Multicultural Philosophy:
An Annotated List of Diverse Resources to use in HZT4U and HZB3M
Rationale:
In the Preface to the 2013 Curriculum, major ideas underlying the Social Sciences and Humanities courses are identified. These include student
development and understanding of self and others, and local and global mindedness. Students must be exposed to a wide variety of texts, beliefs,
and role models from diverse backgrounds in order to understand global and local communities, others, and themselves.
The Ministry of Education’s “Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy” (2009) states that in order to achieve “the promise of diversity, we must
ensure that we respect and value the full range of our differences… In an increasingly diverse Ontario, that means ensuring that all of our students
are engaged, included, and respected, and that they see themselves reflected in their learning environment.”
The section on Equity and Inclusive Education in the Prefacespecifies how the Ministry’s goal can be met through the new Social Sciences and
Humanities curriculum. An equitable classroom in which students see themselves reflected in the curriculum can be achieved by explicitly
teaching respect for diversity, and by drawing attention to the philosophical contributions of women and various ethnocultural and racial
communities.The following resources aim to equip teachers with the tools to accomplish the latter, and to draw connections between these diverse
resources and the Key Questions/Teacher Prompts in the new Philosophy curriculum.
Branch
Metaphysics
Group
Represented
Resource(s)
West African
Philosophy
Wiredu, Kwasi. Cultural Universals and Particulars: An African
Perspective. Indiana University Press, p. 129-135, 1996.
Aboriginal
Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Akan Philosophy of the
Person.” 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/akan-person/
Rice, Brian. “Aboriginal Consciousness,” Seeing the World with
Aboriginal Eyes: A Four Directional Perspective on Human and
non-Human Values, Cultures and Relationships on Turtle
Island. Mohawk and Finnish Scholar, p. 61-66, 2005.
Chinese
Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Cheng Yi.” 2009.
http://www.iep.utm.edu/chengyi/
Description / Philosopher(s) / Key
Question(s)
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Philosopher: KwasiWiredu (contemporary
Ghanaian philosopher)
Key Questions: What is the self? What is
understood by the concept of “being”? What is
personal identity?
Aboriginal perspectives on human values,
cultures and relationships
Key Questions: What is the relationship of
mind to matter? What is understood by the
concept of “being”? What is the self?
Philosopher: Cheng Yi (leading Neo-Confucian
philosopher)
Key Questions: What are the ultimate
constituents from reality? Does a supreme being
exist, and, if so, what role does it have in human
life? What is the relationship of mind to matter?
Indian Buddhist
Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Dharmakīrti.” 2011.
http://171.67.193.20/entries/dharmakiirti/
Oruka, Henry Odera, Sage Philosophy: Indigenous Thinkers and
Modern Debate on African Philosophy. Nairobi, African Center
for Technological Studies (ACTS), 1991.
East African
Philosophy
South American
Philosophy
Epistemology
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Latin American
Philosophy: Metaphilosophical Foundations,” 2009.
http://171.67.193.20/entries/logic-paraconsistent/
Nuccetelli, Susana, et. al. eds. “Peru,” A Companion to Latin
American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
Battiste, Marie and Jean Barman, Ed. “Aboriginal
Epistemology,” First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle
Unfolds. UBC Press, Vancouver, 1995.
Aboriginal
Philosophy
Ahmed, Zaid. “The Epistemology of IbnKhaldun, ”in Morelon,
Régis; Rashed, Roshdi. Encyclopedia of the History of Arab
Science 3, Routledge, 2003.
http://www.questia.com/library/108001957/the-epistemology-ofibn-khaldun
McGinn, Marie. Sense and Certainty: A Dissolution of
Scepticism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989.
North African
Muslim
Philosophy
Female
Philosopher
Korean
Philosophy
Dreyfus, George B. J. Recognizing Reality: Dharmakīrti’s
Philosophy and its Tibetan Interpretations. Albany State
University of New York Press. 1997.
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Kim, Jaegwon. “What is ‘naturalized epistemology’?”
inTomberlin, J. E., ed. Philosophical Perspectives, v. 2.
Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview. pp. 381-405, 1988.
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Philosopher: Dharmakīrti (ancient Indian
Buddhist scholar)
Key Questions: What are the ultimate
constituents of reality?
Philosopher: Henry Odera Okura (Kenyan
philosopher known for Sage philosophy)
Key Questions:What are the ultimate
constituents from reality? Does a supreme being
exist, and, if so, what role does it have in human
life? What is the self?
Philosopher: Francisco Miro-Quesada
(contemporary Peruvian philosopher)
Key Questions: Does “human nature” exist?
What is the relationship of mind to matter?
Collection of works written by First Nations and
Metis people
Key Questions: What is knowledge? What is
truth? Are there different kinds of knowledge? Is
scientific knowledge more reliable than other
forms of knowing?
Philosopher: IbnKhaldun (Tunisian Muslim
historian and philosopher, author of
Muqaddimah, 1377)
Key Questions: What is knowledge? What is
required to justify a belief?
Philosopher: Marie McGinn (contemporary
female philosopher who critiques scepticism)
Key Questions: What is knowledge? What are
the limits of knowledge? What is required to
justify a belief?
Philosopher: Jaegwon Kim (contemporary
Korean American philosopher)
Key Questions: What is knowledge? What is
Ethics
Confucian
(Chinese)Ethics
Wenn, Chase B. “Naturalistic Epistemology,” Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005. http://www.iep.utm.edu/natepis/
Yu, Kam-por, Tao, Julia, and Ivanhoe, Phillip J., eds. Taking
Confucian Ethics Seriously: Contemporary Theories and
Applications. State University of New York Press, 2010.
required to justify a belief? What is the
difference between knowledge and opinion?
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Clarkson, Linda, et. al. Our Responsibility to the Seventh
Generation: Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Development.
The International Institute for Sustainable Development,
Winnipeg, 1992.
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Tibetan
Buddhist Ethics
YouTube.“His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama: Ethics for our
Time.” 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8p776tJ8DUc
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Female
Philosopher
Gilligan, Carol. “In a Different Voice” in Ethical Theory: A
Concise Anthology. Ed. Geirsson, Heimir, and Holmgren,
Margaret. Toronto: Broadview Press, 2001.
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Islamic Ethics
BBC Religions. “Islam and war,” 2009.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/islamethics/war.sh
tml
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Aboriginal
Ethics
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Social and
Political
Philosophy
Japanese
Philosophy
Wakabayashi, Bob T. Modern Japanese Thought. Cambridge
University Press, p. 214-218, 1998.
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Aboriginal
Philosophy
The Assembly of First Nations Report on Canada’s Dispute
Resolution Plan to Compensate for Abuses in Indian Residential
Schools, 2004. http://epub.sub.uni-
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Philosopher: Confucius
Key Questions: What is duty? What is the
nature of responsibility? What is virtue? What is
a good life?
Academic teacher resource about environmental
responsibility based in the “Seven Generations”
principle
Key Questions: What is a good life? What is the
nature of responsibility?
Philosopher: Dalai Lama (the 14th)
Key Questions: What is the nature of
responsibility? What is the good life? What is
virtue?
Philosopher: Carol Gilligan (care ethicist)
Key Questions: What is a good life? What is
virtue?
Scholarly article that describes the ethics of war
according to Islam (includes primary excerpts
from the Qur’an and an audio clip of a BBC
news special on religious pacifism)
Key Questions: What is duty? What is the
nature of responsibility? Is morality separable
from religion?
Philosopher: Ikki Kita (Japanese political
philosopher, authored “The Theory of National
Polity and Pure Socialism,” 1906)
Key Questions: What are the just limits of state
authority? What are an individual’s rights and
responsibilities? Is it possible in a democracy to
adhere to the will of the majority and still
respect the views of the minority?
Primary government document
Key Questions: Do governments have an
obligation to redress historical injustices, and if
hamburg.de/epub/volltexte/2009/2889/pdf/Indian_Residential_S
chools_Report.pdf
West African 
Philosophy
Eze, E. C. (ed.), Postcolonial African Philosophy: A Critical
Reader, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1997.
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Philosophy of
Science
Mohist
(Chinese)
Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Mohism, 2010.
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mohism/
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Chan, Wing-tsit, ed. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1969.
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North African
Muslim
Philosophy
Issawi, Charles and Khaldun, Ibn. “An Arab Philosophy of
History: Selections from the Prolegomena of IbnKhaldun of
Tunis (1332-1406),”in Morelon, Régis; Rashed,
Roshdi.Encyclopedia of the History of Arab Science 3,
Routledge, 1950.http://www.questia.com/library/666440/anarab-philosophy-of-history-selections-from-the
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Islamic
Philosophy
Weiss, Dieter, "IbnKhaldun on Economic
Transformation", International Journal of Middle East Studies,
p. 29–37, 1995.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Arabic and Islamic
Natural Philosophy and Natural Science.” 2012.
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arabic-islamic-natural/
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Aboriginal
Philosophy
Female
Philosopher
Aikenhead, Glen, and Michell, Herman. Bridging Cultures:
Indigenous and Scientific Ways of Knowing Nature. Toronto:
Pearson Education Canada, 2010
Cartwright, Nancy. “The Truth Doesn’t Explain Much,”
Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Prometheus
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so, in what way? Is it possible in a democracy to
adhere to the will of the majority and still
respect the views of the minority?
Philosopher: Emmanuel ChukwudiEze,
(contemporary Nigerian philosopher known for
postcolonial philosophy)
Key Questions: How did colonialism impact its
citizens? What are the just limits of state
authority? How can social and political justice
and equity be defined?
Philosopher: Mo Di, better known as “Mozi”
(pronounced Mo-Tzu, an ancient Chinese thinker
known for challenging Confucianism)
Key Questions: What are an individual’s rights
and responsibilities? What limits, if any, should
be put on the freedom of an individual citizen?
Philosopher: IbnKhaldun (Tunisian Muslim
historian and philosopher, author of
Muqaddimah, 1377)
Key Questions: What are the limits of state
authority? What are an individual’s rights and
responsibilities?
Natural philosophy as seen from an Islamic
perspective (including the theory Kalam, a form
of atomism)
Key Questions: What is science? Are scientific
models accurate depictions of reality or just
useful tools for developing hypotheses?
Textbook
Key Questions: What is science? What, if any,
are the limits of scientific knowledge?
Philosopher: Nancy Cartwright (American
philosopher known for studies in Logic)
South American
Philosophy
Books, New York, 1998.
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Bunge, Mario. "What is Pseudoscience", The Skeptical Inquirer,
Vol.9, No.1, pp.36–46. 1984.
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Aesthetics
Abiodun, Rowland. "African Aesthetics." Journal of Aesthetic
Education 35 (2001), 4: 15 - 23.
Available as a download from www.jstor.org
African
Aesthetics
Belton, Val-Jean. "African Art and Aesthetics." Curriculum Unit
98.03.02. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1998/3/98.03.02.x.html
Suzuki, David and McConnell, Amanda. The Sacred Balance: A
Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Toronto: Greystone
Books, 2004.
Aboriginal
Aesthetics
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Feminist
Aesthetics
Klinger, Cornelia. “Aesthetics,” A Companion to Feminist
Philosophy, Alison M. Jaggar and Iris Marion Young (eds.),
Malden, MA: Blackwell, 343–352, 1998.
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Chinese
Aesthetics
Liyuan, Zhu and Blocker, Gene (eds.), “Contemporary Chinese
Aesthetics,” Asian Thought and Culture, Vol. 7. Peter Lang,
1995.
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Guangqian, Zhu. The Beauty of Life. Peking University Press,
2010.
Key Questions: What is science? Does science
study reality?What, if any, are the limits of
scientific knowledge?
Philosopher: Mario Augusto Bunge
(contemporary Argentine philosopher and
physicist)
Key Questions: Is astrology a science? Does
science study reality?
Scholarly article by West African professor
Abdiun Rowland
“African Art and Aesthetics” course
introduction and lesson plans from the YaleNew Haven Teachers Institute
Key Questions: What is beauty? What is the
connection between beauty and utility? What do
artworks say about the meaning of communal
life?
Photographic images that capture the beauty and
balance of nature, paired with small passages
that reflect Indigenous views on nature
Key Questions: What is beauty? Is art a
uniquely human endeavour? What factors are
involved in making aesthetic judgments?
Philosopher: Cornelia Klinger (contemporary
feminist philosopher)
Key Questions: Does art have social value, and,
if so, how is its social value determined? What
factors are involved in making aesthetic
judgments?
Philosopher: Zhu Guangqian (generally
regarded as the thinker who founded the study of
aesthetics in 20th-century China)
Key Questions: What is beauty? What factors
are involved in making aesthetic judgments?
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Multicultural Philosophy - Ontario Philosophy Teachers` Association