World History
C.13-4 The Growth of Monarchies
During feudalism, the Lords became powerful ↑ and the authority of the Kings faded ↓
C.13-4 = Rise of the monarchies in Europe – Kings’ power ↑
Monarchy in England
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England is one of first to develop a strong central monarchy
Anglo-Saxon England
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600s -- 7 small kingdoms
800s -- Vikings invade and conquer several of the kingdoms
878 -- Alfred the Great drove the Vikings north of London
o Danelaw = area controlled by Vikings
Norman Conquest
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Alfred the Great dies and his descendants rule for 2 centuries
1066 -- King Edward the Confessor dies without an heir
2 men claim power
o Harold = Anglo-Saxon from England – Chosen by the nobles
o William – Duke of Normandy -- distant cousin of King Edward
Harold is named King
William decides to take crown by force
o Gathers his army → England
o William vs. Harold = Battle of Hastings
o William wins = King William I of England (a.k.a. William the Conqueror)
William = strong ruler
o Claimed all land in England
o Divided land into fiefs and gave to Norman soldiers = new nobility
o Survey for taxation = Domesday Book
 Created a central tax system for England
o Introduced French culture to England
 Upper class = French customs
 Lower class = Anglo/Saxon culture and customs
England in France
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Kings after William gained more power – acquired new lands, mostly in France
How?
o William’s descendants still held title of Duke of Normandy so they ruled that area
o Inherited lands in France
o King Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine a French duchess
 Together they ruled England and ½ of France
Magna Carta
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English Kings are strong
Nobles fear they will lose their rights
King John – crisis point
o Goes to war with France and loses most of England’s holdings in France
o Short of money
o Tries to raise $ with new tax on the nobles
Nobles refuse and take up arms against the king
1215 -- King John forced to sign the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
o Outlined the rights of the nobles
o Restricted the King’s power
 Ex. -- King needs the consent of the nobles to raise taxes
 Ex. -- can’t arrest and punish without cause
 Ex. -- can’t take property without legal procedures
o Important document because it
 Limits government and executive power (power of the King)
 King is not above the law
 1st important step in the formation of modern democracies
Parliament (governing bodies)
o 1260s – another noble rebellion – to end the rebellion, the king agreed to meet with
the nobility, clergy and middle class to discuss the issues and the result = parliament
o 1295 -- King Edward I clarified the role of Parliament and worked with it
 His parliament had representatives from every town in England – not
just the nobles and the clergy
Monarchy in France
After Charlemagne
o kings of France did not rule much territory – basically just around Paris and Orleans
the rest of France was controlled by nobles and King of England
o 900s – noble family to power and elected a king = Capetians
o King = Hugh Capet -- extended the monarchy in France
o 1300s - Capetians ruled most of modern France
Holy Roman Empire
After Charlemagne
o empire split into two
o West = France
o East = Germany
 Germany split into small states each ruled by a Duke (Prince)
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936 -- Otto the Great, Duke of Saxony tried to unite the German lands
962 -- nobles challenge Pope John XII and the Pope turns to Otto for help
Otto helps
o Pope rewards Otto by crowning him “Emperor of the Romans”
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Territory unites under Otto = Holy Roman Empire
BUT -- Dukes kept full authority in their lands
Holy Roman Emperors did not inherit the position – they were elected by the important
states and archbishops.
Holy Roman Emperor traveled to Rome to be crowned by the Pope -- Why important?
Spain and Portugal
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Share the Iberian Peninsula
700s -- Conquered by Muslims – called Moors
Most powerful state = Cordoba
Christians ruled a few small kingdoms in the North
722 -- Christians tried to drive Moors out of Europe -- little success
1000s -- Civil war in Muslim Spain weakens the Moors
o Christians seize the opportunity with campaigns to retake the Iberian Peninsula =
Reconquista
 Leader of the Reconquista = Kingdom of Castile
o 1085 -- King of Castile takes Cordoba
o Kingdoms of Portugal and Aragon join the effort
1100 -- Moors out of Portugal
1236 -- Moors out of most of Spain, only Granada still Muslim
1492 -- Moors lose Granada, Moors totally out of Spain
1479 -- Modern Spain -- Marriage of the rulers of Castile and Aragon unite Spain
 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
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