical heritage. Oona has extensive experience in over 500
projects with a wide variety of clients.
Oona’s skills include project management, peer reviews, background research and due
diligence assessments, archaeological survey, sub surface testing and salvage excavation,
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal site identification, recording and photography, site
significance assessment, development of recommendations to mitigate the impact of
development upon Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal historical heritage, flaked stone artefact and
historical artefact recording and interpretation, communication and consultation with
regulatory bodies (AAV and HV), clients, landowners, RAPs and community representatives,
preparation of conservation management plans, expert witness statements, Permits and
Consents to Disturb for Heritage Victoria, Historical Heritage Assessments and desktop,
standard and complex Aboriginal CHMPs. Her formal qualifications and memberships
include:

Bachelor of Arts (Honours in Archaeology) – High Distinction (First Class), Flinders
University of South Australia (1996).

Bachelor of Arts (Australian Archaeology and Australian Studies), Flinders University
of South Australia (1995).
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
19

Maritime Archaeology Certificate: Part 1 (Part 2 pending), AIMA and NAS (U.K.).

Australian Association of Consulting Archaeologists Inc. (Full Member and 2010
Chairperson of Victorian Chapter).

Victorian Planning and Environmental Law Association.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
20
Rick Bullers
Rick Bullers has worked as a heritage consultant since 2007, and has managed numerous
Aboriginal and historic heritage projects for a variety of clients and developments within
Victoria, NSW and SA. Projects include heritage assessments and/or excavations for linear
construction projects such as pipelines, sewerage lines and transmission lines, large area
heritage assessments for Greenfield developments (e.g. residential subdivision and mining
operations), as well as cultural heritage assessments and cultural heritage management plans
for large Department of Defence sites.
Rick has experience in a variety of tasks, including project management, peer reviews,
background research and due diligence assessments, archaeological survey, sub-surface
testing and salvage excavation, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal site identification, recording
and photography, site significance assessment, development of recommendations to mitigate
the impact of development upon Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal historical heritage, flaked
stone artefact and historical artefact recording and interpretation, communication and
consultation with regulatory bodies (AAV and HV), clients, landowners, RAPs and
community representatives, preparation of conservation management plans, Historical
Heritage Assessments and desktop, standard and complex Aboriginal CHMPs. His formal
qualifications include:

Bachelor of Applied Science Conservation and Park Management), University of
South Australia (1994).

Graduate Diploma of Maritime Archaeology, Flinders University (2005).

Master of Maritime Archaeology, Flinders University (2006).
Mollie Harbour
Mollie is a qualified archaeologist with over 4 years of practical experience working in
Victorian Aboriginal cultural heritage management. Her Honours thesis from Latrobe
University involved the examination of Victorian Aboriginal massacre site information, and
an update of these archives. Mollie was employed by AAV as part of an Indigenous Cadetship
program from 2007 until 2010, and from the end of 2009 was a Heritage Project Officer in
AAV’s Barwon-Grampians Ballarat office until 2011.
Mollie has experience in a variety of tasks including: project management; archaeological
surveying; recording; photography; Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal site identification; flaked
stone artefact recording and interpretation; sub surface testing. She has conducted background
research; communication and consultation with regulatory bodies (AAV), heritage consultants
and their sponsors, landowners, RAPs and community representatives; and has evaluated
numerous Aboriginal CHMPs. Her formal qualifications include:
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
21

Honours in Archaeology, LaTrobe University, Victoria (2009).

Bachelor of Arts in Archaeology and History, LaTrobe University, Victoria (2008).

Bachelor of Arts in Archaeology, Anthropology and History, University of Melbourne,
Carlton, VIC. (Transferred Bachelor of Arts degree to LaTrobe University), Victoria
(2007).
Terence MacManus
Terence MacManus is an archaeologist and cultural heritage advisor at Ecology and Heritage
Partners Pty Ltd He has worked in a variety of roles for over 30 projects, including
developments such as housing estates, pipeline alignments, site surveys and large
infrastructure projects.
Terence is experienced in a range of tasks related to archaeological research and practice such
as background research, archaeological survey, sub surface testing, salvage excavation,
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal site identification, report preparation, and stone artefact
analysis and interpretation. His formal qualifications include:

Bachelor of Archaeology (Honours) (Second Class A), La Trobe University,
Melbourne, Australia (2008).

Bachelor of Archaeology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia (2007).
1.6 Name of Owners and Occupiers of the Activity Area
The activity area is owned and occupied by the following people:









90 Ash Road - Chris Wellam (owned but not occupied);
110 Ash Road - Dorothy Jones;
112-130 Ash Road - Linda Prosser;
132 Ash Road - Mr Cass;
134 Ash Road - Dennis Walker;
146-155 Ash Road - L. and R. Roberts;
160-172 Ash Road - G. Maroulis;
21 Walkers Road - E. Carter; and
22-30 Walkers Road - R. Colas.
1.7 Registered Aboriginal Parties
The RAP for the activity area is the insert Wathaurung Aboriginal Corporation (WAC),
trading as Wada Wurrung.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
22
Details of all consultation undertaken with the RAP for the purposes of preparing this CHMP
are contained in Section 4, Page 27.
There are currently no Native Title claims extending over the activity area and the activity
area comprises privately owned land, therefore Native Title has been extinguished.
1.8 Notice of Intent to Prepare a Management Plan
Under s. 54 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, the Sponsor of a CHMP must give notice of
their intention to prepare a CHMP.
In accordance with s. 54 (1) (a) of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, the Sponsor submitted a
Notice of Intent to prepare a Cultural Heritage Management Plan to the Registered Aboriginal
Party for the activity area, the WAC, on 24.06.2011. A copy of this Notice is attached in
Appendix 1. The RAP responded to this Notice on 06.07.2011 and indicated that they would
evaluate this CHMP. A copy of this response is attached in Appendix 1.
In accordance with s. 54 (1) (b) of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, the Sponsor submitted a
Notice of Intent to prepare a Cultural Heritage Management Plan to the Secretary of the
Department of Planning and Community Development (DPCD) on 24.06.2011. A copy of this
Notice is attached in Appendix 1. A response to this Notice was submitted to the Sponsor on
29.06.2011. The AAV Management Plan Identifier number for this CHMP is 11776.
In addition, in accordance with s. 54 (1) (c) of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, the Sponsor
notified the owners and occupiers of the various land parcels in the activity area of the
Sponsor’s intention to prepare this CHMP.
1.9 Report Review and Distribution
Copies of this CHMP will be lodged with the following organisations:

St Quentin Consulting;

Paisley Manor Pty Ltd;

Wathaurung Aboriginal Corporation; and

Aboriginal Affairs Victoria.
1.10 Heritage Legislation
An overview of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, the Commonwealth Native Title Act 1993,
the Victorian Planning and Environment Act 1987 and the Commonwealth Environment
Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is included in Appendix 2, Page 105. This
legislation is subordinate to the Victorian Coroner’s Act 2008 in relation to the discovery of
human remains.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
23
2 EXTENT OF ACTIVITY AREA
The activity area is located in Ash Road, Leopold, Victoria (City of Greater Geelong). The
activity area is approximately 25.4 ha in size and is bounded by Ash Road to the east,
residential properties in the north, farming land to the west, and rural properties in the south
(Map 2, Page 24). The activity area is located in rural land to the south of Leopold on the
Bellarine Peninsula, approximately 10 km to the east of Geelong. Leopold is located on the
northern end of the Bellarine Peninsula, between the Outer Harbour of Corio Bay and Lake
Connewarre.
The activity area is comprised of undulating pastoral land. The activity area situated at 160172 Ash Road contains a residence and large shed, and has a slight rise in the centre of the
allotment, along a line of trees that have since been largely removed. A dam is located
adjacent to the western fence line. The property is currently being used as a small hobby farm,
and potato farming.
The property known as 146-155 Ash Road is currently operating as a flower farm, and is
known as ‘Flora Post’. The eastern portion of the allotment contains a number of buildings,
gravel road and the remainder has been heavily ploughed for a flower plantation, and a dam
has been constructed in the western portion. Soil for the dam has come from the property.
Properties 112-130 Ash Road, 110 Ash Road and 22-30 Walkers Road are all currently being
utilised for cattle grazing, and 110 and 112-130 each contain a residence and shed. Number
134 Ash Road may have been used for grazing in the past, but it is currently vacant. Number
132 Ash Road comprises a residence but no land.
Number 21 Walkers Road comprises a residence and a dense plantation of young eucalypt
trees.
The northernmost property, 90 Ash Road, is situated on a rise with panoramic views across
Leopold and extending to Lake Connewarre. The property is sloped downwards in a
southwest direction. The northwest corner of the property is the highest point of the entire
activity area. A derelict house is situated on the property, alongside a large shed. The property
is currently being leased as cattle and horse grazing land.
The cadastral details of the activity area are as follows:

Volume #: 8491, Folio #: 585, Lot 3 LP63799, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8491, Folio #: 584, Lot 2 LP63799, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8509, Folio #: 796, Lot 2 LP65178, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8509, Folio #: 795, Lot 1 LP65178, Parish of Moolap.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
24

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 261, Lot 1 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 262, Lot 2 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8341, Folio #: 436, Lot 2 LP48473, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8431, Folio #: 435, Lot 1 LP48473, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8390, Folio #: 119, Lot 2 LP87651, Parish of Moolap.

Volume #: 8861, Folio #: 599, Lot 1 LP87651, Parish of Moolap.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
25
3 ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
Paisley Manor Pty Ltd seeks to rezone and subsequently develop nine parcels of land on the
western side of Ash Road at Leopold, Victoria. The present proposal is for a rezoning of the
land, with a view to future development as a residential subdivision. The rezoning itself will
have no impact on the ground or any cultural heritage values contained within it.
The lands are currently within Farming Zone (FZ) and the application will seek to rezone the
lands as Residential 1 Zone (R1Z) similar to lands to the north and west. Paisley Manor Pty
Ltd will also seek a Development Plan Overlay (DPO); lands adjoining the western boundary
of the application area currently fall under DPO18 (Leopold Urban Expansion Area 2). The
specific requirements which must be met by any development within the activity area are
described in Appendix 8, Page 150.
Paisley Manor has engaged St Quentin to oversee the rezoning application process. As part of
the application process, Geelong City Council requires the preparation of a Draft Outline
Development Plan (DODP) and a Draft S173 Agreement to be exhibited with the rezoning
Amendment. The DODP will need to be supported by an assessment of the archaeological
values of the lands. Following rezoning a Detailed Development Plan will be prepared.
The future residential subdivision works will impact the surface of the land and buried former
land surfaces, and are likely to impact on any Aboriginal cultural heritage located at or close
to the areas of development. The development will include the subdivision of land, excavation
(levelling), landscaping and clearing to prepare lots, construction of roads and installation of
utilities. Walkers Road, currently a gravel road, will be extended to the western boundary of
the activity area and will be sealed.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
26
4 DOCUMENTATION OF CONSULTATION
The RAP for the activity area is the Wathaurung Aboriginal Corporation (WAC).
4.1 Consultation in Relation to the Assessment
The following representatives of the WAC participated in consultation in relation to the
assessment:

Bonnie Fagan; and

Bryon Powell
The details of all consultation undertaken in relation to the assessment are presented below
(Table 1).
Table 1: Consultation in Relation to the Assessment
Date
Participants
Details of Consultation
30.06.2011
Mollie Harbour
Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd;
Bonnie Fagan
WAC.
Telephone
Request for Project Induction Meeting.
30.06.2011
Mollie Harbour
Ecology and Heritage Partners
Pty Ltd;
WAC.
Email
Request for representatives to attend complex assessment.
27.07.2011
Chris Mason
St Quentin Consulting
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd;
Bonnie Fagan
WAC.
Meeting
Project Induction Meeting. All parties agreed to use the results of
the TerraCulture survey, and proceed to complex assessment.
02.08.2011
Chris Mason
St Quentin Consulting
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd;
Bonnie Fagan
WAC.
Meeting
Meeting held to discuss results of the survey and proposed
subsurface testing methodology. All parties agreed upon the
proposed subsurface testing methodology.
03.08.2011
05.08.2011
Mollie Harbour
Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd;
Bonnie Fagan
WAC.
Email
Email sent to receive approval from WAC regarding the proposed
complex assessment methodology. Email received from WAC on 5
August approving the methodology.
16.09.2011
Mollie Harbour
Ecology and Heritage Partners
Pty Ltd;
WAC.
Email
Request for representatives to attend complex assessment.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
27
Subsurface Testing Program
Field representatives approved of the conduct and results of the
complex assessment. Field representatives happy to relocate
surface artefact 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) from
vehicle track to an area of scrub to avoid disturbance. New location
recorded on GPS.
4.2 Participation in the Conduct of the Assessment
The following representatives of the WAC participated in the fieldwork conducted as part of
the assessment, including the survey conducted on 15 April 2011 and 20 September 2011, and
the subsurface testing program, conducted on 9, 12 and 15 August, and 20-21 September
2011:

Bert Fagan;

Jodie McRedmond;

Kacie Mitchell;

Tammy Gilson;

Mick Castrisios;

Chris Fry; and

Tim Kennedy.
4.3 Consultation in Relation to the Recommendations
The following representatives of the WAC participated in consultation in relation to the
recommendations:

Bonnie Fagan; and

Bryon Powell.
Table 2: Consultation in Relation to the Recommendations
Date
Participants
Details of Consultation
5.10.2011
Chris Mason
St Quentin Consulting
Mollie Harbour and Rick Bullers
Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd;
Bonnie Fagan
WAC.
Meeting
Meeting held to discuss results of the sub surface testing and
subsequent cultural heritage recommendations. Conduct and
results of complex assessment were agreed to be satisfactory.
Recommendations discussed and an outcome was agreed upon.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
28
10.10.11
26.10.2011
22.11.2011
And
1.12.2011
Mollie Harbour
Ecology Partners Pty. Ltd;
Bonnie Fagan
Sean Fagan
Bryon Powell
WAC.
Email and Phone
Email sent to receive agreement from WAC regarding the
management recommendations. Discussed recommendations with
Bryon Powell via phone on 1 December and gained agreement
with the management recommendations.
4.4 Summary of Outcomes of Consultation
The WAC was consulted during all stages of the archaeological investigation. WAC field
representatives participated in all stages of the fieldwork and were satisfied with the conduct
and adequacy of the subsurface testing program.
Following the subsurface testing program, the fieldwork results were discussed with the RAP
and management recommendations were discussed regarding the four isolated artefact sites.
Approval was gained from the WAC for artefacts to be reburied in an area of Public Open
Space, to avoid disturbance during development.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
29
5 ABORIGINAL CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT
5.1 Desktop Assessment
The desktop assessment includes research into information relating to Aboriginal cultural
heritage in or associated with the activity area.
5.1.1 Environmental context
Environmental factors influence how land may have been used in the past. This section
reviews the environmental context of the activity area to gain an understanding of
environmental factors relevant to Aboriginal cultural heritage.
5.1.1.1 Geographic region
The activity area falls within a single geological unit, the Moorabool Viaduct Sands (DPI
2011b). The activity area forms a part of the Otway Plain Bioregion (Map 4, Page 92). This
geographic region is relevant to any Aboriginal cultural heritage that may be present within
the activity area. The desktop assessment has been undertaken in relation to the Otway Plain
bioregion (DPI 2011a).
5.1.1.2 Geomorphology and landforms
The Bellarine Peninsula is an uplifted landmass bounded by the Barrabool Fault to the north
and the Bellarine Fault along the east. It forms the southern and western boundary of the Port
Phillip Sunkland. The southern side of the Peninsula fronts the coast of Bass Strait and its
south-eastern point (Point Lonsdale) forms the western heads of the entrance to Port Phillip
Bay. Topographically, the landforms on the Bellarine Peninsula vary from vast areas of
shallow lakes and low-lying estuary (namely Lake Connewarre and Reedy Lake) to the
uplifted tertiary plain in the centre of the Peninsula, and the basalt hills between Drysdale and
Portarlington (Bird 1993).
Lake Connewarre
Lake Connewarre is the largest physiographic feature in the area of the proposed alignment
and along with Reedy Lake form substantial wetlands along the course of the Barwon River.
Bird (1993) provides the following description:
Lake Connewarre is a shallow lagoon bordered on the north and east by bluffs cut into
the sandstones of the Moorabool Viaduct Formation underlain by Fyansford Clay, over
which there have been landslides, and on the south by low-lying country with subdued
ridges of dune calcarenite surmounting a wide lava flow, consisting of Plio-Pleistocene
basalt from Mount Duneed. Downstream from Geelong the river Barwon flows across
a former lake basin now occupied by extensive rush and reed swamp. This is known as
Reedy Lake, and is underlain by Late Pleistocene sediments containing marine shells,
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deposited when the area was submerged by a higher sea level and later covered by
Holocene peaty deposits.
The Barwon enters Lake Connewarre by way of a small marshy delta, built where reeds
have trapped river silt. Tectonic disruption, lava flows, dune accretion, and erosion
and deposition by the Barwon River have all contributed to the shaping of this
landscape.
Lake Connewarre itself has a maximum depth of about 2 m and is saline and tidal. The
archaeology of Lake Connewarre is poorly known due to a lack of investigation, but is likely
to have been a major focus of past Aboriginal settlement (DPI 2011b).
5.1.1.3 Geology and soils
The surface geology of the Bellarine Peninsula consists primarily of sand sheets overlaying
Miocene clays (Map 4, Page 93). The hills in the centre of the Peninsula are formed from the
oldest sand sheet, which is Tertiary in age. Parts of the Tertiary sand sheet have been
weathered to form a ‘gently rolling plain’ and more recent sands of variable depth have in turn
covered these. The flat areas at the toe of the plain such as at Clifton Springs also consist of
these recent (Quaternary) sands (Wright 1973; Bird 1993).
Leopold is located on a notable rise (about 50 m above mean sea level) that probably marks a
fault between the flat alluvial plain east of Geelong, and the undulating sand hills that
comprise the ‘plateau’ that characterises the central parts of the Bellarine Peninsula.
The subject land falls within a single geological unit, the above-mentioned Moorabool
Viaduct Sands (DPI 2011b). These Miocene and Early Pliocene sands and clays and
equivalent sediments have been described by Abele (1977), who details the variation in
localities such as Batesford and Torquay. For the Bellarine Peninsula he notes ‘…sand and
sandy clay, commonly ferruginous and at least in part equivalent to the Moorabool Viaduct
Sand are widespread on the Bellarine Peninsula’ (1977: 45). This formation is overlain by
recent siliceous sand. This sand is dark grey in colour and loosely consolidated and is likely to
vary in depth along the alignment. The humic soils associated with the above noted drainage
lines and swampy-boggy areas appear to be the only notable variation in the local surface
sediments (DPI 2011b).
5.1.1.4 Vegetation
The native flora and fauna of the Bellarine Peninsula has been dramatically reduced since
European settlement because of the destruction of habitat by farming and more recently, the
development of residential and industrial estates. In 1803, Grimes described the northern
coastline of the Bellarine Peninsula as ‘gentle rising hills of good land, thinly wooded with
low decayen timber’. This provides an indication of the original vegetation of the current
subject land. Further, the DSE Biodiversity Interactive maps were accessed and the
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Ecological Vegetation Class for the entire area for 1750 was Grassy Woodland. The 2005
EVC indicates that significant remnants of this vegetation survive, especially in the central
east of the subject land, in an area south of Walkers Road. However, most of the subject land
has been under cultivation for a century or more.
Remnant vegetation is a good indicator of the degree of ground disturbance and the likelihood
of buried in situ Aboriginal archaeological deposits (DSE 2011).
These types of vegetation would have been utilised by Aboriginal people in the area for the
creation of weapons and vessels, and would have supported a range of game that could be
hunted for food.
5.1.1.5 Climate
The climate of Leopold is characterised by warm dry summers and cold wet winters;
temperatures range between an average maximum of 23.3°C and minimum of 16.4°C in
January to an average maximum 12.9°C and minimum 7.7°C in July. Rainfall varies between
a maximum of 52.8 mm in November and 31.5 mm in February, with annual average rainfalls
of 527.1 mm (BOM 2011).
5.1.1.6 Land use history
The first European to discover the Bellarine Peninsula was Lieutenant John Murray, who
entered the mouth of Port Phillip Bay on 14 February 1802. He sailed around the area for one
month and was then forced to return to Sydney due to a lack of supplies. Later in the same
year (26 April) Flinders entered and crossed Port Phillip Bay on the Investigator and later
landed at Indented Head where he camped and moved further northwest along the Bellarine
Peninsula, in the vicinity of Portarlington. He crossed Port Phillip Bay again to investigate the
You Yangs, later returning to Indented Head.
In early 1803, the Cumberland set sail for Port Phillip with the Surveyor-General Charles
Grimes aboard, with the intention of surveying the coast for potential settlement. The men
landed at Portarlington and on foot, headed westward and crossed five dry ‘dingles’ before
reaching Point Henry. Technically, dingles are deep dells (valleys), usually shaded with trees.
These ‘dingles’ could refer to the number of small creeks that head inland from the coast in
the Clifton Springs area.
Also in 1803 the transports Ocean and the Calcutta arrived at Sorrento, laden with convicts
including William Buckley, settlers and marines. The settlement was abandoned due to the
poor quality of the soil however, before this, on 27 December 1803, William Buckley escaped
from the Sorrento settlement, and went on to live with the Wathaurung for the next 32 years,
during which time there was little or no European exploration of the Bellarine Peninsula.
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In 1835, Buckley learned of three white men camped at Indented Head, who were part of John
Batman’s Port Phillip exploration party. The party went on to explore the area, returning once
again and later left three of the exploration party at their base camp. These men made a
garden and built a house of sods. After some interaction with the local Aboriginal people,
Buckley approached the camp on the 6 July 1835. It was during this time Batman explored
the Bellarine Peninsula; he climbed the Bellarine Hills and reported;
‘I found the Hills of a most superior description beyond my most sanguine expectation –
the Land Excellent and very rich a light black soil covered with Kangaroo Grass’ (cited
in Wynd 1988:6).
The early European settlement of the Bellarine Peninsula spread from the west, with Point
Henry being an important landing place, and from the eastern or bay end, following in the
tracts of Batman and other explorers. Wynd noted that while ‘[M]ost people are aware that
500,000 acres around Melbourne were purchased (through a deed – ‘Batman’s Treaty’), … it
is not so well known that in a separate deed 100,000 acres around Geelong, including the
whole of the Bellarine Peninsula, were purchased’ (Wynd 1986: 8).
Large tracts of land were initially taken up the squatters, many of whom did little more than
run stock over loosely defined runs. Mr Thomas Sproat held the ‘Bellarine Hills’ run of 1,280
acres between 1842 and 1852. The Misses’ Newcombe and Drysdale’s ‘Bellarine’ run was
some 1,920 acres; this run borders the study area to the west (Spreadborough & Anderson
1983:268-270). As the various land Acts became introduced in the 1840s and 50s, squatting
runs began to dissolve and were replaced by small farming allotments purchased by
‘Selectors’.
Leopold was originally known as Kensington and, like other small towns on the Peninsula,
was established along major roads as settlement grew out from Geelong. Kensington was the
name given to the subdivision of 1852, which led to the rise of the township. Within the next
three years churches were erected and the town blossomed. By 1885 descriptions of the town
were as follows; ‘…a small village, 52 miles S.W. of Melbourne and 12 miles west of
Queenscliff, with Connewarre 2 miles S. The district is a good fruit-growing one. There are
two churches and a state school, with a population of about 100 persons, within one mile of
the post office…’ (cited in Wynd 1988:103). In 1885 the town name was changed due to the
apparent confusion with Melbourne’s suburb Kensington and Leopold was chosen, due to its
connection with the Royal family.
Throughout most of the 20th Century Leopold remained a small township servicing the
surrounding rural sector. During the second half of the century and most recently, Leopold has
experienced unprecedented urban growth and with this the demise of local farms.
An 1869 map of the Parish of Moolap (Figure 1) shows that the activity area comprised two
sections of land owned by J.D. Moller and N.K.N Weeks. Since European settlement of the
activity area and surrounding region, the land has been utilised for various farming uses
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including grazing, potato farming, hobby farms, and crops. In addition, number 146-155 Ash
Road contains a small business associated with the growing of flowers and vegetables, named
‘Flora Post’. The activity area has undergone some ground disturbance associated with
farming including houses, storage sheds, fencing, tree planting, cropping, and the construction
of a dam in the southern activity area property.
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Figure 1: Map of Parish of Moolap circa 1869. Activity area falls within sections XV and XVI.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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5.1.2 Aboriginal context
The section reviews the Aboriginal context of the activity area and includes an examination of
historical and ethnohistorical sources, previously recorded Aboriginal archaeological site
types and locations in the geographic region of the activity area, and previous archaeological
studies undertaken in the area. Together, these sources of information can be used to
formulate a predictive site model concerning what types of sites are most likely to occur in the
activity area, and where these are most likely to occur.
5.1.2.1 History and ethnohistory
Archaeological evidence suggests that Aboriginal peoples had occupied all of Australia’s
environmental zones by 40,000 years BP. The oldest dated archaeological site in Victoria
occurs at Keilor in Melbourne. Charcoal from a hearth excavated in 1973 has been dated to
31,000 years BP (uncalibrated) (Flood 1995: 286). More recently, Richards et. al. (2007)
obtained dates from the Box Gully site of 32,000 years BP (calibrated). However, as this date
is calibrated, it should be noted that the uncalibrated age of the Box Gully site is
approximately 27,000 years BP.
Leopold falls within the known traditional boundaries of the Wathaurung or Wada wurrung
language group, whose territory included the coast west of the Werribee River to Painkalac
Creek at Aireys Inlet (Clark 1990).
The social and spatial organisation of traditional Aboriginal society has been the subject of
considerable debate. It is considered by most that Aboriginal society was organised according
to local descent groups called clans. The Wada wurrung language group included at least
twenty-five different clans – family units who were associated with specific localities (Clark
1990: 4-5). Wada wurrung clans were patrilineal and organised into moieties belonging to
either the Waa (crow) or Bunjil (eaglehawk) moiety – marriage partners were required to
belong to different moieties (Clark 1990: 276-277; Barwick 1984: 105).
The identity of the clan who occupied the Leopold area is not precisely known but following
Clark is likely to be the Bengalat balug, the Bellarine Peninsula peoples. The Barwon River is
believed to have provided a natural boundary with the adjoining clan, who may have belonged
to the Wada wurrung balug clan, who were associated with the Geelong area. It is thought
that the Wada wurrung balug were the clan who adopted William Buckley in 1803 (Clark
1990: 331; Morgan 1852).
The accepted documentary evidence for the Bengalat balug is poor. As noted in Clark, the
Bengalat balug’s clan location was Indented Head; which is not to say that the clan did not
regularly occupy other parts of the Peninsula. Their clan name Bengalat means people from
Bengala, the Aboriginal word for Indented Head. The clan head was named Hullamboin and
the clan belonged to the Waa moiety (Clark 1990: 317).
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Like their clan organization and religious beliefs, little is known about Wada wurrung
settlement patterns and technology. It can be assumed that they were mobile hunters and
gatherers whose clans (in this case Bengalat balug) occupied a specific range over which they
moved according to subsistence requirements, trading and social obligations. Foods that were
seasonally abundant, such as eels, would have been important, as they would have allowed for
the coalescing of large numbers of people during which social obligations could be met.
In his regional survey of the Bellarine Peninsula, Rhoads (1986) and G. Dunnett (in Rhoads
1986) present exhaustive lists of potential Aboriginal plant and animal resources, noting their
habitat and seasonal availability. Leopold is in the middle of the Bellarine Peninsula and it is
possible that the Bengalat balug had access to the resources listed for the coast and Port
Phillip Bay. Certainly, Lake Connewarre would have been a major focus of hunting and
gathering activity.
The Wada wurrung clans who lived on the coast were the first to come into direct contact with
the ngamadjig/amerjig or white man. This occurred ‘…by at least 1802 when Lieut. John
Murray in the Lady Nelson, charted part of Indented Head and named Swan Bay’ (Clark
1990: 227). The clans that occupied the You Yangs, Hovells Creek and Little River were the
next Wada wurrung to have direct contact with white explorers; which continued sporadically
between 1802 and 1835.
5.1.2.2 Oral history
WAC did not volunteer any oral history specific to the activity area.
5.1.3 Database searches
The following database searches were conducted:
5.1.3.1 Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register
A search of the Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register (VAHR) was conducted on 23 March
2011 for sites within a 5 km radius of the activity area. Searching an area with this radius
ensured that a relevant and representative sample of information was obtained.
No sites are located within a 2 km radius, and 35 sites are registered within a 5 km radius; 29
artefacts scatters, three shell middens, and three scarred trees. There are no registered
Aboriginal sites within the activity area itself (Map 6, Page 94).
A summary of the relevant Aboriginal archaeological sites appears below (Table 3).
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Table 3: Summary of Previously Identified Sites within 5 km of the Activity Area
VAHR Site Number
Site Name
Site Type
Within
Activity
Area?
7721-0096
Campbell Point 1 BP 85/15
Shell Deposit
3 km south
7721-0622
Bawtree Road 1
Artefact Scatter
2.5 km east
7721-0623
Bawtree Road 2
Artefact Scatter
2.5 km east
7721-0769
Leopold Marina 2
Artefact Scatter
3 km north
3 km north
7721-1027
Point Henry 14
Artefact Scatter
west
5.1.3.2 Local Council
The activity area is located within the City of Greater Geelong and is governed by the City of
Greater Geelong Planning Scheme. Planning schemes set out policies and provisions for the
use, development and protection of land.
The Heritage Overlay of the City of Greater Planning Scheme was examined. No Aboriginal
heritage places listed on the Heritage Overlay are present within the activity area.
5.1.4 Previous archaeological investigations
Regional and localised archaeological investigations have established the general character of
Aboriginal sites located within the same geographic region as the activity area. This
information, together with environmental context, histories of land use and historical and
ethnohistorical, can be used to form the basis for a site prediction statement.
In 1986, Rhoads (following Stockton) presented a review of and management
recommendations for known Aboriginal archaeological sites and archaeologically sensitive
landforms for the entire Bellarine Peninsula.
Since then, there have been many smaller studies of the local Aboriginal archaeology, the
majority of these being along the west coast between Barwon Heads and Queenscliff. Closer
to Leopold, there have been few archaeological surveys for Aboriginal heritage values.
Webb et al (2004) completed an archaeological assessment for the Leopold to Ocean Grove
pipeline duplication. Barwon Water commissioned TerraCulture to undertake an
archaeological assessment of a proposed pipeline duplication between Leopold and Ocean
Grove. The pipeline commenced approximately 200 m north of the current subject land,
heading east from Ash Road. The assessment consisted of a pedestrian survey and sub-surface
testing. Although ground visibility was generally poor, two Aboriginal cultural heritage places
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were discovered during the survey, in areas of high ground visibility. VAHR 7721-0622, an
artefact scatter, was found at the edge of a paddock with a potato crop; VAHR 7721-0621 was
an isolated artefact located on a vehicle track. A further Aboriginal cultural heritage place,
VAHR 7721-0623, was found during sub-surface testing.
Of the few known sites on Lake Connewarre that were reported on by Gill and Lane (1985),
the Campbell Point Midden is clearly the most significant from a scientific perspective. The
report was on the excavation and dating of a large shell midden at Point Campbell on the
northern shore of Lake Connewarre. The site yielded a radiocarbon date of 5270+/-80 (SUA2153) at 0.78m and a top date of 4070+/-80 (SUA-2152), demonstrating a minimum 1,200
year period of midden accumulation. The midden shells consist predominantly of Ostrea
(oyster) and Anadara (cockle). These shellfish inhabited Lake Connewarre during a period of
higher sea level, when the lake was a large estuary open to the coast.
The Point Campbell shell midden is located northeast of Ash Road, some 4 km from the
beginning of the proposed alignment. It is one of very few sites dated for the Bellarine
Peninsula and as mentioned demonstrates the mid Holocene occupation of the general area
and the use of Lake Connewarre.
A summary of archaeological reports relevant to the geographical region of the activity area
appears below (Table 4).
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Table 4: Archaeological Reports Relevant to the Activity Area
Author Date Report
#
McBryde, I.
1979
Description and Location
Results
Diffusion of culture and cultural traits discussed in relation to the
exchange of lithics focusing on axe heads in Northern New South Wales
and greenstone in Victoria.
The Victorian quarry sites of Mt William, Mt Camel and Berrambool
extend up to 700km from their source. For all quarries the distribution
lies west of the main Dividing Range and east of the lower Murray and
Mt Lofty Ranges. The movement of goods could reflect the existence of
exchange networks, patterns of seasonal movement within tribal
territories and regular meetings. Significantly, material is defined by a
broad classification scheme and distribution suggests the incorporation
of greenstone trade into existing networks over an extended area.
A report on the history of the occupying tribes of Melbourne and Geelong
(Wathaurung, Kurung, Wurundjeri, Taungurong and Bunurung), and
other Aboriginal people in the study area.
This report examines previous archaeological surveys and historical
documents to include information on tribal areas, ethnographic and
demographic information, current land use of the area by Aborigines,
and Aboriginal archaeological sites.
Journal article discuss the Campbell Point Midden at Lake Connewarre.
The Campbell Point shell midden (7721-0096 [VAHR]) is a very
significant Aboriginal site; one of the most important sites on the
Bellarine Peninsula. The midden is located on the northern shore of
Lake Connewarre, and radiocarbon dating provided a date of between
5270 ±/80 to 4070 ±/80. From these results, Gill and Lane determined
that the shell midden accumulated over approximately 1200 years. The
midden is one of only a few with dates, and demonstrates mid
Holocene occupation of the area. The predominant shells of the midden
are Ostrea (oyster) and Anadara (cockle). These shellfish occupied
Lake Connewarre during periods of increased sea level.
This report aimed to provide an overview and assessment of waterways
and floodplains for The Waterways and Drainage Group within
Melbourne Water to understand the impact on cultural heritage.
The predictive models provided in this report illustrate that waterways
and floodplains in and around Melbourne should still be considered
highly likely to yield evidence of Aboriginal occupation. Site types
considered common are surface artefact scatters, isolated artefacts and
scarred trees. Rarer site types are fresh water middens, burials and
quarries.
294
Black, C.F.
1984
728
Gill, E. and Lane, L.
1985
Journal Article
du Cros, H & Rhodes,
D.
1998
1320
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Author Date Report
#
Description and Location
Results
Marshall, B. & Schell, P.
A desktop investigation of thirty six locations along the Victorian coastline
aimed at assessing the impact on cultural heritage by CA/CCG projects
and providing future management of Aboriginal resources by CA/CCG
projects.
Some project areas were defined as having high densities sites and
scientifically important due to deposits of Pleistocene age. Isolated
artefacts, surface scatters and shell middens were the dominant sites;
rarer sites were scarred trees, isolated hearths, quarry/stone sources,
fish traps, art sites and human remains.
An investigation of the Barwon River Basin’s written archaeological
record; further surveys demonstrated low/insufficient records from
previous investigations.
All parts of the Barwon Basin must be considered archaeological
sensitive. The areas of highest sensitivity are the coast, the vicinity of
freshwater sources and the foothills of the Otway Range. Site damage
is high due to human disturbance, intact or nearly intact sites noted as
high priority for protection.
East of Grubb Road, Marshall undertook a survey at Marcus Hill, where
wind turbines were being proposed.
There was no ground visibility in the small paddock (450 x 100 m) and,
due to the construction of the adjacent water storage facility, little
chance of any in situ archaeological deposits.
No Aboriginal
archaeological sites were located during the survey but there was little
opportunity to examine the surface of the ground.
Desktop study along three possible corridors for a ring road around
Geelong.
57 sites were recorded within 2.5km of the bypass corridors, although
few sites were recorded in the corridors the geomorphologic landforms
were used to determine sensitivity; Volcanic Plains low, alluvial plains
unknown, Moorabool Hills low, Rivers and Creeks high, Reedy Lake
unknown, Corio bay high and point Henry high. Subsurface testing was
recommended for all three corridor possibilities.
A predictive sensitivity zoning model for the West Victoria Region.
Archaeological sites are stated to be virtually everywhere in the study
area with the challenge of the report to identify patterns of differing
density. The predictive model defined 3 zones of sensitivity. 1)
Southern periphery, 2) Northern periphery and 3) Interior. Factors
affecting site location in decreasing importance are; proximity to an
ecotone, proximity to fresh water, elevation below 200m and flatness of
ground. Distance from coast, location of water and elevation were all
relative factors in the number of sites. The highest density of sites was
1998
1370
Richards, T &
Jordan, J.
1999
856
Marshall, B.
2001
2031
Marshall, B.
2002
2296
McConnell, A.,
Buckley, K. &
Wickman, S.
2002a
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Author Date Report
#
Description and Location
2705
McConnell, A.,
Buckley, K. &
Wickman, S.
Results
located at 0-5km from the water, coastal basins at river mouths and
damp sclerophyll forest and wet heathland appear to contain high
densities.
This report sets out a proposal for an Aboriginal Heritage Management
System for the West Victoria Region State forest area based on previous
projects.
The sensitivity for archaeological sites in the area is presented in the
subsidiary report (AAV report number 2705) as the reason for the
recommendation of this report; which is for the endorsement urgently of
the AHMS register.
A report assessing the Aboriginal cultural heritage on the Port Phillip
coastline and the potential for submerged Pleistocene-early Holocene
archaeological sites within Port Phillip and the impacts of the proposed
activity on these sites. Channel deepening modifications are proposed
within the shipping channels.
The coastline of the bay was analysed by selecting nine soil sampling
units located within 300 m of the coast. These sample units were
intended to provide a representative sample of Port Phillip’s coastal
landforms. A desktop assessment of archaeological sites in each
sampling unit was carried out. A total of 574 archaeological sites are
registered with AAV within 300 m of the Port Phillip coast, the majority
of which (81%) are shell middens. 125 sites are within the sampling
units selected for this study. Findings show that the majority of the sites
in the sampling units (74%) occur within 25 m of the coast; and the
majority are located on cliffed sections of the coast, except for Point
Cook. It was determined that calcarenite below the Nepean Bay bar
may contain Aboriginal cultural heritage. Also, the submerged basalt
shelf extending between Williamstown and Point Lillias contains
potential for Aboriginal cultural heritage sites.
A survey and subsequent subsurface testing for the proposed duplication
of the water transfer main between Leopold and Ocean Grove.
The assessment consisted of a ground surface survey along the
proposed alignment. Two Aboriginal sites (VAHR 7721-0621/22) were
identified during the survey; one isolated artefact and one artefact
scatter. Prior to subsurface testing, ten geotechnical test pits were
2002b
2704
Rhodes, D.
2003
2533
TerraCulture
2004
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Author Date Report
#
Description and Location
excavated. Subsurface testing occurred along some sections of the
alignment- selected on the basis of poor ground visibility and
archaeologically sensitive landforms. One additional isolated artefact
(VAHR 7721-0623) was found in close proximity to VAHR 7721-0621.
2689
TerraCulture
A survey of 702-720 Portarlington Road.
This survey was conducted for a proposed residential subdivision
approximately 2 km north of the current subject land. No Aboriginal or
historical cultural heritage places were identified. However, further
archaeological investigations for Aboriginal cultural heritage in the form
of sub-surface testing, and additional historical research was
recommended.
A CHMP for a proposed retirement village and golf course at 402-404
Bellarine Highway, Moolap.
Although the study area is located adjacent to Reedy Lake (an area of
cultural heritage sensitivity), the activity will take place at a distance
greater than 200 m from the lake. No areas of cultural heritage
sensitivity were identified within the study area. No Aboriginal cultural
heritage was found within the activity area. The assessment determined
a low likelihood of Aboriginal cultural heritage sites being affected by
the proposed activity.
2006
3430
Chandler, J.
2007
10067
Results
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5.1.5 Aboriginal archaeological site prediction statement
The review of the previously recorded Aboriginal archaeological sites and previous
archaeological investigations indicates that the most likely site types in the activity area are
stone artefacts scatters and isolated artefacts. Other likely site types to occur are shell middens
and scarred trees. The following site prediction statement has been formulated from the
review of previous assessments. The statement presented is based on a site type approach.
Stone Artefact Scatters
Stone artefact scatters are likely to occur in the activity area.
Stone tools were made by hitting one piece of stone, called a core, with another called a
‘hammerstone’, often a pebble. This would remove a sharp fragment of stone called a flake.
Both cores and flakes could be used as tools. New flakes were very sharp, but quickly became
blunt during use and had to be sharpened again by further flaking, a process called ‘retouch’.
A tool that was retouched has a row of small flake scars along one or more edges. Retouch
was also used to shape a tool.
Not all types of stone could be used for making tools. The best types of stone are rich in silica,
hard and brittle. These include quartzite, chert, flint, silcrete and quartz. Aboriginal people
quarried such stone from outcrops of bedrock, or collected it as pebbles from stream beds and
beaches. Many flaked stone artefacts found on Aboriginal sites are made from stone types that
do not occur naturally in the area. This means they must have been carried over long
distances.
Stone tools are the most common evidence of past Aboriginal activities in Australia. They
occur in many places and are often found with other remains from Aboriginal occupation,
such as shell middens and cooking hearths. They are most common near rivers and creeks. It
is easier to find them where there is limited vegetation or where the ground surface has been
disturbed, for example by erosion.
Artefact scatters are the material remains of past Aboriginal people’s activities. Scatter sites
usually contain stone artefacts, but other material such as charcoal, animal bone, shell and
ochre may also be present. No two scatters are exactly the same.
Artefact scatters can be found wherever Aboriginal occupation has occurred in the past.
Aboriginal campsites were most frequently located near a reliable source of fresh water, so
surface scatters are often found near rivers or streams where erosion or disturbance has
exposed an older land surface.
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Isolated Artefacts
Isolated artefacts are likely to occur in the activity area.
Isolated artefacts are stone tools which occur singly and may occur anywhere in the
landscape. Surface isolated artefacts may be indicative of further sub surface archaeological
deposits. This site type can be found anywhere within the landscape, however, they are more
likely to occur within contexts with the same favourable characteristics for stone artefact
scatter sites.
Scarred Trees
Scarred Trees are likely to occur in the activity area.
Aboriginal people caused scars on trees by removing bark for various purposes.
The scars, which vary in size, expose the sapwood on the trunk or branch of a tree. Scarred
trees are found all over Victoria, wherever there are mature native trees, especially box and
red gum. They often occur along major rivers, around lakes and on flood plains.
Shell Middens
Shell middens are likely to occur in the activity area.
Shell middens may occur in both freshwater and coastal contexts. Shell middens are
accumulations of shell produced by Aboriginal people collecting, cooking and eating
shellfish. Shell middens often contain evidence of cooking such as charcoal, ash, fire-stones,
burnt earth or burnt clay. Sometimes they also contain animal bones, fish bones, stone tools
and Aboriginal burials.
Freshwater shell middens are found along river banks and flood plains, near swamps and
lakes, and in sand dunes. They are sometimes found in dry areas, where fresh water was once
present. Freshwater shell middens usually occur as fairly thin layers or small patches of shell.
The shells usually come from both the freshwater mussel (Velesunio ambiguus) and river
mussel (Alathyria jacksoni). The shells may be the remains of just one meal or hundreds of
meals eaten over thousands of years.
Freshwater mussel shells may also be found in Aboriginal oven mounds, but usually only in
small quantities. Middens may be visible as scatters of broken mussel shell, exposed along
vehicle tracks. If you look closely, you may find mussel shells buried in the surrounding soil.
Middens are also commonly visible as scatters of mussel shell eroding down the slopes of
dunes. Again, the scatters can usually be traced up the dune to the buried shell layer. Shell
fragments in the upcast from rabbit burrows in dunes may also indicate a midden.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
45
Shell middens are also found in many areas along the Victorian coast. They can be located in
sheltered positions in the dunes, coastal scrub and woodlands, within rockshelters, or on
exposed cliff tops with good vantage points. They can occur near rocky or sandy shores and
also close to coastal wetlands, inlets, estuaries, bays and river mouths. Coastal shell middens
are found as layers of shell exposed in the sides of dunes, banks or cliff tops, or as scatters of
shell exposed on eroded surfaces. They range in size from a few metres across to many
hundreds of metres and can consist of a thin, single layer, or multiple layers forming a thick
deposit.
Aboriginal Burials
Aboriginal burial are unlikely to occur in the activity area.
Aboriginal burials are normally found as clusters of human bones eroding from the ground, or
exposed during ground disturbance. Aboriginal customs for honouring and disposing of the
dead varied greatly across Victoria, but burial was common. Aboriginal burial sites normally
contain the remains of one or two people, although cemeteries that contain the remains of
hundreds of people buried over thousands of years have been found. Sometimes the dead
person was buried with personal ornaments and artefacts. Charcoal and ochre are also often
found in burial sites.
Although Aboriginal burials are quite rare in Victoria, they have been found in almost every
kind of landscape, from coastal dunes to mountain valleys. They tend to be near water courses
or in dunes surrounding old lake beds. Many burials have been found on high points, such as
dune ridges, within surrounding flat plains. They are often near or within Aboriginal
occupation sites such as oven mounds, shell middens or artefact scatters.
5.1.6 Desktop assessment - conclusions
The desktop assessment revealed that very little archaeological investigation has occurred
within the immediate vicinity of the activity area. However, it is considered likely that
archaeological sites will be present within the study area due to the proximity of the land to
Lake Connewarre, and the activity area’s elevation.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
46
5.2 Standard Assessment
The standard assessment includes a ground survey of the activity area to detect the presence of
Aboriginal cultural heritage in or associated with the activity area.
The activity area was surveyed on 15 April 2011 by TerraCulture Pty Ltd
Archaeologist/Cultural Heritage Advisor Monica Toscano, with representatives2 from the
WAC.
A follow up standard assessment of the eastern portion of 146-155 Ash Road (previously
under crop) was undertaken on 20 September 2011 by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd
Archaeologists/Cultural Heritage Advisors Mollie Harbour and Terence MacManus, with
Jodie McRedmond and Tim Kennedy representing the WAC.
5.2.1 Methodology of the standard assessment
The survey conducted by TerraCulture took the form of a pedestrian survey in which the
participants walked 2 m apart across the majority of the activity area (Map 7, Page 95). The
survey of an area previously under crop (at 146-155 Ash Road), conducted by Ecology and
Heritage Partners, was walked with participants spaced 5 m apart. All mature native trees
within the activity area were examined for evidence of cultural scarring.
5.2.2 Limitations of the standard assessment
5.2.2.1 Ground surface visibility
Ground surface visibility across the entire activity area was almost non-existent. In the only
location that afforded good ground visibility, two stone artefacts were found. Long grass was
found across the activity area; and the front section of 146-155 Ash Road could not be
surveyed due by TerraCulture to it being under crop. When this section of 146-155 Ash Road
was later surveyed by Ecology and Heritage Partners the ground surface visibility was 100%,
and it was evident that the ground had been ploughed.
5.2.3 Results of the standard assessment
Overall, ground visibility was found to be almost non-existent. Two stone artefacts were
identified: 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) and 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR
7721-1173) in one of only two areas that provided good visibility. Monica Toscano
(TerraCulture) was of the opinion that the only reason more artefacts were not found was
because of poor ground visibility (see Appendix 7). It was the opinion of the Aboriginal
representatives that there was potential for more sites to be found.
2
Names of the Wathaurung representatives were not provided in the TerraCulture survey report.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
47
In addition, several areas of archaeological potential were identified, particularly on the higher
ground at 90 Ash Road (Map 7, Page 95). The survey completed by Ecology and Heritage
Partners revealed no further cultural heritage material, and no additional areas of cultural
heritage likelihood. No scarred trees, caves, cave entrances or rock shelters are present within
the activity area.
Table 5: Effective Coverage Calculation
Landform
Total
Average
Landform
Average
Landform
Isolated
Exposure
Isolated
Exposure
GSV (%)
GSV (ha)
Area (ha)
13.7
25
3.425
0.9
7
10
Upper Slope
4.3
Total
25
Area
(ha)
Lower Slope
Mid Slope
GSV (%)
Area of
Activity
Area
Surveyed
(ha)
Percentage
of Activity
Area
Surveyed
(%)
Effective
Coverage
(%)
100
14
100.0
31.6
0.7
7
100.0
10.0
10
0.43
4
100.0
10.0
18
4.555
25
100.0
21.8
0.9
100
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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Plate 1: View of Activity Area facing dam and soil
stockpiles to the west, in the southernmost
property.
Plate 2: View of Activity Area facing north east, in
the southernmost property.
Plate 3: View of western portion of 146-155 Ash
Road, facing east.
Plate 4: View of 134 Ash Road, facing south.
Plate 5: View of eastern portion of 146-155 Ash
Road, facing west.
Plate 6: View of 90 Ash Road, facing east up the
slope.
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49
5.2.4 Results of standard assessment
The standard assessment identified two isolated artefact sites and an area of cultural heritage
likelihood on high ground at 90 Ash Road. As a result, a complex assessment is required to
determine the presence and extent, nature and significance of Aboriginal cultural heritage in
the activity area.
5.3 Complex Assessment
The complex assessment includes the excavation of the activity area to uncover or discover
Aboriginal cultural heritage in the activity area.
The subsurface testing program was conducted on 9, 12 and 15 August, and between 20-21
September 2011 by Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd Archaeologists/Cultural Heritage
Advisors Mollie Harbour and Terence MacManus, with Bert Fagan, Jodie McRedmond, Kacie
Mitchell, Tammy Gilson, Mick Castrisios, Chris Fry and Tim Kennedy representing the
WAC. Ecology and Heritage Partners Pty Ltd Archaeologist/Cultural Heritage Advisor Mollie
Harbour supervised the excavations.
5.3.1 Aims of the complex assessment
The aims of the complex assessment were:

To detect the possible presence of Aboriginal cultural heritage in areas of Aboriginal
archaeological likelihood within the activity area; and

To determine the nature, extent and significance of the Aboriginal archaeological sites
identified within the activity area during the standard assessment.
5.3.2 Methodology of the complex assessment
5.3.2.1 Establishing stratigraphy
The stratigraphy and general subsurface nature of the activity area was established through
controlled hand excavation prior to any other subsurface testing being carried out. A total of
two 1 x 1 m stratigraphic test pits (STPs) were excavated in locations representative of the
general landform of the area, and at the two surface artefact sites identified during the
standard assessment. STPs were located as follows (Map 8, Page 96):

STP01 was located at the site of isolated artefact 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR
7721-1172), located during the standard assessment; and

On higher ground at 90 Ash Road.
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50
The STPs were excavated in accordance with proper archaeological guidelines set out by
AAV (DPCD 2010), and Burke and Smith (2004). This involved the removal of the excavated
soil by hand (trowel) and in arbitrary units of 100 mm depth, stopping after each spit for
photographs and recording of the units except where features were uncovered, in which case
excavation paused until the feature was identified and recorded appropriately. The base clay
was excavated a further 100 mm to confirm archaeologically sterile soil.
A summary of the archaeological survey attributes appears in Appendix 3, Page 111.
5.3.2.2 Subsurface testing
A stratified random sampling methodology was used, with randomly placed transects across
the entire activity area, but with greater sampling emphasis placed on those areas considered
more likely to have in situ Aboriginal cultural heritage (i.e. in the vicinity of the two surface
artefacts and the higher ground in the northern most paddock). The methodology adopted is
described below (Map 8, Page 96).
Shovel Testing
A total of 89 shovel test holes (STHs), measuring 400 x 400 mm, were excavated across the
activity area in the following manner:






Three 350 m long transects were established on the sloped ground at 90 Ash Road (the
northernmost property); with each transect spaced 50 m apart. STHs were placed along
each transect at 50 m intervals; giving a total of 23 STHs (transects A to C). The
western portion of transects A and B were an identified area of cultural heritage
likelihood.
One 250 m long transect was established on the gently sloped ground at 22 Walkers
Road, extending easterly across 118 Ash Road. STHs were placed along the transect at
50 m intervals (minus areas of significant ground disturbance) giving a total of 4 STHs
per transect (transect F).
Four 200 m long transects were established on the gently sloped ground at 110 Ash
Road and 22 Walkers Road, and flat ground at 118, 146-155 and 160-172 Ash Road.
STHs were placed along each transect at 50 m intervals; giving a total of 18 STHs
(transects D, E, I and K).
The area of identified cultural heritage likelihood (NW corner of 90 Ash Road) also had
one 50 m transect with STHs at 50 m intervals, giving a total 2 STHs (transect Q).
Five 150 m long transects were established across flat ground at 146-155 and 160-172
Ash Road. STHs were placed along each transect at 50 m intervals; giving a total of 35
STHs (transects L to O).
The remainder of the property was tested by the establishment of two 100 m and one 50
m long transects across flat ground at 134 and 160-172 Ash Road. STHs were placed
along each transect at 50 m intervals; giving a total of 35 STHs (transects G, H and J).
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
51
Site Extent Testing





Ecology and Heritage Partners could not relocate the two isolated artefact sites
identified during the standard assessment conducted by TerraCulture. However, based
on the GPS coordinates provide for the sites, the spatial extents of the two identified
Aboriginal sites (VAHR 7721-1172 and 7721-1173) were tested by placing 400 x 400
mm shovel test holes (STHs) around the locations of the two sites.
Four 400 x 400 mm shovel test holes (STHs) were placed around the location of
isolated artefact VAHR 7721-1173. These were positioned 20-25 m NW, SW, SE and
NE from the artefact location.
STP01 was excavated at the location of isolated artefact VAHR 7721-1172. Transect O
was positioned 25 m to the north of the location of the isolated artefact, running west to
east. Transect L was positioned 25 m to the south of the location of the isolated artefact,
also running west to east. In addition STHs M2 and M3 were also used to test the site
extent to the west and east.
Four radial test holes (RTHs) were placed around STH L7 where a subsurface artefact
was identified (VAHR 7721-1174). These RTHs were placed 5 m north, south, east
and west of STH L7.
Four RTHs were placed around a surface artefact, which was identified in a vehicle
track at 146-155 Ash Road (VAHR 7721-1171). One RTH was excavated underneath
the artefact, and three RTHs were placed 5 m north, south and west of the artefact. A
fence blocked the placement of a fourth RTH to the east.
Using this approach, a total of two STPs, 89 STHs and eight RTHs were excavated. The soil
from all test pits (STPs, STHs and RTHs) were manually sieved using 5 mm mesh. The
stratigraphy of all test pits was recorded. The stratigraphy of all STPs was also drawn and
photographed.
A summary of the archaeological survey attributes appears in Appendix 3, Page 111.
5.3.3 Limitations of the complex assessment
A radial could not be excavated on the east side of the surface artefact at 146-155 Ash Road
(VAHR 7721-1171) due to a fence line and dense trees.
5.3.4 Results of the complex assessment
5.3.4.1 Establishing stratigraphy
A total of two 1 x 1 m STPs were excavated within the activity area (Table 6, Page 54 and
Map 8, Page 96).
STP01 was excavated at the location of isolated artefact site VAHR 7721-1172, within a tree
line running through the centre of the western portion of 160-172 Ash Road.
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52
The soil profile consisted of a layer of grey brown loam with small to medium sized ironstone
and basalt inclusions, increasing with depth. Small sea shells demonstrative of those found on
a sea floor were also present. Underlying context one lies a layer of light yellowish grey sandy
silt (more sand than silt) with frequent small to large ironstone and basalt inclusions. The
basal layer consisted of mid yellowish orange/grey cemented mottled clay. Charcoal chunks
were present, mainly focused in the northern section of the clay base context. Some small
basalt and ironstone inclusions were identified, but they decreased with depth.
STP02 was excavated on higher ground in the northernmost property of the activity area (90
Ash Road). The soil profile consisted of a layer of dark greyish grey/black sandy clay.
Underlying context one lies a layer of yellowish grey sandy clay with glass and ceramic
fragments. No natural gravel was present within STP02. The basal layer consisted of mid
orange/grey mottled clay.
The soil profile of the two STPs was reflected across the entire activity in the excavation of
the 89 STHs and 8 RTHs, with minor variations.
No Aboriginal cultural heritage was located within either STP.
The coordinates of all stratigraphic test pits excavated within the activity area appear in
Appendix 4, Page 112.
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Table 6: Stratigraphic Test Pits Excavated within the Activity Area (Map 8, Page 96)
STP
STP01
Coordinates
(GDA 94,
Zone 55)
STP Location Description
E 277896
N 5768582
Plate 7: Stratigraphy of STP01 north section
Stratigraphic Description
0 to 70 mm:
Dark greyish brown/grey firm/compact, fine sandy silt.
Inclusions- grass roots 0-50 mm. Moderate/frequent
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, increasing
with depth and moderate small shells from former sea
bed. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 6.
70 to 120 mm:
Mid greyish brown/grey firm/compact, fine sandy silt.
Inclusionsmoderate/frequent
small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, increasing with depth and
infrequent small shells from former sea bed. Munsell
10YR 4/3, pH 6.
120 to 190 mm:
Mid yellowish brown/grey cemented, medium sandy
clay/sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small to large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel, 25% soil).
Munsell 10YR 4/4, pH 6.190 to 250 mm:
Light yellowish grey cemented, medium sandy clay/sandy
silt.
Inclusionsfrequent
small
to
large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel, 25% soil).
Munsell 4/3, pH 6.5.
250 to 260 mm:
Light/mid reddish/yellowish orange/grey cemented, fine
mottled clay. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (50% clay, 50% gravel).
Some very dark orange/red clay mottling. Munsell 3/2
mottled with 5/8, pH 7.
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefact QTY
Material type
Artefact Depth
No Aboriginal sites identified
Figure 2: Stratigraphic Profile of STP01
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
54
STP
STP02
Coordinates
(GDA 94,
Zone 55)
STP Location Description
E 278083
N 5769064
Stratigraphic Description
0 to 110 mm:
Dark greyish grey/black firm, medium sandy clay.
Inclusions- dense grass roots; pottery fragment. Munsell
2/1, pH 6.
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefact QTY
Material type
Artefact Depth
No Aboriginal sites identified
110 to 200 mm:
Mid greyish grey firm, fine sandy clay. Inclusions- some
yellow sand inclusions; pottery and glass fragments. Very
infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell
3/2, pH 6.
Plate 8: Stratigraphy of STP02 north section
200 to 230 mm:
Mid greyish orange/grey firm, fine mottled clay. Munsell
3/2 mottled with 4/6, pH 6.
Figure 3: Stratigraphic Profile of STP02
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55
5.3.4.2 Subsurface testing
A total of 89 shovel test holes (STHs), measuring 400 mm x 400 mm, were excavated from 17
transects and eight radial test holes (RTHs) Appendix 4 and (Map 8, Page 96).
The excavation located one artefact from one shovel test hole at 160-172 Ash Road (VAHR
7721-1174) and one surface artefact located in a vehicle track at 146-155 Ash Road (VAHR
7721-1171).
These two isolated artefact sites are discussed in detail in Section 6, Page 58.
The coordinates of each transect start and end points appear in Appendix 4, while the
coordinates of all shovel test pits excavated within the activity area appear in Appendix 4,
Page 112.
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5.3.5 Complex assessment - conclusions
The excavation located one artefact from one shovel test hole at 160-172 Ash Road (VAHR
7721-1174) and one surface artefact located in a vehicle track at 146-155 Ash Road (VAHR
7721-1171).
Two isolated surface artefacts had been previously identified during the standard assessment
(Map 7, Page 95).
The desktop assessment revealed that very little archaeological investigation has occurred
within the immediate vicinity of the activity area. However, it was considered likely that
archaeological sites would be present within the study area due to the proximity of the land to
Lake Connewarre, and the activity area’s elevation. The standard assessment confirmed this
prediction, with the identification of two sites, and further cultural heritage was identified
during the complex assessment. The complex assessment tested the entire activity area for
further Aboriginal archaeological sites, and identified a total of four isolated artefact sites.
Subsurface extent testing at the site of the four isolated artefacts did not reveal further
archaeological deposits. The lack of substantial artefact scatters within the activity area can
perhaps be explained by the lack of water sources in the immediate vicinity of the activity
area. The closest water source is Lake Connewarre, located approximately 500 m south of the
activity area. It has been widely demonstrated that the highest concentration of Aboriginal
sites occur within 200 m of a permanent water source.
It is thought that the activity area was once inundated during a period of high sea levels at the
end of the Last Ice Age. Marine shell deposits were found in the southern portion of the
activity area, reminiscent of those present on sea beds. These shells are non-artefactual. As
discussed by Bird (1993) the Leopold area is ‘underlain by Late Pleistocene sediments
containing marine shells, deposited when the area was submerged by a higher sea level and
later covered by Holocene peaty deposits’. Gill and Lane’s (1985) report on the Campbell
Point Midden demonstrated that during a period of higher sea level, the lake was a large
estuary open to the coast.
The full details of all Aboriginal cultural heritage present within the activity area are presented
in Section 6, Page 58.
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6 DETAILS OF ABORIGINAL CULTURAL HERITAGE IN
THE ACTIVITY AREA
6.1 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage in the Activity Area
Four Aboriginal archaeological sites are present within the activity area:

146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171);

160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174);

160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172); and

160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) (Map 9, Page 97).
The site gazetteer in Appendix 5, Page 116 presents a summary of the sites, and the artefact
analysis is presented in Appendix 6, Page 143.
6.1.1 Assessment of the Aboriginal cultural heritage
6.1.1.1 Site formation processes
Site formation processes were assessed through a study of the landform, soil types,
stratigraphy and taphonomic processes.
As all four sites are isolated artefacts (three of which were found on the ground surface) site
formation processes were difficult to predict. The three surface artefacts were determined to
be in disturbed contexts (a fence line, vehicle track and pre-existing tree line).
6.1.1.2 Artefact analysis
The artefact analysis focused on determining patterns of raw material use, technology and
typology. Attributes recorded for each artefact include:

Raw material, type and colour;

Tool type (where applicable);

Flake scars (where applicable);

Fracture type;

Platform quantity, type, width and thickness (where applicable);

Termination type (where applicable);
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
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
Retouch type (where applicable);

Retouch location (where applicable); and

Dimensions and mass.
6.1.2 RAP information regarding the Aboriginal cultural heritage
The WAC did not have any oral histories relating to the activity area for inclusion in this
report.
6.1.3 Results of the Assessment of the Aboriginal cultural heritage
Four Aboriginal archaeological sites are present within the activity area:

146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171);

160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174);

160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172); and

160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) (Map 9, Page 97).
It was considered highly likely that archaeological sites would be present within the study area
due to the proximity of the land to Lake Connewarre, and the activity area’s elevation. The
standard assessment confirmed this prediction, with the identification of two sites, and further
cultural heritage was identified during the complex assessment. All four sites comprise
isolated artefacts; one subsurface artefact and three surface artefacts located in areas of good
ground surface visibility.
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6.2 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
6.2.1 Location of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
Primary Grid Coordinate: GDA 94, Zone 55, E 277923, N 5768727.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 261, Lot 1 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.
6.2.2 Extent of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
The site is an isolated artefact, found on the ground surface (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 1 and
Plates 9 and 10).
6.2.3 Nature of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
The surface artefact identified during the complex assessment represents a conchoidallyflaked pinkish-grey silcrete utilised flake, with the evidence of use preserved as use-wear on
the Q4 margin. The tool blank is a whole flake, and the tool preserves both the platform and
the flake, characterised as plain and feather types respectively.
The site was identified in a disturbed context, being located on a rough track running on the
eastern side of a dam, on the outer margins of the excavated overburden. It is possible that the
artefact may have been affected by the construction of this dam and the use of the track,
resulting in the artefact being moved from its original in situ location. Although the area was
subsequently surveyed and tested through the excavation of four shovel test holes, no
additional artefacts were identified on the surface or in sub-surface contexts.
6.2.4 Significance of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
Flakes are a ubiquitous component of the Australian Aboriginal archaeological record, and
sites consisting of a single flaked stone artefact are not generally useful in regards to
interpreting site use or chronology. Additionally, utilised flakes are an artefact type which is
common throughout Aboriginal archaeological sites of all types and ages across Victoria.
Therefore, the site is regarded to have a low scientific significance.
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Plan 1: Extent of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
Plate 9: View of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1171) and RTHs, facing north.
Plate 10: Artefact from 146-155 Ash Road IA
(VAHR 7721-1171).
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6.3 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
6.3.1 Location of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
Primary Grid Coordinate: GDA 94, Zone 55, E 277991, N 5768554.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 262, Lot 2 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.
6.3.2 Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
The site is an isolated artefact, found on the in a subsurface context (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 2
and Plates 11 and 12).
6.3.3 Nature of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
The artefact identified during the complex assessment represents a conchoidally-flaked dark
grey very fine waxy chert (possibly) distal flake, with the evidence of possible use preserved
as on the Q4 margin. The flake presents a notch, which forms a point at the distal end, and the
flake preserves its feather termination type.
The site was identified in the southernmost property of the activity area, on slightly higher
ground at 160-172 Ash Road. The site lies nearby to the southern boundary of the property.
Although the area was subsequently surveyed and tested through the excavation of four radial
shovel test holes, no additional artefacts were identified on the surface or in sub-surface
contexts.
6.3.4 Significance of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
Flakes are a ubiquitous component of the Australian Aboriginal archaeological record, and
sites consisting of a single flaked stone artefact are not generally useful in regards to
interpreting site use or chronology. Additionally, utilised flakes are an artefact type which is
common throughout Aboriginal archaeological sites of all types and ages across Victoria.
Therefore, the site is regarded to have a low scientific significance.
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Plan 2: Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
Plate 11: Artefact from 160-172 Ash Road IA
(VAHR 7721-1174).
Plate 12: Artefact from 160-172 Ash Road IA
(VAHR 7721-1174).
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6.4 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
6.4.1 Location of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Primary Grid Coordinate: GDA 94, Zone 55, E 277937, N 5768634.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 262, Lot 2 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.
6.4.2 Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Site 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) is located in the centre of a pre-existing tree
line, now cut down (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 3 and Plate 13).
6.4.3 Nature of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 7721-1172 [VAHR])
The isolated artefact is located in an area of good ground surface visibility; however the
artefact could not be relocated during the complex assessment. Further details regarding the
nature of the isolated artefact were not provided by Terra Culture.
6.4.4 Significance of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Flakes are a ubiquitous component of the Australian Aboriginal archaeological record, and
sites consisting of a single flaked stone artefact are not generally useful in regards to
interpreting site use or chronology. Additionally, utilised flakes are an artefact type which is
common throughout Aboriginal archaeological sites of all types and ages across Victoria.
Therefore, the site is regarded to have a low scientific significance.
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Plan 3: Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Plate 13: View of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR
7721-1172).
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6.5 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
6.5.1 Location of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
Primary Grid Coordinate: GDA 94, Zone 55, E 277888, N 5768581.

Volume #: 9118, Folio #: 262, Lot 2 LP116751, Parish of Moolap.
6.5.2 Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
Site 160-172 Ash Road IA3 was located at approximately the centre of the northern fence line
in an area of good ground surface visibility (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 3 and Plate 14).
6.5.3 Nature of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
The isolated artefact is located in an area of good ground surface visibility; however the
artefact could not be relocated during the complex assessment. Further details regarding the
nature of the isolated artefact were not provided by Terra Culture.
6.5.4 Significance of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
Flakes are a ubiquitous component of the Australian Aboriginal archaeological record, and
sites consisting of a single flaked stone artefact are not generally useful in regards to
interpreting site use or chronology. Additionally, utilised flakes are an artefact type which is
common throughout Aboriginal archaeological sites of all types and ages across Victoria.
Therefore, the site is regarded to have a low scientific significance.
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Plan 4: Extent of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
Plate 14: View of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR
7721-1173).
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7 CONSIDERATION OF SECTION 61 MATTERS – IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
7.1 Section 61 Matters in relation to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1171)
7.1.1 Avoidance of harm
A development plan for the activity area is not currently available; however it is likely that
harm to site 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) will occur in the form of significant
ground disturbing earthworks (Map 9, Page 97).
7.1.2 Minimisation of harm
Harm to site 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) cannot be avoided. As the site is of
low significance minimisation of harm is not considered appropriate.
7.1.3 Management measures
The surface artefact will be salvaged by the WAC following the approval of this CHMP and
the artefact will be reburied in an allocated area of public open space approximately 30 m
south of isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174).
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7.2 Section 61 Matters in relation to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1174)
7.2.1 Avoidance of harm
A development plan for the activity area is not currently available; however it is likely that
harm to site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) will occur in the form of significant
ground disturbing earthworks (Map 9, Page 97).
7.2.2 Minimisation of harm
Harm to site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) cannot be avoided. As the site is of
low significance minimisation of harm is not considered appropriate.
7.2.3 Management measures
Custody of the subsurface artefact will be given to the WAC following the approval of this
CHMP and the artefact will be reburied in an allocated area of public open space
approximately 30 m south of isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174).
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7.3 Section 61 Matters in relation to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR
7721-1172)
7.3.1 Avoidance of harm
A development plan for the activity area is not currently available; however it is likely that
harm to site 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) will occur in the form of significant
ground disturbing earthworks (Map 9, Page 97).
7.3.2 Minimisation of harm
Harm to site 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) cannot be avoided. As the site is of
low significance minimisation of harm is not considered appropriate.
7.3.3 Management measures
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further management measures are required.
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7.4 Section 61 Matters in relation to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR
7721-1173)
7.4.1 Avoidance of harm
A development plan for the activity area is not currently available; however it is likely that
harm to site 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) will occur in the form of significant
ground disturbing earthworks (Map 9, Page 97).
7.4.2 Minimisation of harm
Harm to site 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) cannot be avoided. As the site is of
low significance minimisation of harm is not considered appropriate.
7.4.3 Management measures
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further management measures are required.
7.5 General Requirements
7.5.1 Requirement for contingency plans
In accordance with Clause 13(1) Schedule 2 of the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007, the
CHMP must contain contingency plans for:

The matters referred to in Section 61 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006;

The resolution of any disputes between the Sponsor and relevant Registered
Aboriginal Party in relation to the implementation of the CHMP or the conduct of the
activity;

The discovery of Aboriginal cultural heritage during the activity;

The notification of the discovery of Aboriginal cultural heritage during the carrying
out of the activity;

The management of Aboriginal cultural heritage found during the activity; and

Reviewing compliance with the CHMP and mechanisms for remedying noncompliance.
7.5.2 Requirement for arrangements for the custody and management of
Aboriginal cultural heritage (artefacts)
As Aboriginal artefacts were recovered from 4 Aboriginal archaeological sites within the
activity area, and salvage excavations are required for 3 Aboriginal archaeological sites within
the activity area, there is a requirement for arrangements for the custody and management of
Aboriginal cultural heritage.
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PART 2 – CULTURAL HERITAGE
MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
Note: These recommendations become compliance requirements once this Cultural Heritage
Management Plan is approved.
8 SPECIFIC CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT
REQUIREMENTS
8.1 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
The site is an isolated artefact, found on the ground surface (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 1 and
Plates 9 and 10).
8.1.1 Recommendations to avoid harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1171)
Harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) cannot be avoided.
8.1.2 Recommendations to minimise harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1171)
Harm to 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) cannot be avoided.
8.1.3 Recommendations for the salvage of 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1171)
The activity cannot avoid impacting upon the Aboriginal archaeological site 146-155 Ash
Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171), therefore the following salvage and reburial program is
recommended prior to any construction works in the activity area commencing:

A surface salvage will be implemented to salvage the surface artefact at this site
(Map 10, Page 98).

Subsurface testing at the site did not identify a subsurface component to this site,
therefore a salvage excavation is not considered to be warranted.

Custody of the Aboriginal cultural heritage from 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 77211171) shall be given to the WAC, and the artefact will be reburied in an allocated area
of public open space approximately 30 m south of isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash
Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) after landscaping works are completed
(Map 10, Page 98);

It is suggested low root stock plantings take place. Future maintenance of this area
should be minimal. There is no requirement for the placement of geofabric. No
underground infrastructure is to be installed at the allocated reburial location.
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72

Machines are not to drive through, scrape or excavate the reserved parts of the site after
artefact reburial.
After completion of the salvage works the Cultural Heritage Advisor shall provide AAV with
an artefact collection form detailing the new conditions of the isolated artefact site, and the
artefacts will be returned to the WAC.
8.1.4 Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and
management of Aboriginal cultural heritage (artefacts) from 146-155
Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171)
The custody of the Aboriginal cultural heritage from site 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 77211171), including all material which has already been collected and material to be collected or
excavated as part of the salvage works must comply with the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006
and be assigned to the RAP responsible for the activity area, namely the WAC. Ecology and
Heritage Partners Pty Ltd currently has custody of material excavated during the course of
preparing this CHMP, and the Cultural Heritage Advisor selected by the Sponsor to undertake
the salvage works will have initial custody of all material excavated or collected as part of
salvage works.
It should be noted that any Cultural Heritage Advisor engaged to investigate any Aboriginal
cultural heritage should be able to retain initial custody of Aboriginal cultural heritage for a
reasonable period of time for the purposes of analysis. In accordance with the Aboriginal
Heritage Act 2006, during the period that the Cultural Heritage Advisor has custody of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage, the Cultural Heritage Advisor must:

Label and package collected artefactual material with reference to provenance; and

Arrange storage of the material in a secure location together with copies of the
catalogue, assessment documentation, management plan and results of the analysis.
Following the repatriation of Aboriginal cultural heritage held by the Cultural Heritage
Advisor to the RAP, should the RAP wish to rebury the Aboriginal cultural heritage, the
following must take place:

The site record card must be updated, including an object collection component form;

The reburial location must be known, relocatable and in an area which is protected
from future development or disturbance;

Where possible, the Aboriginal cultural heritage should be reburied within the
boundaries of the Aboriginal archaeological site from which the Aboriginal cultural
heritage was originally excavated.

In this instance, it has been agreed between the Sponsor and the RAP that the
Aboriginal cultural heritage from 146-155 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1171) shall be
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73
reburied in an allocated area of public open space approximately 30 m south of
isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) (Map 10, Page 98);

Artefacts must be reburied in a durable container which may or may not be open
bottomed to allow contact between the artefacts and the soil whilst allowing the
reburied material to be readily identified as such; and

An additional enclosed durable container must be buried next to the artefacts which
contains copies of all documentation relating to the artefacts, including a copy of the
relevant site card, artefact database, this CHMP and any salvage report.
8.2 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
The site is an isolated artefact, found on the in a subsurface context (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 2
and Plates 11 and 12).
8.2.1 Recommendations to avoid harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1174)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) cannot be avoided.
8.2.2 Recommendations to minimise harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1174)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) cannot be avoided.
8.2.3 Recommendations for the salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR
7721-1174)
The activity cannot avoid impacting upon the Aboriginal archaeological site 160-172 Ash
Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174). Radial shovel test holes were excavated around the isolated
artefact to determine the site extent and no further artefacts were found, therefore salvage is
not required.
Custody of the isolated artefact (VAHR 7721-1174) will be given to the WAC prior to works
commencing, and reburial of the artefact is recommended after landscaping works are
completed:

The artefact will be reburied in an allocated area of public open space approximately
30 m south of isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) after
landscaping works are completed (Map 10, Page 98);

It is suggested low root stock plantings take place. Future maintenance of this area
should be minimal. There is no requirement for the placement of geofabric. No
underground infrastructure is to be installed at the allocated reburial location.
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74

Machines are not to drive through, scrape or excavate the reserved parts of the site after
artefact reburial.
8.2.4 Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and
management of Aboriginal cultural heritage (artefacts) from 160-172
Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174)
The custody of the Aboriginal cultural heritage from site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 77211174), including all material which has already been collected and material to be collected or
excavated as part of the salvage works must comply with the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006
and be assigned to the RAP responsible for the activity area, namely the WAC. Ecology and
Heritage Partners Pty Ltd currently has custody of material excavated during the course of
preparing this CHMP, and the Cultural Heritage Advisor selected by the Sponsor to undertake
the salvage works will have initial custody of all material excavated or collected as part of
salvage works.
It should be noted that any Cultural Heritage Advisor engaged to investigate any Aboriginal
cultural heritage should be able to retain initial custody of Aboriginal cultural heritage for a
reasonable period of time for the purposes of analysis. In accordance with the Aboriginal
Heritage Act 2006, during the period that the Cultural Heritage Advisor has custody of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage, the Cultural Heritage Advisor must:

Label and package collected artefactual material with reference to provenance; and

Arrange storage of the material in a secure location together with copies of the
catalogue, assessment documentation, management plan and results of the analysis.
Following the repatriation of Aboriginal cultural heritage held by the Cultural Heritage
Advisor to the RAP, should the RAP wish to rebury the Aboriginal cultural heritage, the
following must take place:

The site record card must be updated, including an object collection component form;

The reburial location must be known, relocatable and in an area which is protected
from future development or disturbance;

Where possible, the Aboriginal cultural heritage should be reburied within the
boundaries of the Aboriginal archaeological site from which the Aboriginal cultural
heritage was originally excavated.

In this instance, it has been agreed between the Sponsor and the RAP that the
Aboriginal cultural heritage from 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) shall be
reburied in an allocated area of public open space approximately 30 m south of
isolated artefact site 160-172 Ash Road IA (VAHR 7721-1174) (Map 10, Page 98);
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75

Artefacts must be reburied in a durable container which may or may not be open
bottomed to allow contact between the artefacts and the soil whilst allowing the
reburied material to be readily identified as such; and

An additional enclosed durable container must be buried next to the artefacts which
contains copies of all documentation relating to the artefacts, including a copy of the
relevant site card, artefact database, this CHMP and any salvage report.
8.3 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
Site 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) is located in the centre of a pre-existing tree
line, now cut down (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 3 and Plate 13).
8.3.1 Recommendations to avoid harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR
7721-1172)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) cannot be avoided.
8.3.2 Recommendations to minimise harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2
(VAHR 7721-1172)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172) cannot be avoided.
8.3.3 Recommendations for the salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA2 (VAHR
7721-1172)
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further recommendations are required.
8.3.4 Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and
management of Aboriginal cultural heritage (artefacts) from 160-172
Ash Road IA2 (VAHR 7721-1172)
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further recommendations are required.
8.4 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
Site 160-172 Ash Road IA3 was located at approximately the centre of the northern fence line
in an area of good ground surface visibility (Map 9, Page 97; Plan 3 and Plate 14).
8.4.1 Recommendations to avoid harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR
7721-1173)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) cannot be avoided.
8.4.2 Recommendations to minimise harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3
(VAHR 7721-1173)
Harm to 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173) cannot be avoided.
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8.4.3 Recommendations for the salvage of 160-172 Ash Road IA3 (VAHR
7721-1173)
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further recommendations are required.
8.4.4 Recommendations for the removal, curation, custody and
management of Aboriginal cultural heritage (artefacts) from 160-172
Ash Road IA3 (VAHR 7721-1173)
As the surface artefact could not be relocated, no further recommendations are required.
8.5 Other Recommendations
8.5.1 Recommendations for cultural awareness training
It is recommended that a Cultural Heritage Induction Booklet containing Part 2 of this CHMP
and all relevant maps is produced by a Cultural Heritage Advisor and presented to all
employees and contractors working within the activity area prior to the commencement of the
activity. Costs of any such induction are to be borne by the Sponsor.
8.5.2 Provisions for Aboriginal people to visit cultural heritage places
within the activity area
Aboriginal people are permitted to visit cultural heritage places within the activity area which
are located on public land. Aboriginal people are not permitted to visit cultural heritage places
within the activity area that are located on residential lots.
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9 CONTINGENCY PLANS
9.1 Contingency regarding Section 61 Matters
Under the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 (Schedule 2(13)), a CHMP must contain
contingency plans for the matters referred to in Section 61 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act
2006. This CHMP contains contingency plans which are specific to the activity and activity
area described within this CHMP. If changes to the activity or the activity area which require
statutory authorisation occur following the approval of this CHMP, it is likely that the
Sponsor will have to prepare and submit a new CHMP which contains new recommendations
and contingency plans appropriate for the changed activity, activity area and results of the
archaeological investigations.
9.2 Contingency regarding Dispute Resolution
The following strategy should be employed to resolve any disputes arising during the course
of the proposed activity:

Only issues directly related to the Aboriginal cultural heritage will be handled through
this dispute resolution process.

All disputes will be jointly investigated.

Where a breach of the CHMP recommendations or contingency plans has been found
to have occurred, the RAP and the Sponsor will agree to the best method of correction
or remediation.

Any correction or remedial activities required will be overseen by a representative of
the RAP and will take place in accordance with the instructions given by the RAP.

The Sponsor and its site contractors will not undertake any such operations without
receiving the consent of the RAP.

The RAP will use their best endeavours to minimise delays to work schedules while
not compromising cultural places or values.

Authorised Project Delegates (APD) from each party (the RAP and the Sponsor) will
attempt to negotiate a resolution to any dispute related to the cultural heritage
management of the activity area.

Such resolution will be attempted within 48 hours of a notice being received that a
dispute between the parties is deemed to exist.

If the APDs cannot reach an agreement, then other authorised representatives of both
parties will meet to negotiate a resolution to an agreed schedule.
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
These arrangements do not preclude any legal recourse open to the parties being taken
but the parties agree the above avenues will be exhausted before such recourse is
made.

For the purposes of dispute resolution for this activity, the following people will act as
APDs for each party:


The RAP.

The Sponsor: Chris Mason, St Quentin Consulting, telephone (03) 5201 1832.
Any change in personnel appointed as the APDs in one party will be promptly notified
to all other parties.
9.3 Contingency regarding the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural
Heritage
9.3.1 Unexpected discovery of isolated or dispersed scatters of Aboriginal
cultural heritage
It is unlikely that previously unknown Aboriginal cultural heritage will be discovered within
the activity area during the activity. This Aboriginal cultural heritage is likely to be isolated
stone artefacts. However, if a person discovers or suspects that they have discovered
Aboriginal cultural heritage during the activity, and the actual or suspected cultural heritage is
an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five stone artefacts, the following contingency plan
must be followed:

The person in charge or site manager of the activity within the activity area must be
notified immediately;

The person in charge or site manager must immediately suspend all activities and
works at the location of the discovery and within 5 m of the extent of the Aboriginal
cultural heritage;

Within a period of two business days, the person in charge or site manager must
engage an appropriately qualified and experienced Cultural Heritage Advisor and
inform them of the discovery;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must be engaged to assess the discovered Aboriginal
cultural heritage in consultation with the RAP, record the cultural heritage material
and update or complete new site cards for the discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must be engaged to catalogue and analyse all
discovered cultural heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must notify AAV of the discovery by lodging either a
new or updated VAHR site record card within a timely manner.
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

Work in the excluded area may recommence provided:

The discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage has been identified, inspected,
recorded and collected for reburial by a Cultural Heritage Advisor;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor has identified the discovered cultural heritage as
being an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five stone artefacts; and

New or updated VAHR site record cards have been completed and forwarded
to AAV.
Failure of parties to reach an agreed course of action in this manner will be classed as
a dispute under this agreement and the contingency plan in this CHMP regarding
dispute resolution must be followed.
9.3.2 Unexpected discovery of other Aboriginal cultural heritage
It is unlikely that previously unknown Aboriginal cultural heritage other than isolated stone
artefacts or dispersed artefacts will be discovered within the activity area during the activity.
However, if a person discovers or suspects that they have discovered Aboriginal cultural
heritage during the activity, and the actual or suspected cultural heritage is cultural heritage
other than an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five stone artefacts the following
contingency plan must be followed:

The person in charge or site manager of the activity within the activity area must be
notified immediately;

The person in charge or site manager must immediately suspend all activities and
works at the location of the discovery and within 20 m of the extent of the Aboriginal
cultural heritage;

Within a period of two business days, the person in charge or site manager must
engage an appropriately qualified and experienced Cultural Heritage Advisor and
inform them of the discovery;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must be engaged to assess the discovered Aboriginal
cultural heritage in consultation with the RAP, record the cultural heritage material
and update or complete new site cards for the discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must be engaged to catalogue and analyse all
discovered cultural heritage;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor must notify AAV of the discovery by lodging either a
new or updated VAHR site record card within a timely manner;

The Sponsor must make all reasonable attempts to avoid or minimise harm to the
newly discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage;
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
Where it is not possible to avoid harming the Aboriginal cultural heritage, mitigation
in the form of salvage must be undertaken;

Where salvage of discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage is required, decisions about
how to proceed with salvage excavation must be made on a case-by-case basis by the
Cultural Heritage Advisor, in consultation with AAV. The salvage excavation must be
undertaken to the satisfaction of AAV. The methodology of any salvage excavation
must be appropriate to the site type(s) discovered and the nature, extent and
significance of the site(s). All salvage must abide by Regulation 61 of the Aboriginal
Heritage Regulations 2007 and be undertaken in accordance with proper
archaeological practice and the results of the excavations must be provided to AAV
within 120 days of the salvage excavation, and a salvage excavation report completed
to the relevant standards identified by AAV.

Work in the excluded area may recommence provided:


The discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage has been identified, inspected,
recorded and collected for reburial by a Cultural Heritage Advisor;

The Sponsor has taken appropriate measures to avoid harming the Aboriginal
cultural heritage, including appropriate protection measures as agreed upon by
the Sponsor and the RAP;

If the Sponsor cannot avoid harming the Aboriginal cultural heritage, the
Sponsor has taken appropriate measures to minimise harm to Aboriginal
cultural heritage, including appropriate protection measures as agreed upon by
the Sponsor and the RAP;

The Cultural Heritage Advisor has undertaken the appropriate salvage
excavations or collections; and

New or updated Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register site record cards have
been completed and forwarded to AAV.
Failure of parties to reach an agreed course of action in this manner will be classed as
a dispute under this agreement and the contingency plan in this CHMP regarding
dispute resolution must be followed.
9.3.3 Unexpected discovery of human remains
Under Section 4 of the Coroner’s Act 2008, if the body of a deceased person is found in
Victoria (s.4 (1)(a)) and the identity of the deceased is unknown (s. 4(2)(g)) then the death is
reportable and under Section 12 of the Coroner’s Act 2008 there is an obligation to report
death. If any suspected human remains are found during any activity, works must cease. The
media must not be contacted under any circumstances. The State Coroner’s Office on 1300
309 519 and Victoria Police on 03 9684 4387 should be notified immediately (s. 12 (1)). If
there are reasonable grounds to believe that the remains are Aboriginal, the Department of
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Sustainability and Environment’s (DSE) Emergency Coordination Centre must be contacted
immediately on 1300 888 544. This advice has been developed further and is described in the
following 5 step contingency plan. Any such discovery within the activity area must follow
these steps.
WAC have requested that the following additional clause be added to this contingency:

No photographs or digital images of Aboriginal human remains are to be taken without
prior approval. It is noted that under the Coroner’s Act 2008, photographs may be
required during initial inquiries.
1. Discovery:

If suspected human remains are discovered, all activity in the vicinity must stop; and

The remains must be left in place, and protected from harm or damage.
2. Notification:

Once suspected human skeletal remains have been found, the State Coroner’s Office
on 1300 309 519 and Victoria Police on 03 9684 4387 must be notified immediately;

If there is reasonable grounds to believe that the remains could be Aboriginal, the DSE
Emergency Co-ordination Centre must be immediately notified on 1300 888 544;

The media must not be contacted under any circumstances;

All details of the location and nature of the human remains must be provided to the
relevant authorities; and

If it is confirmed by these authorities that the discovered remains are Aboriginal
skeletal remains, the person responsible for the activity must report the existence of the
human remains to the Secretary, DPCD, in accordance with s.17 of the Aboriginal
Heritage Act 2006.

The person responsible for the activity must ensure that the media is not notified of the
discovery of any Aboriginal skeletal remains.
3. Impact Mitigation or Salvage:

The Secretary, after taking reasonable steps to consult with any Aboriginal person or
body with an interest in the Aboriginal human remains, will determine the appropriate
course of action as required by s.18(2)(b) of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006;

An appropriate impact mitigation or salvage strategy as determined by the Secretary
must be implemented by the Sponsor.
4. Curation and further analysis:
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
The treatment of salvaged Aboriginal human remains must be in accordance with the
direction of the Secretary.
5. Reburial:

Any reburial site(s) must be fully documented by an experienced and qualified
archaeologist, clearly marked and all details provided to AAV; and

Appropriate management measures must be implemented to ensure that the remains
are not disturbed in the future.
9.4 Reporting the Discovery of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage during
the Activity
Where Aboriginal cultural heritage is identified during an activity, the Sponsor is responsible
for notifying and engaging an appropriately qualified and experienced Cultural Heritage
Advisor of the discovery (Sections 9.3.1 and 9.3.2). The Cultural Heritage Advisor is
responsible for investigating, reporting, and facilitating an appropriate outcome in accordance
with the above contingency plans. The Cultural Heritage Advisor must notify AAV of the
discovery by lodging either a new or updated VAHR site record card within a timely manner.
9.5 Contingency for the Removal, Curation, Custody and
Management of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage (Artefacts)
Discovered during the Activity
Should any Aboriginal cultural heritage be discovered during the activity, the custody of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage must comply with the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and be
assigned in the following order of priority, as appropriate:

Any relevant RAP for the land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been
salvaged;

Any relevant registered native title holder for the land from which the Aboriginal
cultural heritage has been salvaged;

Any relevant native title party (as defined in the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006) for the
land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been salvaged;

Any relevant Aboriginal person or persons with traditional or familial links with the
land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been salvaged;

Any relevant Aboriginal body or organisation which has historical or contemporary
interests in Aboriginal heritage relating to the land from which the Aboriginal cultural
heritage has been salvaged;

The owner of the land from which the Aboriginal cultural heritage has been salvaged;
and
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
The Museum of Victoria.
It should be noted that any Cultural Heritage Advisor engaged to investigate any Aboriginal
cultural heritage should be able to retain initial custody of Aboriginal cultural heritage for a
reasonable period of time for the purposes of analysis. In accordance with the Aboriginal
Heritage Act 2006, during the period that the Cultural Heritage Advisor has custody of the
Aboriginal cultural heritage, the Cultural Heritage Advisor must:

Label and package collected artefactual material with reference to provenance; and

Arrange storage of the material in a secure location together with copies of the
catalogue, assessment documentation, management plan and results of the analysis.
Following the repatriation of Aboriginal cultural heritage held by the Cultural Heritage
Advisor to any of the above people or groups (except Museum Victoria), should any of the
above people or groups wish to rebury the Aboriginal cultural heritage, the following must
take place:

The site record card must be updated, including an object collection component form;

The reburial location must be known, relocatable and in an area which is protected
from future development or disturbance;

Where possible, the Aboriginal cultural heritage should be reburied within the
boundaries of the Aboriginal archaeological site from which the Aboriginal cultural
heritage was originally collected or excavated;

Artefacts must be reburied in a durable container which may or may not be open
bottomed to allow contact between the artefacts and the soil whilst allowing the
reburied material to be readily identified as such; and

An additional enclosed durable container must be buried next to the artefacts, which
contains copies of all documentation relating to the artefacts, including a copy of the
relevant site card, artefact database and any other relevant documentation.
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9.6 Compliance with the Cultural Heritage Management Plan
9.6.1 Reviewing compliance with the Cultural Heritage Management Plan
The Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 requires that the recommendations and contingency plans
contained within an approved CHMP are complied with. Any action carried out contrary to
the recommendations and contingency plans contained within an approved CHMP which
harms Aboriginal cultural heritage is an offence.
If it is suspected that the recommendations or contingency plans of the approved CHMP have
been contravened, under Section 80 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, the Minister for
Aboriginal Affairs may order a Cultural Heritage Audit. Once a Cultural Heritage Audit has
been ordered, the Sponsor will be issued with a Stop Order which requires the activity to
immediately cease (s. 88). A Stop Order can also be issued in any instance where an activity is
harming, is likely to harm, or may harm Aboriginal cultural heritage, regardless of whether
the Minister has ordered a Cultural Heritage Audit (s. 87).
The following checklist has been developed to assist the Sponsor in reviewing compliance
with the CHMP. If, at any point prior to or during the proposed activity, any of the questions
below cannot be answered positively, it is possible that the CHMP is not being complied with.
Should this occur, any and all parties are advised to seek the advice of a Cultural Heritage
Advisor.
Prior to the commencement of the activity:

Has the CHMP been approved?

Have any and all parties been inducted or trained in regards to Part 2 of the approved
CHMP?
If any changes have been made to the activity or activity area:

Has the Sponsor obtained a new approved CHMP?

Have all required statutory authorisations been obtained?
If Aboriginal cultural heritage is discovered during the activity:

If the Aboriginal cultural heritage is an isolated or dispersed scatter of less than five
stone artefacts have all works ceased within 5 m of the Aboriginal cultural heritage?

If the Aboriginal cultural heritage is other than an isolated or dispersed scatter of less
than five stone artefacts (including but not limited to a stratified deposit, more than
five stone artefacts spread across the surface or located sub surface, a shell midden, or
a mound), have all works ceased within 20 m of the Aboriginal cultural heritage?

Has the discovered Aboriginal cultural heritage been identified, inspected and recorded
by a Cultural Heritage Advisor?
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
Has the Cultural Heritage Advisor completed new or updated VAHR site record cards
and forwarded these to AAV?

Has the Sponsor taken appropriate measures to avoid harming the Aboriginal cultural
heritage, including appropriate protection measures as agreed upon by the Sponsor and
the RAP?

If the Sponsor cannot avoid harming the Aboriginal cultural heritage, has the Sponsor
taken appropriate measures to minimise harm to Aboriginal cultural heritage, including
appropriate protection measures as agreed upon by the Sponsor and the RAP?

If appropriate salvage excavations are required, have these been undertaken and
reported upon within 120 days?

Has the removal, curation, custody and management of the Aboriginal cultural heritage
been undertaken in accordance with the contingency plan outlined in this CHMP?
If human remains have been discovered during the activity:

Has all activity in the vicinity of the discovery ceased immediately?

Have the remains been left in place and protected from harm?

Have Victoria Police and the Coroner's Office been notified?

If there are reasonable grounds to believe that the remains may be Aboriginal, has the
DSE Emergency Co-ordination Centre been notified?

If it is confirmed by these authorities that the remains are Aboriginal skeletal remains,
has the Secretary of DPCD been notified?

Has the appropriate impact mitigation or salvage strategy (as determined by the
Secretary of DPCD) been implemented?

Have the salvaged Aboriginal human remains been treated in accordance with the
direction of the Secretary of DPCD?

Has a suitable experienced and qualified Archaeologist been engaged to document any
reburial site(s) and have all details of the reburial been provided to AAV?

Is the reburial site(s) clearly marked?

Have appropriate management recommendations been implemented to ensure that the
remains are not disturbed in the future?
If non-compliance with this CHMP is suspected by any and all parties, it is recommended that
AAV and an appropriately qualified and experienced Cultural Heritage Advisor are contacted
immediately.
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Under Sections 27 and 28 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, harming Aboriginal cultural
and doing an act likely to harm Aboriginal cultural heritage, knowingly or unknowingly, is
unlawful.
9.6.2 Remedying non-compliance with the Cultural Heritage Management
Plan
Under Section 81 of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006, a Cultural Heritage Audit can be
ordered by the Minister if non-compliance with an approved CHMP is suspected. If the
Secretary of DPCD directs a Sponsor to engage a Cultural Heritage Advisor to conduct a
Cultural Heritage Audit, the Sponsor must comply with the direction. The report of a Cultural
Heritage Audit may:

identify non-compliance with an approved CHMP;

recommend amendments to the recommendations in the approved CHMP;

recommend arrangements for the access of inspectors to the location at which the
activity is being carried out; and

recommend other measures in relation to the conduct of the activity to avoid or
minimise harm to Aboriginal cultural heritage.
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MAPS
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Map 1: Location of Activity Area
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Map 2: Extent of Activity Area and areas of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Sensitivity
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Map 3: Proposed Development Plan
A proposed development plan is not available.
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Map 4: Location of the Activity Area and the Relevant Bioregion
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Map 5: Location of the Activity Area and the Relevant Geology
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Map 6: Aboriginal Archaeological Sites Located in the Vicinity of the Activity Area
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Map 7: Surveyed Areas and Location and Extent of Aboriginal Archaeological Sites Identified
During Standard Assessment
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Map 8: Location of Subsurface Testing Transects, Shovel Test Holes and Stratigraphic Test
Pits
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Map 9: Location and Extent of Aboriginal Archaeological Sites within the Activity Area
Identified During the Standard and Complex Assessments
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Map 10: Location of Specific Management Requirements
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APPENDICES
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Appendix 1 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Cultural Heritage
Management Plan
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AAV response
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RAP response
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Appendix 2 - Heritage Legislation
A2.1
Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006
The Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 protects Aboriginal cultural heritage in Victoria. A key part
of the legislation is that Cultural Heritage Management Plans (CHMPs) are required to be
prepared by Sponsors (the developer) and qualified Cultural Heritage Advisors in accordance
with the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and the accompanying Aboriginal Heritage
Regulations 2007. A CHMP is the assessment of an area (known as an ‘activity area’) for
Aboriginal cultural heritage values, the results of which form a report (the CHMP) which
details the methodology of the assessment and sets out management recommendations and
contingency measures to be undertaken before, during and after an activity (development) to
manage and protect any Aboriginal cultural heritage present within the area examined.
The preparation of a CHMP is mandatory under the following circumstances:

If the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 require a CHMP to be prepared (s. 47);

If the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs Victoria requires a CHMP to be prepared (s. 48);
or

If an Environmental Effects Statement is required by the Environmental Effects Act
1978 (s. 49).
The Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 require a CHMP to be prepared:

If all or part of the proposed activity is a ‘high impact activity’; and

If all or part of the activity area is an area of ‘cultural heritage sensitivity’; and

If all or part of the activity area has not been subject to ‘significant ground
disturbance’.
The preparation of a CHMP can also be undertaken voluntarily. Having an Approved CHMP
in place can reduce risk for a project during the construction phase by ensuring there are no
substantial delays if sites happen to be found. Monitoring construction works is also rarely
required if an approved CHMP is in place.
Approval of the CHMPs is the responsibility of either DPCD (AAV) or the Registered
Aboriginal Parties. They will be examining the CHMPs in detail with key points including:

Addressing whether harm to heritage can be avoided or minimised;
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
All assessments (including test excavations) must be completed before management
decisions are formulated; and

Survey and excavation must be in accordance with proper archaeological practice and
supervised by a person appropriately qualified in archaeology.
There are three types of CHMPs that may be prepared. These are:

Desktop;

Standard; and

Complex.
A desktop CHMP is a literature review with fieldwork. If the results of the desktop show it is
reasonably possible that Aboriginal cultural heritage could be present in the activity area, a
standard assessment will be required.
A standard assessment involves literature review and a ground of survey the activity area.
Where the results of ground survey undertaken during a standard assessment have identified
Aboriginal cultural heritage within the activity area, soil and sediment testing using an auger
no larger than twelve centimetres in diameter may be used to assist in defining the nature and
extent of the identified Aboriginal cultural heritage (Regulation 59(4)).
Where the results of ground survey undertaken during a standard assessment have identified
Aboriginal cultural heritage within the activity area or areas which have the potential to
contain Aboriginal cultural heritage sub surface, a complex assessment will be required. A
complex assessment involves a literature review, a ground of survey, and sub surface testing.
Sub surface testing is the disturbance of all or part of the activity area or excavation of all or
part of the activity area to uncover or discover evidence of Aboriginal cultural heritage
(Regulation 62(1)).
It is strongly advised that for further information relating to heritage management (e.g. audits,
stop orders, inspectors, forms, evaluation fees, status of RAPs and penalties for breaching the
Act)
Sponsors
should
access
the
Aboriginal
Affairs
Victoria
website
(http://www.aboriginalaffairs.vic.gov.au/).
The following flow chart also assists in explaining the process relating to CHMPs.
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A2.2
Commonwealth Native Title Act 1993
Native Title describes the rights and interests of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
in land and waters, according to their traditional laws and customs. In Australia, Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people’s rights and interests in land were recognised in 1992 when
the High Court delivered its historic judgment in the case of Mabo v the State of Queensland.
This decision overturned the legal fiction that Australia upon colonisation was terra nullius
(land belonging to no-one). It recognised for the first time that Indigenous Australians may
continue to hold native title.
Native Title rights may include the possession, use and occupation of traditional country. In
some areas, native title may be a right of access to the area. It can also be the right for native
title holders to participate in decisions about how others use their traditional land and waters.
Although the content of native title is to be determined according to the traditional laws and
customs of the title holders, there are some common characteristics. It may be possessed by a
community, group, or individual depending on the content of the traditional laws and customs.
It is inalienable (that is, it cannot be sold or transferred) other than by surrender to the Crown
or pursuant to traditional laws and customs. Native Title is a legal right that can be protected,
where appropriate, by legal action.
Native Title may exist in areas where it has not been extinguished (removed) by an act of
government. It will apply to Crown land but not to freehold land. It may exist in areas such as:

Vacant (or unallocated) Crown land;

Forests and beaches;

National parks and public reserves;

Some types of pastoral leases;

Land held by government agencies;

Land held for Aboriginal communities;

Any other public or Crown lands; and/or

Oceans, seas, reefs, lakes, rivers, creeks, swamps and other waters that are not
privately owned.
Native Title cannot take away anyone else’s valid rights, including owning a home, holding a
pastoral lease or having a mining lease. Where native title rights and the rights of another
person conflict, the rights of the other person always prevail. When the public has the right to
access places such as parks, recreation reserves and beaches, this right cannot be taken away
by Native Title. Native Title does not give Indigenous Australians the right to veto any
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project. It does mean, however, that everyone’s rights and interests in land and waters have to
be taken into account.
Indigenous people can apply to have their native title rights recognised by Australian law by
filing a native title application (native title claim) with the Federal Court. Applications are
required to pass a test to gain certain rights over the area covered in the application. The
Native Title Tribunal (NNTT) was established to administer application processes. Once
applications are registered, the NNTT will notify other people about the application and will
invite them to become involved so all parties can try to reach an agreement that respects
everyone's rights and interests. If the parties cannot agree, the NNTT refers the application to
the Federal Court and the parties argue their cases before the Court.
As a common law right, native title may exist over areas of Crown land or waters, irrespective
of whether there are any native title claims or determinations in the area. Native Title will
therefore be a necessary consideration when Government is proposing or permitting any
activity on or relating to Crown land that may affect native title3.
A2.3
Victorian Planning and Environment Act 1987
All municipalities in Victoria are covered by land use planning controls which are prepared
and administered by State and local government authorities. The legislation governing such
controls is the Planning and Environment Act 1987. Places of significance to a locality can be
listed on a local planning scheme and protected by a Heritage Overlay (or other overlay where
appropriate). Places of Aboriginal cultural heritage significance are not often included on
local government planning schemes.
A2.4
Commonwealth Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
The Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) provides
a national framework for the protection of heritage and the environment and the conservation
of biodiversity. The EPBC Act is administered by the Australian Government Department of
Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (SEWPaC). The Australian
Heritage Council assesses whether or not a nominated place is appropriate for listing on either
the National or Commonwealth Heritage Lists and makes a recommendation to the Minister
on that basis. The Minister for the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts makes the final
decision on listing. SEWPaC also administers the Register of the National Estate.
The objectives of the EPBC Act are:
3
The information in this section was taken from the Department of Sustainability and Environment, Fact Sheet
on Native Title, 2008.
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A2.5

to provide for the protection of the environment, especially those aspects of the
environment that are matters of national environmental significance;

to promote ecologically sustainable development through the conservation and
ecologically sustainable use of natural resources;

to promote the conservation of biodiversity;

to provide for the protection and conservation of heritage;

to promote a cooperative approach to the protection and management of the
environment involving governments, the community, land-holders and
indigenous peoples;

to assist in the cooperative implementation of Australia's international
environmental responsibilities;

to recognise the role of indigenous people in the conservation and ecologically
sustainable use of Australia's biodiversity; and

to promote the use of indigenous peoples' knowledge of biodiversity with the
involvement of, and in cooperation with, the owners of the knowledge.
Victorian Coroner’s Act 2008
The Victorian Coroner’s Act 2008 requires the reporting of certain deaths and the
investigation of certain deaths and fires in Victoria by coroners to contribute to the reduction
of preventable deaths. Of most relevance to heritage is the requirement for any “reportable
death” to be reported to the police (s. 12[1]). The Coroner’s Act 2008 requires that the
discovery of human remains in Victoria (s. 4[1]) of a person whose identity is unknown (s.
4[g]) must be reported to the police.
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Appendix 3 - Archaeological Survey Attributes
ABORIGINAL CULTURAL HERITAGE PLACE ASSESSMENT:
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND EXCAVATION ATTRIBUTES FORM
Project Name: 3115
Author/Consultant: Mollie Harbour
Cultural Heritage Management Plan #: 11776
Survey Attributes* survey undertaken by TerraCulture Pty Ltd
Survey Date: TerraCulture 15.04.2011; EHP 20.09.2011
Actual Survey Coverage (m2): 250,000
Ground Surface Visibility: 18%
Effective Survey Coverage (m2): 218,000
Survey Spacing (m): 2 m, and 5 m in area previously under crop (EHP survey)
Number in Crew: 3, 4 during EHP survey
Landform: Gently sloping plain
vegetation
Vegetation: Agricultural, and young modified native
Disturbance: Ploughing, flower farm plantation, dam construction.
Survey Method
Survey Design
Sample
Survey Type
 Pedestrian
 Remote sensing (specify)
 Opportunistic
 Random
 Systematic
 Stratified
 Other
 Area
 Transect
 Locality
 Haphazard
 Other
 Surface
Excavation method
Excavation Date: 09.08.2011, 12.08.2011, 15.08.2011 and 20.09.2011 to 21.09.2011
Area Excavated: 0.007%
Excavation Spacing (m): 25-50 m
Test Trench Size (m): 1 x 1m
Transect Width (m): 25-50 m Number in Crew: 4
Depth (cm): 0-26 cm
Excavation Method
 Manual
 Mechanical
 Auger
 Uncontrolled
Excavation
(eg shovel pit)
 Monitoring
 Controlled
Excavation
Excavation Design
Sample
 Opportunistic
 Random
 Systematic
 Stratified
 Other
 Area
 Transect
 Locality
 Haphazard
 Other
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Appendix 4 - Coordinates of Sub Surface Testing and Datum Levels
Table A4.1: Datum and Back-site Details
Datum
Easting
Northing
Name
(GDA 94, Zone
55)
(GDA 94, Zone
55)
Date
Back-site 1
E 277978
N 5768628
09.08.2011
Back-site 2
E 278004
N 5769114
15.08.2011
Back-site 3
E 277997
N 5769115
20.09.2011
Back-site 4
Back-site 5
E 277802
E 277800
N 5766564
N 5769193
20.09.2011
21.09.2011
Back-site 6
Back-site 7
Datum 1.1
Datum 1.2
Datum 1.3
Datum 2
Datum 3
E 277780
E 279903
E 277926
E 277926
E 277926
E 278090
E 278065
N 5769041
N 5768655
N 5768577
N 5768577
N 5768577
N 5769083
N 5769087
21.09.2011
21.09.2011
09.08.2011
09.08.2011
09.08.2011
15.08.2011
20.09.2011
Datum 4
E 277886
N 5769135
20.09.2011
Datum 5.1
E 277840
N 5769181
21.09.2011
Datum 5.2
Datum 5.3
Datum 6
E 277840
E 277840
E 277916
N 5769181
N 5769181
N 5769059
21.09.2011
21.09.2011
21.09.2011
Datum 7
E 277931
N 5768745
21.09.2011
Height (cm)
Back-site #
Back-site
Height (cm)
Back-site Description
NE corner of fence in south-westernmost
paddock.
NE corner of metal sheet fence160-172
Ash Road
NW corner of metal sheet fence160-172
Ash Road
NW corner of 160-172 Ash Road
SW corner of metal sheet fence 160-172
Ash Road
SW corner of 160-172 Ash Road
Test Hole N4
132
145
98
142
(Yuma 55.51)
141.5
(Yuma 54.85)
130
(Yuma 55.79)
144
156
133
(Yuma 49.78)
112
135
1
1
1
2
3
74
86
30
196
3
4
138
5
-11
5
5
6
0
-23
287.5
7
79
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Table A4.2: Details of Stratigraphic Test Pits (STPs)
STP01
Easting
Northing
1x1m
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
South / West Corner
Datum 1.1
Surface
Base of spit 1
Base of spit 2
Base of spit 3
E 277896
N/W Corner
(cm)
N/E Corner
(cm)
S/E Corner (cm)
N 5768582
150
157
167
173.5
STP02
Easting
Northing
1x1m
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
South / West Corner
Datum 2
Surface
Base of spit 1
Base of spit 2
Base of spit 3
S/W Corner
(cm)
E 278083
S/W Corner
(cm)
144.5
155
164
168
N/W Corner
(cm)
145.5
153.5
164.5
168
149.5
157
167.5
172
N/E Corner
(cm)
S/E Corner (cm)
N 5769064
170
174
182.5
186.5
167.5
172.5
179.5
187.5
167.5
172.5
179
186
165.5
174
180
186
Table A4.3: Transect Shovel Test Pits, Radial Shovel Test Pits and Random Shovel Test Pit
Transect
Number
A
Shovel Test Pit
Number
1
2
3
4
5
Hole Distances
(m)
0m
50m
100m
200m
250m
Easting
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
278157
278115
278055
278006
277957
Northing
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
5769112
5769097
5769109
5769115
5769122
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Datum
2
2
2
3
3
Surface Height
(cm)
148
148
150
3
65
113
Transect
Number
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Shovel Test Pit
Number
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
1
2
3
Hole Distances
(m)
300m
350m
400m
0m
50m
100m
150m
200m
300m
350m
0m
50m
100m
150m
200m
250m
300m
350m
0m
50m
100m
150m
200m
0m
150m
200m
250m
0m
50m
200m
250m
0m
50m
100m
0m
50m
100m
Easting
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
277907
277857
277808
278134
278032
277990
277947
277897
277846
277800
278153
278101
278052
278006
277957
277909
277858
277808
278007
277957
277908
277857
277809
277848
277986
278049
278111
277797
277847
278020
278071
277984
277977
277964
278034
278027
278020
Northing
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
5769127
5769133
5769139
5769064
5769067
5769073
5769075
5769081
5769087
5769094
5769009
5769016
5769020
5769026
5769031
5769035
5769041
5769049
5768973
5768978
5768984
5768991
5768998
5768933
5768907
5768907
5768894
5768890
5768884
5768867
5768859
5768836
5768786
5768752
5768837
5768786
5768737
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
Datum
3
3
3
2
2
3
5.1
5.1
5.1
6
2
2
2
2
5.2
5.3
6
6
6
6
6
5.2
5.2
6
Surface Height
(cm)
158
148
136
145
148
68
45
192
303
205
152
150
154
155
0
155
37.5
238
250
75
40
24
0
276
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
Not Taken
114
Transect
Number
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
Shovel Test Pit
Number
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
Hole Distances
(m)
0m
50m
100m
150m
200m
0m
50m
0m
50m
100m
150m
200m
0m
25m
50m
75m
100m
125m
150m
0m
25m
75m
100m
125m
150m
0m
25m
50m
75m
100m
125m
150m
0m
25m
50m
75m
100m
Easting
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
277763
277813
277862
277910
277961
277797
277793
277790
277839
277890
277937
277990
277842
277867
277891
277916
277943
277969
277991
277847
277872
277924
277948
277976
277995
277829
277854
277879
277903
277926
277950
277978
277852
277877
277900
277928
277954
Northing
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
5768712
5768706
5768700
5768690
5768689
5768650
5768598
5768549
5768541
5768537
5768529
5768525
5768566
5768564
5768560
5768557
5768554
5768553
5768553
5768591
5768589
5768581
5768577
5768576
5768574
5768665
5768661
5768658
5768655
5768644
5768641
5768637
5768617
5768612
5768610
5768606
5768600
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
Datum
7
7
7
7
7
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
Surface Height
(cm)
286
278
276
268
235
310
360
346
189
87.5
45
70
200
124
92
63
27
50
27
229
152
81
33
51
27
294
285
280
270
268
265
268
217
155
115
70
23
115
Transect
Number
P
Q
Radial
Radial
Radial
Radial
Radial
Radial
Radial
Radial
Shovel Test Pit
Number
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
RL 1
RL 2
RL 3
RL 4
Radial 1
Radial 2
Radial 3
Radial 4
Hole Distances
(m)
125m
150m
0m
25m
50m
75m
100m
125m
150m
0m
50m
Easting
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
277978
278002
277856
277882
277905
277933
277956
277984
278006
277804
277853
277987
277991
277996
277991
277922
277916
277921
277919
Northing
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
5768601
5768601
5768640
5768637
5768636
5768634
5768632
5768627
5768626
5769186
5769180
5768550
5768545
5768553
5768557
5768738
5768732
5768724
5768728
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
Datum
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
4
4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
7
7
7
7
Surface Height
(cm)
35
28
286
230
262
222
175
30
30
133
147
28
29
27
27
267
268
265
269
116
Table A4.4: Transects Excavated within the Activity Area (Map 8)
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Transect A
300 m 6 STH’s
Start
E
278157
N
5769112
End
E
277808
N
5769139
Approximately 60m
south of the northern
most boundary, running
east to west.
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH A1
00 to 180 mm – Dark greyish grey firm, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH
7.5.
180 to 290 mm – Light yellowish yellow/grey firm, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- infrequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 6.5.
290 to 340 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH A2
00 to 140 mm – Dark greyish black firm, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH
7.5.
140 to 340 mm – Light yellowish yellow/grey firm, medium clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 6.5.
340 to 360 mm – Mid yellowish yellow/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH A3
00 to 260 mm – Mid greyish brown compact, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass fragments.
Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
260 to 380 mm – Light yellowish grey compact medium sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (50% gravel). Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 6.5.
380 to 410 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH A4
00 to 240 mm – Dark reddish brown friable clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots and glass fragments. Munsell
7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
240 to 260 mm – Mid yellowish brown compact sandy clay/silt clay. Inclusions- moderate small
basalt/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
117
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH A5
00 to 160 mm – Light greyish brown compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH
6.
160 to 210 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- infrequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
210 to 260 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH A6
00 to 220 mm – Dark reddish brown friable, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 7.5YR
3/2, pH 5.
220 to 420 mm – Light greyish grey friable clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
BASE 420 mm – Dark reddish/yellowish orange/brown cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH A7
00 to 280 mm – Dark brownish grey weak, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Glass fragment and
charcoal at 270 mm from tree root. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 7.
280 to 420 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
BASE 420 mm – Dark reddish orange cemented sticky clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH A8
00 to 300 mm – Mid brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.
300 to 330 mm – Light brownish grey loose sandy silt. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
BASE 330 mm – Dark reddish brown cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/6, pH 6.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
118
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Transect B
250 m 5 STH’s
Start
E
278134
N
5769060
End
E
277800
N
5769094
50m south of, and runs
parallel to, Transect A.
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH B1
00 to 200 mm – Mid greyish grey firm, fine silty clay. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
200 to 300 mm – Light yellowish grey firm, medium clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 6.5.
300 to 330 mm – Mid yellowish yellow/orange compact, fine mottled clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/4 mottled with 5YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH B2
00 to 160 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1,
pH 5.5.
160 to 230 mm – Dark greyish orange/grey compact, fine clayey silt. Intermediate between context 1 and 3.
Inclusions- infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
230 to 270 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
270 to 340 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH B3
00 to 170 mm – Mid greyish grey compact sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass and ceramic fragments,
and 3 shell fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
170 to 270 mm – Light greyish grey compact sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Glass and ceramic fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
BASE 270 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
119
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH B4
00 to 230 mm – Dark greyish grey compact sandy silt. Inclusions- glass fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.
230 to 320 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 5.5.
320 to 350 mm – Light yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH B5
00 to 230 mm – Mid greyish grey firm clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots and glass fragments. Munsell 7.5YR
3/2, pH 5.5.
230 to 310 mm – Light yellowish grey compact sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
310 to 320 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH B6
00 to 300 mm – Mid greyish grey firm, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass and slate fragments.
Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
300 to 400 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine sandy silt. Intermediate between contexts 1 and 3.
Inclusions- moderate small-medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 7.
400 to 550 mm – Light greyish grey compact, medium sand. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 6/2, pH 7.
550 to 590 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 5/8, pH 7.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
120
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH B7
00 to 320 mm – Mid greyish grey firm, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass and charcoal fragments.
Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
320 to 470 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine sandy silt. Intermediate between contexts 1 and 3.
Inclusions- moderate small-medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
470 to 580 mm – Light greyish grey compact, medium sand. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
580 to 600 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
Transect C
350 m 7 STH’s
Start
E
178153
N
5769009
End
E
277808
N
5769049
50m south of, and runs
parallel to, Transect B.
Runs east to west along
southern boundary of
northern-most property.
STH C1
00 to 120 mm – Dark greyish grey/brown firm, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR
2/2, pH 7.5.
120 to 150 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay with slight grey mottling. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled
with Munsell 10YR 3/2 and 5YR 4/6, pH 7.5.
STH C2
00 to 130 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR 2/2,
pH 7.5.
130 to 250 mm – Mid greyish grey firm, compact, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- one pottery fragment.
Munsell 10YR 3/1, pH 7.
250 to 320 mm – Light yellowish grey compact, medium sandy silt. Munsell 10YR l 4/2, pH 6.
BASE 320 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with 3/2, pH 7.5.
STH C3
00 to 230 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR 2/2,
pH 7.5.
230 to 250 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with 3/2, pH
7.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
121
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH C4
00 to 390 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, charcoal at 260 mm from tree
root. Very frequent small-medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel from 240 mm. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 5.5.
BASE 390 mm – Dark reddish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH C5
00 to 160 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass fragment at 80 mm.
Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 5.5.
160 to 310 mm – Pale brownish grey firm sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 5.5.
BASE 310 mm – Dark brownish yellow cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH C6
00 to 160 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, infrequent small
basalt/mudstone/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
160 to 320 mm – Mid brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/mudstone/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 320 mm – Dark reddish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
STH C7
00 to 160 mm – Light reddish brown weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, frequent small-medium basalt/
ironstone gravel at interphase between contexts 1 and 2. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
BASE 160 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
122
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH C8
00 to 230 mm – Dark brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass and ceramic fragments at
80 mm and Styrofoam at 150 mm. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 5.
230 to 440 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/3, pH 6.
440 to 460 mm – Dark brownish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 7.5.
Transect D
200 m 5 STH’s
Start
E
278007
N
5768973
End
E
277809
N
5768998
Approximately 60m
south of the Transect C,
running east to west.
STH D1
00 to 250 mm – Mid greyish grey compact, fine sandy silt (mostly silt). Inclusions- grass roots, glass and
ceramic fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
250 to 390 mm – Mid yellowish brown/grey compact medium sand. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 390 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH D2
00 to 220 mm – Dark brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, ceramic fragment at 80 mm.
Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
220 to 420 mm – Dark brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/3, pH 6.
BASE 420 mm – Dark reddish/yellowish brown cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
STH D3
00 to 220 mm – Dark reddish brown weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass at 80 mm and frequent
small-medium basalt/ironstone gravel at base of context. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
220 to 240 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Inclusions- infrequent small basalt/ironstone
gravel at top of context. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
123
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH D4
00 to 290 mm – Mid greyish grey compact clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots, glass and slate fragments.
Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
290 to 430 mm – Mid yellowish grey compact, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent smalllargebasalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
430 to 440 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH D5
00 to 240 mm – Dark brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and glass fragment. Munsell
7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
240 to 390 mm – Mid brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
BASE 390 mm – Mid reddish orange cemented, sticky fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
Transect E
200 m 4 STH’s
Start
E
277848
N
5768933
End
E 278111
N
57688894
Runs
through
the
middle of the second
property from the north,
west to east.
STH E1
00 to 170 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine silty clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
170 to 240 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine silty clay. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
240 to 270 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH E2
00 to 290 mm – Dark brownish grey weak sandy silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.
290 to 330 mm – Light brownish grey loose loam. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt/ironstone gravel.
Munsell 7.5YR 5/2, pH 6.
330 to 360 mm – Dark reddish orange cemented, sticky fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 5/6, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
124
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH E3
00 to 200 mm – Mid greyish brown compact, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
200 to 290 mm – Mid brownish grey compact sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 290 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
STH E4
00 to 190 mm – Mid greyish brown compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots and frequent smallmedium basalt/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
190 to 240 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
Transect F
250 m 4 STH’s
Start
E
2777797
N
5768890
End
E
278071
N
5768859
Runs 50m south of, and
parallel to Transect E,
west to east.
STH F1
00 to 210 mm – Dark brownish grey weak sandy silt. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 5.
210 to 360 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- very frequent small-medium
basalt/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/2, pH 5.5.
BASE 360 mm – Dark yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
STH F2
00 to 320 mm – Mid greyish grey compact, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
320 to 360 mm – Mid yellowish grey cemented, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 360 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
125
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH F3
00 to 320 mm – Dark reddish brown/brownish grey weak sandy silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
320 to 460 mm – Light brownish grey weak sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/2, pH 6.
BASE 460 mm – Mid reddish/brownish orange cemented, fine sticky clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH F4
00 to 230 mm – Dark greyish black compact, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and glass fragment.
Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
230 to 360 mm – Light yellowish grey compact, medium sand. Inclusions- frequent small basalt/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 360 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
Transect G
100 m 3 STH’s
Start
E
277984
N
5768836
End
E
277864
N
5768752
Approximately 10m
south of Ash Road,
running north to south.
STH G1
00 to 200 mm – Light greyish grey compact, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 4.5.
200 to 240 mm – Mid greyish brown cemented, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 5.
240 to 300 mm – Light greyish grey cemented, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 6/2, pH 5.
BASE 300 mm – Light greyish orange cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH G2
00 to 230 mm – Mid greyish grey compact, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
230 to 380 mm – Light greyish grey cemented, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
380 to 400 mm – Light greyish orange/grey/white cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
126
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH G3
00 to 270 mm – Mid greyish grey compact, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
270 to 370 mm – Light greyish grey/white compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
370 to 380 mm – Light greyish orange/grey/white cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
Transect H
100 m 3 STH’s
Start
E
278034
N
5768837
End
E
278020
N
5768737
Runs
approximately
50m east of, and
parallel to, Transect G,
running north to south
STH H1
00 to 260 mm – Mid brownish grey weak, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 6.5.
260 to 330 mm – Light greyish grey weak, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt/
ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 6/2, pH 6.5.
330 to 370 mm – Dark reddish brown compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 5/6, pH 7.
STH H2
00 to 280 mm – Mid brownish grey weak, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and glass fragments.
Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
280 to 330 mm – Light greyish grey firm, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- infrequent small basalt. Munsell 7.5YR
5/3, pH 6.
BASE 330 mm – Dark reddish/yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 5/6, pH 7.
STH H3
00 to 270 mm – Mid greyish grey compact, fine clayey silt. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
270 to 370 mm – Light greyish grey/white compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
370 to 390 mm – Light greyish orange/grey/white cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
127
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Transect I
200 m 4 STH’s
Start
E
277763
N
5768665
End
E
277961
N
5768689
Runs through the centre
of 146-158 Ash Road,
running west to east.
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH I1
00 to 300 mm – Dark reddish/greyish brown friable, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and frequent
small-medium basalt/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
BASE 300 mm – Mid reddish/yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
STH I2
00 to 290 mm – Dark reddish brown friable, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (75% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 2.5/2, pH 55.
BASE 290 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Inclusions- some sandy clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4,
pH 6.
STH I3
00 to 290 mm – Dark reddish brown friable, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and frequent smallmedium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
BASE 290 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine sticky clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH I4
00 to 210 mm – Dark brownish grey friable, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium basalt
/ironstone gravel, increasing with depth. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 6.
BASE 210 mm – Dark brownish grey compact, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt /ironstone gravel. Medium clay clumps at base. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
Transect J
50 m 2 STH’s
Start
E
277797
End
E
277793
STH J1
00 to 90 mm – Dark brownish grey firm, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH
7.5.
90 to 290 mm – Dark brownish grey firm, medium sandy silt/clayey silt. Becoming clayier with depth.
Inclusions- small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel; increasing with depth. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
290 to 370 mm – Mid brownish grey compact, medium sandy clay/clayey silt. Becoming clayier with depth.
Inclusions- very frequent small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 7.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
128
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
N
5768650
N
5768598
Runs approximately
50m east of, and
parallel to, Transect G,
running north to south
Transect K
200 m 5 STH’s
Start
E
277842
N
5768549
End
E
277990
N
5768525
Approximately 5m north
of the southern-most
boundary, running west
to east.
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH J2
00 to 40 mm – Dark brownish grey firm loose/weak silt/slightly fine sandy silt. Inclusions- few grass roots and
few small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 7.5.
40 to 390 mm – Dark brownish grey firm, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, increasing in frequency with depth. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
BASE 390 mm – Mid brownish grey cemented, fine clayey silt/silty clay. Clay increasing with depth.
Inclusions- frequent small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, increasing in frequency with depth to
comprise nearly all the base unit. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 7.
STH K1
00 to 80 mm – Light reddish brown loose/weak fine slightly sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and very
infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 7.5.
80 to 220 mm – Light reddish brown weak fine clayey silt. Inclusions- very frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 7.
220 to 240 mm – Light/mid brownish orange compact silty clay/clay. Inclusions- very infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Mottled with pale brownish red clayey silt. Munsell 10YR 4/4, pH 7.
STH K2
00 to 20 mm – Pale/light reddish brown loose, fine silt. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 7.5.
20 to 140 mm – Light reddish brown firm, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small/ medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 7.
140 to 190 mm – Mid reddish orange cemented, fine clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel at top of spit. Munsell 10YR 4/4, pH 7.
STH K3
00 to 150mm – Dark brownish black friable moist clayey silt. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 7.5.
150 to 160mm – Mid yellowish brown cemented sticky clay. Mottled with red/brown clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2
mottled with 5/8, pH 5.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
129
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH K4
00 to 200 mm – Dark greyish grey/black friable, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Grass roots 0-100 mm. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
200 to 220 mm – Mid/dark reddish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with 5/8, pH 7.
STH K5
00 to 220 mm – Dark greyish grey friable, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
220 to 240 mm – Mid reddish yellow/orange compact, fine mottled clay. Inclusions- infrequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with 5/8, pH 7.
Transect L
150 m 7 STH’s
Start
E
2778547
N
5768566
End
E
277991
N
5768553
Approximately
50m
north of, and runs
parallel to, Transect K.
STH L1
00 to 240 mm – Dark brownish brown friable clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 7.5.
BASE 240 mm – Light yellowish brown firm clayey sand. Inclusions- mottled with red/brown sticky clay.
Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 5/8, pH 7.
STH L2
160-172 Ash Road IA
(VAHR 7721-1174)
1 fine chert? artefact
between
300mm and 350 mm
00 to 290 mm – Dark brownish grey friable clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel.
Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 5.
290 to 350 mm – Pale/light yellowish brown firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 6.
BASE 350 mm – Mid reddish orange cemented sandy clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR
5/6, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
130
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH L3
00 to 250 mm – Dark brownish grey friable clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel and moderate small shells from former sea bed. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 5.
250 to 290 mm – Pale/light yellowish grey compact, fine sandy clay. Mottled with sticky red/brown/yellow
clay. Inclusions- frequent small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 6.
STH L4
00 to 260 mm – Dark brownish grey friable, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel and moderate small shells from former sea bed. Mixed with silty clay. Munsell
10YR 2/2, pH 5.
BASE 260 mm – Light yellowish brown weak, fine sandy clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 6.
STH L5
00 to 290 mm – Dark reddish brown friable clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots 0-100 mm; frequent
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, becoming more frequent with depth and moderate small shells
from former sea bed. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 6.5.
290 to 300 mm – Light yellowish brown compact clay/sandy clay. Inclusions- moderate small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with Munsell 10YR 5/6, pH 6.
STH L6
00 to 270 mm – Mid greyish yellow/grey compact, medium clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots; frequent
small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel; moderate small shells from former sea bed and some tree
small/medium roots. Munsell 10YR 3/4, pH 6.
270 to 320 mm – Light yellowish grey compact sandy clay. Inclusions- frequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone
gravel and some tree small/medium roots. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 6.
BASE 320 mm – Light yellowish yellow/orange compact clay/sandy clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with 5/6,
pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
131
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH L7
00 to 100 mm – Mid greyish grey friable, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- grass roots; infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel and moderate small shells from former sea bed. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
100 to 350 mm – Dark greyish grey firm, medium clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. One artefact at 300-350 mm. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 6.
350 to 370 mm – Mid yellowish yellow/orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with 5/6, pH 6.
Transect M
150 m 6 STH’s
Start
E
277847
N
5768591
End
E
2777995
N
5768574
STH M1
00 to 60 mm – Mid reddish brown friable, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- infrequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel; grass roots; moderate small shells from former sea bed and tree roots.
Munsell 10YR 3/6 mottled with 5YR 4/4, pH 7.
60 to 270 mm – Mid reddish brown firm, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- very frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/3, pH 6.
BASE 270 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact clay. Inclusions- mottled with mid red/brown stick silty
clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH M2
25m north of, and runs
parallel to, Transect L.
00 to 150 mm – Light reddish brown firm, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/6, pH 7.
BASE 150 mm – Light reddish brown cemented, fine clayey silt/clay. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/6 mottled with 5YR 4/4, pH 7.
STH M3
00 to 50 mm – Dark greyish grey firm sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots; moderate small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel and moderate small shells from former sea bed. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
50 to 180 mm – Mid greyish grey firm sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel.
Munsell 10YR 2/2 mottled with 5YR 4/4, pH 6.5.
180 to 200 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 7.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
132
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH M4
00 to 50 mm – Dark greyish grey firm sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and moderate small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 6.
50 to 250 mm – Mid greyish grey firm sandy silt. Inclusions- several medium tree roots and frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/2, pH 6.5.
250 to 260 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH M5
00 to 210 mm – Light/mid reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- moderate
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel and moderate small shells from former sea bed. Munsell 10YR
3/4, pH 7.5.
BASE 210 mm – Mid reddish brown firm/compact, fine silty clay. Inclusions- mottled with dark red/brown
sticky clay; infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/3 mottled with 5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH M6
00 to 290 mm – Dark reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- infrequent/moderate small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/6, pH 7.
290 to 300 mm – Mid yellowish orange/brown compact, fine sandy clay/silty clay. Inclusions- infrequent
small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/6 mottled with 5YR 4/4, pH 7.
Transect N
150 m 7 STH’s
Start
E
277829
N
5768665
End
E
277978
N
5768637
STH N1
00 to 200 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.
200 to 210 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey firm, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
133
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH N2
Approximately 5 to 10m
north of the southern
boundary of 146-158
Ash Road, running west
to east.
00 to 250 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, fine silty clay. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
250 to 320 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
320 to 410 mm – Light greyish yellow firm, fine sand. Inclusions- frequent small-large basalt/quartz/ironstone
gravel (50% gravel). Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 410 mm – Mid yellowish/orange compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH N3
00 to 260 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- ceramic fragment. Munsell 10YR
2/1, pH 7.
260 to 350 mm – Light yellowish grey compact, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- moderate small-large
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Glass fragment. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 350 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH N4
00 to 250 mm – Mid/dark greyish grey/brown firm, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 5.5.
250 to 360 mm – Light yellowish grey firm, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent smalllargebasalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/1, pH 5.5.
BASE 360 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
STH N5
00 to 160 mm – Mid greyish grey loose, fine clayey silt. Soil has been ploughed. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2, pH 6.
160 to 320 mm – Light greyish grey weak, fine sandy silt. Munsell 7.5YR 5/4, pH 7.
320 to 340 mm – Mid brownish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 7.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
134
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH N6
00 to 190 mm – Mid greyish yellow/brown cemented, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- moderate small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
190 to 270 mm – Mid yellowish orange/brown cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH N7
00 to 80 mm – Mid greyish orange/brown cemented clay. Test hole located on vehicle track, which has
cemented the ground surface. Inclusions- infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6,
pH 7.
Transect O
150 m 7 STH’s
Start
E
277852
N
5768617
End
E
278002
N
5768601
e.g. 25m north of, and
runs
parallel
to,
Transect M.
STH O1
00 to 140 mm – Dark greyish grey weak, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots; ceramic fragment. Munsell
10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
140 to 240 mm – Mid/dark greyish grey/yellow firm, medium sandy clay. Inclusions- moderate small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Ceramic fragments. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
240 to 310 mm – Light/mid greyish yellow/white compact, fine mottled sandy clay. Inclusions- frequent
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 5/4, pH 6.
310 to 330 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact fine clay. Inclusions- very infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH O2
00 to 240 mm – Mid/dark greyish grey firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots 0-100 mm. Munsell
10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
240 to 320 mm – Dark greyish grey/black compact medium clayey sand. Inclusions- moderate
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
320 to 380 mm – Mid yellowish grey compact fine clayey sand. Inclusions- very frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (50% gravel, 50% clay). Munsell 10YR 4/4, pH 7.
BASE 380 mm – Mid yellowish orange/yellow compact fine clay. Inclusions- very infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 7.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
135
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH O3
00 to 80 mm – Dark greyish grey firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots 0-100 mm; glass and red
brick fragments. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
80 to 260 mm – Dark greyish brown compact medium clayey sand. Inclusions- moderate small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel; red brick fragments. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
260 to 380 mm – Light yellowish yellow grey compact medium clayey sand. Inclusions- very frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel (50% gravel, 50% clayey sand). Munsell 10YR 4/3, pH 5.5.
BASE 380 mm –Mid yellowish yellow/grey/orange compact fine clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell
10YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH O4
00 to 330 mm – Light/mid reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- moderate
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/3, pH 6.
330 to 390 mm – Light/mid reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- moderate
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/3, pH 6.
BASE 390 mm – Mid yellowish yellow/orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell
10YR 4/6, pH 7.
STH O5
00 to 80 mm – Dark greyish grey firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
80 to 330 mm – Dark greyish grey compact medium clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
330 to 380 mm – Light yellowish yellow/orange compact, medium clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4, pH 7.
BASE 380 mm – Light yellowish yellow/orange compact, fine clay. Inclusions- frequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 5/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 7.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
136
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH O6
00 to 210 mm – Light/mid reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- moderate
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/4, pH 6.5.
BASE 210 mm – Mid reddish brown firm/compact, fine silty clay. Inclusions- mottled with dark red/brown
sticky clay; infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/3 mottled with 5YR 4/6, pH 6.
STH O7
00 to 390 mm – Dark brownish grey weak, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- moderate small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel; black bottle glass fragment at 350 mm. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 7.
BASE 390 mm – Mid yellowish brown compact, fine sandy clay/clay. Inclusions- mottled with light grey
clayey silt. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/1, pH 7.
Transect P
150 m 7 STH’s
Start
E
277856
N
5768640
End
E
278006
N
5768626
Transect P is located
within a current vehicle
track- the high gravel
content throughout the
transect may indicate its
use as a track in the
past.
STH P1
00 to 280 mm – Dark brownish grey firm, fine sandy clay. Inclusions- grass roots 0-70 mm. Munsell 10YR
2/1, pH 6.
280 to 290 mm – Light brownish grey compact, fine sandy clay. Inclusions- mottled with light brown/yellow
sandy clay. Infrequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 6.
STH P2
00 to 320 mm – Mid/dark reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots 0-140 mm;
frequent small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, increasing with depth. Munsell 10YR 3/3, pH 6.
320 to 370 mm – Light brownish grey compact, fine sandy clay/silty clay. Inclusions- mottled with mid/dark
brownish red sandy clay. Frequent small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled
with 5YR 4/6, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
137
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH P3
00 to 280 mm – Dark reddish brown weak, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots 0-150 mm.
Moderate small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/4 mottled with 5YR 4/4, pH 7.
280 to 380 mm – Mid yellowish/brownish grey compact, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- moderate small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 5/3, pH 6.5.
BASE 380 mm – Mid yellowish orange compact, fine sticky clay/sandy clay. Munsell 10YR 4/4, pH 7.
STH P4
00 to 280 mm – Dark brownish grey friable, medium clayey silt/sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots 0-120 mm.
Plastic wrapper fragment at 240 mm. Infrequent small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR
2/2, pH 6.5.
280 to 300 mm – Light yellowish brown compact, fine sandy clay/clay. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Mottled with stick reddish brown sandy clay. Munsell 10YR 5/3 mottled with
Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 6.5.
STH P5
00 to 280 mm – Dark brownish grey firm, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- grass roots 0-120 mm.
Moderate small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel, increasing with depth. Several medium/large basalt
rocks. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 6.5.
280 to 320 mm – Pale/light yellowish brown compact, fine sandy clay/silt clay. Inclusions- frequent
small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Mottled with dark reddish brown/yellow sticky sandy clay.
Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with Munsell 10YR 4/6, pH 6.
STH P6
00 to 310 mm – Dark brownish grey friable, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- plastic piping at 180 mm in
NW corner. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 6.5.
310 to 320 mm – Dark greyish grey compact medium clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 6.5.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
138
Transect #
Transect Length (m)
STH QTY
Transect Start & End
Point Coordinates
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
STH P7
00 to 210 mm – Dark brownish grey firm, fine sandy silt/clayey silt. Inclusions- very frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/2, pH 6.5.
210 to 300 mm – Light yellowish brown firm, fine clayey silt/clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 6.
Transect Q
50 m 2 STH’s
Start
E
277853
N
5769180
End
E
277804
N
57691856
STH Q1
00 to 260 mm – Mid greyish brown/grey compact, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- grass roots and slate, ceramic
and glass fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
260 to 390 mm – Light greyish grey compact, fine sandy silt. Intermediate between contexts 1 and 3.
Inclusions- frequent small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Moderate charcoal chunks, glass fragments.
Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
390 to 490 mm – Light greyish grey compact, fine sand. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 7.5YR 5/3, pH 6.
490 to 510 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
STH Q2
00 to 150 mm – Mid greyish grey compact, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- 1 shell fragment. Munsell 7.5YR 3/2,
pH 5.5.
150 to 240 mm – Mid yellowish/greyish orange/grey cemented, fine clayey silt. Inclusions- frequent smalllarge basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Glass fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
BASE 240 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey cemented, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
139
Radial Test Hole
Coordinates (GDA 94,
Zone 55)
Radial Test Hole 1
E
277922
N
5768728
Radial Test Hole 2
E
277916
N
5768732
Radial Test Hole 3
E
277921
N
5768724
Radial Test Hole 4
E
277919
N
5768728
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
RTH 1
00 to 360 mm – Light reddish brown weak, fine dry sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Glass and plastic fragments. Munsell 7.5YR 4/2, pH 5.
BASE 360 mm – Dark reddish/yellowish orange compact, fine dry clay. Inclusions- infrequent small ironstone
inclusions. Munsell 7.5YR 5/8, pH 6.
RTH 2
00 to 320 mm – Light reddish brown weak, dry sandy silt. Inclusions- very frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Ceramic and plastic inclusions in top 30 mm. Munsell 7.5YR 4/3, pH 5.5.
BASE 320 mm – Dark reddish orange compact, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/6, pH 6.
RTH 3
00 to 290 mm – Dark greyish grey compact, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- glass and ceramic fragments, and
fly screen mesh. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
290 to 380 mm – Mid greyish brown compact, medium sandy silt. Inclusions- frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Last 100 mm contained 75 % medium-large gravel. Glass fragments. Munsell
7.5YR 3/1, pH 5.5.
280 to 440 mm – Mid yellowish orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
RTH 4
00 to 280 mm – Light reddish brown loose, fine sandy silt. Inclusions- very frequent small-medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. From 30 mm brick, ceramic, glass fragments and bullet casings. Munsell
7.5YR 5/2, pH 5.5.
BASE 280 mm – Mid yellowish orange cemented, fine clay. Munsell 7.5YR 4/4, pH 6.
146-155 Ash Road IA
(VAHR 7721-1171)
1 silcrete artefact on surface
Located at site VAHR
7721-1171
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
140
Radial Test Hole
Coordinates (GDA 94,
Zone 55)
Radial Test Hole L1
E
277987
N
5768550
Radial Test Hole L2
E
277991
N
5768545
Radial Test Hole L3
E
277996
N
5768553
Radial Test Hole L4
E
277991
N
5768557
Stratigraphic and Inclusion Descriptions
Aboriginal Site Name
Artefacts QTY and material type
Stratigraphic Location
RTH L1
00 to 240 mm – Dark greyish grey/black weak, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots 0-80 mm. Infrequent
small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
240 to 270 mm – Mid reddish yellow/orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with
Munsell 10YR 5/6, pH 6
RTH L2
00 to 320 mm – Dark greyish grey/black firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots 0-70 mm. Munsell
10YR 2/1, pH 7.
320 to 370 mm – Mid greyish yellow/grey firm/compact, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- slight yellow sand
mottling. Moderate small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 4/2, pH 7.
370 to 480 mm – Light yellowish yellow/orange/grey compact fine sand. Inclusions- infrequent small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 5/2, pH 7.
BASE 480 mm – Mid reddish orange/yellow compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with
Munsell 10YR 5/6, pH 6.
RTH L3
00 to 100 mm – Dark greyish grey friable, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots 0-70 mm. Moderate small
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
100 to 220 mm – Dark greyish grey firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- moderate small basalt/quartz/ironstone
gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
220 to 360 mm – Dark greyish grey compact, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- mottled with white/yellow fine
sand. Moderate small/medium basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/1 mottled with Munsell 10YR
6/4, pH 7.
360 to 400 mm – Mid orange/yellow/grey compact, fine clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled with Munsell 10YR
5/6, pH 6.
RTH L4
00 to 180 mm – Dark greyish black friable, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- grass roots 0-70 mm. Infrequent
small basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 2/1, pH 7.
180 to 330 mm – Mid/dark greyish grey firm, fine clayey sand. Inclusions- frequent small/medium
basalt/quartz/ironstone gravel. Munsell 10YR 3/1, pH 7.
330 to 380 mm – Light yellowish yellow/orange/grey compact, fine mottled clay. Munsell 10YR 4/2 mottled
with Munsell 10YR 5/6, pH 6.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
141
Appendix 5 - Site Gazetteer
Table A5.1: Site Gazetteer
Site Name
Site Number
Primary Grid
Coordinate
(GDA 94, Zone 55)
Site Type
Landform
Cultural
Heritage Significance
160-172 Ash Road IA
VAHR 7721-1174
E 277991
N 5768554
Isolated Artefact
Lower slope
Very Low
146-155 Ash Road IA
VAHR 7721-1171
E 277923
N 5768727
Isolated Artefact
Lower slope
Very Low
160-172 Ash Road IA2
VAHR 7721-1172
E 277937
N 5768634
Isolated Artefact
Lower slope
Very Low
160-172 Ash Road IA3
VAHR 7721-1173
E 277888
N 5768581
Isolated Artefact
Lower slope
Very Low
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
142
Appendix 6 – Artefact Analysis
ORIENTED WIDTH
1
Plain
8
mm
?
Feather
?
47
mm
44
mm
24
mm
?
Step and scalar retouch
in Q4. Use wear is
evident.
2
Subsurface
L7
100350
Chert?
Very
fine,
waxy
Dark
grey
Distal
flake
Conchoidal
NA
NA
NA
NA
Feather
3
17.1
15.8
15.9
4.5
Retouch in Q4. Possible
use wear. Retouch may
be incidental but artefact
appears to have a point
from the notch.
3
Surface
NA
Surface
Silcrete
Light
Grey
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
4
Surface
NA
Surface
Silcrete
Grey/
red
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Artefact found by
TerraCulture, could not
be relocated during
complex assessment.
No artefact information
passed onto Ecology
and Heritage Partners.
Artefact found by
TerraCulture, could not
be relocated during
complex assessment.
No artefact information
passed onto Ecology
and Heritage Partners.
VAHR
7721-1172
FLAKE SCARS
VAHR
7721-1173
VAHR
7721-1171
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
COMMENTS
ORIENTED LENGTH
Conchoidal
ORIENTED THICKNESS
MAXIMUM DIMENSION
Whole
flake
TERMINATION TYPE
FRACTURE TYPE
Pinkish
grey
PLATFORM THICKNESS
ARTEFACT TYPE
Silcrete
PLATFORM WIDTH
COLOUR
Surface
PLATFORM TYPE
MATERIAL TYPE
NA
NO. OF PLATFORMS
DEPTH Mm
Surface
PROVENANCE
1
VAHR
SITE NUMBER
7721-1174
ARTEFACT NUMBER
TEST HOLE NUMBER
Table A6.1: Artefact analysis
143
Appendix 7 – Draft TerraCulture Report
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
144
Appendix 8 – Glossary
Items highlighted in bold italics in the definition are defined elsewhere in the glossary.
AAV
Aboriginal Affairs Victoria. A division of DPCD responsible for
management of Aboriginal cultural heritage in Victoria.
Aboriginal
cultural heritage
likelihood
an area assessed by a Cultural Heritage Advisor as having potential for
containing either surface or subsurface Aboriginal archaeological
deposits. This term is used in this report to differentiate between
legislated areas of cultural heritage sensitivity and areas considered
by an archaeologist to be sensitive.
Aboriginal site
a location containing Aboriginal cultural heritage, e.g. artefact scatter,
isolated artefact, scarred tree, shell midden, whether or not the site is
registered in the VAHR, cf. Aboriginal cultural heritage place.
Angular fragment
an artefact which has technologically diagnostic features but has no
discernible ventral or dorsal surface and hence is unidentifiable as
either a flake or a core
Area of cultural
heritage
sensitivity
an area specified as an area of cultural heritage sensitivity in Division
3 or Division 4 of Part 2 of the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007.
Artefact scatter
stone artefact scatters consist of more than one stone artefact.
Activities associated with this site type include stone tool production,
hunting and gathering or domestic sites associated with campsites.
Stone artefacts may be flakes of stone, cores (flakes are removed from
the stone cores) or tools. Some scatters may also contain other
material such as charcoal, bone, shell and ochre.
Assemblage
the name given to encompass the entire collection of artefacts
recovered by archaeologists, invariably classified into diagnostic items
used to describe the material culture.
Backed
when one margin of a flake is retouched at a steep angle, and that
margin is opposite a sharp edge. The steep margin is formed by bipolar or hammer and anvil knapping. Also used to describe artefacts
with backing, e.g. backed artefact.
Backed artefact
a class of artefact employed by archaeologists to describe artefacts
which are backed. Sometimes divided into Elouera, Bondi Point,
Microlith and Geometric.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
145
Bipolar
a flaking technique where the object to be reduced is rested on an anvil
and struck. This process is identified by flakes with platform angles
close to 90 degrees as well as apparent initiation from both ends. Some
crushing may also be visible.
Burials
Aboriginal communities strongly associate burial sites with a
connection to country and are opposed to disturbance of burials or their
associated sites. General considerations for the presence of burial sites
are the suitability of Sub surface deposits for digging purposes; with
soft soil and sand being the most likely. They are more likely near
water courses or in dunes near old lake beds or near the coast. Burials
are often located near other sites such as oven mounds, shell middens
or artefact scatters.
Chert
a cryptocrystalline siliceous sedimentary stone.
CHMP
Cultural Heritage Management Plan. A plan prepared under the
Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006.
Core
an artefact which has technologically diagnostic features. Generally
this class of artefact has only negative scars from flake removal, and
thus no ventral surface, however, for the purposes of this research core
has been employed to encompass those artefacts which were
technically flakes but served the function of a core (ie. the provider of
flakes).
Cortex
the weathered outer portion of a stone, often somewhat discoloured
and coarser compared with the unweathered raw material.
Decortications
the process of removing cortex from a stone (generally by flaking).
Deep ripping
the ploughing of soil using a ripper or subsoil cultivation tool to a
depth of 60 cm or more (see significant ground disturbance).
DPCD
Department of Planning and Community Development. The Victorian
State Government department, of which AAV is a part, responsible for
management of Aboriginal cultural heritage in Victoria.
Flake
an artefact which has technologically diagnostic features and a ventral
surface.
High impact
activity
an activity specified as a high impact activity in Division 5 of Part 2 of
the Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007.
HV
Heritage Victoria. A division of DPCD responsible for management
of historical heritage in Victoria.
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146
Isolated finds or
artefacts
isolated finds refer to a single artefact. These artefacts may have been
dropped or discarded by its owner once it was of no use. This site type
can also be indicative of further Subsurface archaeological deposits.
These site types can be found anywhere within the landscape,
however, they are more likely to occur within contexts with the same
favourable characteristics for stone artefact scatter sites.
Manuport
an object which has been carried by humans to the site.
Oriented length
dimension measured according to the following criteria: The length of
the flake from the platform, at 90˚ to force indicators such as ringcrack, bulb of percussion, force ripples and striations, to the opposing
end. Where there were an insufficient number of features present to
take this measurement, such as when the flake was broken, this
variable was not recorded (sometimes referred to as percussion length).
Oriented
thickness
dimension measured at 90˚and bisecting the oriented width dimension.
This was done from the ventral surface to the dorsal surface
(sometimes referred to as percussion thickness).
Oriented width
dimension measured at 90˚and bisecting the oriented length dimension.
This was done from one margin to the other. As this measurement and
oriented thickness, both rely on oriented length, these were not
recorded where the oriented length was not recorded (sometimes
referred to as percussion width).
Procurement
the process of obtaining raw material for reduction.
Quarries
stone quarries were used to procure the raw material for making stone
tools. Quarries are rocky outcrops that usually have evidence of scars
from flaking, crushing and battering the rock. There may be
identifiable artefacts near or within The site such as unfinished tools,
hammer stones, anvils and grinding stones.
Quartz
a crystalline form of silica.
RAP
Registered Aboriginal Party. An Aboriginal organisation with
responsibilities relating to the management of Aboriginal cultural
heritage for a specified area of Victoria under the Aboriginal Heritage
Act 2006.
Raw material
the kind of stone the artefacts were manufactured from.
Reduction
the process of removing stone flakes from another pieces of stone.
Generally this is performed by striking (hard hammer percussion) one
rock with another to remove a flake.
Registered
cultural heritage
place
An Aboriginal site recorded in the VAHR, cf. Aboriginal site.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
147
Retouch
retouch is when a flake is removed after the manufacture of the
original flake. This sequence can be observed when a flake scar is
present and encroaches over the ventral surface and thus must have
been made after the initial flake removal. Recorded whether retouch
was absent or present on the artefact.
Rock shelter
a concave area in a cliff where the cliff overhangs; or a concave area in
a tor where the tor overhangs; or a shallow cave, where the height of
the concave area is generally greater than its depth.
Scarred trees
it is known that the wood and bark of trees have been used for a variety
of purposes, such as carrying implements, shield or canoes. The
removal of this raw material from a tree produces a ‘scar’. The
identification of a scar associated with Aboriginal custom as opposed
to natural scarring can be difficult. The scar should be of a certain size
and shape to be identifiable with its product; the tree should also be
mature in age, from a time that Aboriginal people were still active in
the area.
Significant
ground
disturbance
disturbance of topsoil or surface rock layer of the ground or a
waterway by machinery in the course of grading, excavating, digging,
dredging or deep ripping, but does not include ploughing other than
deep ripping.
Silcrete
a silicified sedimentary stone, often with fine inclusions or grains in a
cryptocrystalline matrix. Because of the nature of the grains in silcrete
(a hindrance in knapping/flaking predictability) the stone is sometimes
heat treated. This exposure to heat can be identified by the presence of
pot-lidding as well as a ‘lustre’ to the stone which is otherwise absent
in the stones’ natural state. Exposure to sufficient heat homogenises
the stone matrix and improves the knapping (flake path) predictive
potential (Crabtree & Butler 1964; Mandeville & Flenniken 1974;
Purdy 1974; Domanski & Webb 1992; Hiscock 1993; Domanski et al.
1994). Similar to indurated mudstone, it has also been demonstrated
that silcrete from the Hunter Valley often turns a red colour after being
exposed to heat (Rowney 1992; Mercieca 2000).
Stone
arrangements
stone arrangements are places where Aboriginal people have
deliberately positioned stones to form shapes or patterns. They are
often known to have ceremonial significance. They can be found
where there are many boulders, such as volcanic areas and are often
large in size, measuring over five metres in width.
Taphonomy
the study of the processes (both natural and cultural) which affect the
deposition and preservation of both the artefacts and the site itself.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
148
Technology
a form of artefact analysis which is based upon the knapping/
manufacturing process, commonly used to subsequently infer
behaviour patterns, cultural-selection and responses to raw material or
the environment.
Thumbnail
scraper
a conceptual class of artefact employed to describe small rounded
retouched flakes with steep margins (based on the classification by
Mulvaney & Kamminga 1999).
VAHR
Victorian Aboriginal Heritage Register. A register of Aboriginal
cultural heritage places maintained by AAV.
VHI
Victorian Heritage Inventory. A register of places and objects in
Victoria identified as historical archaeological sites, areas or relics, and
all private collections of artefacts, maintained by HV. Sites listed on
the VHI are not of State significance but are usually of regional or
local significance. Listing on the VHR provides statutory protection
for that a site, except in the case where a site has been “D-listed”.
VHR
Victorian Heritage Register. A register of the State’s most
significant heritage places and objects, maintained by HV. Listing on
the VHR provides statutory protection for that a site.
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
149
Appendix 8 – Council Zoning Requirements
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
150
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151
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152
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153
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154
REFERENCES
Residential Subdivision, Ash Road Leopold, Victoria: CHMP 11776, January 2012
155
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Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Management