Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
P-2
THE SCHOLARSHIP OF INTER-FAITH ENGAGEMENT IN
THE WRITINGS OF SELECTED CONTEMPORARY MUSLIM
SCHOLARS
FATMIR SHEHU,
GENERAL STUDIES,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The acts of pride, arrogance, superiority, selfishness, enmity and disrespect for others, have created
since the very beginning of human history a very hostile environment, which has been an immense
obstacle for the construction of a friendly and mutual engagement among people. Such engagement can
take place in different aspects of peoples’ daily activities, like religious, civilizational, political,
sociological, cultural, economic, and so on. The most important engagement, which is related with
peoples’ spiritual and material aspects of life, is, however, the inter-faith engagement. Although
Allah (s.w.t.) has revealed to humanity only one Transcendental Way of Life called DÊn; yet people
follow different ways by creating different religious communities living in a society characterized by
diversity. Indeed, the scholarship of inter-faith engagement has been introduced in our contemporary
time. However, guidelines for this scholarship have been addressed in the Qur’Én and applied by
the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) fourteen centuries ago. This paper has attempted to discuss the scholarship of
inter-faith engagement as promoted by the Qur’Én and its application in the lifetime of the
Prophet (p.b.u.h.), as well as the approach of selected contemporary Muslim scholars towards this
scholarship.
P-30
Case 4 - Bank Muamalat: Case Study of Islamic Management
Khaliq Ahmad, Kaliq Ahmad, Azhar Kazmi
Kaliq Ahmad, Azhar Kazmi
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The development in Islamic capital market with heavy focus on Islamic finance and banking was one
of the better known initiatives of Malaysia, and one that has elevated the country to an enviable position
in the world’s financial landscape. Thus managing the banking activity based on Islamic law or
Shariah principles became a focus of academic scrutiny. Islamic banking has the same purpose as
conventional banking except that it operates in accordance with the rules of Shariah, known as Fiqh alMuamalat (Islamic rules of transactions). The basic principle of Islamic banking is the sharing of profit
and loss and the prohibition of riba' (interest). Amongst the common Islamic concepts used in Islamic
banking are profit sharing (Mudharabah), safekeeping (Wadiah), joint venture (Musharakah), cost-plus
(Murabahah) and leasing (Ijarah).
In Malaysia we have intensified the promotion of this sector overseas and in other Islamic markets in
particular through the sharing of shariah knowledge in Islamic Banking since the industry took off
globally with the introduction of the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah in 1970. In 1974, the Islamic
Bank of Dubai became the first ever to be launched. The earliest form of Islamic banking in Malaysia
can be traced to the setting up of the Perbadanan Wang Simpana Bakal-Bakal Haji, the precursor to the
present-day Tabung Haji (TH). The National Steering Committee on Islamic Bank was established in
July 1980 culminating in the establishment of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad in 1983. In 1993,
commercial banks, merchant banks and finance companies were allowed to offer Islamic banking
products and services under the Islamic Banking Scheme (IBS). Bank Muamalat Malaysia Bhd. took
this opportunity to move into this industry and joined the existing Islamic banks in the country.
Bank Muamalat is now one the leading banks in Malaysia. It had 46 branches, 5 service centres and
Labuan Offshore branch. The Bank had existing staff strength of about 1,400 employees. The
proficiency and integrity was on high a high alert vis-Ã -vis an increased level of competition in the
Malaysian industry of Islamic banking and finance since the country has braced cautious move of
globalization with an opening of equal number of international Islamic banks.
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
P-31
BANK RAKYAT CASE: Vision Remains and Mission Revisited
Khaliq Ahmad, Khaliq Ahmad, Azhar KazmiKhaliq Ahmad, Azhar Kazmi
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The slogan, “of the people, for the people, by the people― comes home. The Bank Rakyat
Malaysia offers a different kind of retail banking. Bank Rakyat evolved drastically from a cooperative
system of management to a newly found destiny of an adventurous entity ready to face very hostile
competitive market forces of Islamic banking and finance industry.
This was a cooperative bank that joined Islamic banking and finance industry. The Bank needed to
create a culture of change in order to be flexible to adapt to changing external environments and be
consistent in its vision but revisit its mission and objectives underneath which should also be in line
with its founding fathers idea of serving its members in a new structure in order to aid effective decision
making and communication with stakeholders.
The above change facilitated subsequently to achieve its future growth strategies and planning
activities, which was imperative for its future survival. Finally the Bank so far had portrayed its image
as being responsive, transparent and honest corporate citizen despite host of issues and challenges
ahead.
P-47
CONCEPT OF IMPERMANENCE IN THE CONTEXT OF
INTERFAITH DAILOGUE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mohammad Ismath Ramzy Ramzy, Mohammad Ismath RamzyMohammad Ismath Ramzy
Usuluddin & Comparative Religion,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The concept of impermanence is one of the important doctrines in Islam and Buddhism, which
determines the human actions and intentions. The life, according to this doctrine, is a process of
evaporating. Both Buddhism and Islam agree that temptation in the life is the test to qualify a person
into the status of permanent. However, Islam determines the Muslims to overcome the temptations by
prescribing the doings and not doings while Buddhism does not. This study has undertaken to evaluate
the human expectations and determines in the context of impermanence while discovering the
similarities and differences between Islam and Buddhism.
P-64
GMF - Food for All? Islamic legal perspectives on Genetically
Modified Food
Dr. Anke Iman Bouzenita, Dr Anke Iman BouzenitaDr Anke Iman Bouzenita
Department of Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Genetically Modified Food (GMF) has become a reality worldwide. Concerns as to its health
innocuousness, ecological and economic implications have been raised around the globe as well. The
particular Islamic exigencies on nutrition (the halal status) require Islamic legal deliberations on the
permissibility of GMF, not only for the Muslim consumer, but also with regard to research and
production. The project investigates the transferability of Islamic legal tools and concepts, such as
istihalah (chemical transformation), istihlak (extreme dissolution), jallalah (animal feeding on impure
food), the change of creation, the benefit/harm paradigm and others to the case of GMF incorporating
DNA from halal or mixed halal- non-halal sources. It underlines that research on the permissibility of
GMF needs to go beyond the mere isolated issuing of fatwas on the end product, but rather has to take
the overall rational of its existence into consideration.
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
P-120
The Similarities and Contrasts among the Abrahamic Faiths: An
Evaluation of the Analysis from the Holy Texts
Dr. Osman Chuah Abdullah Chuah Hock Leng, Dr. Osman Chuah Bin Abdullah and Dr. Mohd.
Shuhaimi Bin Haji IshakDr. Osman Chuah Bin Abdullah and Dr. Mohd. Shuhaimi Bin Haji Ishak
Department of Usuluddin and Comparative Religion,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and
Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
P-237
Islamic Conceptualisation of Knowledge Management
Muhamadul Bakir Hj. Yaakub, Khatijah Binti OthmanKhatijah Binti Othman
Arabic Language and Literature,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This project is a proposition to address “The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge
Management” (KM) from Islamic point of views, to draw the notion of “Islamic Worldview”
of knowledge, especially in terms of understanding its nature in the reality of knowledge society, as a
step toward formulating the essence of promising performance in an Islamic organizational setting.
Thus, with the assumption that once knowledge is managed, then it is possible to look at its behaviours,
functions, and process of development in the form of scientific realm. Hypothetically, if there were no
single theory formulated to identify the nature of knowledge, then how can it be managed and achieve
its goals? In other words, “Islamic Knowledge Management― (IKM) is the answer to the
uncertainty situation of contemporary knowledge development, management and utilization especially
for Muslim users conceptualization and application. They have to explore new techniques and
processing tools that helps them harness knowledge in according to their conceptual believe system,
especially in term of knowledge investigation and sharing in which help them to improve their
vicegerent (VG) status and humanistic relationship. { حبل من الله وحبل من
الناس }. IKM as an Islamic system is intended for particular areas of application and
objectives based on “knowledge intensive processing action― (KIPA) known (in Islamic Studies)
as {اجتهاد}, in which it is depending on some human expert intervention in order to
establish a comprehensive and integrated organizational culture, commitments and management, or to
better perform the process in producing a production, marketing campaigns, systems analysis and
design, and strategy in reducing operational cost and business risk, in improving decision making for
strategic future development and identifying new technical approaches in problem solving, or even for
the purpose to harmonize inter-cultural and personalities gaps within an organizational community.
P-249
Islamization of Arabic Language Curriculum (IALC) for an Intercultural Adjustment
Muhamadul Bakir Hj. Yaakub, Muhammed Lawal musa AlongbicaMuhammed Lawal musa Alongbica
Arabic Language and Literature,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This research is a proposition to address the issue of “Islamization― as a Fundamental Theory
of Educational Development and Application within Muslim World as the lattes notion of “Islamic
Worldview― introduced and applied by Muslim educational institution, especially in terms of
understanding its nature in the reality of contemporary educational development and societal needs, as a
step toward formulating the essence of Muslim promising performance in the global arena. Thus, with
the assumption that once Islamic educational system is well structured, then it is possible to look at its
behavioural impacts, functions and nobility. Hypothetically, if there were no single description
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
concerning this issue, than how can it development, performance and achievement been evaluated and
respected. Furthermore, Islamization of Educational Curriculum (IEC) is considered as the answer for
the call to resolve the uncertainty situation faced by the Muslim world since its early encounters with
Western civilization and remain until today caught up in a vicious circle such as Islam phobia and
fundamentalism.
P-285
THE SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE IN THE QUR`AN
IBRAHIM SHOGAR, Dr. Ibrahim ShogarDr. Ibrahim Shogar
COMPUTATIONAL AND THEORETICAL SCIENCES,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
THE SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE IN THE QUR`AN
The main objective of the research is to address the epistemic dimensions of the Qur`anic discourse.
The Holy Qur`an, as a comprehensive discourse to mankind, provides both: moral and epistemological
aspects of guidance. The dawn of human history had begun by searching on nature. Observation and
contemplation are the major tools to unfold the truth about the physical world. Driven by curiously and
aided by new inventions, mankind has been searching to find unity and regularity in the diversity of the
natural process. The birth of scientific knowledge in early Islamic civilization was inspired by the
Qur`an, which eliminated the Darkness of pre-Islamic community (Jahiliyyah). Muslim scientists,
philosophers, and theologians such as Ibn Sina, Ibin al-Hyitham and al-Ghazali, were spokesmen of that
era. Envisioned by Islamic world view, they understood the Qur`anic guidance properly and accepted all
principles of scientific research. Therefore they carried out their investigation for the benefit of
humanity and for spiritual ends. For them, observation of nature and increasing knowledge are not an
end in itself. Recourse to rationality and sense perceptions would lead to understanding the wonders of
creation and appreciation of the Creator.
To regain their glory in science, technology and innovation, the modern Muslim scientists may
need to consider the following points:
1.
The major source of research motivation can be found only in basic beliefs of every nation
and its cultural settings. Creation of the curiosity and creative mind, through reconstruction of the
scientific world view was one of the main objectives of the Holy Qur`an when it revealed, for first time,
to pre-Islamic community.
2.
The Qur`anic approach on science must utilized to create research spirit on Muslim scholars
and scientists. Indeed, it is a inspiring method for scientist to seek answers to their problems and
challenges of the age in the depth of the Qur`anic revelation. They should not deal with the Holy Qur`an
as a mere Book of recitation for blessings, but also as a source of knowledge, as a deriving force of
ideas and inspiration for search in nature and human phenomena.
3.
While they searching for the best method to reactivate the creative aspect of Muslim mind,
they have to update their religious thinking. To be a religious, according to Qur`anic verses, is to
“Read” in both, the book of nature and the Revealed Book, which started by “Iqra”.
4.
“Creation of research spirit― should be the main objective in the modern history and
philosophy of Islamic science. To achieve this goal, the Muslim scholars need to make deep reflection
on their history and their sources of research motivation which created such epistemological awareness
on early Muslim scientists.
5.
Instilling the Islamic view of man, nature and ultimate realty; is essential to develop new
epistemology and new attitudes toward science, technology and innovation.
P-292
Statistical Study of the Holy Quran
Akram Zeki, Akram M. Zeki , Mohammed Z. Khedher , Hassen Alsafi , Ahmed FaridiAkram M. Zeki ,
Mohammed Z. Khedher , Hassen Alsafi , Ahmed Faridi
Department of Information System,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
International Islamic University Malaysia
Use of computer provided a great potential to deal with the Arabic texts more easily. Furthermore,
the use of database presented more possibilities to deal with texts and process it in an orderly manner.
There have been several attempts to take care of the Quranic text in a way offers the possibility to deal
with it in a fast and accurate way. Despite the availability of some search engines for the Quranic text.
The aim of this research is to set up databases at the level of word, root, and letters, to establish a
computerized database of the Holy Qur'an in an appropriate manner. It will be the basic of all disciplines
and legitimate branches of Hadith, jurisprudence, the principles of Quran sciences and its interpretation,
and the Arabic language. This is done for the benefit of largest possible number of researchers and
scholars in the field of Arabic language and the Holy Quran. The project was started by setting the
foundations for dealing with the basics of the Quranic word. This research contains a general statistics
about the Holy Quran as stated in the Othmanic copies of Quran.
P-293
THE SCIENTIFIC THINKING IN ISLAM: FACTORS OF
FLOURISHING AND DECLINE
IBRAHIM SHOGAR, Dr. Ibrahim ShogarDr. Ibrahim Shogar
COMPUTATIONAL AND THEORETICAL SCIENCES,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
THE SCIENTIFIC THINKING IN ISLAM:
FACTORS OF FLOURISHING AND DECLINE
The significant role played by the science and technology for human development is become more
important in the modern age. The contemporary Muslim societies have a little chance to progress
without scientific thinking. The quality of live, in this competitive world, is based on the intellectual
value of mind. Mankind acts according to the way he thinks, the proper way of thinking creates proper
actions. The Holy Qur`an launched its glorious mission to mankind by “Iqra― due to the fact the
quality of thought directly affects the quality of action, and both the quality of thought and quality of
action affect the quality of live. At the opening of its golden age about eighth century and for nearly a
thousand years the Islamic civilization remained creative in science, technology and innovation. The
achievements of Muslim scientists surpassed all their contemporaries. The scientific world view of
Islam was the inspiring force of their inquiry and all research activities. At that time the Islamic world
was ranged from Spain and Morocco, through Damascus, Cairo and Baghdad, to Persia and North India.
Even by comparison with Medieval Europe, Islamic world was more prosperous, productive and
culturally rich civilization. However, starting around sixteenth century the Islamic civilization began to
wane, losing ground to other nations. Today, Muslim communities are facing global challenges,
especially scientific and technological challenges. There are many questions need to be addressed by
Muslim scholars of today: (1) what the main factors behind flourishing of science and technology in the
Muslim communities of the past? (2) What were the main causes of decadence of the scientific thinking
in Islam? (3) How we could restore the Islamic creative thinking again?
The work has concluded that science in Islamic civilization was flourished due to many factors,
including:
1.
The positive attitude of Islam towards science and knowledge inquiry
2.
The universal nature of Islam (unity in diversity and multicultural society was source of
creativity)
3.
The noble goals of knowledge inquiry in Islam
4.
The common ground of Muslim scientists and Islamic scholarship
5.
The assimilation capacity of Islam
The research project has elaborated on all these points
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
P-345
MUSLIM WOMEN ISSUES IN THE FAMILY: TOWARDS AN
ENLIGHTENED FIQH CONSTRUCTION
Dr.Mek Wok mahmud, Assoc.Sayed SikandarAssoc.Sayed Sikandar
Fiqh and Usul Fiqh,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The position of women in Islam is one of the much debated issues in our time. Academics both from
within the Islamic culture and outside have their own theoretical constructs about the legal position of
women in Islam, particularly in the context of Islamic family law. One when surveying the available
literature can identify two divergent theories on this issue. One body of opinions theorizes some what
reduced legal status for women in the family, as a sister, daughter, mother and wife. Others conversely
disagree by maintaining that normative sources of Islam and its laws do not sustain such a relegated
view of women in the family. It is either on account of deviation from the ideal law or the
superimposition of customary practices, cultures and habits into it which position women as subordinate
to men in the family. To remedy the situation, the approaches and methodologies are more diverse. In
this paper, therefore, we attempt to critically examine some major issues with the idea of identifying
the legislative framework which is in congruence with Islamic methodology of reform to correct the
misconceptions about the elevated position of Muslim women in the family.
P-349
Optimization of philanthropic Waqf: The Need for Maqasid-based
Legislative Strategies
Dr Mek Wok Mahmud, Assoc. Prof dr. Sayed SikandarAssoc. Prof dr. Sayed Sikandar
Fiqh and Usul Fiqh,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Waqaf institution was most central in financing socio-religious and public welfare systems during the
early days of Islam. More importantly, the contribution of philanthropic endowment(waqf khayri)
substantially financed and sustained the social welfare institutions in Muslim societies. Gradually,
however, the creation of this type of waqf dwindled and degenerated. Today, by and large, the waqf
consists of religious kind particularly in Malaysia. To remedy this situation, we believe that we do not
only need to rethink of the regulatory cum institutional structures of waqf but also have to seriously
earmark jurisprudential strategies for the revival of waq khayri in this direction.
P-352
Istiratijiyyat Bina’ al-Kifaayah al-Lughawiyyah atAtta;limiyyah al-Arabiyyah fi al-Bi’aat Ghair al-Arabiyyah:AlUsrah al-Madrasiyyah bi Malazia Namudzajan.
Dr. Saupi Man,
Arabic Language and Literature,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Arabic language is the language of Holy Qur’an and Hadith as well as the language of knowledge
in the Islamic world. Some Islamic countries for example Malaysia have embarked in making the
Arabic language a central language in their education system. The year 2010 will mark a new beginning
for Arabic Teaching in Malaysia as the Arabic language will be made a compulsory subject in all
national primary schools. Therefore, these schools are required to collaborate in order to create a
suitable learning environment for this language. These schools are also striving hard to develop the
essential language teaching skill in non-Arabic environments.
The teaching of the Arabic language has been gaining grounds in Malaysian schools for the past ten
yers, as noted by the increase in the numbers of national schools which have made Arabic as an elective
subject. Ironically, there are still students who cannot speak Arabic because the environment
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
surrounding them does not encourage the development of such skills.
The researcher finds it necessary to expand the language teaching skills in schools by using the
methodology which provides the opportunity to practice the language taught in and outside the class.
The question is, what are the right strategies through collaboration with the schools to bring about
greater proficiency of learners of Arabic in Malaysian schools.
P-384
Title: Perception on Women in Judicial Leadership as a Judge in
Modern Context: A Critical Study of the Responses of Muslim
Scholars
Md Yousuf Ali Ali, not applicablenot applicable
GENERAL STUDIES,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The issue of women’s judgeship in Islam is a challenge and much debatable subject. The
interpretation of the verses is seen by almost all Muslim scholars regarding the issue as the literal words
of Allah(swt). The satance of the majority classical as well as contemporary Muslim scholars is not
identical, but confusible. In modern context, regarding women’s judgship, some Muslim scholars
and Muslim faminists have applied a contexual approach with regard to the historical, social, and
political context in which the verses were revealed in order to disclose an underlying liberal intent,
which may liberate Muslim from literal reading of the Qur`an. They argued that the present sociopolitico-economic milieu demands women to participate in nation-building in general and in judicial
leadership as a judge in particular. However, regarding the issue of judgship, there are two opinions of
Muslims: a) women’s judgship is allowed b) woman’s judgship is proscribed. However, those
who are in fevor face a particular challenge and accusation from traditional Muslim scholars. The
accusation is that they are not loyal to the teaching of Islam and its heritage, but produces a liberal Islam
and liberal shari`ah, influenced by the Western values and imposed upon Islam.
This research aims to examine IslÉmic perception on women in judicial leadership on the
responses of both classical and modern Muslim scholars focusing on women can be appointed as judges
in both the general civil courts as well as the SharÊÑah courts on the basis of the textual arguments of
the Qur’Én and Sunnah. The study intends to focus on: a) expecting to generate knowledge about
the nature and pattern of the perception on women in judicial leadership from both classical as well as
contemporary Muslim scholars .b) adding a critical analysis of a crucial issue such as can women be
allowed to be appointed as a judge in both the general civil courts as well the SharÊÑah courts for
better understanding of the need of their appointment in a social and global context. c) investigating and
clarifying the contradictions between textual sources and differing interpretations about women’s
judicial leadership. d) recommending the SharÊÑah based guidelines and principles to overcome the
predicament that can allow women to participate to contribute in judicial institution and e) providing
some suggestions for the future research. The study presents the arguments through verification and
substantiation that can be translated into materializing the role of women in the Muslim society.The
research is also highly expected to produce articles to be published in the journals of international
repute.
P-435
Family Institution from Islamic and Western Sociological
Perspectives: Analysis
Md Yousuf Ali Ali, nono
GENERAL STUDIES,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The family as a macrocosm of society requires critical consideration when we observe crisis of
family institution in the postmodern age. The family institution, along with its role and functions, is
drastically changing in the context of globalized family values and cultures. In modern western
sociology, the family institution is simply understood as a system of relationship in which people live
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
together with commitment, form an economic unit, and take care of their children. However, in Islam,
the family institution is taken as a different concept where the spouses not merely live together with
commitment, but rather they form a social unit based on divinely prescribed principles and directives.
The economic unit that an Islamic family would form should be based on lawful (halal) means of
income. The socialization process in Islamic family is also different from the western sociological
perspective in the sense that Islamic family teaches children the values and culture of obeying their
parents (as opposed to total freedom), complying with the rules of Shari’ah, and abiding by other
responsibilities towards the family and society. In line with the functionalist perspective, we view the
family as a crucial agent for maintaining stability in society. Hence, there is a serious need to critically
evaluate the family institution in the changing perspective of the twenty-first century.
This study aims to evaluate the nature and pattern of family institution from both Islamic and
Western sociological perspectives towards a better understanding of the family institution that carries
out the role of ÑAbd and KhalÊfah of Allah on earth. In particular, it intends to focus on: a)
analyzing the meanings, characteristics, similarities and differences between both modern Western
sociological and Islamic perspectives on family institution; b) identifying the shortcomings and negative
elements from western sociological perspective on family institution and evaluate critically their impact
from Islamic perspective; and most importantly, c) analyzing some fundamental issues of the family
institution comparatively from Islamic and western sociological perspectives, (d) discussing
requirements that can strengthen Islamic family institution. The study is intended to outline a
chronological development of the family institution from Islamic and Western sociological tradition.
The three main key issues, i.e. marriage, the role of parents, and the role of children of family institution
will be elaborated and evaluated with the concept, characteristics, principles and application from both
the perspectives. The study would include practical suggestions and recommendations for strengthening
the Islamic family institution in the globalized era. Discussion would include implications of the
research findings, shortcomings of the current study, and directions for future research.
P-438
Integration of Knowledge in Theory and Practice: The Contribution
of Bediuzzaman Said Nuri
Md Yousuf Ali Ali, nono
GENERAL STUDIES,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Integration of knowledge represents the intellectual and epistemological aspect of Islam is a
challenge. In the history of Islam, in a sense spans the tradition that began with the patriarch Ibrahim
and reached its zenith in the last prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Indeed the first revelation
of the Qur'an is “to read and write― and the prophet of Islam continued its process until the
revelation of the whole Qur'an was completed during his lifetime. Muslim scholars and thinkers were
concern to develop man’s intellectual efforts in the various ages. The integration process of
knowledge was revived in the twentieth century by several scholars and thinkers, one of whom was
Badiuzzaman Said Nursi (1877-1960). This approach argues that without integration of knowledge
between religious sciences and modern sciences in accordance with the need of time, the progress and
development is not possible. Such an approach is particularly compelling because it can eschew the
accusation that Western values are being imposed upon Islam. Muslim scholars who proposed the
process of integration have faced resistance from traditionalists. The accusation is that they are not loyal
to Islam and deny its heritage.
However, one of the highly influential intellectual and reformer Bediuzzaman Said Nursi and his
writings were timely which greatly contributed to understand the reformation of the society and the
necessity of the integration of knowledge. Many Islamic thinkers and activists were influenced all over
the world by his intellectual effort. His ideas took shape in Turkey in influencing contemporary
intellectuals. However, he is well known for his scholarship and reformation to expound the Islamic
teachings, but his efforts at Integration of knowledge have not received the scholarly attention they
deserved.
This article focuses on how Bediuzzaman Said Nursi employed the process of Integration of
knowledge to combine the religious sciences and modern sciences in a way that does not condone the
contradiction and does not oppose by others. Particularly, it intends to focus on: a) analyzing the
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
meanings and methodologies of integration of knowledge, b) examining the theoretical dimensions and
practical application of the process of Integration of knowledge, c) analyzing the process of integration
proposed by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi in integrating knowledge between religious sciences and modern
sciences, (d) discussing requirements that can strengthen the process of integration of knowledge. The
study is also intended to outline a brief chronological development of the process of integration of
knowledge in Islam. This study also explores whether this approach can be implemented in reality or the
only option for scholars who proposed this project, is to discuss the theoretical dimension of it.
The study would include practical suggestions and recommendations for developing the process of
integration of knowledge between religious and modern sciences in accordance with the need of today
in the globalized era. Discussion would include implications of the research findings, shortcomings of
the current study, and directions for future research.
P-595
Evolution of Chinese Islamic Architecture -- A case of "Great
Mosque of Hohot (Qingzhen Dasi), Inner Mongolia, P. R. China
Dr. Ali Raza Soomro Soomro, Prof. Dr. Mansor Ibrahim, Ar. Datin Norwina Mohd NawawiProf. Dr.
Mansor Ibrahim, Ar. Datin Norwina Mohd Nawawi
Architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
China is one of the older civilizations in the world with four thousand (4000) years history. It is an
ancient civilization which is extended over a large area in East Asia. The Chinese civilizations are
known for its years of prosperity and have since generated competitive minds and stimulated the growth
and development in other parts of the world. Country known for its prosperous civilizations, China is
blessed with beautiful landscapes and multi-cultural ethnicities.
At the same time, Islam in China has a rich heritage. China has some of the oldest Muslim history,
dating back to as early as 650, Sa`ad Ibn Abi Waqqaas, was sent as an official envoy to Emperor
Gauzing during Caliph Othman’s era. Since the advent of Islam in China, the religion enjoys
development together with the ruling dynasties and finally stood through the test of time. Throughout
the history of Islam in China, Chinese Muslims have influenced the course of Chinese history. Relative
to this issue, the study aims at introducing the evolution of Islamic architecture of China. The records
have proven that Islamic religion contributed in spiritual development and most importantly the Islamic
architecture.
Also the Hohhot Mosque is taken as a case study to show the respective influences. The Mosque
architecture amazed many and will continue to be one of the world’s architectural beauties. This
report also focuses on the history of the mosque, its function and its details.
It is hoped that the effort of producing this paper will benefit the Muslim Ummah and also those who
are passionate about Chinese Muslim architecture worldwide.
P-624
Conservational Guidelines for the Restoration of Historical
Illustrated Manuscript: Case Study: A17th Century Illustrated
Manuscript of Shahnameh
Amir H. Zekrgoo, Prof. Dr. Amir H. ZekrgooProf. Dr. Amir H. Zekrgoo
International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC),International Institute of Islamic
Thought and Civilization
International Islamic University Malaysia
Shahnameh, "The Book of Kings," is the Iranian national epic that was composed in the late 10th
century CE by the Iranian poet Abu al-Qasim Ferdowsi. A monumental epic of some 60,000 couplets,
the Shahnameh surpasses by far in sheer length the Homeric Iliad and Odyssey combined. Shahnameh
combines ‘myth’ and ‘history’, ‘idealism’ and ‘realism’, ‘ethics’ and
‘politics’. Shahnameh represents the process of Islamization of a pre-Islamic epic and therefore is
a link between a nations pre-Islamic and post-Islamic heritage.
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
The manuscript collection the International Institute of Islamic Thought & Civilization (ISTAC),
IIUM is custodian to a fine 17th century illustrated manuscript of Shahnameh
This volume of 340 folios is penned in excellent Nasta’liq style. It starts with a sarlawh in lapis
lazuli and gold, followed by three and half leaves of prose introduction. The manuscript is further
adorned with 29 magnificent miniature paintings in Isfahan school style.
An entire research project (IIUM Grant No. EDW B 0703-48) devoted some 24 months to the study
of the historical an artistic aspects of the said manuscript.
In the process of its close examination serious signs of deterioration were detected, which required a
systematic approach toward their restoration. This led to a second research project aiming at
1.
A detailed evaluation of deterioration factors
2.
Identifying problematic areas through preparation of a comprehensive report (visual as well as
descriptive)
3.
Developing guidelines on how to restore the work in accordance with scientific methods of
manuscript preservation
4.
Finding experts in the field of restoration of historical Islamic manuscripts, and eventually:
5.
The actual restoration act
The present study covers the first four steps.
P-650
Qualities of a Mediator in Family Disputes: An Overview of Shariah
and the Practice in Malaysia
Nora Abdul Hak, Nora Abdul HakNora Abdul Hak
Department of Islamic Law,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
A mediator is one of the main elements of mediation, whose role is fundamental to the success of the
mediation process. His personal qualities are important, equal if not more than his specialist knowledge
and skills. Shariah emphasises on the importance of good akhlaq (morality) of a mediator. The Muslim
jurists in their literature have deliberated in detail the qualities of a mediator such as being just,
trustworthy, responsible and capable of carrying out the task that is assigned to him. In Malaysia, the
Code of Ethics drafted by the Department of Shariah Judiciary Malaysia states, among others, that the
sulh (mediation) officer must not allow his personal interest be in conflict with his duty as a mediator.
The research examines the deliberations of the Muslim jurists, based on the Qur’anic injunctions
and the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W, on the necessary qualities of a mediator in family
dispute(s). The jurists view that the third party must have good intention for the settlement of dispute to
be successful. In addition, according to the Shafie school the mediator must be impartial, responsible
and someone who is capable of carrying out the task as a mediator. He or she is also expected to be
knowledgeable in the disciplines of Islamic Law. It is suggested that all these good qualities of a
mediator deliberated by the jurists can be adopted and incorporated into the proposed Malaysian
Mediation Act.
P-661
Nature of capital at inception in joint ventures financed by Islamic
banks: a shari’ah based appraisal
Muhammad Abdurrahman Sadique, Muhammad Abdurrahman SadiqueMuhammad Abdurrahman
Sadique
Islamic Law,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
A perusal of Islamic legal texts reveals that considerable emphasis has been placed on the nature of
capital contributed towards equity relationships. Shari’ah verdicts pertaining to capital in joint
ventures place stress on the existence and presence of capital in the initial stages of the venture. The
existence and presence of capital at the formation of equity partnerships has been regarded mandatory,
precluding the possibility of forming partnerships based on debts and non-existent capital. Formation of
a valid partnership is held to take place on the basis of a known amount of capital that is existent and is
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
available in an acceptable manner, with the proportion of participation clearly determined. Leaving the
capital unspecified at the inception and allowing it to fluctuate, or postponing the procurement of capital
until the need for disbursement arises, does not appear to be in keeping with the above requirement.
Debts have been categorically disallowed from forming the initial basis of a partnership. This is seen to
result in important consequences pertaining to the extent of involvement and liability of the partners. In
view of the unanimous prohibition upheld by all the schools of Islamic law, the practice of converting
overdue debts into venture capital could hardly be defended. Some operational procedures adopted by
current-day Islamic financial institutions in the course of financing undertaken on joint-equity basis, i.e.
musharakah, generally appear to fall short in this respect. This researcher suggests that the emphasis
placed by the shari’ah on having real assets, instead of debts, as the capital base in partnerships,
could have important economic implications, such as acting as a curb on unrestrained monetary
expansion and inflation.
P-663
Application of Maslahah (public interest) in Deciding the Right of
Hadanah (Custody) of a Child: The Practice in the Syariah Court of
Malaysia
Nora Abdul Hak, Nora Abdul Hak, Roslina Che SohNora Abdul Hak, Roslina Che Soh
Department of Islamic Law,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
In the context of child’s custody, the term hadhanah (custody) refers to the upbringing of a minor
child by the mother or by someone who is legally entitled to it. It includes protection, love and care,
education, sheltering, management of a child and etc. Generally, in determining who shall be entitled to
the custody of a child, the court will first determine who shall give a better care to the child based on the
child’s interest. Under the Malaysian law, it is a rebuttable presumption that the mother shall be the
best person to look after a minor child. However, the practice in the shariah court seems to suggest that
the court applied the principle of maslahah (interest) of the child and this has become the overriding
principle in deciding the right of the custody. Thus, the research deliberates the concept of maslahah in
relation to the right of custody of a child in Islamic law. The relevant provisions of the Islamic Family
Law Act/Enactment and the practice of the Syariah Courts deliberating this principle of maslahah of a
child is the focus of the study. Cases decided at the Syariah Courts are analysed to study the practice of
the principle of child’s interest in Malaysia as well as its problems and restrictions. It is hoped that
by analysing the current the legal provisions on child’s custody and its practice in Malaysia,
suggestions and recommendations can be made to further improve this area of law. Hence, the interest
of a child as a paramount consideration in awarding child’s custody will always be upheld.
P-667
Financing Micro and Medium-sized enterprises: Efficient
Shari’ah formats for Purchase of Stock and Sale of Produced
Goods
Muhammad Abdurrahman Sadique, Muhammad Abdurrahman SadiqueMuhammad Abdurrahman
Sadique
Islamic Law,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
Joint-equity based structures could be adopted with advantage for financing micro and medium sized
enterprises in a variety of situations. Being expressly designed for financing, these equity based
structures could replace in many instances debt based modes that have been tailored to fit in artificially.
Equity based structures for purchase of stock and sale of readymade goods, especially when used in an
micro and medium sized financing context, in addition to being distinctly beneficial through facilitating
an equitable sharing of profit and loss, could significantly smoothen the process while avoiding negative
aspects related to debt financing mechanisms. However, their application should be done in a way
reflective of the reality of the equity partnership, which could lead to realising its full potential.
Implementation of the equity relationship requires wholehearted participation by the bank in the
operation of the venture in all possible means. In addition to financing ventures, the Islamic bank itself
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
may play an active role in initiating diverse projects, and accumulate expertise and skill necessary for
the purpose. Debt financing arrangements utilised in financing such projects involve shortcomings from
a shari’ah as well as a commercial perspective. Adopting the equity structure as a comprehensive
scheme embracing all stages from procurement of assets until their disposal, could help rectify some
shortcomings inherent to debt financing arrangements.
P-676
The Child’s Right to Maintenance: the Extent of the
Family’s Responsibilities in Islamic Law and According to
Family Law Provisions of Muslim Countries
Badruddin Hj Ibrahim, Badruddin Hj Ibrahim, Azizah binti MohdBadruddin Hj Ibrahim, Azizah binti
Mohd
Islamic law,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper will examine the rights of children to maintenance, specifically. It will look at the law
applied in Malaysia and some Muslim countries: Morocco, Jordan, Syria, Kuwait and Qatar. It will
identify the family relationships which have particular responsibility to provide maintenance to children,
and examine the extent of the obligation, and the entitlement of children to such rights. The paper also
aims to investigate the extent of the role of family law institutions in safeguarding such rights and
interest of children. Where appropriate, it will make suggestions for the improvement of the relevant
Islamic statutory provisions in Malaysia.
P-683
Acceptance (Qabūl) and Taking Possession (Qabd) of Hibah
Under Islamic Law and the Decision of the Syariah Courts in
Malaysia
Badruddin Hj Ibrahim, Badruddin Hj IbrahimBadruddin Hj Ibrahim
Islamic law,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
One of the important components in the creation of contract in Islamic law, apart from contracting
parties (‘ĕqidĕn) and subject matter of contract (mahal al-‘aqd), is formation (sīghah). The
absence of formation will render the contract invalid and imperfect. Nevertheless, in the case of hibah as
it is a kind of contract of charity (tabaru‘), the issue arises as to whether the element of acceptance is
required in order to constitute a valid hibah. Added to this is the issue of whether hibah is completed and
ownership of property transferred to recipient as is the case with other types of contract when all of the
above three components of contract and their requirements are fulfilled. This study examines issues
relating to these two important matters of hibah, since the disputes among parties in the Syariah Courts
of Malaysia mostly involved these. The examination focuses on the positions of Muslim jurists of the
four well-known schools of law i.e. Shĝfi’ī, Hanafī, Mĝlikī and Hanbalī on the issues.
In addition, as the law of hibah for Muslims in Malaysia is mostly un-codified, the study also examines
the law that has been applied by various Syariah Courts in Malaysia regarding these issues, especially
whether their decisions are solely based on the law according to the school of Shĝfi‘ī. This is in
order to find out an acceptable set of rules that could govern the creation of a valid and perfect hibah.
P-686
Information and Communication Technology to Serve Hajj
Dr Shihab A. Hameed,
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hajj (pilgrimage) is the fifth pillar of Islam that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
every able-bodied Muslim. It is the largest annual convention of Faith in the world that requires
traveling to Mecca. Hajj is performed based on predetermined dates, times, and places. It is a
demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to Allah the Exalted (GOD).
Hajj is an important event in Muslims’ life, which offers religious, educational, scientific, social,
economical, political and other benefits that are rewarded by Allah SWT to Muslims. Two to three
millions out of One and half billion of Muslims around the world, performed Hajj annually. Time, date
and place limitations related to Hajj leads to several difficulties and problems that require suitable
solutions.
Literature review LR, survey, and analysis summarize Hajj difficulties as: Managerial and
organizational problems; Lack of information and misunderstanding; and difficulties in dialogue
between people, pilgrims and organizational committees. This research paper proposes suitable
solutions to solve difficulties using the powerful capabilities of information and communication
technologies ICT. It shows the main components of a Comprehensive Hajj Model that includes:
comprehensive Hajj database model for managing, organizing and tracking pilgrims and other
stakeholders; a Multi- lingual Hajj Educational model on Web-based or CD; and a portable Hajj
emergency and guidance model. This comprehensive solution offers: religious, educational, scientific,
social, economical, political and other benefits for Muslims. It can be consider as a step toward Muslim
unity and offering a unified understanding and cooperation between Muslims.
P-691
New Ethical Principles for Computer and Software Engineers based
on Islamic Values
Dr Shihab A. Hameed,
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Software became an essential part for critical control systems, health and human life guard systems,
financial and banking systems, scientific and educational, entertainments and other systems. Software is
the core for such applications. It requires qualified software engineers professionally and ethically.
Literature review (L.R) and survey results show that software engineering professionals are facing
several ethical-related problems which are costly, harmful and affect high ratio of people. Professional
organizations like ACM, IEEE, ABET and CSAC have established codes of ethics to help software
engineering professionals to understand and manage their ethical responsibilities. Islam considers ethics
an essential factor to build individuals, communities and society. Islamic ethics are set of moral
principles and guidance that recognizes what is right behavior from wrong, which are comprehensive,
stable, fair, and historically prove success in building ethically great society. The estimated 1.5 billion
of Muslims with tens of thousands of software engineers should have an effective role in software
development and life, which requires them to understand and implement ethics, specially the Islamic
ethics in their work. This project is a frame-work or roadmap for modeling Computer and software
engineering principle, which shows the main phases for solving such problem. It focuses mainly on
adopting a new version of Computer and software engineering principle based on Islamic ethical values.
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
PP-8
DESIGNING NEW ARABIC SYLLABUS FOR SCIENCE
PROGRAMMES STUDENTS PART - 1
MOHD PUZHI BIN USOP Usop, Mohd Azrul Azlen Abd Hamid, Dr Hussien Mohd Gamiel, Wan
Najmuddin Wan Abdullah, Zairul Mat Zain, Mohd Zulhisyam Mustapai, Wan Mohd Zahari Wan Abu
BakarMohd Azrul Azlen Abd Hamid, Dr Hussien Mohd Gamiel, Wan Najmuddin Wan Abdullah, Zairul
Mat Zain, Mohd Zulhisyam Mustapai, Wan Mohd Zahari Wan Abu Bakar
QURANIC LANGUAGE DEPT.,Center for Language and Pre University Acad. Development
International Islamic University Malaysia
One of the major problems in teaching Arabic language is to choose the most suitable syllabus or the
text book for students. In IIUM, Quranic Language Dept. (QLD) has been working very hard in
producing text books for IIUM students who are of different backgrounds. IIUM students are divided
into two categories, the first is sciences-based program and the second is art-based program. Both
programmes have their own text books. This research project is carried out by the principal researcher,
the co-principal researcher and the writers to produce new text book for the science based students
replacing the current text book which has been using for more than five years. Designing curriculum is
not an easy task. It requires comprehensive preparations, reliable foundations as well as continuous
determination. There are important elements that have to be specified before designing a module or a
syllabus. They are determination of objectives, selection of contents, arrangement of contents,
presentation and evaluation. After series of workshops, meeting, editing processes, testing and
evaluation. A new Arabic book namely “Miftah Al-‘Arabiyyah― has emerged. The text book
consists of 12 chapters, each chapter has four lessons. Topics are chosen based on student’s daily
life, basic scientific elements, daily ibadah, and etc. The topics were not chosen at random, they are
related to student’s background and surroundings. The new syllabus is also equipped with exercises,
language games, quranic verses, prophetic traditions and daily doa’s. This new approach is the result
of benchmarking and reviewing available syllabus and textbooks in Malaysia and abroad. This new
syllabus was then piloted, however since this is the first time of implementing this new syllabus,
instructors have found difficulties in their teaching. Actions have been taken such as altering difficult
topics with the simple one, modifying the content and multiplying exercise style.
PP-72
human behavoiur from islamic perspective: interaction between
nature, nurture and spiritual factor
fatimah Abdullah,
usuluddin and comparative religion,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract
Western Psychology tends to be divisive in dealing with human personality and has been responsible
for the nature versus nurture controversy. On the one hand they contend that certain corrupt behaviour is
predetermined by psychological or biological factors from conception, while on the other they explain
behaviour as a simplistic series of reinforcement contingencies and conditioned responses to
environmental stimuli. This secular humanistic outlook has produced an ethical relativism that is the
current trend in today’s world. This article attempts to highlight the importance of the Islamic belief
system which is an integrated and comprehensive way in dealing with human behaviour, especially
through the interaction of nature, nurture and spiritual factor in the formation of human behaviour.
Key words:environmental stimuli,nature,nurture and psychological or biological factors
PP-162
BBQuranExplorer for Blackberry Devices
Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Teddy Mantoro, Merdin MacicDr. Teddy Mantoro, Merdin Macic
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mobile application development grows in popularity in a very fast pace. This is due to the ubiquitous
or pervasive computing and applications related to it, share small, inexpensive and robust networked
processing devices, which are distributed at all scales throughout everyday life. The availability and
easy way to use are other important reasons for the growth in popularity of mobile application.
The BBQuranExplorer is a mobile application which was developed in Java Blackberry platform to
enable its users to easily, quickly and accurately explore and search the text of the holy Quran in five
different languages, i.e. Arabic, Indonesian, Malaysian, Bosnian and English.
The text of the Quran can be viewed by chapter (Surah) in any of these five languages. The
navigation through the verses (ayat) inside the chapters is also provided. The main feature of
BBQuranExplorer is the possibility to search for any words or phrases in the entire text of the Quran in
any of those languages. Boyer-Moore algorithm, a very fast search algorithm, is used to retrieve the
queries of the text which can be viewed in all the five languages. The results are sorted by chapter in
ascending order.
The application is useful for any user in different gender and ages, who wants to read the Quran
while travelling, or just being away from home. The search feature can also be used for collecting
statistics of certain words in the Quran.
PP-164
Human resource management practices on organizational
commitment:The Islamic Perspective
Prof Dr Junaidah Hashim, Junaidah HashimJunaidah Hashim
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Islam urges all Muslims to perform their utmost best when they work. Giving the best requires full
commitment. Employees’ commitment is influenced by many factors, including the management
styles within the organisation. This paper aims to examine the management of human resources from the
Islamic perspective and its effects on organisational commitment among selected employees in Islamic
organisations in Malaysia. The study employed a self-developed questionnaire that was personally
distributed to employees. In total, 121 Muslim employees who work in various positions in eight
Islamic organisations participated as respondents of this study. The findings revealed that the selected
organisations frequently practise the Islamic approach in all its human resource management (HRM)
functions. The results of correlation and regression analysis show that the Islamic approach in HRM was
highly and significantly correlated to organisational commitment. About 45 per cent of the
organisational commitment variance was explained by the Islamic approach in HRM. An introduction
to the Islamic approach in HRM practices is an initial attempt to provide managers with an effective
way of managing and understanding the people they work with. This knowledge would be useful to
even non-Muslim managers. For Muslim human resource managers, it is essential for them to not only
know but also to apply the Islamic approach in managing employees. Non-Muslim managers will have a
better understanding of the expected behaviours of their Muslim employees. Muslim employees
regardless for who they work are expected to be honest, trustworthy, and determined to continuously
strive for the best. This study is unique from other previous studies. Instead of discussing Islamic
management in general, this study explores in-depth every function of HRM based on authentic Islamic
sources, as well as providing empirical evidence.
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
PP-246
Quranic Understanding Enrichment Tool (QUET)
Muhamadul Bakir Hj. Yaakub, Ahmad Majdi Bin Mat SolehAhmad Majdi Bin Mat Soleh
Arabic Language and Literature,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
QUET is an acronym given to the tool constructed specifically to enrich Quranic reader’s
understanding and realization. Quran as the final book of revelation is extremely source of truth,
guidance and factuality which is differ from any other book in the entire existence. The main issue
highlighted and reactivated in this courseware is refer to the nature of language used in the Quran and its
structural patterns, which is regarded as the communication tools applied by the Quran in conveying its
messages. In other word, it is constructed as an attempt to formulate a practical approach in bringing a
specific issue, situation or concept (stated in the Quran) from unintelligibility to intelligibility state of
understanding. By taking this strategy, the reader will be able to analyse and identify the course of
success and failure in understanding of this book, beside to increase and to measure the confidence level
of application and implementation from the level of co-incident toward a true awareness and recognition
of a particular message. For that purposes, QUET as an attractive courseware constructed solely based
on Quranic interpretation and exaggeration such as Al-Tabari, and Fi Zilalil Quran where their
similarities and differences will be highlighted for comparison. Indeed, it is a vast and crucial, since it
is related not only to the semantic meaning of the text, but also its pragmatic application as a step
toward realizing Quranic reality.
PP-286
The Issue of Whether Arabic is Equipped to Meet the Challenges of
Modernity
Rahmah Bt Ahmad Haji Osman, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. OsmanAssoc. Prof. Dr.
Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman
Dept. of Arabic Language and Literature,,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human
Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study exhibits the significant role and contribution of Arabic Language in the modern
civilization and in developing terms of creativity in carrying out the activities of modern technology.
Therefore, it generally treats the connection between language and culture so as to establish a fact that
Arabic, in spite of its dire need to development and adaptation with modern technological age, still
demands from its speakers to adhere to its culture and shun the propaganda for abandonment of the
standard type of the language in option for another foreign language. In consideration of the importance
of the effective contribution of Arabic in the issues of modernization on the technological revolution
and its requirements, the researcher has felt that it is necessary on the Arabic Language users to strive
and relentlessly devote their talents in the performance of the roles to highlight the steps and search for
the best method that can enhance their actions and creativity with accurate plans for the economic and
social development which will rely on applied and technological sciences. Furthermore, this study
establishes that Arabic Language is capable to perform all the roles, but with the condition that it must
be the means of thought, expression and teaching sciences and technology in all the educational levels.
In conclusion, the study suggests that Arabization of knowledge will serve Arabic Language and other
languages better if it is accurately acquired, knowingly that no struggle for development can succeed
except through good interaction with the mother tongue.
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
PP-287
The Effectiveness of Children’s Arabic Literature Websites in
Developing Islamic Values through Poetry
Rahmah Bt Ahmad Haji Osman, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. OsmanAssoc. Prof. Dr.
Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman
Dept. of Arabic Language and Literature,,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human
Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Literature is the expression in words of human ideas, emotions and beliefs and reflects culture and
collective attitudes. Literature is an indispensable tool of art, which encompasses every aspect and issue
in life. Every nation maintains its own form and characteristics of literature. Literature is not a mere
source of pleasure and lust. It should however, inculcate educative and moralistic objectives, which may
educate and enlighten the reader.
Islam came to unify all powers and abilities, to fuse together spiritual aspirations and bodily desires,
to harmonise their directions and thus create a comprehensive unity in the universe, life and man.
Therefore, literature in Islam should be in accordance with the Islamic concept and world view,
pertaining to the principle of harmony operating in all spheres of life, between the Creator and the
created, God and man. Realizing the above and the importance to ensure that the future generation of
Muslims are nurtured and developed in accordance to the Islamic worldview and are governed by
Islamic values, this study observes the effectiveness of the Children’s Arabic Literature Websites in
developing Islamic values through Arabic poetry. Identify the relevant websites, which concerns
Children’s Arabic literature and identifies relevant and suitable poems for children through its titles
and themes, in addition to observing its contents. This study also attempts to introduce the identified
websites to Muslim children in Malaysia who are learning Arabic to assist in their vocabulary and
simultaneously develop the Islamic values in them.
PP-290
A Bird’s Eye View on Muslim Scholarship in Southeast Asia
Rahmah Bt Ahmad Haji Osman, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. OsmanAssoc. Prof. Dr.
Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman
Dept. of Arabic Language and Literature,,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human
Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study sheds light into the contributions, thoughts and works of the Malay Ulama ’and
literary scholars in the Malay Archipelago over a period of around seven centuries, commencing with
the establishment of Islam in the region during the latter part of the 13th century, and continuing on
until the present day.
Focus is given to a number of ‘Ulama’ who constituted the core of scholarly networks
throughout history; particular attention is given to the nature of their relationships in the networks. Thee
careers and teachings of the leading precursors of the Malay ‘Ulama’ in the history of Malay
scholarly networks are therefore highlighted. Special attention is given to their connections with leading
scholars in the networks in the Middle East, and to how teachings spread in the Archipelago related to
Islamic renewalism and reformism in the centres.
PP-291
A Historical Survey on the Middle Eastern Literary Ideas with A
Focus on Knowledge
Rahmah Bt Ahmad Haji Osman, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. OsmanAssoc. Prof. Dr.
Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman
Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Heritage
Dept. of Arabic Language and Literature,,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human
Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Literature is a branch of art that is so remarkable. It is also believed that every nation has its own
unique literary arts like that of poetry, prose, novel, etc. These various themes and genres of literature
show that literary arts cover all facets of human life including the world at large and the universe. In the
context of Islamic literature, literary art has its own significant role. There is one chapter in the Holy
Quran that relates about it in particular i.e.: al-Shu’ara which means “The Poet―. This chapter
of the Quran--especially the last four verses of the chapter (verse 224-227)--was revealed to deny the
allegation made by the Quraysh who claimed that Quran is a kind of poetry written by Prophet
Muhammad SAW. This allegation surfaced due to the greatness of people during the time of Jahiliyyah
who were famous for their ability to produce beautiful poetry.
Referring to the mentioned verses of the Quran, surah al-Shu’ara; 224-227, the gist of these four
lines clearly distinguish between poet/laureate who is truthful and pious and those who are strayed from
the truth. Both discerned by the true knowledge that is then being manifested into ‘amal soleh (good
deeds). It is very clear that, from the viewpoint of Islam, literature must be objective, and the objective
or aim should be in the course of spreading true knowledge. In line with the importance of the spread of
knowledge as the basis of literature (from Islamic viewpoint), this paper will be discussing particularly
on knowledge and literature. This will include the definition and value of knowledge and its relation to
al-adab, and the correlation between literature and knowledge. The later will be discussed in the realm
of changing and developing Islamic world. In that account, explanation and perspective by several
general scholars of Arabic literature will be brought forward into the discussion. Apart from that, this
paper will also look into the use of literary art as a medium to extend knowledge and wisdom.
PP-294
Features of the Malay Islamic Literary Tradition
Rahmah Bt Ahmad Haji Osman, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. OsmanAssoc. Prof. Dr.
Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman
Dept. of Arabic Language and Literature,,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human
Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study is an analytical, literary study on literary works by a number of Malay writers. It observes
the sociological underpinnings surrounding the emergence and development of the Islamic literature
discourse in Malaysia. It attempts to present the conceptual thinking underlying this discourse, taking a
number of works by Malay literary writers as a case study. An appropriate understanding of the nature
and characteristics of both Islam and literature within Islam is also discussed at length in the study. This
study discusses the Islamic concept of aesthetics, presenting both the Malay and the Arabic
understanding and preferences within a rhetorical perspective on the above works. It also attempts to
promote these works as a source of spiritual enlightenment but also entertainment, paving the way for
other commendable efforts in the future.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-11
IT Governance Practices Model in IT Project Approval and
Implementation in Malaysian Public Sector
SITI SARAH MAIDIN, NOOR HABIBAH ARSHADNOOR HABIBAH ARSHAD
ICT,Center for Foundation Studies
International Islamic University Malaysia
In this global era, IT investment is rapidly
increasing. IT governance practices must be emphasized in
order to retrieve competitive advantage from IT investment.
The aim of this research is to develop IT governance practices
model for Malaysian public sector. Interview sessions with IT
personnel at management level at Putrajaya were conducted.
Based on the interviews, a theoretical model of IT governance
which consists of senior management involvement in IT,
corporate performance measurement systems, corporate
communications systems, risk management, strategic
alignment, value delivery, ethics/culture of compliance and
resource management was constructed. Thus the structure,
process and mechanism involved in each of the entities in the
model could assist Malaysian public sector to inculcate IT
governance practices in their operations in order to sustain
competitive advantage.
P-12
Limit Behavior of Dynamic Systems Corresponding to Lattice
Models with Competing Prolonged and One-Level Binary
Interactions
Nasir GANIKHODJAEV, Sr. Siti Fatimah ZakariaSr. Siti Fatimah Zakaria
Computational and Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
We study the phase diagram of the Ising model on a Cayley tree
with competing prolonged next-nearest neighbour and one-level
next-nearest neighbour interactions. Vannimenus proved that the
phase diagram of Ising model with competing neareast-neighbour
interaction and prolonged next-nearest neighbour interactions
contains a modulated phase, as found for similar models on periodic
lattices. Later Mariz et al generalized this result for Ising model with competing neareast-neighbour
interaction and prolonged next-nearest neighbour interactions in the presence of external magnetic field.
For Ising model on a Cayley tree with prolonged and one-level next-nearest neighbour interactions
only we describe phase diagram and clarify the role of nearest-neighbour interaction and show that the
class of modulated phases consists of so-called antiphase with period 4 only.
P-13
On Some Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Arising in Statistical
Mechanics
Nasir GANIKHODJAEV, Ashraf Mohamed Nawi,Mohd Hirzie Mohd RodzhanAshraf Mohamed
Nawi,Mohd Hirzie Mohd Rodzhan
Computational and Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
We study the phase diagram for Potts model on a Cayley tree with competing nearest-neighbor
interactions J1, prolonged next-nearest-neighbor interactions JP and one-level next-nearest-neighbor
interactions J0. Vannimenus proved that the phase diagram of Ising model with J0 = 0 contains a
Science, Engineering and Technology
modulated phase, as found for similar models on periodic lattices, but the multicritical Lifshitz point is
at zero temperature. Later Mariz et al. generalized this result for Ising model with J0 ≠0 and recently
Ganikhodjaev et al. proved similar result for the three-state Potts model with J0 = 0. We consider Potts
model with J0 ≠0 and show that for some values of J0 the multicritical Lifshitz point be at non-zero
temperature. We also prove that as soon as the same-level interaction J0 is nonzero, the paramagnetic
phase found at high temperatures for J0 = 0 disappears, while Ising model does not obtain such
property.
Also we consider recursive relations obtained following along the lines of Inawashiro et al . Each
phase is characterized by a particular attractor and the phase diagram is obtained by following the
evolution and detecting the qualitative change of these attractors. These change can either be continuous
or abrupt, respectively, characterizing second or first order transitions.
P-27
POWER CONTROL FOR INTERFERENCE AVOIDANCE IN
FEMTOCELL NETWORK
Rashid A. Saeed, Rashid A. Saeed, Aisha A. Hasan, Othman O. Khalifa, Saad Basheer, Shihab
Hameed, Mutieb I. Al-Hmoudi,Rashid A. Saeed, Aisha A. Hasan, Othman O. Khalifa, Saad Basheer,
Shihab Hameed, Mutieb I. Al-Hmoudi,
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Femtocell network is a new technology that uses the advantage of Internet backbone to enhance the
cellular coverage in residence or small business areas. However, due to the expected random
deployment of the femtocell access point (FAPs), there is strong probability of interference among
femtocell nodes and between femtocells and macrocells nodes. In this paper an interference
enhancement is developed and designed for two tiers macro-femtocell networks. An adaptive power
control is calculated based on selecting minimum interference channel with optimized channel gain. In
the simulation number of FAPs, distance between macrocell and femtocell and path loss between
macrocell node and FAPs are used as design parameters. The results show performance enhancement in
interference degradation ratio (DR).
P-48
AN EMPIRICAL COMPARISON OF META ANALYSIS
MODELS FOR CONTINUOUS DATA WITH MISSING
STANDARD DEVIATIONS
Nik Ruzni Nik Idris, Noraida SaidinNoraida Saidin
Computational And Theoretical Science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The choice between the Fixed and Random Effects Model for providing an overall meta analysis
estimates may affect the accuracy of the estimates. When the study-level standard deviations (SDs) are
not completely reported or “missing―, selection of meta analysis model should be done with more
caution. In this article, we examine through a simulation study, the effects of the choice of meta
analysis model and the techniques of imputation of the missing SDs on the overall meta analysis
estimates. The results suggest imputation should be adopted to estimate the overall effect size,
irrespective of the model used. However, the accuracy of the estimates of the corresponding standard
error (SE) are influenced by the imputation techniques. For estimates based on the Fixed effect model,
Mean imputation provides better estimates compared to the Multiple Imputation , while those based on
the Random effect model are more robust of the techniques imputation used.
P-53
Engineering Analysis of Child Bicycle – A Reverse Engineering
Approach
M Abdul Maleque, Ahmad SufiAhmad Sufi
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, product or
system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. It often involves taking something apart
and analyzing its workings in detail to be used in maintenance or to try to make a new device or product
that does the same thing without copying anything from the original. In this paper, a reverse engineering
approach is applied for a child bicycle and hence, a systematic study on the major parts of the bicycle
was performed. The bicycle components are destructed and investigated using the metallurgical
microscope for microstructural study, hardness test and tensile test for mechanical properties study. The
arc spark emission spectrometer and electron dispersive spectrometer test were also performed in order
to know the background history of the components materials used for the fabrication of a child bicycle.
The results showed that the major components of the bicycle such as frame, seat post, crank arm, rim
and handle bar are made of low carbon steel whereas crank arm is made of high strength-low alloy
(HSLA) steel. Thus, the reverse engineering approach plays an important role in the development of
new child bicycle product that has an enormous impact in the society in terms of culture and advancing
in the design and fabrication of new modern child bicycle.
P-54
Development of Material Selection Method in Design of Automotive
Brake Rotor
M Abdul Maleque,
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
An automotive brake rotor is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a wheel while it runs at a
certain speed. The widely used brake rotor material is cast iron which consumes much fuel due to its
high specific gravity. The aim of this paper is to develop the material selection method and select the
optimum material for the application of brake rotor system emphasizing on the substitution of this cast
iron by any other lightweight material. Digital logic method was employed for the optimum selection of
materials. Material performance requirements were analyzed and alternative solutions were evaluated
among cast iron, aluminium alloy, titanium alloy, ceramics and composites. Mechanical properties
including compressive strength, friction coefficient, wear resistance, thermal conductivity and specific
gravity as well as cost, were used as the key parameters in the material selection stages. The analysis led
to aluminium metal matrix composite as the most appropriate material for brake rotor system.
P-55
Recycling of polyamide 12 based powders in the laser sintering
process
Dr Wan Ahmad Yusmawiza Wan Yusoff, Krassimir Dotchev, D T PhamKrassimir Dotchev, D T Pham
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the polyamide 12 (PA12) powder properties deterioration
in the laser sintering (LS) process and propose a methodology for more efficient powder recycling. The
paper analyses the LS processing conditions and current recycling practices in relation to the
deterioration or ageing of the PA12-based powders. Samples of new and recycled grades of PA2200
powder were artificially aged in a temperature-controlled oven and
then tested using melt flow rate (MFR) indexer. Also, un-sintered powder samples collected from
different locations within various builds, and different LS machines (EOSINT P700 and Sinterstationw
2500 HiQ) were tested. The powder exposed at higher temperature and longer time experiences a much
higher deterioration rate. The temperature and the time at which the un-sintered material was exposed
are the most influential parameters for the powder aging. It was confirmed that the MFR index is a very
sensitive indicator of the changes in the powder properties and provides a relatively fast and inexpensive
method of measuring the rate of the powder degradation because of the LS process. The powder located
in the periphery and the top of a build has a higher MFR and therefore is less deteriorated.In contrast,
powder located in the centre, or in the bottom of a long build has much lower MFR and therefore is less
usable.Based on the findings, a methodology for powder recycling is proposed. It allows a better control
Science, Engineering and Technology
of the input material
properties, a consistent quality of the fabricated parts, and more efficient use of the LS material. The
paper provides some useful information for the properties deterioration of PA12-based powders
(PA2200) in relation to the temperature and time at which the material is exposed in the LS.
P-57
Evaluation of Islamic Websites from User Perspective: Design &
Content Features
Murni Mahmud, Murni Mahmud, Mansur Aliyu, Abu Osman Md TapMurni Mahmud, Mansur Aliyu,
Abu Osman Md Tap
Department of Information System,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Evaluation of Islamic websites post more challenges as the websites must reflect the meaning of
Islamic way of life. The content must be correct, credible and true with recognised references. As such,
the problem addressed in this study is the lack of suitable definition and measures for evaluating the
quality of Islamic websites. This study aims to identify and examine both design and content features
that relates to Islamic websites. The study has evaluated 50 selected Islamic websites. Nine (9) design
features have been identified which are: navigation, interactivity, and attractiveness) and content
features (i.e. legitimacy, objectivity, authority, relevance, credibility, and reliability). A heuristic
evaluation method involving single-user was used to evaluate the selected Islamic websites. The results
revealed that Islamic websites demonstrates significant quality on their design & content features over
time. The results also indicated that the overall Islamic website’s quality varied significantly
between different Islamic websites. In addition, the results suggested that new additional features
influence the overall quality of Islamic websites. Thus, we propose a working definition and a new
model for evaluating the quality of Islamic websites.
P-58
The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicle Tracking
System for Rental Car Firms
Akram Zeki, Omarah Omar Alharaki, Fahad Saleh Alaieri, Akram M. ZekiOmarah Omar Alharaki,
Fahad Saleh Alaieri, Akram M. Zeki
Department of Information System,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
GPS tracking system developed that transmit vehicle’s data in real time via cellular or satellite
networks to a remote computer or data center. Vehicle tracking system signifies the monitoring and
management of vehicle, trucks, etc by using GPS system to get the current location, situation, history
and control them. The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and
web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various
applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate
with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in
GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied
to the GPS Navigator. It also shows the benefits that the customers and staff will get from this system.
P-65
Development of Concept Design for Folding Bicycle Frame System
M Abdul Maleque, M NizamM Nizam
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Light weight materials have become a popular material substitution for automotive, sports, medical,
aerospace and other engineering fields due to high strength and stiffness and less energy consumption.
This paper deals with the development of concept design of a folding bicycle by using light weight
material. A systematic and step-by-step approach of full design is shown for better understanding of the
Science, Engineering and Technology
design concept of folding bicycle. The methodology of conceptual stage and evaluation systems are
discussed for selecting the best concept. The materials selection process involve in making the best
candidate material for the folding bicycle. The best material according to functional requirement will be
chosen as the material for this folding bicycle. The detailed design of the folding bicycle is prepared
with some improvement from existing concept. The finite element analysis is done on the frame design
to know the performance on real application.
P-68
A new way to improve product surface quality by an innovative
chatter suppression technique in End Milling processes
A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Dr. A.U. PatwariDr. A.U. Patwari
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract:
Chatter is defined as self-excited violent relative dynamic motion between the cutting tool and workpiece. Chatter is undesirable due to its adverse effects on the product quality, operation cost, machining
accuracy, tool life, machine-tool bearings, and machine-tool life. A new technique was developed to
remove all the adverse effects on machining by controlling the chatter formation considering the
instability of the closed-loop system formed by machine tool structure and metal-cutting process.
One of the most challenging issues in machining process is to know the chatter characteristics. Modal
analysis is a process whereby a structure may be defined in terms of its natural characteristics which are
the frequency, damping and mode shapes –its dynamic properties. Several control approaches to the
active suppression of chatter during machining are examined using a specially constructed milling
experiment by other researches. An innovative approach was proposed using ferrite magnet for
suppressing chatter during end milling operations.
It has been observed that magnetic force within the area of cutting processes reduces the chatter
vibration almost 68% and improve the surface roughness 40%. This innovative approach will be an
effective tool to improve the surface quality of the machined surface.
P-69
An innovative cost effective Silicon machining Technique by
Applying High Speed End Milling
Dr. A.K.M. Nurul Amin, A.K.M. Nurul Amin1, Anayet U. Patwari, Dali M, Musa M.I.A.K.M. Nurul
Amin1, Anayet U. Patwari, Dali M, Musa M.I.
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Machining of silicon is a big challenge and expensive affair because of it inherent brittleness which
is a major limitation as the process of removing the material can generate subsurface damage. Silicon is
conventionally finished using grinding followed by polishing and lapping to achieve required surface
finish and surface integrity. Numerous research works attempted to conduct ductile mode grinding to
avoid cracking and subsurface damages. However, it has been revealed that sub surface damages and
micro cracks can’t be avoided if grinding is performed. As a result, lengthy etching operations need
to be performed to remove the surface defect crated by grinding. Hence, it is extremely important to
develop alternative techniques to improve surface finish and avoid/minimize subsurface damages in
order to lower the cycle time in machining and finishing of silicon chips.
An attempt has been made in this work to investigate the effect of high speed end milling on surface
finish and integrity of silicon to minimizing the amount of finishing requirement in machining of
silicon, with the objective of reducing cost and increasing effectiveness of silicon manufacturing
process. This work aimed at machining silicon using small diameter (2 mm) diamond coated tools in
ductile mode regime by employing high speed end-milling employing high rpm of the spindle (up to
80,000 rpm). A special fixture was designed and fabricated for holding the silicon work piece during
machining. Low values (micro-meter level) of feed and depth of cut employed during machining helped
to ensure nano-level surface finish that is able to avoid the need of further grinding and even polishing.
Science, Engineering and Technology
This new route of machining employing high speed end milling is expected to be more cost effective
since the need for the costly and time consuming finishing operations like grinding and polishing could
be avoided and the time for final etching could be substantially lowered.
P-74
Can AnnAt1 of Arabidopsis thaliana contribute to Pb
phytoremediation?
Ing Chia Phang, Ing Chia PhangÂ-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-, Gregory B. ClarkÂ-Â-, H. Harry TaylorÂ-Â-Â-Â-,
Ashley GarrillÂ-Â-Â-Â-, David W.M. Leung.Ing Chia PhangÂ-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-Â-, Gregory B. ClarkÂ-Â-, H.
Harry TaylorÂ-Â-Â-Â-, Ashley GarrillÂ-Â-Â-Â-, David W.M. Leung.
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Because of increasing anthropogenic outputs, lead (Pb) has gained attention as a potent
environmental health hazard. Pb, a non-essential element, is persistent and cannot be degraded from the
environment. This heavy metal contaminant is likely to enter human’s food chain, where it poses a
hazard to public health. Phytoremediation has emerged as a potential remediation tool to remove heavy
metal pollutants from the environment. The concept of plant-based environmental remediation is
technically and economically attractive, compared to the conventional remediation methods.
Although the response of different plants to different stressors varies, there are common stressrelated genes that are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This experiment was
undertaken to further understand the molecular mechanisms plants employ to deal with Pb stress,
focusing on the possible role of annexin 1 (AnnAt1) in Pb tolerance. Annexins are reported to be related
to heat shock proteins, which are the most extensively characterized stress-response genes. Additionally,
annexins have emerged as a key player in abiotic stresses, and are likely to play a role in Pb exposure.
Using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR, the present study detected up-regulation of AnnAt1 in seedlings
exposed to 100 μM Pb(NO3)2, by 2.12-fold, in comparison to the control plants. The relative
contribution of AnnAt1 in defence against Pb stress will be discussed.
P-76
Electron Beam Irradiated Nanocomposite for Gas Barrier
Application
Hazleen Anuar, Hazleen Anuar, Nur Ayuni Jamal, Shamsul Bahri Abdul RazakHazleen Anuar, Nur
Ayuni Jamal, Shamsul Bahri Abdul Razak
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nanocomposites with balance in mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties are the main target
for developing this system. The nanocomposites systems were first prepared via intercalation technique
with different organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) loading. Two types of crosslinking techniques
were applied namely; maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) and electron beam (EB) irradiated
system. The effectiveness of these systems were then compared with control specimen and analyzed
based on the mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties as well as morphological examinations. The
mechanical tests revealed that control, MAPE and EB irradiated systems had attained the optimum
mechanical properties at 4 vol% OMMT content. In this study, the introduction of 4 vol% organophilic
montmorillonite (OMMT) was found to further enhance the barrier property of nanocomposites. EB
irradiated system at dose rate of 100 kGy showed excellent mechanical, thermal and gas barrier
properties with highest crosslinking degree which were proved by gel content analysis. X-ray diffraction
(XRD) analysis confirmed the existence of delamination structure with MAPE and EB irradiation
techniques based on the disappearance of characteristic peak. The degree of delamination was further
investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). On the other hand, field emission scanning
electron microscope (FESEM) revealed the stacking condition of OMMT particles was greatly reduced
with crosslinking agents particularly with EB irradiated system as evidenced by finer surface.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-77
Kenaf: Renewable Source for Biopolymer
Hazleen Anuar, Hazleen Anuar, Maizirwan Mel, Nurhafizah Mohamed Seeni, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir,
Mohd Adlan Mustafa KamalbhrinHazleen Anuar, Maizirwan Mel, Nurhafizah Mohamed Seeni, Nur
Aimi Mohd Nasir, Mohd Adlan Mustafa Kamalbhrin
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nowadays, most polymers are derived from non renewable resources such from crude oil which is
not environmental friendly. This has led to the research on producing biodegradable polymers which is
polylactic acid (PLA) from 100% renewable sources such as plant with good properties. Lactic acid
(LA) is the basic building monomer in PLA construction. Traditionally, the raw material that been used
in LA production are obtain by using starch or cellulose from the plant. The common types of starch
used are from field corn, wheat and many more which considered as less economical since they have to
compete with the food sources industries. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) is found to be the best
alternative plant to substitute the raw material for LA production due to its short period of harvest time
and process high quality cellulose. It is a lignocellulosic material which is naturally resistant to
breakdown to its structural sugars that will inhibit microorganisms to be accessed through. Thus, it
needs to undergo pre-treatment process either by mild acid hydrolysis or base hydrolysis in order to
liberate glucose. Three solvents namely sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and
ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) were used to determine the best method for pre-treatment process.
Sulfuric acid was found to give highest percentage of glucose conversion which is 9.83% or 2.95 g/L
glucose. Further, the optimization process was carried out by using sulphuric acid as it main solvent.
From this process, 8.65 g/L of glucose have been produced, which equivalent to 21.63% of glucose
conversion. Then, the fermentation process was conducted by using Lactobacillus rhamnosus as
microbes to produce lactic acid. After the fermentation process, the lactic acid will be then purified and
synthesis into polylactic acid via polycondensation method.
P-78
Injection Moulded Lightweight Kenaf Fibre Thermoplastic
Elastomer Composite for Automotive Components
Hazleen Anuar, Hazleen Anuar, Zuraida Ahmad
Hazleen Anuar, Zuraida Ahmad
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) blends have been developed offering various advantages and
required no state-of-the-art processing machinery, while scrap and rejects are recyclable. The use of
thermoplastic and elastomer however posses several limitations due to the increasing prices of plastics
and natural rubber over the past few years. Hence, effort has been taken by combining kenaf natural
fibres with thermoplastic elastomers. In this project, 20 vol% kenaf fibre was incorporated into
thermoplastic elastomer. Two types of impact modifier were blended with polypropylene (PP) namely;
thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) and polypropylene/ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer
(PP/EPDM). Both composites were produced via double melt blending method using Haake internal
mixer before they were injection moulded. The ratio of thermoplastic:elastomer was 70:30 for both
polymer blends. Maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a compatibilizer between
matrix and reinforcement. The tensile strength for TPNR was about 12% higher than the PP/PPDM
matrix. The present of kenaf fibre (KF) and MAPP however has significantly increased the tensile
strength of PP/EPDM composite by approximately 81% while only 55% increment attained in TPNRKF-MAPP as compared to unreinforced TPNR. Flexural properties and impact strength are greatly
improved for treated kenaf fibre composite. MAPP has successfully forming a linkage bridge between
kenaf fibre and polymer matrix thus enhanced of strength and stiffness of treated thermoplastic
elastomer composites. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) revealed that the improvement achieved
Science, Engineering and Technology
in mechanical properties was due to the interaction between both matrix systems and kenaf fibre.
P-79
Eco-Friendly PLA-Kenaf Fibre Biocomposite for Food Packaging
Hazleen Anuar, Hazleen Anuar, M.R. Kaiser Faizah Fuad, Zuraida AhmadHazleen Anuar, M.R. Kaiser
Faizah Fuad, Zuraida Ahmad
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
More than 100,000,000 polyethylene terephtalate (PET) bottles are used in Malaysia, Singapore and
Brunei yearly. Out of this huge figure, 85,000,000 PET bottles end up as garbage and caused the
landfills to be filled by the PET bottle toxic wastes that leach into the soil. This may pollute and
endangers our environment particularly our drinking water. In light with these emerging problems,
polylactic acid (PLA) is a strong candidate to substitute conventional petroleum based polymers. It
shows very good adhesion with natural fibres during the fabrication of biocomposite since they are
hydrophilic in nature. Apart of costly, PLA is also rigid and less ductile which in turn limits its
application. A tropical crop available in Malaysia, kenaf (Hibuscus cannabinus, L.) fibre has potential
to enhance mechanical, thermal and physical properties of PLA biopolymer. PLA-KF biocomposite was
extruded and then injection moulded for mechanical characterization. Tensile properties and flexural
properties significantly improved at 20 wt% kenaf fibre content. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM)
of tensile fracture specimen has revealed the interaction between fibre and matrix, which supported the
increment in mechanical properties. Thermal analysis by means of differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) shows that the amourphous state of PLA was remain unchanged with kenaf fibre content and
imply that kenaf fibre does not facilitating nucleation of PLA. From dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA), storage modulus (E’) of the biocomposite is higher as compared to unreinforced PLA,
whereas the mechanical loss factor (tan ) decreases with kenaf fibre content which associated to the
compatibility of PLA matrix and kenaf fibre. This could suggest that kenaf fibre is a viable source that
may be incorporated into PLA to reduce mass of the end product and considerably reduced the cost of
raw materials.
P-90
WiFi/WiMAX Seamless Convergence with Adaptive Vertical
Handover for continuity of Internet Access
Rashid A. Saeed, Aisha Hassan, Frahat Anwar, Othman Khalifa, Hafizal Mohamad, Borhanuddin
Mohd. Ali and Mazlan AbbasAisha Hassan, Frahat Anwar, Othman Khalifa, Hafizal Mohamad,
Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali and Mazlan Abbas
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The next generation of the wireless networks will consist of several overlapping tiers. Provision of
undisrupted communication to mobile users is a challenging task. Handover delay is one of the
problematic issues that users are faced in the heterogeneous networks. However, in the case of both the
WiMAX and the WiFi technologies which are located at the same base station (BS), the vertical
handover (VHO) delay will be less as compared with the two conventional WiMAX/WiFi
heterogeneous networks with two different wireless Internet service providers (WISP). Nevertheless,
protocol conversion is still adding delay and jitter for data exchange between the needed two
technologies. In this paper, In order to reduce the delay in the protocol conversion, a new industrial
design for WiWi (WiMAX and WiFi) adaptation layer is proposed. The realization of the interworking
between these two standards is discussed and evaluated. The results show that the proposed scheme with the scenario under study- has better performance than other related works.
P-91
Design and Evaluation of Lightweight IEEE 802.11p-based TDMA
MAC method for Road Side -to-Vehicle Communications
Rashid A. Saeed, Rashid A. Saeed, M. Abakar, Aisha Hasan, Omer Mahmoud, Othman Khalifa, Frahat
Science, Engineering and Technology
AnwarRashid A. Saeed, M. Abakar, Aisha Hasan, Omer Mahmoud, Othman Khalifa, Frahat Anwar
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Wireless vehicular communication (WVC) has been identified as a key technology for intelligent
transportation systems (ITS) for the past few years. IEEE 802.11p is the proposed standard for the
physical and MAC layer of the WVC devices. The main objective of the standard is to change the frame
format in order to increase the delay spread tolerance introduced by the vehicle mobility, in which the
channel bandwidth is scaled from 20 MHz, i.e., 802.11a to 10 MHz, i.e., 802.11p. This paper proposes
the TDMA technique with fixed time slots and a guard band between the slots to ensure interoperability
between the wireless devices to communicate in rapidly changing environment where transactions must
be completed in small timeframes. The new TDMA sub-layer is proposed to be on top of the
conventional 802.11p CSMA/CA MAC. We have found that 802.11p-based TDMA can achieve much
higher throughput compared with the conventional 802.11p-based CSMA/CA, as the distance, vehicle
speed and numbers increase. Ns-2 simulation results present the performance analysis and validate the
efficiency of the proposed scheme.
P-93
Animal Sound Activity Detection Using Multi-Class Support Vector
Machines
winda Astuti, W. Astuti, A.M. Aibinu, M. J. E Salami, R. Akmelawati, and Asan Gani Abdul MuthalifW.
Astuti, A.M. Aibinu, M. J. E Salami, R. Akmelawati, and Asan Gani Abdul Muthalif
Department of Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
It has been reported that relatively few number of animal died during most natural disasters such as
Tsunami, earthquake, landslide, etc. prior to the occurrence earthquake of these disaster, available
evidence show that the animal sometime migrate to the higher level or leave the scene areas en masse. It
is not an overstatement to say that with just 1 10 minutes warning, trains could move out of tunnels and
people could move to safer part of the building or flee unsafe building while with an hour warning,
people could shut off water and gas lines coming into their homes and move to safety and most probably
with a day’s warning, people could collect their families and congregate in a safe location, bringing
food, water and fuel with them. This research, support vector machine (SVM) for animal sounds activity
detection has been developed. The research start with detailed review of existing signal applicable to
animals present in Malaysia. SVM is proposed for classification of artificial intelligent based extracted
features from recorded animal sounds. The result of classification shown that SVM can be used for
animal sounds activity detection.
P-102
Estimation of Aerodynamic Parameters of IIUM Low Speed Hybrid
Airship
Amelda Dianne Andan, Amelda Dianne Andan, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf A. OmarAmelda Dianne Andan,
Waqar Asrar, Ashraf A. Omar
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hybrid airships have been acknowledged as a potential means of alternative transportation. It
integrates advanced technology and demand principles such as aerodynamics and stability and control.
A great deal and rapid research has been directed to the flight performance of hybrid airships, there are
moderate studies intended for its aerodynamic or aerodynamic stability. Hybrid airship such as a
winged-hull airship invites detail aerodynamic examination since it is unique according to its
unconventionality. Thus, a research is done to investigate the aerodynamic parameters of a preliminary
IIUM low speed winged-hull airship design. The objective is to study the aerodynamic parameters of the
winged-hull airship and to find the necessities of attaching wings to the existing IIUM low speed
airship. In theory, the winged-hull airship is expected to contribute higher lift force compare to
conventional airship due to the existing wings. Also, the longitudinal and directional stability are
expected to be statically stable. However, it maybe statically unstable in lateral axis due to the side gust
Science, Engineering and Technology
against the gondola and wings. The research methodology involved in the use of numerical simulation
and laboratory testing to study fluid flow over a 5 m3 winged-hull airship. The aerodynamic parameters
of the design are first computed by computational fluid dynamics with the aid of STAR CCM+
(4.04.011) software. The research work continues in laboratory testing with wind tunnel and six
component balances as the main tool. The total forces and moment coefficients are then collected at a
selected range of angles. The results obtained were as predicted, lift forces increases tremendously with
reasonable increase in drag. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically
stable, slight modifications was done on the model to improve its lateral static stability. The overall
study shows that attaching wings to the existing IIUM low speed airship is feasible.
P-106
Feedback control of scanner vibrations and cross-couplings can
drastically improve speed and accuracy of an AFM
Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood, Dr. Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza MoheimaniDr.
Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza Moheimani
Department of Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Recently a new generation of Atomic Force Microscopes (AFMs) that utilizes position sensors to
measure displacements of the scanner in three dimensions has emerged. These AFMs are equipped with
feedback loops that work to minimize the adverse effects of hysteresis, piezoelectric creep and thermal
drift on the obtained image using standard PI controllers. However, these feedback controllers are often
not designed to deal with the highly resonant nature of an AFM's scanner, nor with the cross-coupling
between various axes. In this paper we illustrate a drastic improvement in accuracy and imaging speed
that can be achieved by proper design of a feedback controller. Through our modifications, we are able
to scan beyond the 30 Hz scanning frequency limit set by the current AFM controller.
P-107
An easy way of precise identifying living fossil (Horseshoe crab) and
its larval stages.
kamaruzzaman Yunus, Akbar John B, Kamaruzzaman BY, Jalal KCA, Zaleha K.Akbar John B,
Kamaruzzaman BY, Jalal KCA, Zaleha K.
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
An effort to assess the utility of 650 bp Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (DNA barcode) gene in
delineating the members horseshoe crabs (Family: xiphosura) with closely related sister taxa was made.
A total of 10 samples were sequenced (including the larval stages) using Megabase sequencer and all
the possible sequences were extracted from National Center for Biotechnological Information (NCBI)
which include horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata), beetles (Class: Insecta), common crabs (Class:
Melacostraca) and scorpion (Class: Arachnida) sequences. Constructed phylogram using advanced
software predictive tools showed that beetles are closely related with horseshoe crabs than common
crabs (Class: Melacostraca). It was interesting to note that terrestrial Scorpion (Class: Arachnida) were
distantly related to horseshoe crabs (Class: Merostomata). Phylogram and observed Genetic Distance
(GD) data were also revealed that Limulus polyphemus was distantly related to all the other horseshoe
crab species.Tachypleus gigas was closely related with Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than with
Tachypleus tridentatus. The observed mean Genetic Distance (GD) value was higher in 3rd codon
position in all the selected group of organisms. Among the horseshoe crabs high GC content was
observed inL. polyphemus (38.32%) and lowest was observed in T. tridentatus (32.35%). We conclude
that COI sequencing (barcoding) could be used in identifying and delineating evolutionary relatedness
with closely related species and in precisely identifying various developmental stages of animals.
P-108
Fast Spiral-scan Atomic Force Microscopy
Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood, Dr. Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza MoheimaniDr.
Science, Engineering and Technology
Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood, Professor S. O. Reza Moheimani
Department of Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In today’s commercially available AFMs, images are generated by scanning the sample’s
surface in a raster pattern. A raster pattern is attained by applying a triangular waveform to the fast axis
(x axis) and a staircase signal to the slow axis (y axis) of the AFM scanner. A drawback of using a
triangular waveform is that, it contains odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency that will inevitably
excite the mechanical resonance of the scanner if a high frequency triangular waveform is applied to the
scanner. In this work, we describe a new scanning method for fast atomic force microscopy. In this
method, the sample is scanned in a spiral pattern. A Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) spiral scan can
be produced by applying single frequency cosine and sine signals with slowly varying amplitudes to the
x and y axes of the scanner respectively. The use of single frequency input signals allows the scanner to
move at high speeds without exciting the mechanical resonance of the device. Alternatively, the
frequency of the sinusoidal inputs can be varied to maintain a constant linear velocity while a spiral
trajectory is being traced. Thus, producing a Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) spiral scan.
P-109
Antibiotic resistance microbes in tropical mangrove sediments in
east coast peninsular, Malaysia
Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Jalal KCA, Akbar John B, Nur Fatin
UT, Mardiana MA, Kamaruzzaman YB, Shahbudin S, Muhammad Nor OmarJalal KCA, Akbar John B,
Nur Fatin UT, Mardiana MA, Kamaruzzaman YB, Shahbudin S, Muhammad Nor Omar
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study has been conducted at Tanjung Lumpur, mangrove swamp on January 2009 to isolate and
identify the bacterial community in mangrove soil and their resistance against antibiotics. Identified
bacteria were Aeromonas hydrophila group 1 and 2, Escherichia coli 1, Chryseomonas luteola,
Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia rubudaea, Klebsiella pnuemoniae
and
Enterobacter cloacae. The identified bacteria were introduced to fourteen different antibiotics to
determine the bacterial susceptibility. All the isolates showed 100% resistant towards Beta -lactam
antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin and penicillin), vancomycin, sulphafurazole, gentamicin,
erythromycin, tetracycline, novobiocin, clindamycin and bacitracin indicates the presence of bacterial
amidases and Beta -lactamases in the bacteria which inhibit the action of Beta - lactam antibiotics.
Bacteria
isolated from mangrove soil showed 66.7 and 77.8% resistance against chloramphenicol and
streptomycin, respectively, suggesting that the lipid composition might play a key role in preventing
the
entrance or binding of antibiotic to the cell. All the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin since it
inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II that cause the negative super coil in DNA and thus permits
transcription or replication. All bacterial isolates showed Multi Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index
higher
than 0.2 and proved high-risk sources of contamination of the environment. This study proved the
presence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains in mangrove soil that could be used for further
studies.
P-110
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MUSA ACUMINATE L.
PEEL
Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Jalal KCA, Dina Fuad A, Akbar John
B, Rahman MTJalal KCA, Dina Fuad A, Akbar John B, Rahman MT
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
n-hexane, chloroform and water extracts of (Musa acuminate L.) green and ripe banana peel were
Science, Engineering and Technology
evaluated for antibacterial activity. A total of 4 bacterial strains (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella
flexneri, Bacillus subtilis , Enterococcus faecalis) were selected and antibacterial efficiency of crude
extracts were assessed by well diffusion test via measuring inhibition zones formed in agar plate at
three different dosages (100mg/mL, 200mg/mL and 500mg/mL). The results showed that n-hexane and
chloroform extracts of green banana peel produced significant inhibition zone against Gram-negative
bacteria Salmonella typhimurium at dosage of 500 mg/mL. Minimum Inhibition concentration (MIC)
and Minimum Bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay indicated that there were significant growth
inhibition of the bacterial strains against water and chloroform extracts of rip banana peel and n-hexane
and chloroform extraction of green banana peel (P < 0.05). The GC/MS analysis of the active extracts of
green banana peels from n-hexane and chloroform revealed their molecular weight and the presence of
palmitic acid with 27.38% and 16.17% respectively. In conclusion present study indicated that the
active extraction of n-hexane and chloroform of green banana peel has a considerable amount of
potential antibacterial compounds.
P-112
Perna viridis and Solen brevis: Bioindicator of heavy metal
pollution in Pahang Coastal Water
Kamaruzzaman Yunus, Kamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA, Shahbudin
S.Kamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA, Shahbudin S.
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in soft tissue of Perna viridis collected from
Pekan on November 2009 revealed that average concentration of Zn in soft tissue was 2.4 times greater
than Cu bioconcentration. The bio-accumulative capacity of hazardous heavy metals such as Pb and Cd
revealed that Lead concentration was 1.6 fold higher in mussel tissue than Cd level. Mean while razor
clam (Solen brevis) collected from Tanjung Lumpur showed 10 fold higher Zn bioaccumulation in the
soft tissue than Cu. On the other hand Pb accumulation was 2.5 fold higher in the soft tissue of razor
clam than Cd bioaccumulation. Since Zn and Cu are the precursors for most of the enzymatic activity,
all the body parts have significantly higher tendency to accumulate Zn and Cu in both the organisms. It
was postulated that the physiologic condition of different organisms plays a major role in multi fold
accumulation of metals in different body parts. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in
Perna viridis and Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Pekan and Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was
lower than the national permissible limit recommended by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985, proved that
this species could be utilized for human consumption. Present study also indicating that the
bioaccumulation of essential metals in soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals with
metal flow in Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd order.
P-113
Heavy metal accumulation in coastal sediments: A response to
environmental pollution
Kamaruzzaman Yunus, Kamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS, Shuhada AT, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA,
Shahbudin SKamaruzzaman BY, Zahir MS, Shuhada AT, Akbar John B, Jalal KCA, Shahbudin S
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Surface sediment samples were collected from 3 different zones of Langkawi coastal waters, during
2008 to determine the concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) by using the sensitive Inductively
Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The concentration of heavy metals was compared with
the world average concentration of shale values. It was found that the total concentration of Pb was
between 12.25 and 71.38 μg/g dw with mean concentration value of 41.87 ± 7.30 μg/g which was
two fold higher than the average shale value (20 μg/g). Copper concentration was ranged between 0.4
and 30.95 μg/g dw with mean concentration of 11.19 ±5.2 μg/g dw which was lower than the
average shale value (45 μg/g dw). Meanwhile, a study done at the same site during the year 2009
showed that the total concentration of Pb was between 21.56 and 33.19 μg/g dw with mean
concentration value of 29.08 ± 6.50 μg/g which was lower than the previous study (done during
Science, Engineering and Technology
2008) but still has higher than average shale value (20 μg/g). Copper concentration was ranged
between 18.23 and 38.24 μg/g dw with mean concentration of 28.26 ±10.00 μg/g dw which was
lower than the average shale value (45 μg/g dw) but increasing two fold than previous study.
Enrichment Factor (EF) showed that sources of Pb and Cu in the study area was partially due to
anthropogenic activities such as boating, shipping activities and also urban run off.
P-116
DETERMINATION OF CARBON AND OXYGEN CONTENT OF
PRETREATED OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB)
USING SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND ENERGY
DISPERSIVE X-RAY (EDX).
Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim, Faridah Yusof and Manisya
Zauri A. Wahid.Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim, Faridah Yusof and Manisya Zauri A. Wahid.
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) contain lignocellulosic and lignin material which are
difficult to degrade. Pretreatment of this material with HCl and autoclaving it may be able to degrade
the lignin and releasing the cellulosic material reflecting their carbon and oxygen content. The cellulose
are potential carbon substrate that can be use by microorganisms for their growth and fermentation
process. The surface morphology and level of delignification of the OPEFB can be observed by SEM
and also estimation on the level of carbon and oxygen of the fibre using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX).
The highest carbon content (60.5%) came from fibre autoclaved for 10 minutes with 2N HCl and
followed by fibre for 20 minutes with 3N HCl (57.8% carbon) and 1N HCl for 20 minutes (57%
carbon). The highest oxygen content (15.5%) was detected on fibre autoclaved for 10 minutes with 2N
HCl and followed with 1N HCl for 30 minutes with 15% oxygen content and 1N HCl autoclaved for
20 minutes having 13% oxygen content. Increase oxygen content of the fibre indicate there is more
porosity found in the fibre indicating better aeration is available for microbes to grow and penetrates
towards the lignocelluloses of the OPEFB.
P-117
THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL AS CO-SUBSTRATE FOR
VINEGAR FERMENTATION FROM FERMENTED STAR
FRUIT JUICE (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA) WITH GLUCOSE
SUPPLEMENT
Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim and Nurul Hidayah Abdul
KudusMohamed Ismail Abdul Karim and Nurul Hidayah Abdul Kudus
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Ethanol production was conducted by utilizing A.Carambola and S. Cerevisae using fermentation
method. A. Carambola was chosen due to its availability in local market and its fruiting season is all
year around in Malaysia. The quantitative effects of sugar level, agitation speed and inoculum size were
optimized by using 2-Level Factorial Design. The experiment showed that the optimum condition for
sugar level was 15% (w/v), inoculum size was 15% (v/v) and agitation speed of 250 rpm consequently
produced 11.79% (v/v) ethanol which was 2.8% higher than the predicted value. Ethanol can be use as a
co-substrate for subsequent fermentation to fruit vinegar.
P-118
Collection and identification of four Malaysian sponge species
Haitham Qaralleh, Haitham Qaralleh, Deny Susanti, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin SaadHaitham
Qaralleh, Deny Susanti, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin Saad
biomedical science,Kulliyyah of Science
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
The seas surrounding Malaysia is one of the largest continental shelf areas contain very productive
and diverse habitat and should therefore be the center for marine biological research. Among the marine
organisms, sponges, which are the most primitive invertebrates, are considered as the major rich phyla
with novel bioactive compounds. In this study, four sponge species were collected using SCUBA
diving from Langkawi and South China Sea, Snake Island at depths of 1-10m. Information on the
organism, the place of collection, date of collection and depth were carefully recorded. Identification of
sponges sample was carried out based on under water pictures, skeletal slides and dissociated spicule
mounts. The result showed that all sponge species collected in this study are belong to Leuconoid type,
class Demospongiae, order Haplosclerida and family Petrosiidae.
P-119
Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of Four Malaysian Sponge
Species (Petrosiidae)
Haitham Qaralleh, Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin Saad, Deny SusantiHaitham
Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbuddin Saad, Deny Susanti
biomedical science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Aqueous and organic extracts from four marine sponges collected from the coastline of Malaysia
were screened against six microorganisms, including the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923,
Bacillus cereus ATCC11778, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Escherichia coli ATCC35218, the
yeasts Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC90112. All the sponge
species in this study showed antibacterial activity against at least one bacterial strain and only one
sponge species was significantly active against C. albicans. P. aeruginosa was considered resistant to all
tested samples, since no inhibition zone was observed while the Gram-positive B. cereus was shown to
be the most sensitive microorganism followed by C. albicans and S. aureus. The highest activity was
obtained for the aqueous extract of Neopetrosia exigua against the Gram-positive bacteria B. cereus
(inhibition zone 25 mm and MIC 0.07 mg/mL) and S. aureus (17.5 mm and 0.12 mg/mL) and against C.
albicans (21 mm and 0.32 mg/mL). This extract is currently undergoing further analysis to identify the
active compounds.
P-122
The effects of poultry slaughter techniques on morphological
assessment of apoptosis in skeletal muscles
Intan Azura Shahdan, Intan Azura SHAHDAN, Mohammad Tariqur RAHMANIntan Azura SHAHDAN,
Mohammad Tariqur RAHMAN
Biomedical Science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Methods of slaughter affect the post-mortem biochemical and physiological changes in the
conversion of skeletal muscles into meat. Apoptosis could be associated with the post-mortem
development of meat quality in skeletal muscles of chickens. Apoptosis, a form of cell death, activates
the regulation of proteolytic enzymes (caspases) which selectively cleave cytoskeleton proteins and
catalyze the changes of cell organelles and morphological structure. These changes are considered to be
responsible for meat qualities. In the current study, the influence of methods of slaughter on apoptosis
was investigated. Chickens were either decapitate and restrained (D+R+), or neck cutting with intact
spinal cord and not restrained (D-R-). The muscles from various parts of chickens were used to observe
the morphologic and quantitative changes of apoptosis, during 6 hour storage.
Terminal
deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) positive
nuclei were detected at time 0, 3 and 6 h after slaughter. The number of TUNEL-positive nuclei in
muscle tissue obtained after either of the slaughter techniques used did not show any significant
difference.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-123
Assessment of Mould Growth in Selected Hospital
Maisarah Ali, Maisarah Ali, I.A. BamgbopaMaisarah Ali, I.A. Bamgbopa
Building Technology and Engineering,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Moulds growth in indoor environments has been of concern in the built environments, particularly in
the hospital environment. Several studies have shown direct correlation between the exposure to moulds
growth and copious adverse health effects. The Air- Conditioning systems in the hospital environments
are tasked to provide comfortable environmental conditions in order to facilitate the healing process and
support diverse medical functions in hospitals. Ironically, Air-Conditioning systems are often implicated
as source of moulds infestation. Malaysia does not have its own standard for hospitals’ Indoor Air
Quality (IAQ). Therefore, the premises of this study is that, the assessment of cases of mould infestation
in selected newly commissioned hospital with respect to their Air-Conditioning systems will be an
endeavour to provide deeper insight into the causes of this menace. The investigation was carried out
using formulated assessment checklist for both the indoor space assessment and the air-conditioning
system assessment respectively. 32Air Handling Unit (AHU) were inspected. The results of the
investigations show condensation to be the predominant source of moisture for mould growth in all the
case studies. While in some instances stagnation of air due to poor ventilation and high relative
humidity were hypothesized as the causal factors. However, in some of the case studies, the results of
the inspection carried out on some of the AHU, establishes the need for more “stringent― design,
and operation & maintenance guidelines particularly for the hospital needs.
P-124
Quality of School Buildings Using Industrialised Building System
Maisarah Ali, Maisarah Ali, Ab Nasir Jaafar, Abdul Razak SapianMaisarah Ali, Ab Nasir Jaafar,
Abdul Razak Sapian
Building Technology and Engineering,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
One of the major problems for construction industry in Malaysia is the shortage of skilled labours.
Due to the shortage many contractors resort to employing semi-skilled and unskilled labours to
construct their building projects, resulting in poor workmanship of the completed products. To
overcome this problem the government has recently played their role by introducing and implementing
the use of IBS method in construction. One of the important aspects to be considered when studying the
effectiveness of IBS as a method of construction is the degree of quality standard achieved by the
completed buildings. In this study the quality of schools buildings were chosen as samples and
comparative study was carry out to evaluate and measure the quality of completed IBS buildings as
compared to similar buildings by conventional method. Tools, methods and factors required in
measuring quality of building were identified from literature reviews and the relevant ones were later
adopted for the study. The research was divided into three components: physical inspection and
measurement of the building, analysis of defect lists obtained from relevant organization and the
questionnaire survey of end users feedback on the building quality. Analysis of the results proven that
quality of IBS buildings was substantially better compared to conventional one. From the end user
survey result it was also found that safety and security were the most important factors in producing
quality educational building for both IBS and conventional methods.
P-125
Modelling and Fuzzy Control of Two-Wheeled Wheelchair
Salmiah Ahmad, Salmiah Ahmad, M. O. TokhiSalmiah Ahmad, M. O. Tokhi
Science, Engineering and Technology
Mechatronics Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The use of wheelchair has become very important for mobility among disabled as well as the aged. In
fact it has been tremendously enhanced according to the latest technology and public necessities. The
wheelchair revolution has been encouraged due to the increase in the number of injuries caused by
vehicles, rehabilitation enlargement and re-education for an injured person, medical services and need
for independence among disabled and elderly as well as the use in sports. This research was focused on
modeling of two-wheeled wheelchair and new control architecture of modular intelligent control
strategies, involving lifting and stabilizing, motion control of backward and forward, steering, the
extension of chair height, as well as the transformation back to normal four-wheeled position. The
proposed model, mechanisms and control could be of benefit to a wheelchair user, thus enhancing
wheelchair technology for paraplegics and elderly. Most of the wheelchair users are paraplegics, who
are not able to move on their own due to permanent injury in their lower extremities. A virtual model
has been designed using MSC.visualNastran (VN) software environment where bodies, joints and
actuators were defined according to its original functions and characteristics. The control for such
multivariable system was categorized into primary and secondary control subsystems. The primary
subsystem consists of lifting and stabilizing control of Link1 and Link2 and its reverse mechanism
where a modular fuzzy control (MFC) approach was used for both transformations. On the other hand,
the secondary subsystems, which depend on the primary subsystem, consist of the linear motion,
steering motion control as well as the extension mechanism of the chair height. The integration of both
primary and secondary subsystems was executed to follow a sequence of motion in order to complete a
predetermined trajectory. Each secondary control could be activated at any time. The results obtained
shows that all individual controllers in primary and secondary control subsystems could be integrated
for the two-wheeled WC mobility thus enable to help WC users to achieve higher level of height with
flexibility in mobility while on WC.
P-126
THE EFFECT OF SAND AND DUST PARTICLES ON 6/4 AND
14/11 GHz SIGNALS ON SATELLITE TO EARTH PATHS
Saad Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamOthman Khalifa, Omer
Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A comprehensive assessment is given of the severity of impairments caused to microwave (slantpath) links by sand/dust storms. The nature, size and shape of sand/dust particles are investigated in the
laboratory and particle alignment mechanisms are treated theoretically. Both aerodynamic and
electrostatic forces are considered. Systematic alignment is deduced to exist, and since the particles are
aspherical cross-polarization (XPD) is shown to be a possibility. Particle permittivity is investigated by
a novel measurement technique of an individual sand/dust particle’s back-scattered signal, the result
also being used to check the accuracy of mixing formulae relating bulk sample density to permittivity.
This technique is potentially useful for measuring permittivity, at microwave frequencies, of any solid
or liquid. Bulk permittivity measurements are also performed on real sand/dust storm samples and show
the importance effect of water uptake on loss tangent.
A synthesis is given of sand/dust density and storm structure, the impact on links calculated,
including statistical exceedance prediction. The attenuation due to absorption or scatter can only be
significant in extreme cases, but XPD is certainly detectable and is predicted to be statistically
significant in some cases. A collation of fade reports is given showing that real fades in sand/dust
storms occur. These are explained by refractive index gradients, for which basic physical models and
new classifications are proposed.
P-128
STATISTICAL MODELING OF PROPAGATION
PARAMETERS THROUGH SAND/DUST STORMS AT
MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES
Science, Engineering and Technology
Saad Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamOthman Khalifa, Omer
Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Two mathematical models are presented for prediction of worst-month long-term statistics for
sand/dust storm-induced propagation impairments. The computations apply to linear polarization or
circular and to a permittivity at 15 percent relative humidity. The computations are made in the X-band.
Analysis leads to rather definite prediction that sand/dust storm-induced impairments in the Ku, Ka, and
millimeters and up to 1000 GHz (1 Tera Hertz) (this Tera hertz range was not in the original conference
paper; actually it is a new ITU-R recommendation) can deteriorate links reliability (increase outage)
even for low particle concentrations.
P-129
PREDICTION OF FORWARD SCATTERING AND CROSSPOLARIZATION DUE TO DRY AND MOIST HABOOB AND
SANDSTORMS IN SUDAN IN THE 9.4 GHz BAND
Saad Osman Bashir, Saad Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamSaad
Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The frequency spectrum is nowadays very crowded and we must research how to make the maximum
possible use of it.
One technique currently attracting considerable attention is frequency re-use (polarization), through
which the radio spectrum can be, in effect doubled. This technique involves transmitting two crosspolarized microwave beams (e.g. one vertical and the other horizontal), independently modulated.
However, in this case the cross-talk between the two polarizations must be well below the standard
allowable threshold limit for such systems (Rec. ITU-R). The main causes of cross-polarization
distortion (cross-talk) are hydrometeors and similar phenomena (e.g.sand/dust storms).
P-130
CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL
TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU-R) STUDY GROUP 3
Saad Osman Bashir, Saad Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique IlsamSaad
Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
If a local measured rain/sandstorm…etc meteorological/geographical parameters are available,
they MUST be considered for accurate computations of electromagnetic wave propagation impairments
including antennas; instead of recommended values given by the International Telecommunication
Union (ITU-R). This is because NOT mere rain/mere sandstorm…etc., intensities are enough to predict
(model) the accurate impairment’s values. There are other parameters in the LOCAL atmosphere
such as atmospheric gases, beam spreading {associated with abnormal refractive layers, surface
reflections, angle-of-launch and angle-of-arrival [this will decrease the cross-polarization (XPD)}…and
many more. Of course the sources of ITU-R Recommendations and Reports are usually summarized
from good research papers; but unfortunately these are sometimes significant if not remarkable
discrepancies between models and even measurement results for the same material (rain, snow, fog,
hail, sandstorms, trees, etc.). We proved by numbers the discrepancies between well reputed authors and
journals and we will show our own deduced mathematical model including the local atmospheric FREE
parameters (to be used by any local climate) for sand/dust storm differential attenuation and phase shift
for distorted particles (we were the first to analyze cross-polarization in sand/dust storms). Note: The
accepted CONTRIBUTION will be shown on the award site with the ITU-R headed paper; it is received
on 6 September 2010 and accepted on September 8 as (Document 3J/108-E, 8 September 2010, English
Science, Engineering and Technology
only
P-132
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPUTATION METHODS FOR VERY
SMALL PARTICLES: PART II
Saad Osman Bashir, Saad Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam,Saad
Osman Bashir, Othman Khalifa, Omer Mahmoud, MD. Rafique Ilsam,
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper discusses the effect of propagation of electromagnetic waves through a cloud of very
small particles (say dust). The size of these particles is normally less than 0.2 mm in radius, much
smaller than the microwave wavelength; therefore it is possible to AVOID laborious computations be
approximations. In this research/work we have checked the Rayleigh theory (Rayleigh scatterer) against
a full solution of Maxwell’s main time varying field’s expressions through a point matching
technique (PMT). In Part I research (2006 Cairo, Egypt) we have considered only vertical polarization;
in this one we considered horizontal polarization as well. The agreement between Rayleigh
approximation and PMT for very small particles is found to be very good.
P-135
Improved Acoustical and Thermal Properties of Lightweight Coir
Fiber Reinforced Cement Concrete (CFRCC)
Zuraida Ahmad, Zuraida Ahmad, Hadi Purwonto, Norshahida Sarifuddin,
Faridatul Faezah Razali and Farrah Yussof
Zuraida Ahmad, Hadi Purwonto, Norshahida Sarifuddin,
Faridatul Faezah Razali and Farrah Yussof
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Increasing attention has been paid on the creation of environmental friendly with higher performance
type cement composite with a view to conserve energy and protecting environment. In this current
work, the development of lightweight cement composites with use of agriculture waste, coir fiber, and
biopolymer, egg albumen were described. Besides the mechanical and physical properties, work
presented herein aim to explore the acoustic absorption and thermal performance of cement composites.
Under optimum conditions, the CFRCC was fabricated via mixing, casting and curing. The fiber volume
were substantially varied from 2 to 10 wt. %. The fabricated CFRCC were then subjected to impedance
tube and guarded hotbox to evaluate the sound absorption and thermal insulation, respectively. The
acoustic absorption coefficient (α) was found to increase with an increase in fiber volume. Higher fiber
volume however, lowers its thermal conductivity (λ) and specific heat (Cp). This result showed that
CFRCC have potential for absorbing sound, while thermal conductivity is practically independent to
fiber volume.
P-136
Environmental Friendly Starch Based Superabsorbent Hydrogel for
Biodegradable Diapers
Zuraida Ahmad, Zuraida Ahmad, Norshahida Sarifuddin and Nurizan OmarZuraida Ahmad,
Norshahida Sarifuddin and Nurizan Omar
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The motivation of this work is to minimize the reliance on superabsorbent based on synthetic
polymers which can lead to environmental problems. In the current work, synthesis of biodegradable
superabsorbent polymer by graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) onto sago starch (SS) in
Science, Engineering and Technology
aqueous solution was described. The PAN grafted copolymer was obtained via a redox initiator system
of ammonium persulfate (APS) and in the presence of N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (N-MBA)
crosslinking agent. Water absorbency was optimized by varying the reaction parameters (starch-tomonomer ratio and the concentration of crosslinking agent and initiator). Fourier Transform Infrared
(FTIR) spectroscopy was used for confirming the structure of final product and the morphology of
synthesized hydrogel was examined by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The maximum water
absorbency was reached at 1077 g/g with a weight ratio of monomer to starch of 5:1 and initiator
content of 0.3%. The absorption capacity decreased with the increase of crosslinker content. This new
approach showed a promising production of superabsorbent material, in which utilization natural
resources as Sarawak sago and with excellent water absorbency.
P-139
Thermoplastic Sago Starch Composites Via Injection Molding For
Interior Application In Automotive
Zuraida Ahmad, Zuraida Ahmad, Yusliza Yusof, Khairul Muhaimin Mohd Zamli and Hazleen
AnuarZuraida Ahmad, Yusliza Yusof, Khairul Muhaimin Mohd Zamli and Hazleen Anuar
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In order to solve problems generated by plastic waste many efforts have been done to obtain an
environmental friendly material. Most of the research investigation is focused on substitute petro-based
plastics by biodegradable materials with similar properties in a low cost and effective manner. Starch is
a biodegradable polymer produced in abundance from many renewable resources. In this research,
thermoplastic starch (TPS) was produced from melt processing of Malaysian sago starch with the
additions of glycerol as plasticizer and citric acid (CA) as a secondary additive. The main objective was
to investigate the influence of CA contents with presence of water on the thermal and mechanical
properties of TPS. The CA content varies from 0.5% to 2 wt%. The materials were prepared by melt
blending in the Haake Rheomix at 130°C, followed by injection molding process. Thermal stability
and the glass transition temperature (Tg) were analyzed by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC). Citric acid was found to widen the temperature range of processing
glycerol-plasticized starch, and reduced the difference in melt temperature between TPS. The samples
were also tested by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and, water absorption experiments.
P-143
User Activity Recognition Based on Accelerometer Data from a
Mobile Phone
Media Ayu, Media A. Ayu, Teddy Mantoro, Ahmad Faridi Abdul Matin, Saeed Salem Omar
BasamhMedia A. Ayu, Teddy Mantoro, Ahmad Faridi Abdul Matin, Saeed Salem Omar Basamh
Department of Information Systems,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Activity recognition refers to the ability of a machine/device to recognize the activity of users. This
area of research has attracted many works especially related to the context aware and ubiquitous
computing area. Wearable accelerometers have been explored for this activity recognition purpose;
however the impracticality of attaching accelerometers to the user presents significant issues.
Accelerometers today are embedded in many mobile devices. This work explores the potential and
possibility of using these accelerometer data to determine user activity recognition. The initial
experiments show encouraging results with a very good accuracy rate of 92% in recognizing some basic
user activities.
P-144
Mapping Urban Historic City Landscape: Urban Trail Inventory
and Heritage Resources Documentation of Alor Setar
Mansor Ibrahim,
,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Historic urban sites and traditional structures are one of the most important evidence of the past
civilization. The conservation of these values within the context of conservation of architectural heritage
is always regarded as the preservation of heritage culture. The main objective of historic buildings
documentation is to preserve cultural properties cultural properties by understanding their architectural,
historical, environmental, visual and aesthetic characteristics. These documentation studies of urban
heritage lifestyle, which are essential in the context of conservation plans, will then determine the
principles of the urban heritage trail. This study is aimed to propose a method for the architectural
evaluation phase, which is essential before conservation decisions. The proposed method is based on a
gradation system. Alor Setar is determined as the area to test this gradation system. It is proposed that
this method explains the systematic way for evaluating architectural features belonging to historic sites
whose conservation plans are to be prepared. In the study, traditional buildings are evaluated from the
point of their exterior and interior architectural characteristics and classified as different value groups.
This grouping will be conservation heritage decisions. The preserved buildings play an important part in
cultural and architectural heritage and have their contribution in the preservation of historical memory
and in the improving of the modern quality of life, in the aesthetics and the attractiveness of a location.
The elaboration of an integrated strategy with efficient administrative and financial motivations for the
protection of preserved buildings must be a priority in the frame of our country's modern cultural
management.
P-147
SELECTED PROFILES OF RESPONDENTS AND THE
REASONS FOR CROSS BORDER MARRIAGE AMONGST
MUSLIMS IN SELANGOR.
ROSLINA CHE SOH, Dr Noraini Md Hashim- co-researcherDr Noraini Md Hashim- co-researcher
ISLAMIC LAW DEPARTMENT,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
Incidences of cross-border marriage have taken place since a long time ago and still continue,
although law has been legislated to control it occurrences. With the influx of the legal and illegal
immigrants to Malaysia has shown changes in the trend of parties involving in this marriage that is not
only between the locals but also locals and non-locals. Cross-border marriage has been associated with
marriage solemnized in the changwats (provinces) of Southern Thailand. The easy access to enter the
border by land or by sea, the few cumbersome procedures enforced by the authorities in Malaysia to
solemnize a marriage etc., have prompted couples to marry by way of Wali Hakim or Wali Am there in
order to resolve their problems. This paper is to enlighten the reader as to the provisions in relation to
registration of a marriage without the permission of the Religious Office and SharÊÑah Court in
Selangor, the procedure and application process to register a marriage without the permission of the
selected Religious Office and SharÊÑah Courts, the profiles of the parties involved and the reasons
for their action. Positive efforts to improve the current situation are placed at the end of the paper as a
conclusion.
P-148
Adaptive RS-Group Scheduling for WiMAX Multihop-Relay
Rashid Saeed, Rashid.A. Saeed, Hafizal Mohamad, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali, Mazlan AbbasRashid.A.
Saeed, Hafizal Mohamad, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali, Mazlan Abbas
Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE),Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Wireless vehicular communication (WVC) has been identified as a key technology for intelligent
transportation systems (ITS) for the past few years. IEEE 802.11p is the proposed standard for the
physical and MAC layer of the WVC devices. The main objective of the standard is to change the frame
format in order to increase the delay spread tolerance introduced by the vehicle mobility, in which the
channel bandwidth is scaled from 20 MHz, i.e., 802.11a to 10 MHz, i.e., 802.11p. This paper proposes
the TDMA technique with fixed time slots and a guard band between the slots to ensure interoperability
Science, Engineering and Technology
between the wireless devices to communicate in rapidly changing environment where transactions must
be completed in small timeframes. The new TDMA sub-layer is proposed to be on top of the
conventional 802.11p CSMA/CA MAC. We have found that 802.11p-based TDMA can achieve much
higher throughput compared with the conventional 802.11p-based CSMA/CA, as the distance, vehicle
speed and numbers increase. Ns-2 simulation results present the performance analysis and validate the
efficiency of the proposed scheme.
P-149
A Novel Solution for the UWB Interference Problem
Ahmed Mohammed, Prof. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Ahmed R. MohammedProf. Dr. Khalid A. S. AlKhateeb, Ahmed R. Mohammed
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This research project provides a solution to the Ultra Wideband (UWB) critical problems;
the sped and the interference on narrowband systems. Ultra-wide band (UWB) is a new
technology, which provides wireless connectivity for a large variety of applications and
computer peripherals within a radius of about 10m such as printers, monitors, scanners
external disc drives, multimedia etc. So far however, two main factors have hindered the wide
use of such systems viz. speed that requires Gbps capacity, and interference with narrowband
frequencies such as WLAN 802.11a, WiMAX, GPS, TV, mobile phones etc, which may be
jammed by the UWB spectrum.
A novel technique is proposed for the generation of 1-Gbps pulses for IR-UWB. The
spectrum of the pulse satisfies the requirements of the Federal Communication Commission
(FCC) UWB for indoor and outdoor mask. The interference mitigation with WiMAX band is
less than -78dBm. Interference is avoided by adjusting a spectral notch of less than -85dBm at
5GHz. The pulse generator uses a single two ports parallel coupled microstrip line as a
bandpass filter (BPF). The same pulse generator can be used for Pulse Position Modulation
(PPM) or On-Off Keying (OOK).
P-150
Virtual Reality and Environmental Performance Animation of
‘Environmentally-Intelligent’ Features of Islamic
Architectural Heritage of the Early Persian Civilizations.
Mansor Ibrahim, Asst. Prof. Dr. Puteri Shireen Jahnkassim, Asst. Prof. Dr. Akeel Noori.Asst. Prof. Dr.
Puteri Shireen Jahnkassim, Asst. Prof. Dr. Akeel Noori.
Department of Urban Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Islamic architectural heritage demonstrates salient examples of intelligent application of climatic and
environmental-conscious design and approaches in architecture. Interpretation of these features is
gaining greater interest due to the rise of the environmental agenda. Due to the development of state-ofart computer-based tools, analytical study of such features can be used to assess and analyze the
performance of these environmental aspects of historical architecture. Due also to the rise of the
sustainable agenda in the built environment, there is an urgent need to learn from traditional approaches
and feature in order to develop innovative low-energy solutions but which integrate both environmental
considerations and cultural sensitivity.
In the Persian civilizations, examples of environmental-friendly architecture can be analyzed through
simulation and literature study.
These feature utilized natural climatic energies such as winds, sun, daylight, water and vegetation
features, and the modulation of sound, to achieve the optimum internal environments within the
Science, Engineering and Technology
buildings. In several notable cases, the features and form of these buildings have been intelligently
modulated and articulated to achieve the maximum response from the ambient climate without the
excessive use of energy. Electricity and mechanical system or building services non-existent and the
creation of a comfortable and functional internal climate was dependent on the architectural articulation
of the building ‘envelope’ itself. The correct usage of materials, its quantity and the organization
of spaces play also a consequential role in maximizing ‘free energy and ambient resources’.
Through an analytical study through field study and simulation tools and virtual representation of
these features are necessary to analyze and document these ‘intelligent’ aspects of medieval
Islamic architecture as part of the learning from the past achievements of Islamic Heritage. The study
will focus on the following case studies:
In term of Ottoman Civilization, the work of Mimar Sinan, which is principally during the 15th to
16th century – where ‘highly intelligent’ environmental features are incorporated into the
structure and envelope, which relate to how the building interacts with the surrounding environment.
1.
Captures the sunlight according to season and focus the use of daylight on necessary areas
within the building.
2.
The supply of fresh air in the mosque and the disposal of smoke coming from the oil burners
and the candle-sticks which can damage the decoration and surface paintings. (After studying the wind
direction in the site, a ventilation system was developed with careful location of windows to draw air
current into a small chamber over the main entrance.
3.
The distribution of sound was achieved through the placement of the muezzins terrace and the
use of empty space resonators to prevent the reflection of sound energy and to distribute it throughout
the space.
In term of the Persian Civilization, the Babylon is an example of how the Persian relied heavily on
water and air, where water has been a central feature of Islamic landscape design and architecture.
Channel of pipes for conveying water with zig-zag ridges and pigeon breates pattern on the surface to
break the water flow. On the surface of a courtyard ran a complicated hydraulic system. The constant
flow of water has been known to keep the floor and room temperature incessantly cool.
P-152
Local Community Participation in Coastal Zone Management in
Port Klang, Selangor.
M. Zainora Asmawi, M. Zainora bt. Asmawi (Dr)M. Zainora bt. Asmawi (Dr)
Department of Urban Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The research examines on the involvement of local community in coastal management initiatives in
Port Klang, Selangor. Engaging the people in any plan of program concerning their lives has become a
common practice in many parts of the world thought in Malaysia it can be considered rather new
approach in planning and developing the nation. It is, therefore, important to know the present condition
of community participation in supporting the coastal management programs.
The results of focus group discussion which was held to get the in-sight views of the local
stakeholders in Port Klang coastal area indicate several findings, they are about: local initiative;
awareness of the importance of community participation; community participation as sustainable coastal
management strategy; consultation vs focus group discussion; top-down approach vs bottom-up
approach level; and level of participation. Generally through the level of community is not so substantial
in Port Klang, some early actions have been taken for a better practice in the future.
P-155
Single Polygon Counting for 2 Fixed Nodes with a Constraint on
Cayley Tree of order 2.
Chin Hee Pah, Pah Chin HeePah Chin Hee
Department of Computational and Theorectical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
We have found an exact formula for a single polygon counting problem on Cayley tree of order 2,
which the polygon contain 2 fixed vertices with a constraint. The solution to this problem is elementary.
Some identities of the solution has been established which associated to
Catalan numbers.
P-161
Isolation of Dietary Fibers from Unripe Bananas for Applications in
Food Industry
Jamaluddin Mohd Daud, Jamaluddin Mohd. Daud, Suwaibah Isa, Mohd. Nor Omar, Ahmad Muzammil
ZubardiJamaluddin Mohd. Daud, Suwaibah Isa, Mohd. Nor Omar, Ahmad Muzammil Zubardi
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dietary fibre (DF) is one of important dietary and structural polysaccharides in fruits such as apples,
oranges, peaches, etc. It is widely accepted as a unique food component due to its health benefits and
potential functionality in food systems. However, there are not many literatures and research on
composition and physicochemical characteristics of DF in tropical fruits such as bananas. The study of
DF fractions in the bananas was executed in two parts: Isolation of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and
soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from two different tissue zones; the entire flesh and the peel of the two
banana genotypes Musa ABB cv. ‘Pisang Abu’ and Musa AAA cv. ‘Pisang Nangka’ by
AOAC 985.29 method. Physicochemical properties of the isolated total dietary fiber (TDF) such as its
swelling power (SP), water absorption capacity (WAC) and solubility by Sathe and Salunkhe method
were determined. Genotype AAA has a higher TDF content (69 g TDF/100 g dry fiber-rich powder)
than genotype ABB (57 g TDF/100 g dry fiber-rich powder). The fiber from Musa AAA has higher
potential functionalities in which has SP of 5.1 g water/g fiber, WAC of 2.7 g water/g fiber and
solubility of 9.7% than Musa ABB which has SP of 3.6 g water/g fiber, WAC of 2.1 g water/g fiber and
solubility of 7.1%. This result suggests that higher content of total fiber in genotype AAA should
correspond to its potential functionality in food systems of which described by its physicochemical
characteristics. The study of the banana DF isolated from two banana genotypes (Musa ABB and Musa
AAA) can provide useful information on their potential health benefits and applications in food
industry.
P-168
Advanced Fixed Point Theorems for Nonlinear Operators
Farrukh Mukhamedov, Mansoor SaburovMansoor Saburov
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Numerous questions in physics, chemistry, biology, and economics lead to nonlinear problems; for
example, behavior of plastic materials; flows around objects in fluids or gases; chemical reactions; heat
radiation; processes in nuclear reactors; game-theoretic models in economics; optimizing stochastic
processes and so on. As a rule, there arise nonlinear differential and integral equations, variational
problems for integral expressions, and more general optimization problems. If we ignore the concrete
form of the problem, we can usually reduce the question to one of the following abstract problems:
operator
equation, operator differential equation, extreme problem, minimax problem, variational inequality.
Formulating concrete problems abstractly in the framework of nonlinear functional analysis has the
advantages of distilling the essentials and their relationships, of allowing a uniform treatment of
differing practical problems, and of enabling the use of deep and
powerful mathematical methods, without which the problems could not be solved. Nonlinear
problems, in contrast to linear ones, are essentially more complex. An iterative approximation of fixed
points and zeros of nonlinear operators has been studied extensively by many authors to solve nonlinear
operator equations as well as variational inequality problems. A very important class of mappings is
non-expansive mappings. In particularly, iterative approximation of fixed points of non-expansive
mappings is an important subject in nonlinear functional analysis. In the present work we continue to
Science, Engineering and Technology
develop and generalize the fixed point theory for a different class of nonlinear operators defined on
Banach spaces. Namely, we study strongly and weakly convergence theorems of an implicit and explicit
iterative processes for a single and finite family of totally asymptotically and quasi asymptotically I
non-expansive operators defined on Banach spaces. All results extend, generalize, improve and unify
many previous results.
P-169
On Kadison-Schwarz inequality for Quantum Operators on M2(C)
Farrukh Mukhamedov, Abduaziz AbduganievAbduaziz Abduganiev
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Positive linear maps and completely positive linear maps are found to be very important in quantum
mechanics, quantum computation and quantum information. In fact they can be used to recognize
entangled states, and every quantum channel is represented as a trace-preserving completely positive
linear map. Therefore, such maps attracted considerable attention amongst the physics community.
Although many results concerning classification of positive maps have been obtained, but the complete
classification of positive maps still remains an essentially open question. It is therefore of interest to
study conditions stronger than positivity, but weaker than complete positivity. Such a condition is called
Kadison-Schwarz (KS) property, i.e a map satisfies the KS property if holds for every . Note that
every unital completely positive map satisfies this inequality, but KS operators no need to be
completely positive. Some relations between KS inequality with other operator inequalities were
intensively investigated. In this work we describe bistochastic KS operators on M2(C). Such a
description allows us to find positive, but not KS operators. Moreover, by means of such a
characterization we construct KS operators, which are not completely positive. Then we describe
quantum quadratic operators on M2(C) with Haar state. Using such a description, we find a necessary
condition for quantum quadratic operators to satisfy the KS property. This condition allows us to
construct quantum quadratic operators which are not KS ones. Moreover, we also provide examples of
quadratic operators for which corresponding linear mappings are not positive. Furthermore, we study
nonlinear dynamics of quadratic operators acting the set of states of M2(C). Namely, we find some
conditions for the stability of unique fixed point of such operators. Besides, dynamics of certain
concrete quadratic operators are investigated.
P-173
PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL COLONISATION IN COASTAL
WATER LANGKAWI - AN EMPHERICAL APPROACH
Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Jalal, K.C.A., Noor Faizul, H.N.,
Azrul Naim, M., Zahir, M.S., Akbar John, B., Kamaruzzaman, B. Y.,Jalal, K.C.A., Noor Faizul, H.N.,
Azrul Naim, M., Zahir, M.S., Akbar John, B., Kamaruzzaman, B. Y.,
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
A study on physicochemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the
coastal waters of Pulau Tuba Island (South east part) during 2005-2006 and Kilim River (North east
part) during 2007, Langkawi. Samples were collected from 4 different stations from each study area
(Pulau Tuba and kilim river). station 1 (Pulau Tuba Jetty), station 2 (Simpang Tiga), Station 3
(aquaculture site) and station 4 (Kuah Jetty) were represented from Pulau Tuba Island (PTI) and Station
1 (Kilim Estuary), Station 2 (Floating Restaurant Area), Station 3 (Kilim Jetty Area) and Station 4
(Undisturbed Mangrove Area) were represented from Kilim River (KR). The mean physico-chemical
parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88ºC), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg/l), pH (7.72-8.20),
salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), Total Dissolved Solids (32.27-32.77 g/l) and specific conductivity (49.8351.63 mS/cm) were observed in PTI. highest amount of nitrates (26.93 µg at N/l) and phosphorus
content (561μg/L) was found in St3 and St 2 respectively. The highest concentration (9.99 µg/L) of
chlorophyll a was observed in St 4 during May in PTI. The average temperature 25.84°C-28.52°C,
Science, Engineering and Technology
DO 7.87g/L-8.01g/L, salinity 31.00 ppt-33.70 ppt, TDS 30.09 g/L-32.20 g/L, Specific Conductivity
from 44.45 mS/cm - 47.80 mS/cm, pH 7.87-8.05 and Chlorophyll a 7.98-2.10 µg/L was observed in
KR during sampling period. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher at St 1(30.7 µg/L) and
lowest at St 3(14.6 µg/L). Similar observation was reported in Phosphate content which was higher at
St 1 (1.25 µg/L) and lowest at St 3 (0.50 µg/L) in KR. Thirteen gram negative bacterial isolates were
successfully identified from PTI. St 4 showed highest amount of bacteria load (3400 CFU/ml) and the
lowest number was observed at St 2 (890 CFU/ml). The gram negatives (Aeromonas hydrophila,
klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia
alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens) were isolated from PTI. Apart from this oil biodegrading
Pseudomonas putida were also identified from PTI. The study portrays the existing status of water
quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with gram negative bacteria along the PTI. 15 gram
negative bacterial isolates were isolated from KR (Aeromonas hydrophila, Burkholderia cepacia,
Ewingella americana, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus epidermis,Staphylococcus hominis,
Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus
cohnii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis Kocuria varians, Kocuria rosea,
and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa). It was also observed that bacterial populations were higher in the bottom
water than the surface water. Besides, the results also showed that there were no significant variations (P
> 0.05) in physico- chemical parameters of water among the 4 different stations of KR. The study
portrays the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with gram
negative bacteria along the sampling areas. Nevertheless, a long term continuous monitoring program
along the coastal water Langkawi is urgently needed. These could enable us to know the spatio-temporal
patterns of bacterial standing stocks along with the physico-chemical parameters and their interactions
in the coastal water Langkawi Malaysia.
Key words: Langkawi Island, Kilim River, Pulau Tuba, bacterial community, Colony forming Unit,
P-174
Image Enhancement using Artificial Neural Networks
Omer Mahmoud, Omer Mahmoud, Othman Khalifa , Momoh Jimoh E-SalamiOmer Mahmoud,
Othman Khalifa , Momoh Jimoh E-Salami
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The current advancement in technology enables us to connect and exchange information all over the
world. one significant data type that we are able to exchange is images which intrinsically convey huge
amount of information as compared to text. Therefore image processing and analysis technique witness
increasing importance recently. The majority of the research and publications that are done in this area
(image processing) are focused or based primarily on traditional mathematic tools (formula and models
e.g. FFT, wavelet ...) The common denominator between all these tools is the idea of manipulating
pixels of the image using some mathematical formula. On the other hand some research currently are
exploring the usage of new technology and emerging branches of science such as Artificial Intelligent
Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Logic in the field of image processing. This study aim
to investigate and explore the usage of ANN in image processing. The poster provide a design and
implementation of ANN based image filtering for noise reduction. Moreover, performance will be
compared to tradition image filters
P-175
VARIATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FLAT-TOP SOLITONS IN
BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES
Bakhram Umarov,
Computational and Theoretical Scienses,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Static and dynamic properties of matter-wave solitons in dense Bose-Einstein condensates, where
three-body interactions play a significant role, have been studied by a variational approximation (VA)
Science, Engineering and Technology
and numerical simulations. For experimentally relevant parameters, matter-wave solitons may acquire a
flat-top shape, which suggests employing a super-Gaussian trial function for VA. Comparison of the
soliton profiles, predicted by VA and those found from numerical solution of the governing GrossPitaevskii equation
shows good agreement, thereby validating the proposed approach.
P-178
Selective Oxidation of Propane to Acrylic Acid on Mo-V-Te-Nb-Ox
Catalyst: Influence of Supports and Promoters
ROSLIZA MOHD SALIM, Rosliza Mohd Salim, Fazliana Abd Hamid, Noor Azeerah Abas,
Looi Ming Hoong, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid and Robert Schl(o)gl
Rosliza Mohd Salim, Fazliana Abd Hamid, Noor Azeerah Abas,
Looi Ming Hoong, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid and Robert Schl(o)gl
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The selective oxidation of propane has been studied on Mo-V-Te-Nb-Ox deposited on silica (SiO2),
alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2). The catalytic performance depended on the support nature. The
yield to acrylic acid increasing in the sequence: MoVTeNbOx/ SiO2 > MoVTeNbOx/ Al2O3 >
MoVTeNbOx/ TiO2. Promoted multi metal oxides catalysts have been prepared at a fixed composition
of Mo1V0.3Te0.23Nb0.125M0.005Ox (M = Ni, Cr, Cu and Mn) by slurry method and have been tested
in the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid. Bulk Mo-V-Te-Nb-Ox catalysts also prepared with
parallel method as a reference to the promoted system. Although they have similar chemical
composition but the catalyst performance was found to be different. Introduction of the various
transition metal additives Ni, Cr, Cu and Mn to MoVTeNbOx mixed oxide catalysts led to a change in
total activity. The yield of acrylic acid increased in Mn and Cu promoted catalysts but decreased in Ni
and Cr promoted catalysts. The systems were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and XRF to investigate
the relationship between the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts with their corresponding
catalytic performances. The surface is very important in catalytic activities and may differ in structure
and composition from the bulk. However, the XRD result indicated that the addition of promoters do not
alter the basic matrix of Mo1V0.3Te0.23Nb0.125Ox, evidenced from the similarity in diffraction
patterns as the bulk.
P-179
Mo-V-Te-Nb-Mn-O Catalyst for Selective Oxidation of Propane to
Acrylic Acid: Effect on Metal Loadings
ROSLIZA MOHD SALIM, Rosliza Mohd Salim, Fazliana Abd Hamid, Noor Azeerah Abas,
Looi Ming Hong and Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid
Rosliza Mohd Salim, Fazliana Abd Hamid, Noor Azeerah Abas,
Looi Ming Hong and Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Manganese promoted catalysts has been prepared at a fixed composition of
Mo1V0.3Te0.23Nb0.125Mn≤nOx (n =0.0005, 0.005, 0.05 at%) by slurry method and has been
tested in the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid. The catalysts with mid metal loading shows
better activity than the rest up to 49% yield to acrylic acid. The systems have been investigated by
XRD, SEM, IR, TG and DSC to further understand the relationship between the physical-chemical
properties of the catalysts to their corresponding catalytic performance.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-187
Weathering effect on Lightweight Bio-Composites Panel
Zahurin Halim, Zuraida Ahmad, Fauziah Md. YusofZuraida Ahmad, Fauziah Md. Yusof
Manufacturing & Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The awareness in natural fiber reinforced biopolymer composite materials has been rapidly growing
both in terms of industrial applications and basic research. This study investigated on the effect of aging
time on mechanical properties and morphological structure of thermoset protein-based composites from
egg albumen reinforced by natural cotton fibers. The cotton/albumen composites (CAC) were fabricated
by hands lay-up technique with 10 w/w % of fiber content. The samples were cured and aged at room
temperature for different aging time from 7 to 32 days. The cotton fibers have contributed in a
significant improvement in mechanical strength and toughness of the composites. Tensile strength of the
composites achieved the optimum strength of 9 MPa after 21 days of aging time and constant till 32
days. As the aging time increased, impact strength of the composites also improved to some value of 20
kJ/m2. Thereby after 21 days observation, the composites show an equilibrium moisture content of 6-9
wt%, and the strength remains stable at room condition with 50-60% relative humidity (RH).
Morphology studies using SEM justified that the moisture content after aging time influenced
mechanical properties of the composites.
P-188
Perception Analysis of Living Environment at Taman Melati
Residential Areas
Abdul Azeez Kadar Hamsa, ABDUL AZEEZ Kadar Hamsa, MIURA Masao, INOKUMA Shuhei,
NISHIMURA YosukeABDUL AZEEZ Kadar Hamsa, MIURA Masao, INOKUMA Shuhei, NISHIMURA
Yosuke
Urban and Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Rapid physical development in a residential area will deteriorate living environment of the residents
especially if it takes place haphazardly without applying adequate planning guidelines. It will,
eventually, exert more pressure on physical infrastructure of the area. As a result, residents of the area
will be subjected to dissatisfaction on the present supporting infrastructure as the demand exceeds the
supply. Evidently, it may lead to poor living conditions of the area, which ultimately slow the
progressiveness of the society to achieve the quality of living standards. This paper investigates
residents’ perceptions on present living environmental setting at Taman Melati residential area in
Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaire survey was administered to determine the perceptions of the residents on
physical environmental parameters such as air, noise, streetlight illuminance, and traffic volume. The
level of satisfaction of the residents on the living environment had showed nearly 64% of the
respondents expressed “satisfied strongly” or “satisfied”. The level of willingness of the
residents to stay further continuously at Taman Melati indicates about 56% of the respondents expressed
“strongly willing” or “willing―. It is also seen that the overall satisfaction level of the
residents on the living environment was high albeit satisfaction level on individual physical
environmental parameters was low.
P-189
User-Centered Design and Evaluation of e-Heritage: A Virtual
Reality Prototype for Learning Architectural Heritage in Informal
Education
Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Juliana Aida Abu Bakar, Assistant Professor Dr. Murni Mahmud, Dr.
Kamarul Bahrin BuyongJuliana Aida Abu Bakar, Assistant Professor Dr. Murni Mahmud, Dr. Kamarul
Bahrin Buyong
Department of Building Technology & Engineering,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
The importance of user-centered design and evaluation of virtual reality application (VR) cannot be
underestimated, especially for the development of applications that involved massive users. Based on an
ongoing effort to develop a usable and meaningful VR to learn cultural heritage through architectural
monuments, a series of user evaluation is required to identify usability issues and design improvements
from user perspective. Museums have been selected as a representative of informal education settings,
based on their role in the dissemination and popularization of knowledge of cultural heritage to the
general public and the acquisition and preservation of heritage to be displayed and disseminated among
public. The objective of this paper is to deliver the results of such evaluation through the gauging and
analyzing the feedback and subjective opinions of the actual users of the system. This is to subsequently
allow for a better implementation of modifications aimed at improving fidelity of the user interface and
ease of use of the system in informal education. Progression and performance is evaluated as this is
determined by users’ ability to navigate in the VR environment and then recall historical as well as
architectural information embedded in the virtual reality application. Visual and auditory information is
provided during the navigation in order to impart architectural knowledge to the users. Results will
provide a systematic approach of the evaluation of the VR system, information for guidance on system
refinements and hence allow for comparison of usability levels with other types of learning systems.
P-190
A THEORETICAL APPROACH IN EVALUATING THE
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF WOMEN TELECOMMUTERS ON
TRAVEL DEMAND
Abdul Azeez Kadar Hamsa, Mootaz Munjid Mustafa and Abdul Azeez Kadar HamsaMootaz Munjid
Mustafa and Abdul Azeez Kadar Hamsa
Urban and Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
A number of Malaysian cities are experiencing severe transport problems resulting from rapidly
increasing vehicle ownership and usage, and the insufficient supply and inferior quality of public
transportation. As a result, supply of transport facilities is constantly lagging behind the level of
transport demand. The trend of congestion, frequent traffic accidents and air pollution is no where more
prevalent than in the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. Telecommuting is increasingly being perceived
as a viable travel demand management strategy. Due to a number of travel patterns and characteristics
that are unique to women commuters and the relatively large participation rate of women in the
Malaysian work force, telecommuting by women workers seems a more relevant and potentially more
crucial means of alleviating rush hour traffic in the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. The aim of this
study is to investigate both the actual and potential impacts of involving women workers in the practice
of telecommuting on travel demand and rush hour traffic in Kuala Lumpur. However, this paper
highlights the literature background on women workforce in Malaysia, vehicle growth and associated
travel pattern, and elements related to initial stage of this study.
P-191
Malaysian Sea Cucumbers: A Promising Source of Anticancer and
Antioxidant Agents
Ridzwan Hashim, Osama Y. Althunibat, Ridzwan Bin Hashim, Muhammad Taher, Jamaludin Mohd.
DaudOsama Y. Althunibat, Ridzwan Bin Hashim, Muhammad Taher, Jamaludin Mohd. Daud
Biomedical Science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The development of new active anticancer drugs remains one of the most challenging areas in recent
biomedical researches. However, natural antioxidants play an important role in the protection of human
body against cancer. Therefore, it is important to pay more attention to find new efficient natural
antioxidants which are safer and also have better antioxidant activity than synthetic one. Sea cucumbers
are marine invertebrates which have been used in Asian folk medicine to treat numerous diseases such
as eczema, arthritis and hypertension. Accordingly, this study was carried out to investigate in vitro
antioxidant and anticancer properties of aqueous and organic extracts from seven different Malaysian
Science, Engineering and Technology
sea cucumber species. The results showed that aqueous extract of Holothuria edulis was the most
efficient extract in scavenging of DPPH free radical, giving IC50 = 2.03 mg/ml. The aqueous extracts of
Stichopus chloronotus, Stichopus hermanii , Holothuria scabra and Holothuria leucospilota exhibited
high antioxidant activities (80.58%, 79.62%, 77.46% and 64.03%, respectively) against linoleic acid
free radical. Only an aqueous extract of S. chloronotus actively inhibited the growth of C33A (human
cervical cancer), A549 (human non-small lung carcinoma) and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma)
cancer cells, giving IC50 = 10.0 μg/ml, 16.0 μg/ml, and 32.0 μg/ml, respectively. On the other hand,
an organic extract of Holothuria scabra showed the highest inhibitory effect against the cancer cells.
This study, therefore, revealed that Malaysian sea cucumber species are potential sources of natural
antioxidant and anticancer agents. A further study is in progress to isolate the bioactive compounds from
the active anticancer extracts, which might lead to developing of a new anticancer drug.
P-193
MEMS FLAT SPIRAL SPRING ELECTROMAGNETIC MICROGENERATOR
Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Tony Ow, Hanim SallehAnis Nurashikin Nordin,
Tony Ow, Hanim Salleh
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This work describes the design of a MEMS spring-based electromagnetic energy harvester. The
micro-generator harvests ambient vibrations using a mass-spring system, which is connected to a
magnet. The designed spring-mass system is formed using a suspended copper two-beam spring placed
on top of a permanent magnet. Electromagnetic induction and current flow occurs when the magnet
vibrates and cuts through the copper coil underneath the spring-mass system [1]. Copper instead of the
more popular silicon was selected to form the spiral spring due to its lower Young’s modulus.
Materials with high Young’s modulus have smaller deformations and limit the deflection of the
spring. To enhance the performance of the micro-generator, maximum deflection of the spring is
required [2-4]. Greater deflection will move the magnet closer to the coil thus increasing the induced
flux. Total deflection of the spring can be increased by reducing the total number of supporting
cantilevers. The tradeoff of reducing the number of cantilevers is that the remaining cantilevers will
have to withstand higher stress. The safety factor of the optimized design has to be maintained in a
safety range which is below the yield strength of the material. Static structural analysis was carried out
using ANSYS software to obtain the maximum deflection and equivalent stress on the spring for both of
the designs. The free ends of the beams were constrained to zero and a pressure of 8.979E-5 MPa was
applied on the platform in the Z-direction due to weight of the permanent magnet. The simulated results
are found to be matched with the theory.
P-196
Design and Modeling of a Clock Data Recovery Circuit
Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Zainab Ashari, Muhd. IbrahimyAnis Nurashikin
Nordin, Zainab Ashari, Muhd. Ibrahimy
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit is a crucial component for high speed performance especially
to receive data at gigahertz speed with small jitter at the specific frequency. The main function of a
clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit is to extract a clock from and incoming data stream and sample
the received data with the extracted clock. In addition, having a high bandwidth transmitter/receiver
(TX/RX) link does not necessarily guarantee access to such bandwidth. The ability to recover data from
the distortion and noise in a transmission channel determines the real available reliable bandwidth of a
network. Although various techniques exist to perform clock recovery, phase locked loop (PLL) basis
was chosen in this project. Therefore, the key goal is to design and develop performance of system
architecture and analog circuit for CDR based on the specifications of PCI-Express. The CDR
comprises of a phase detector, voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), charge pump and low pass filter. In
Science, Engineering and Technology
this work, different architectures of phase detectors are simulated using hardware modeling language,
Verilog and a comparative analysis of the most efficient architecture is presented.
P-197
Functional analysis of a latex-specific promoter(hevein) of Hevea
brasiliensis for recombinant protein production
Arokiaraj Pappusamy, Nor Afiqah binti Maiden, Nuttawadee Langeetun, Nurul Shafiqah binti Hashim,
Yassin Rahmat Mohammad, Nur Nadia bt Roslan, Siti Shuhada ShuibNor Afiqah binti Maiden,
Nuttawadee Langeetun, Nurul Shafiqah binti Hashim, Yassin Rahmat Mohammad, Nur Nadia bt Roslan,
Siti Shuhada Shuib
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Transgenic Hevea with hevein promoter fragments fused to uidA cDNA, 0.2 kb designated as P1;
0.4 kb designated as P2; 0.7 kb designated as P3 and 0.9 kb designated as P4 gave signals for single and
mutiplle copies for uidA gene and this was similarly reflected in the positive control (B6 plants) by
Southern analysis. The expression of β-glucuronidase in latex of transformants was identified
qualitatively by the blue coloration of the latex and their level of expression was classified using three
categories based on the intensity of the blue colour. The profile of the recombinant protein expression in
Hevea latex-serum containing hevein promoter fragments was P1 (Negative: 25% (1 tree); Weak: 25%
(1 tree) ; Strong: 50% (2 trees)-Total 4 trees; P2 (Negative: 77% (12 trees) ; Weak: 23% (1 tree)-Total
13 tress; P3 (Negative: 30% (6 trees) ; Moderate: 60% (12 trees); Strong: 10% (2 trees)-Total 20 tress
and P4 (Negative: 20% (8 trees) ; Moderate: 23% (9 trees); strong: 57% (17 trees)-Total: 34 trees;
Positive control B6 (Moderate:30% (3 trees); strong: 70% (7 trees)-Total10 trees; Negative control
KAN (Negative:100%)-Total 4 trees and untransformed C (Negative: 100%)-Total 4 trees. The
recombinat protein levels for beta-glucuronidase in the latex of Hevea transformants and controls was
quantified using ELISA technique. The levels of beta-glucuronidase in latex serum from transgenic
plants (B6) ranged from 0.079 to 0.063 µg/ml of latex serum. The levels of GUS protein (µg/ml of
latex serum) in Hevea transformants P1 ranged from 0.0052 to 1.55; P2 ranged from 0.005 to 0.0012;
P3 ranged from 0.0017 to 0.0027 and P4 ranged from 0.0002 to 0.0012. The highest expressing
transgenic plants was derived from B6 using the 35S CaMV promoter for uidA gene (positive control)
and P1 containing the smallest fragment of the hevein promoter for uidA gene (transgenic plants).
P-200
BIOASSAY GUIDED ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL
COMPOUNDS FROM ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA
(HEMPEDU BUMI).
Othman Abd. Samah, Abubakar Sule., Qamar Uddin Ahmed., Othman Abd. Samah., Muhammad Nor
Omar., Mohd Ambar Yarmo.Abubakar Sule., Qamar Uddin Ahmed., Othman Abd. Samah., Muhammad
Nor Omar., Mohd Ambar Yarmo.
Biomedical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
BIOASSAY GUIDED ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS FROM
ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA
(HEMPEDU BUMI).
Abubakar Sule1; Qamar U. Ahmed2; Othman Abd. Samah1; Muhammad Nor Omar1; Mohd Ambar
Yarmo3
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University
Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang DM, Malaysia
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University
Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang DM, Malaysia
3School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Kulliyyah of Science and Technology,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Malaysia
Abstract
In this study, MeOH extract of Andrographis paniculata (whole plant) was evaluated for
antimicrobial activity in vitro against seven skin disease causing bacteria and fungi viz., Staphylococcus
Science, Engineering and Technology
aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Microsporum cannis,
Candida tropicalis and Aspergilus niger using disc diffusion method at 1000, 500, and 250 µg/ml,
respectively. MeOH extract showed significant antimicrobial activities against all abovementioned
pathogenic microbes. Highest antibacterial activity was exerted by MEOH extract against S. aureus at
1000 µg/ml (19.33 ± 1.52 mm) and the least against S. pyogenes at 250 µg/ml (7.67 ± 0.58 mm).
Highest antifungal activity was exerted against A. niger at 1000 µg/ml (17.00 ± 0.58 mm) and the
least against M. canis at 250 µg/ml (7.00 ± 1.00 mm). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and
minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) observed were
between 150 to 250µg/ml and 250 to 350 µg/ml, respectively. Time-kill assays revealed bactericidal,
bacteriostatic and fungistatic nature of MeOH extract against S. aureus, P. mirabilis and A. niger
respectively. MeOH extract’s antibacterial index (AbI) and antifungal index (AfI) were best on
Gram +ve bacterial and fungal strains tested with mean inhibition zones of 14.7mm and 13.2mm,
respectively. Bioassay guided isolation of MeOH extract afforded three antimicrobial compounds viz.,
14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide,
14-deoxyandrographolide
and
3-O-β-glycosyl-14deoxyandrographolide. Their structures were solely established through extensive 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR,
UV and IR spectral analysis. Our findings support its traditional claims and form a strong basis for
exploration of A. paniculata’s antimicrobial potential to treat skin frailties efficaciously.
P-201
A promising of anti-proliferative agent from Calophyluum
depressinervosum
Suhaib Ibrahim ALKHAMAISEH, Suhaib Ibrahim ALkhamaiseh, M.TaherSuhaib Ibrahim
ALkhamaiseh, M.Taher
Department of pharmaceutical chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Calophyluum depressinervosum or (Bintangor daun kecil) is a Malaysian plant which belongs to the
family of Guttiferae. This family considered being a source of coumarins, xanthon’s and
flavonoid’s, which has shown lately the biological activity against bacterial, viruses and cancer
cells. During the last three decades, the studies have been done for isolating these certain compounds. In
this research we are concentrating on phytochemical study of C. depressinervosum. The stem bark of
this species extracted by using Soxhlet extraction method, and isolated by using Chromatography
method (vacuum and column), the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions yield four pure compounds marked
as (cd1-cd4). The crude extract examined against lung cancer cells which have shown appreciably
significant result. The four pure compounds will be identified by spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR,
MS, and UV/Vis) the results are under processing to draw the structure.
P-202
Fucoxanthin Extraction and Fatty Acid Analysis of Brown Algae
Irwandi Jaswir, Irwandi Jaswir, Dedi Noviendri, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh and Kazuo MiyashitaIrwandi
Jaswir, Dedi Noviendri, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh and Kazuo Miyashita
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Fucoxanthin Extraction and Fatty Acid Analysis of Brown Algae
Irwandi Jaswir, Dedi Noviendri, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh and Kazuo Miyashita
Biotechnology Engineering, Kuliyyah of Engineering,
International Islamic University Malaysia
Macro algae (seaweed) provides for an excellent source of bioactive compounds such as carotenoid
(fucoxanthin), dietary fiber, protein, vitamins, essential fatty acids, and minerals. Fucoxanthin (FX)
occurs in great abundance in brown seaweed, but is absent in higher plants. In this study, FX has been
successfully extracted and purified from three Malaysian brown seaweeds, i.e Padina australis,
Sargassum binderi and S. duplicatum. The purification of FX has been done with two stages of
purification-- through SiO2 Open Column Chromatography and ODS-double column preparative High
Science, Engineering and Technology
Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The purity of FX obtained was up to 99% as indicated
by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system. Results also showed that there were
thirteen types of fatty acid detected with Gas Chromatography. These three types of seaweeds contained
omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, such as eicosapentanoic acid, EPA (C20:5n-3); arachidonic acid, AA
(C20:4n-6); linoleic acid, LA (C18:2n-6); and alpha-linolenic acid, ALA (C18:3n-3).
P-207
Treatment of low grade iron ore using rice husk
Hadi Purwanto, Nor Fazilah bt Mohamad Selamat, Hadi PurwantoNor Fazilah bt Mohamad Selamat,
Hadi Purwanto
Department of manufacturing and materials engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
At present, iron steel industry utilizes high grade iron ore such as hematite and magnetite as raw
material, which its deposit will shortage in near future. Therefore, treatment of ore containing iron oxide
hydrate has been proposed in order to utilize low grade iron ore in the iron steel industry. However, the
use of low grade iron ore resulted in extra energy consumption. In fact, there are many domestic energy
resources such as rice husk from agriculture industry that has not been utilized effectively. This work
focuses on the pre-treatment of low grade ore by using waste rice husk through pre-heating and
gasification processes. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that iron ore containing goethite change to
hematite after heating above 250â•°C under atmosphere condition resulted in porous ore. The hematite
was converted to magnetite and wustite during treated by rice husk gasification. The iron ore was
simultaneously reduced by reducing gases produced from gasification process. The reduction process
was controlled by temperature. Microscope observation showed that the ore containing carbon particle,
indicated that tar produced from rice husk was trapped in the porous ore. Energy analysis revealed that
the rice husk is a promising energy source to produce pre-reduced iron from low grade ore and will
reduce carbon dioxide emission by replacing a part of fossil fuel or coal consumption in the iron making
process.
P-208
Zero Emission Processing of Waste Aluminum Foil
Hadi Purwanto, Hadi Purwanto,Wan Roslina Wan Mohd and Noor Farizahani Hassin,Hadi
Purwanto,Wan Roslina Wan Mohd and Noor Farizahani Hassin,
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Increasing the utilization of aluminum in daily life raises the aluminum scrap. At the present,
conventional process for processing aluminum scrap is smelting process which is known as a high
energy consumption process that caused environment problem. In this work, an alternative technology
had been proposed to process waste aluminum foil into valuable feedstock material without release any
waste. Through an experiment, aluminum foil was fed into reactor where it had reacted with sodium
hydroxide solution. The result showed that the process spontaneously generate hydrogen gas and
produce aluminum trihydrate precipitate. The process was controlled by temperature and concentration.
Hydrogen gas can be directly used for clean energy source such as fuel cell or chemical product.
Aluminum trihydrate could be further proceed to produce alumina powder through calcination and used
for polishing materials in metallurgical process. Finally, energy analysis showed that the proposed
process could give economical benefit and contribute to green environment.
P-209
Quality Improvement in Three-Way Catalytic Converter (TWC)
System using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method
Wan Ahmad Yusmawiza Wan Yusoff, Syed Najib Syed Bahari, Wan Ahmad Wan Yusoff, Hadi
Science, Engineering and Technology
Purwanto, and Erry AdestaSyed Najib Syed Bahari, Wan Ahmad Wan Yusoff, Hadi Purwanto, and Erry
Adesta
Manufactuirng and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper intends to present the application of FMEA method on Three-Way Catalytic Converter
(TWC) system. Catalytic converter of auto-exhaust emission is one of the most successful applications
of heterogeneous catalysis, both in commercial and environmental point of view. This research is
conducted by using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method. This method is used on
Three-Way Catalytic Converter (TWC) system and design to determine and ranks its potential
deactivation factors. FMEA method is a systematic and analytical quality planning tool for identifying
and addressing what potentially could go wrong with a product or process. It is expected to enhance the
lifetime of the TWC by improving its resistance to deactivation. It is widely accepted that FMEA is one
of the best quality improvement tool. For the last several decades, FMEA has been widely used in
industry especially in automotive sectors. This research will cover mostly on the system and design of
the TWC itself as the most important part for controlling the exhaust emission from automobiles. By
improving its resistance to deactivation will contribute to longer lifetime of automotive catalytic
converter
P-210
THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYING AN EFFECTIVE LASER
SINTERING SCANNINGSTRATEGY AND ENERGY DENSITY
VALUE ON ELIMINATING “ORANGE PEEL― ON A
SELECTIVE LASER SINTERED PART
Dr Wan Ahmad Yusmawiza Wan Yusoff, W.A.Y YUSOFF, D T Pham,K DotchevW.A.Y YUSOFF, D T
Pham,K Dotchev
Manufactuirng and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of using recycled Polyamide 12 (PA12)
powder on the manufacture of a Selective Laser Sintered (SLS) part. It was found that through using
recycled PA12 material, a poor and unacceptable surface finish was achieved. The aim of this paper is
therefore to develop a strategy to ideally eliminate the coarse surface texture found on the product
(Orange Peel effect) by controlling the most important SLS process parameters. The reason for
employing the strategy is to ensure consistent surface quality of the resultant parts and more efficient
use of the SLS recycled material. A suitable laser scanning strategy and energy density value along with
an appropriate recycled material was chosen as the main process parameters. In this experiment 3
replications were experimentally tested. PA12 recycled materials with a Melt Flow Rate (MFR) of 1819 MFR and 15-16MFR were used in the experiments. An in-house surface texture scoring system was
introduced to evaluate the surface quality produced on the parts. This paper extends the understanding
of the SLS process and in particular the relationship between the SLS parameters and part quality. The
experimental results suggest that through employing an effective laser scanning strategy and energy
density value, the resulting part surface quality was improved. The proposed method provides a
threshold MFR value for the PA12 powder and shows that materials with MFR values lower than 18
MFR created parts of poor and unacceptable surface quality.
P-214
Electronic Tuning of Ligands as a Control Element for
Regioselectivity of Hydrometalation
Shafida Abd Hamid, Shafida Abd Hamid, Jonathan B. SpencerShafida Abd Hamid, Jonathan B.
Spencer
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The influence of the electronic properties of ligand in the regioselectivity of transition metal-hydride
addition (hydrometalation), in this case Rh-H, to carbon-carbon double bonds was explored. The
method used to investigate the regioselectivity of the hydrometalation was based on the established
Science, Engineering and Technology
methodology [Mode a (M+ - H-) and Mode b (M- - H+)]. The cis-alkenes were
subjected to hydrogenation using deuterium gas. Following the hydrometalation step, the rotation of one
end of the substrate would give a trans-conformation, which would then transform to trans-isomer via
ï•¢-hydride elimination. The location on the double bond would indicate the regioselectivity of the
hydrometalation. Our study showed that rhodium can be made to behave like palladium by tuning the
metal hydride to react either as a nucleophile or an electrophile, which will help in the design of new
class of catalysts.
P-218
Multi-layer Type Linear Electromagnetic Actuator
Hasmawati Antong, Hasmawati Antong, Kaiji Sato.Hasmawati Antong, Kaiji Sato.
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Motion mechanisms are important components in the industrial machines for transporting,
processing, measurement, etc. In motion mechanisms, actuators are important components. There are
many types of actuation principle available nowadays such as electrostatic actuation, magnetic
actuation, piezoelectric actuation and thermal expansion actuation. The actuation principle selected will
greatly influence the characteristics and performances of the motion mechanisms. Therefore, the
selection of the actuation principle is an important issue that should be thought well in the design of
motion mechanism. With the recent rapid progress in permanent-magnet technology, especially through
the use of high-energy-density rare-earth materials, very compact and high-performance electromagnetic
actuators are available now. They open new possibilities for high-force motion control in mechatronics
applications. Electromagnetic actuators have the advantages of generating large force and low driving
voltage. Also, the electromagnetic actuators have a long working range due to the extended magnetic
fields. Electromagnetic actuators have been widely used in various applications such as optical mirror,
robotics, relays and valves. Also, electromagnetic actuators are preferred in cases where high speed ad
high response is sought, such as high-speed spindle drive. High thrust and high thrust density is very
important for high speed and high response and can be achieved by applying a large input current, by
using the pair of permanent magnet (PM) and electromagnet (EM) with core or by applying a multilayer structure. This research realize a multi-layer type linear electromagnetic actuator without using
permanent magnet (PM) to produce both large force and large displacement in an energy-efficient
manner.
P-220
Solving the Security Problem for Advanced RFID Dynamic Traffic
Management in a Large City)
Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Prof. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Jaiz A. Y. JohariProf. Dr. Khalid A. S. AlKhateeb, Jaiz A. Y. Johari
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Many major cities in the world suffer traffic congestion problems. They rely on relatively primitive
traffic management systems, such as traffic-light fixed time sequences or a policeman on duty with
occasional usage of CCTV or automatic traffic activated switching. In a previous project we proposed
RFID computer controlled ubiquitous network management system. In this project we propose a
dynamic security system.
It is generally assumed that all RFID tags use default static RFID security, which may be prone to
violation of data privacy and information security. Such violation can cause devastating effects which
would raise major public concern. We introduce a framework for security and privacy of RFID systems.
It covers physical interfacing and RFID data integration security based on IEEE 802.1x authentication
framework. The proposal involves the implementation of an efficient management scheme. It is
anticipated that secure RFID networks together with open Internet technologies will revolutionize the
traffic control and management systems throughout the world
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-221
Rain Data Statistical Analysis for Free Space Optics (FSO)
Propagation Modeling Under Malaysia Weather Condition
Wajdi Al Khateeb, Suriza Ahmad ZabidiSuriza Ahmad Zabidi
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Free Space Optics (FSO) has gain a growing interest in the area where a very large bandwidth is
required. Even though fiber optics system provide an excellent communication medium for high
bandwidth however due to longer time and higher cost of deployment, FSO give better solution
especially for bottleneck problem. Furthermore FSO does not required spectrum license or frequency
coordination.
However, local weather condition is the major player on the availability of the FSO
link. In tropical region, rain is expected to have high impact on FSO link. The aim of this project is to
develop rain attenuation model that best represent tropical weather condition. This motivation is due to
the fact that most of the existing rain model is developed for temperate weather conditions.
P-222
Impact of Rain Intensity on Received Power of Free Space Optics
(FSO) with Direct Online Measurement
Wajdi Al Khateeb, Suriza Ahmad ZabidiSuriza Ahmad Zabidi
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In telecommunication system weather attenuation has significant effect on their availability. Free
Space Optics (FSO) as a growing communication system that promises higher bandwidth and better
speed; local weather condition is one of disadvantage of the system. Therefore it is crucial to develop a
model that best represent local weather condition. Under Malaysia weather condition, rain is expected
to have more effect on the FSO link. It is the objective of this research to develop and to model rain
attenuation under Malaysia weather condition in particular and tropical weather condition in general.
The rain data is collected using rain gauge with 1 minute rain rate. The received level signal is
monitored using Lightpointe FMG PC application. Both data are then synchronized to see the effect of
rain on the FSO link.
P-224
A New Dental Material for Remineralisation of Caries Lesion Used
as a Root Canal Sealer (Certified patent)
Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb,Ammar A. Mustafa, Ahmad Faris IsmailKhalid A. S.
Al-Khateeb,Ammar A. Mustafa, Ahmad Faris Ismail
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE),Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
A new material for the prevention of tooth decay is developed and used as a root canal
sealer. The A new material for the prevention of tooth decay is developed and used as a root
canal sealer. The new formula is a Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) based material that seals the
demineralised internal surfaces of root canal and consequently the accessory canals.
Experimental results show that a decrease in the depth of the lesion is observed in more than
95% of the specimens. In vitro study was conducted on 50 samples of human teeth. A
conventional root canal with no root canal filling was performed on each tooth. The samples
were multi-sectioned longitudinally and subjected to a demineralising solution of pH = 5.0 at
37°C for periods ranging from 14 to 30 days, to produce caries-like lesion at the internal side
of the canal.
Science, Engineering and Technology
The main formula of the experimental material is prepared with boro-tri-fluoro-aluminosilicate (BTFAS). The incorporation of boron-tri-fluoride into the formula has resulted in a
clear remineralisation effect on the demineralised hard tissues of the tooth. Consequently, the
new formula reduces the width and the length of the accessory canals. It is anticipated that the
new material will be viable as a therapeutic agent. Therefore, further investigations are
planned to ascertain its viability as therapeutic agent in the treatment of minor lesions to
reduce progressive decay in actual caries lesions.
P-227
Design and Implementation of Quantum Authenticated Security
Channel
Prof. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Prof. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Mohammed Munther Abdul
Majeed, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ridza WahiddinProf. Dr. Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Mohammed Munther
Abdul Majeed, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ridza Wahiddin
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE),Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Quantum security can be a formidable shield that protects vital information exchange in a
cyber war Abstract: Problem Statement: Security is one of the most serious problems in
computer and communications technology. Recent attacks on highly sensitive and well
protected agencies have shown how extremely vulnerable cyber systems can be. Cyber war,
cyber sabotage and cyber piracy can create worldwide havoc and may result in a state of
kayos and irreparable damage Methodology: Quantum security is so far the ultimate shield
that can protect vital information exchange. It is based on the inviolability of the laws of
quantum mechanics. Much research effort and funding is therefore devoted to investigate this
problem. In this project we have utilized the theoretical basis, which we established in a
previous project, and with a great deal of effort managed to design and implement a practical
system to demonstrate the viability of a quantum channel. Results: The control process is
based on the 6DP security protocol. An adversary can neither successfully tap the
transmission nor evade detection. The hardware design and implementation were successfully
tested in the lab. The hardware is based on FPGA with a built-in random time interval
generator (RTIG) that produce a random bit sequence which controls the settings of the
quantum states and also changes the Key at random intervals. The narrow-band filter for each
of the entangled pair of photons, the pulse timing and the detector gating procedures prevent
any eavesdropping from compromising the security and hence authentication is established.
P-230
Quantum Phase Transitions in XY -models
Farrukh Mukhamedov, Mansoor SaburovMansoor Saburov
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
A classical phase transition ( CPT) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state
of matter to another. During CPT of a given medium, certain properties of the medium change
discontinuously as a result of some external condition, such as temperature, pressure, and others. A
quantum phase transition (QPT) is a phase transition between different quantum states. Contrary to
CPT, QPT can only be accessed by varying a physical parameter such as magnetic field or pressure at
absolute zero temperature. Quantum magnets provide examples of QPT. Like the famous Ising and
Heisenberg models, the XY-model is one of the many highly simplifed models in statistical mechanics.
Science, Engineering and Technology
The Kosterlitz-Thouless transition is a special CPT which was seen in the XY-model for interacting spin
systems in two spatial dimensions. In this work we consider a model on the Cayley tree of order k, in
which on every edge of the tree an interaction operator is given by a XY -model. In order to study QPT
for this model, first of all, by using a tree structure we give a construction of quantum Markov chains
(QMC) on the Cayley tree of order k. By means of such constructions we study QPT for the XY -model
on a Cayley tree of order k. From a physical point of view it is expected that if a tree is not onedimensional lattice, then there exists QPT for the model. It turns out that the existence of QPT depends
on the order of the Cayley tree. Namely, we prove the existence of QPT for a XY -model on the Cayley
tree of order three.
P-232
A Novel Method To Analyse Dislocation Loop By Means Of A
Transmission Electron Microscope
suryanto suryanto,
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dislocation loop in nickel aluminium alloys was analysed by means of a transmission electron
microscope (TEM). The appearance of dislocation loop in TEM depend on Burger vector (b) of
dislocation loop and diffraction vector (g) of electron beam in the TEM. It will be larger, smaller or
disappear for g.b>0, g.b<0 or g.b=0, respectively. Loop analysis is as follows – first, the appearance
of dislocation loop for various diffraction vectors is arranged in observation table. Second, based on
type of dislocation loop, burger vector and diffraction vector, appearance of dislocation loop is arranged
in calculation table. Finally, based on observation and calculation table, Burger vector and type of
dislocation loop is determined. The results show that dislocation loops consist of perfect dislocation
loops and Frank dislocation loops. The perfect dislocation loops have Burger vectors of ½[011 ] and
½[ 0] while Frank dislocation loops have Burger vectors of ⅓[1 1], ⅓[11 ], ⅓[ 11],
â…“[111], â…“[1 1], â…“[11 ] and â…“[ 11]. All dislocation loops are interstitial types.
P-234
On -Quadratic Stochastic Operators
Farrukh Mukhamedov, Afifah Hamum Bt Mohd JamalAfifah Hamum Bt Mohd Jamal
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
It is known that there are many systems which are described by nonlinear operators. One of the
simplest nonlinear case is quadratic one. Quadratic dynamical systems have been proved to be a rich
source of analysis for the investigation of dynamical properties and modeling in different domains. One
of such operators is quadratic stochastic operator which naturally arises in modeling of a population
dynamics. During many years this theory is developed, and appeared lots of papers. In recent years it
has again become of interest in connection with numerous applications to many branches of
mathematics, biology and physics. One of the central problems of this theory is to study the limiting
behavior of trajectories of such operators. In this work we introduce a new class of quadratic stochastic
operators called quadratic stochastic operator. We classify such operators on 2D-simplex, into six nonisomorphic classes, with respect to their conjugacy and renumeration of the coordinates. Moreover, we
investigate the behaviour of operators from each classes.
P-236
A Study of Parameters Relationship to Backcutting Phenomena
During High Speed End Milling of AISI H13
Afifah Mohd. Ali, Erry Y T Adesta, Afifah Mohd Ali, Muhammad Riza, Mohammad Yuhan
SupriantoErry Y T Adesta, Afifah Mohd Ali, Muhammad Riza, Mohammad Yuhan Suprianto
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
In die and mold industries, surface roughness of the dies and molds produced will determine the end
product quality. Therefore, the desired finish surface was specified and the appropriate processes were
selected to reach the required quality. Among many contributors to surface quality problem, backcutting
is one of the factors influencing the surface roughness. The aim for current reseach is to study the
backcutting phenomena and their effect to the surface roughness of work material, AISI H13 with
hardness of 48 HRC during high speed end milling. Machining performed on the Vertical Milling
Centre (VMC) high cutting speed from 150-250 m min1, feed rate 0.05-0.15 mm tooth1 and depth
of cut 0.1-0.5 mm. The analysis and observation of the backcutting phenomena are done by using
optical surface roughness machine. The result shown that the pattern of surface roughness was not
sufficient enough to compare between the surface with backcutting and without backcutting and the
backcutting phenomena were seen mostly in combination of medium to high cutting speed and medium
to high feedrate. Further research needed with incrimination of experiments and adjustments of
parameters to fulfill the objective of the research.
P-238
Development of Surface Roughness Prediction Model for High
Speed End Milling of Hardened Tool Steel
Afifah Mohd. Ali, Afifah Mohd. Ali, Erry Y. T. Adesta, Delvis Agusman,
Mohammad Yuhan Suprianto, Muataz Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza
Afifah Mohd. Ali, Erry Y. T. Adesta, Delvis Agusman,
Mohammad Yuhan Suprianto, Muataz Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In industrial machining processes, milling is a fundamental machining operation and end milling is
the most common metal removal operation encountered. It is widely used in a variety of manufacturing
industries including the aerospace and automotive sectors, where quality is an important factor in the
production of slots, pockets, precision molds and dies. The quality of the surface plays a very important
role in the performance of milling as a good-quality milled surface significantly improves fatigue
strength, corrosion resistance, or creep life. This study discusses the issue of surface machined quality
and the effort taken to predict surface roughness. For this purpose, hardened material AISI H13 tool
steel with hardness of 48 HRC is chosen for work material. Machining is done at high cutting speed
from 150 m min1 up to 250 m min1, feed rate 0.05-0.15 mm/rev and depth of cut 0.1-0.5 mm. The
analysis and observation of the surface roughness are done by using optical surface roughness machine.
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Model is used to design the prediction model with parameters
generated by using CCF methods. A prediction model developed with 90% accuracy with the
conclusion of feedrate as the main contributor to surface roughness followed by cutting speed.
Therefore, RSM has been proven to be an efficient method to predict the surface finish during endmilling of H13 tool steel using TiAlN coated carbide tool inserts under dry conditions.
P-241
ANALYTICAL METHODS TO CHARECTARISE
ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES AND PROTEIN IN MALAYSIAN
LEECHES SALIVA
AHMAD MERZOUK, Assoc Prof Ahmad merzouk, Mohamed Alaama, Assoc Prof Ahmad merzouk,
Prof Abbas mohamad , Abdualrahman M AbdualkaderAssoc Prof Ahmad merzouk, Mohamed Alaama,
Assoc Prof Ahmad merzouk, Prof Abbas mohamad , Abdualrahman M Abdualkader
pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Leeches are widely used in Malaysia in traditional medicine and it is well known that they contain in
their saliva anticoagulant and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Aim of the study is to extract and
Science, Engineering and Technology
characterize the saliva of Malaysian leeches and study antimicrobial activity of the saliva. The saliva
showed high activity toward bacteria in very low concentrations. We reported a new method to obtain
saliva from leeches without exhausting them. UV and Bradford method showed high protein
concentration in extracted saliva. Gel electrophoresis showed proteins and peptides in high range of
molecular weight. Pure active compound can be isolated in future.
P-251
Design of Capacitance to Voltage Converter for Capacitive Sensor
Transducer
A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Nurul Arfah, Sheroz Khan, Md. Rafiqul IslamA.H.M.
Zahirul Alam, Nurul Arfah, Sheroz Khan, Md. Rafiqul Islam
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The design of Capacitance to Voltage Converter (CVC) for capacitive sensor transducer is presented.
The proposed design will reduce the size, power consumption and supply voltage of the circuit and can
be used in high frequency band transducer. The design was implemented using the Operational
amplifier (Op amp) and capacitive network. The circuit was simulated using the PSPICE model
parameters based on standard 0.13 µm CMOS process. The proposed design is able to measure a wide
range of capacitance variations for the capacitive transducer. The performance analysis of the design
showed desirable performance parameters in terms of response, low power consumption and a linear
output voltage within the wide range of capacitive transducer capacitance variation for the power supply
voltage of 1.2V was achieved. The circuit shows that the the output voltage of the circuit varied linearly
with the variation of capacitive transducer capacitance variation. The improved converter is compact
and robust for integration into capacitive measuring systems and suitable for use in environment that
making use of higher frequency band.
P-252
Development of biodegradable porous organosilica for water
treatment
Mohd Hanafi Ani, Maziati Akmal Mohd Hatta, Nor Madihah Mahadi, Dr Raihan Othman, Mohd
Hanafi AniMaziati Akmal Mohd Hatta, Nor Madihah Mahadi, Dr Raihan Othman, Mohd Hanafi Ani
Manufacturing and Materials,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Protecting our water resource is an issue that has moved from the environmental backburner to the
forefront in global importance. One of the emerging water treatment technologies is using a polymer
based filtration, which absorb hydrocarbons and contaminants within it porous structure. The polymer
based filtration material mainly composed of porous organosilica and cellulosic sponge that has
capability to selectively absorb various contaminants present at low concentrations in water, stabilize
and retains them in a jellified structure. In this research study, biodegradable porous organosilica sponge
material was fabricated in lab scale and tested on their filtration effectiveness. Organosilica was
fabricated using sol gel method, following impregnation of organosilica into porous cellulosic sponge.
This material reacts with colloids in the water to improve significantly and effectively the clarity of
water. Elucidation on the reaction of material was made by the adsorption of the colloid molecules
which occur through a range of attractive forces including electrostatic and hydrophobic reaction. In
conclusion, it has been demonstrated that this material be able to separate the undesired molecules
through ion exchange, bonding and porous functionalization.
P-253
AN INTELLIGENT YORUBA LANGUAGE WORD
RECOGNITION SYSTEM
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, Aibinu A.M, Salami, M. J. E., A. Najeeb, S. M. Ataul Karim Rajin and J. F.A
AzeezAibinu A.M, Salami, M. J. E., A. Najeeb, S. M. Ataul Karim Rajin and J. F.A Azeez
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
This work aim at the development of an Isolated word Yoruba Recognition System using Artificial
Neural Network which in turn uses the basic concept of learn by example has an underlying frame work.
Voice signals whose coefficients have been extracted using the MFCC technique will be fed into the
ANN, the network trains and test the system, the result of the test is then fed back into the system for
necessary adjustment to increase the accuracy using backpropagation technique.
The system is designed to accept inputs of digits from one to ten in the Yoruba language and display
the corresponding output of the said number in a text format. A GUI will be designed to provide a user
friendly interface for any user. This work is focused on the first ten digits in the Yoruba language
P-254
VOID PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS AS AN EVIDENCE OF
ACCELERATED OXIDATION RATE ON FE-CR-NI ALLOYS
AT 1073 K IN WET ENVIRONMENT
Mohd Hanafi Ani, Akbar Kaderi, Ahmad Zaki Mohd Zainal, Dr Raihan Othman, Mohd Hanafi
AniAkbar Kaderi, Ahmad Zaki Mohd Zainal, Dr Raihan Othman, Mohd Hanafi Ani
Manufacturing and Materials,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
An increased in operating temperature as high as 700 °C (973 K) will increase the maximum
efficiency of a fossil fuelled power plant. Boiler, a main component of a fossil fuelled power plant need
to withstand such high temperature. Cr addition in alloys has the advantage to form protective Cr2O3
scale thus increasing alloys ability to withstand high temperature. However the wet operating
environment of a boiler decreases the ability of this oxide scale as a protective layer. The decrease in
protectiveness of the oxide scale resulted from the cracking and exfoliating phenomena of oxide scale
off the alloy substrate. The phenomena were due to the increased quantity of voids in the oxide scale.
Fe-Cr-Ni alloys samples exposed isothermally at 800 °C in dry and wet environments. Oxide scale
morphology was investigated by observing the cross section of the samples using optical microscope as
well as by scanning electron microscope. The thickness of the oxide scale was measured for all samples.
The voids formed in the oxide scale were studied. The volume fraction of voids in the oxide scale was
measured in accordance to the cross sectional area fraction of voids in the scale. The results show that
samples exposed in wet environment have thicker scales as well as larger quantity of void than that of
samples exposed in dry environment. The wet environment increased the number of void formed in the
oxide scale, thus facilitates the exfoliation of protective scale during the oxidation.
P-257
Increase of oxygen permeability in Fe-Cr Alloys under humid
condition at 973 and 1073 K
Mohd Hanafi Ani, Dr Mohd Hanafi Ani, Dr Raihan Othman, Asep Ridwan Setiawan, Mitsutoshi Ueda,
Kenichi Kawamura, Toshio MaruyamaDr Mohd Hanafi Ani, Dr Raihan Othman, Asep Ridwan
Setiawan, Mitsutoshi Ueda, Kenichi Kawamura, Toshio Maruyama
Manufacturing and Materials,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Internal oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys were investigated in dry and humid atmospheres at temperatures of
973 and 1073 K in order to clarify the effect of humidity on the oxygen permeability in internal oxide
zone (IOZ). The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber was fixed by Fe/FeO powder mixture. The
calculated oxygen permeability increases linearly with increasing Cr concentration in the alloys, both at
973 and 1073 K. Moreover, the presence of humidity enhanced the oxygen permeability compared with
that under dry condition. The oxygen permeability through IOZ in humid atmosphere is larger than that
in dry atmosphere as a factor of 1.2.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-259
Tunable Bandpass Filter Using RF MEMS Switches
A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Sheroz KhanA.H.M. Zahirul Alam,
Md. Rafiqul Islam, Sheroz Khan
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Modern wireless/satellite communication, radar, electronic warfare, and instrumentation, all demand
tunable filters for flexible and adaptive operations over wide frequency rage. Mechanically and
magnetically tunable band pass filters, though widely employed and handling high power, provide just
low to marginal tuning speed, and are bulky due to its macro scale tuning mechanism. The criteria of RF
filters with a higher performance, smaller size, lighter weight, lower cost, low loss, and high selectivity
can be achieved by using RF MEMS technology.
A band pass tunable RF filter is proposed by using Radio Frequency (RF) Microelelctro Mechanical
Systems (MEMS). The performance of the filter depends on geometry and location and types of the
MEMS switches. Optimization has been done to achieve tunability by using 3-D high frequency
electromagnetic simulator (HFSS). The use of capacitive RF MEMS switch in the application of
interdigital band pass filter is investigated in work. The designs indicated that the application of
capacitive RF MEMS switches in the tunable filter enables the filter to tune the bandwidth in the
frequency range of 3.6GHz to 4.4GHz. The tunability has made the filter suitable to be used in different
types of application.
P-260
Investigation on the Physical Properties of Biomass Pellet From
Mesocarp Fiber
Zahurin Halim, Nurshazana Mohamad, Nabiha Mohd NohNurshazana Mohamad, Nabiha Mohd Noh
Manufacturing & Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysia, with its huge oil palm plantations generates abundant palm biomass. In spite of the huge
production, the oil consists of only about 10% of the total biomass produced in the plantation. The
remainder consists of huge amount of oil palm by-product such as oil palm shells, mesocarp fibres and
empty fruit bunch (from the mills) and oil palm fronds and oil palm trunk (from the field during
replanting). This study investigated on the physical properties of biomass pellet from mesocarp fiber.
There are three stages involved; analyse on the characteristics of mesocarp fibre, pelletilization process
and study on the pellet fuel properties based on the New European Standard. It is concluded that
mesocarp fibre can be used as main component in pellet making. The pellet formed is relatively higher
in calorific value (16613- 20406 J/g) and bulk density (450.62- 538.15 J/g). The dimension of pellet
formed is within the range as in standard where the longest is 26.47 mm in length and 8.47 mm in
diameter. On the contrary, the ash content of the pellet is relatively high where in some trials the ash is
more than 10%. Furthermore, the moisture content of pellet in some trials is found to be high too.
However, this property can still be improved by ensuring the initial moisture content of the fibre to be
used is appropriate. In addition, cooling process of the discharged pellet should be done properly to
avoid excessive moisture contained in the pellet.
P-264
A new method of earthquake monitoring and prediction using
unusual animal behaviour
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, A. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, R. Akmelawati, A.Gani Muthalif, W. Astuti, S.
Badris, S. Khalidah and N. Mohd SaatA. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, R. Akmelawati, A.Gani Muthalif,
W. Astuti, S. Badris, S. Khalidah and N. Mohd Saat
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Imagine if we could find a way to save lives by early prediction of earthquakes and natural disasters.
With the latest technologies available in the world today, experts from geology fields, engineering, and
science are working hand in hand in finding the best solution in finding a means of forecasting an
incoming earthquake, in order to save lives.
It is said that animals react in unusual ways days prior to earthquakes. In this research we will be
looking into the effects of the different level of frequencies released by earthquakes that stimulate these
certain behaviours. From this research, we will be creating a station which can be used to adhere to the
needs of analyzing unusual animal behaviours when stimulated with pre-cursors of earthquakes. This
will be done by re-creating the frequencies prior to earthquakes, and capturing the responses of the
animal through image processing.
Collectively, we have found various evidences in our research supporting the idea of these unusual
animal behaviors prior to earthquakes. These researches have existed as early as 1981. Birds started
flying away prior to earthquakes, dogs’ barked continuously, fish swimming to the bottom of the
tank floors; these are only some of the many examples.
Through this experiment, we hope to contribute to the already existing researches in finding a means
of avoiding earthquake disasters in order to save lives by creating a platform that can accommodate to
the analysis of pre-earthquake frequencies by analyzing unusual animal behavior.
P-265
Preparation of Pure Silica Oxide (SiO2) and Zeolite Y from Rice
Husk as an Ion Exchanger for Emergency Water Treatment System
Using in Flood Affected Area
Md Mokhlesur Rahman, Basher Bello, Prof. Alias Mohd Yusof (UTM)Basher Bello, Prof. Alias Mohd
Yusof (UTM)
Pharmacutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Thermal and acid wash treatment of rice husk has been conducted 550 to 600 0C in air atmosphere
and chemical treatments consisted of acid, H2SO4. Purity, pore size distribution, FT-IR and SEM
micrographs of treated and non-treated samples are presented. Ash contents in treated and non-treated
rice husk cocked temperature at (550 to 600 0C) have been determined 16% and 15 % (w/w)
respectively. SiO2 of 99% purity obtained by H2SO4 acid leaching. In this study the acid treated rice
husk ash was used as SiO2 source in the preparation of zeolite Y, a medium siliceous zeolite used as a
ion exchanger in water treatment process. The powdered (semi solid) zeolite Y products were
characterised by XRD and FT-IR and pore size distribution was characterised by Micromeritics
Instrument. Obtained zeolite Y, BET Surface area 621.18 square meters per gram, pore volume is 0.33
cubic centimetres per gram and its average pore diameter is 21.222 Ã…. Ion-exchange capacities were
tested through a column packed in zeolite Y by the artificially polluted water filtration, filtrate was
analysed by ICP-MS and elements (As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Bi, Be, Pb Ni etc.) in filtered waters was
found in negative amounts. Zeolite Y is found a highly efficient ion-exchange material. So, mini
filtering system is a good for water treatment, even water is highly polluted by toxic elements.
P-266
Synthesis and characterization of ZnO doped-PVA
(polyvinylalcohol) solar cell
Mohd Hanafi Ani, Sitti Maimunah Shahul Hamid, Dr Mohd Hanafi Ani, Dr Raihan OthmanSitti
Maimunah Shahul Hamid, Dr Mohd Hanafi Ani, Dr Raihan Othman
Manufacturing and Materials,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Polymer based solar cell is a promising candidate for cost effective solar energy generation due to the
ability to mass produce ultra-thin polymeric materials. It could replaces silicon in traditional solar cell
with a thin layer of light absorbing polymers. The manufacturing costs for organic cells are further
reduces below to traditional solar cell because of organic substances may be printed or sprayed onto
Science, Engineering and Technology
plastic sheets at ambient temperatures. In this study, a single junction PVA solar cell was fabricated and
characterized. The cell’s performance is compared with conventional ZnO:Al2O3 single junction
solar cell. The PVA solar cell gives sufficiently high enough voltage as much as 120 mV. The
adherence of organic layer and surface cleanness during the cell preparation has effected very much on
the cell’s performance. It was successfully demonstrated that ZnO doped polymeric solar cell be
able to generate electric power. Increasing the performance of the cell shall be the next challenges.
P-267
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE CONTROL
QUADROTOR FOR THE SURVEILLANCE
Rini Akmeliawati, Mohd. Jalaluddin bin Mohamad, Mohd. Faiq, Rini AkmeliawatiMohd. Jalaluddin
bin Mohamad, Mohd. Faiq, Rini Akmeliawati
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nowadays, it cannot be denied that the applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are
increasing vastly. They have been used in defense, maritime and agricultural sectors. However, the
UAV is usually made very expensive and not accessible for public. This project presents a remote
control quadrotor designed to accomplish specific objectives at a lower cost to make it affordable for
personal use or for research and farming purposes. It is expected that the drone will be able to fly based
on the command signal to the designated area and to report back to ground station its current position;
longitude and latitude by using the wireless connection. This project uses a PS2 joystick as a controller.
In addition, the drone has the ability to capture video through wireless camera and send the data to the
ground station for real time streaming. It communicates the information to the ground control for
analysis.
P-272
A Novel Multilayers Fast Mode Decision Algorithms for Efficient
Scalable Video Coding
Teddy Surya Gunawan, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Haris Al Qodri Maarif, Othman O. KhalifaTeddy
Surya Gunawan, Haris Al Qodri Maarif, Othman O. Khalifa
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is the extension of the H.264/AVC standard. The SVC has a good
capability in video transmission systems because of its scalability which can adapt in different network
conditions. The complexity of H.264/SVC is contributed by numbers of mode decision and some video
encoding process which makes it improper choice for real time applications. The mode decision
algorithm is used to calculate the Lagrangian Parameter and Rate Distortion Cost (RD-Cost) value
where all possible 12 modes are examined. Both parameter values are utilized to decide the best mode
used during encoding process for each layer. For multilayers coding, SVC requires base layer and some
enhancement layers with higher image resolution than the base layer. Traditional fast mode algorithm
only consider base layer, in which enhancement layers will contribute to longer processing time.
Therefore, the objective of this poster is to develop multilayers fast mode decision algorithm and apply
the algorithm to both base layer and enhancement layers. Two profiles were developed for this purpose:
enhancement layers only profile (Profile A), and combination of base layer and enhancement layers
(Profile B). Based on simulation results, the video quality encoded using Profile A and Profile B has
preserved the video quality, i.e. negligible Y-PSNR different, while providing faster processing time. In
Profile A, the time saving achieved is almost 25%. Moreover, in Profile B, the time saving achieved is
almost 45%. Therefore, it can be concluded that our proposed algorithms have a good potential in
speeding up the encoding time and will be useful in real-time video conference applications.
Furthermore, it has potential for commercialization.
P-273
New Speech Coding Using Compressive Sensing on a Multicore
System
Science, Engineering and Technology
Teddy Surya Gunawan, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Othman O. Khalifa, Amir Akramin Shafie, Eliathamby
AmbikairajahTeddy Surya Gunawan, Othman O. Khalifa, Amir Akramin Shafie, Eliathamby
Ambikairajah
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Compressive sensing (CS) is a new approach to simultaneous sensing and compression of sparse and
compressible signals. Compressive sensing is a new paradigm of acquiring signals, fundamentally
different from uniform rate digitization followed by compression, often used for transmission or storage.
The application of CS to speech signals is not straight forward, since the signals constitute a very large
class of production mechanisms, emphasizing different characteristics of the signal at different times.
The domain in which their sparsity can be exploited is also not clear and their degree of sparsity varies.
In this research, a novel algorithm for speech coding utilizing CS principle is developed. The sparsity of
speech signals is exploited. Various transforms that can exploit the sparsity is considered, such as Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
with various wavelet bases. Comparison of various transforms will be conducted based on sparsity
analysis using Gini index. Various speech processing front ends will be studied, including gammatone
filter bank, quadrature mirror filter (QMF) filter bank, modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) filter
bank, wavelet packet (WP) decomposition, etc. The best front-end will be selected based on speech
quality analysis using listening test and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). In order to
further reduce the bit requirement, vector quantization using codebook of the training signals will be
added to the system. The performance of overall algorithms will be evaluated based on the processing
time, bit rate reduction, and speech quality. Finally, to speed up the process, the proposed algorithm will
be implemented in a multicore system, i.e. six cores.
P-274
Context Transfer Based Hand off in MPLS Network
Omer Mahmoud, Omer Mahmoud , Selma Begovic, Arnela Kusundzija, Aisha Hassan AbdallaOmer
Mahmoud , Selma Begovic, Arnela Kusundzija, Aisha Hassan Abdalla
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that operates essentially in
between Layers 2 and 3 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model; for this reason, MPLS has
been referred to as operating at Layer 2.5. MPLS provides its users a number of advantageous features
such as traffic engineering, network convergence, failure protection, and the ability to guarantee Quality
of Service (QoS) over IP. MPLS protocol was developed without having mobility requirement in mind.
When a Mobile Node (MN) is attached to MPLS domain via Radio Edge Router (RER) it will be able to
enjoy the QoS arrangements that provided by the MPLS domain. However, when a mobile node moves
and changes its connectivity from one Radio Edge Router (RER) to another, the new RER does not have
the context unless it is transferred from the old RER. The project aims to a study handoff situation in
MPLS Network Domain considering Real Time traffic (RT) (e.g Audio or Video traffic). The project
focuses on the effect of context transfer on the QoS of the Traffic (applications), A simulation based
evaluation will be presented using NS-2 by running number of scenarios with and without context
transfer by looking in the state of statistic and traffic in the term of delay, jitter and losses during the
handoff.
P-278
FABRICATION OF ELECTRO-COAGULATION SETUP FOR
WATER TREATMENT
Mohd Hanafi Ani, Mohd As-Shiddique Mohd Fauzi, Zulkifli Mahmud, Dr Raihan Othman, Dr Mohd
Hanafi AniMohd As-Shiddique Mohd Fauzi, Zulkifli Mahmud, Dr Raihan Othman, Dr Mohd Hanafi Ani
Manufacturing and Materials,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
Water treatment is an increasing important topic that has been highlighted by many researchers
due to limited water resources. Traditionally, Aluminum Sulphate (Alum) has been used to improve the
clarity of water. However, the addition of alum in water may change the acidity, which affects the
aquatic life. Electro-coagulation is one of the noble techniques for water treatment. It is a simple, yet
effective process to remove colloid from the substance. In this work, low cost electro-coagulation setup
was developed utilizing scrap aluminum can as its electrode material. It was demonstrated that this setup
successfully improve the water clarity within short range of time. In the future, it is feasible to integrate
the set-up with solar cell system to achieve minimal energy consumption, less emission and cost
effective technology.
P-280
Design and Implementation of Automatic Electrical Power Meter
Reading
Ahmed Wathik Naji, A.W. Naji, M. Hanif Faiz, S. N. ZakariaA.W. Naji, M. Hanif Faiz, S. N. Zakaria
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Recently, interest in Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) system has been increasing in order to
achieve efficient meter reading as well asreduce billing error and operation costs. AMR system using
Power Line Carrier (PLC) method has attracted considerable attention because its communication
medium is readily apparent since the power line network isthe property of the utility company and its
infrastructure is already there. This report is all about the design and implementation of AMR prototype
using PLC as the communication link to connect the Digital Power Meter (DPM) at the household to the
substation. The main concern of this project is to enable consumers to read their current meter reading
online. Thus, the design has been divided into two parts which are hardware and software to make it
more organize. In order to complete this project, the methods used to gather information are books,
journal, research paper and internet. Hopefully, this report can be benefited in developing PLC network
as communication link for AMR system.
P-281
Development of Credit Card Online Purchasing Prototype using
Biometric Approach
Ahmed Wathik Naji, A.W. Naji, A.S. HousainA.W. Naji, A.S. Housain
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Credit Cards have become one of the most successful elements in the business world. The low
security of online purchasing systems using credit cards presents countless opportunities for fraud. The
current online purchasing system using credit cards has some security drawbacks; therefore, its security
needs to be enhanced with taking into account the cost, time and friendly using issues. An integrated
authentication model of online purchasing using credit cards is proposed. A security enhancement is
suggested in this work by implementing a prototype which integrates the current credit card
authentication system with the fingerprint authentication. Moreover, it complements the new techniques
for validating and transmitting the fingerprint template whereby, the customer submits his/her credit
card information through the internet together with a file containing the fingerprint template and a
validation code. This technique makes the model more secure, at the same time; it makes credit card
fraud more difficult. Credit card information, FP-TAC (Fingerprint Transaction Authorization Code)
and fingerprint template are the main components of the prototype. The FP-TAC is able to handle the
usage of the scanned fingerprint template only once and prevents the submission of the old and expired
templates. In addition, The BAC (Biometric and Authorization Code) file is presented in this work to
increase the fingerprint template’s security; it has its own structure in terms of storing the FP-TAC
and fingerprint template which is unknown for the attacker and known only for the matching program.
This technique ensures that only the matching program has the ability of loading the BAC file and
extracting the FP-TAC and fingerprint template. The model is fast and reliable in extracting and
matching the FP-TAC, at the same time, it validates the received fingerprint template efficiently.
Science, Engineering and Technology
Fingerprint verification provides the desired processing time and accuracy rate in terms of capturing and
matching the fingerprint templates. The average processing time consumed by the model to match the
data is 2.47 seconds while the overall accuracy rate is 99.48% with 0.52% error rate. Combining both
credit card information and fingerprint authentication leads to a user friendly, stronger and more secure
online purchasing system while the cost and processing time remains within reasonable limits.
Evaluating the performance of the prototype shows very good potential that encourages the continuance
of the investigations in this field
P-284
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Acacia mangium Leaves
Extract
Othman Abd Samah, Che Aishah Nazariah Ismail, Othman Abd SamahChe Aishah Nazariah Ismail,
Othman Abd Samah
Biomedical Science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Crude extract of Acacia mangium leaves in n-hexane, acetonitrile and methanol were investigated for
their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and also for the total polyphenol contents. A six pathogenic
microorganisms comprising of two Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
pyogenes, two Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and fungi: Candida
albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were used in this study. The results showed that methanol
extract yielded the highest yield of extraction (15.16%) followed by acetonitrile (5.29%) and n-hexane
(3.78%) extracts. Only methanol extract produced inhibition against E. coli with the zone of inhibition
11.0±1.00 mm at 400 mg/ml concentration and the action was found to be dose-dependent. MIC
values of more than 20 mg/ml and no MBC detected indicated that A. mangium might possess weak
antimicrobial activity. Qualitative antioxidant screening demonstrated that methanol extract had the
strongest free radical scavenging activity compared to other extracts used. Acetonitrile and n-hexane
extracts were respectively indicated as having moderate to weak antioxidant with no antimicrobial
properties. Methanol extract was also found to have the highest total polyphenols amount (3.56 g
GAE/100 g extract). Thus, this study discovered that there might be correlations of total polyphenols in
the methanol extract with the weak antimicrobial and strong antioxidant activities of the plant leaves.
P-295
Investigating the Effect of Multiple Transmitters/Receivers on Free
Space Optics Link
Ahmed Wathik Naji, Nur Haedzerin Md Noor, A.W. Naji, Wajdi Al-KhateebNur Haedzerin Md Noor,
A.W. Naji, Wajdi Al-Khateeb
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Free space optical (FSO) communications is a line-of-sight (LOS) technology that transmits a
modulated beam of visible or infrared light through the atmosphere for broadband communications. It
provides high bandwidth, fast installation, requires no spectrum licensing and has excellent security
features. However, FSO link performance is aggravated by atmospheric phenomena since the
propagation medium is in the troposphere region. The link performance gets worse with the increment
of the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. Commonly FSO systems used single
transmitter and receiver to transmit the optical signal but it is possible to incorporate more than one
transceiver to improve the system performance. The way the multiple beams work is that they are
independent beam when they leave the transmitter’s units, but over the distance, they began to
overlap and by the time they reach the receiver’s units they become a single high powered force.
Currently the existing equipment (FlightStrata 155E from Lightpointe) has the capability of transmitting
and receiving multiple beams. Yet, it does not provide the factory test for each individual transmitter
and receiver. Hence, this research brings the solutions for the equipment’s shortcoming by
developing a mask that allows the test of each individual transmitters/receivers. The FSO link
Science, Engineering and Technology
performance analysis is done by varying the number of transmitters, receivers and the link range in
terms of power received, geometrical attenuation, availability and link margin. A MATLAB GUI is
developed as a platform to analyze the link performances in ideal condition which serve as a benchmark
to evaluate the test result.
P-299
ON THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL USED AS
CORE FOR MAGNETO-INDUCTIVE SENSORS APPLICATION
SHEROZ KHAN, Atika Arshad, AHM Zahirul Alam, Sheroz khan, Ezamurni Bt. Zulkefly, Aisyah Bt.
Jaafar, Khairun Nissaa’ Bt Abdul Latif, Norain Bt. Abidin, Siti Norkhairani Bt Abd Wahab, Nurul
Syuhadah Bt. Izwar ArfaniAtika Arshad, AHM Zahirul Alam, Sheroz khan, Ezamurni Bt. Zulkefly,
Aisyah Bt. Jaafar, Khairun Nissaa’ Bt Abdul Latif, Norain Bt. Abidin, Siti Norkhairani Bt Abd
Wahab, Nurul Syuhadah Bt. Izwar Arfani
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Passive transducers are non-contact devices employed in normally inaccessible locations, powered
from power supply (or batteries) and read-out with non-wired electronics. Non-contact wireless
technology is gaining a growing popularity for applications in several engineering fields in modern day
automation and control, particularly those used in streaming data through narrow spaces and gaps in
both directions. The nature of applications of transducers defines and decides on whether transducers
are capacitive, resistive or inductive. Inductive transducers are working on the principle of the magnetic
induction of magnetic material, and research in magnetic materials has been getting renewed interests
by researchers over the recent past. With the help of a microelectronic inductor, a material in the form of
cores of a coil is being characterized to be used as a magneto-sensor. The characterization is done under
various conditions, which are in air-cored condition, with plastic and with steel. This work measures the
precise values of passive element using inductor (device under test) through non-contact means, under
AC non-biasing condition. The sensing element generates a magnetic fields that changes with the nonbiasing field from the biasing element. This paper represents the operation of characterizing materials
under non-biasing condition with a frequency ranging from 1 KHz to 60 KHz with a frequency
increment of 1 KHz. Excel is being used for the plotting of the results.
P-303
DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF INTELLIGENT
CONTROLLER FOR YAM STORAGE AND PRESERVATION
SYSTEM
Murtala Abdulazeez, Murtala A., M.J.E. Salami, Raisudden K., Tijani I. B.Murtala A., M.J.E. Salami,
Raisudden K., Tijani I. B.
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The main task of intelligent controllers in yam stores is to keep the storage environment in an
appropriate condition for quality conservation. To avoid extra energy cost by using cooling systems, the
internal environment of yam stores is controlled with outdoor temperature. A conventional designed
controller is difficult to adapt for an optimal environmental control to reduce quality loss. However a
controller designed with fuzzy logic is found as advantageous for adapting control parameters to
improve the control process. In this work, an intelligent controller for yam storage system is designed
with the aim of providing a good environment condition inside the storage system. Here, the developed
intelligent controller is based on Mamdani and it is built on the MATLAB software. The simulation
results show that the proposed intelligent controller can simplify the implementation of complex storage
condition rules and leads to optimal control to secure high yam tuber quality, save ventilation energy
and costs of storing.
P-316
A High Resolution Interface Circuit with CMOS-MEMS
Accelerometer Sensor Design
Science, Engineering and Technology
SHEROZ KHAN, Ma Li Ya, Sheroz Khan, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, AHM Zahirul AlamMa Li Ya,
Sheroz Khan, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, AHM Zahirul Alam
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Maturity, low-cost and efficiency of the submicron integrated circuit fabrication technology have
motivated integration of MEMS sensors and their interfacing circuitry on the same chip. Such methods
have the preferential advantages of being cost-effective, having low parasitic values and nicely suited
for MEMS devices with low (mV ~ nV) outputs. Accelerometers in particular, operate in the low
frequency (kHz) range for small acceleration values, requiring high resolution interface circuit to handle
such small voltage variations . Usage of Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the low frequency
range can produce high digital output from weak analog inputs.
This work presents the design and analysis of a CMOS-MEMS accelerometer with an integrated
first-order 1-bit Σ-Δ ADC. Both the accelerometer and ADC are fabricated using Silterra 0.13μm
CMOS process technology on the same chip. The accelerometer using differential capacitive model is in
order to minimize systematic offset, improve power supply rejection and reduce drift in sensor.
Circuit simulations are performed using Cadence©, where input acceleration is a 500 Hz sinusoid
with an oversampling frequency of 160 kHz. The Oversampling Ratio (OSR) = 160, with output
resolution of 10 and the dynamic range is greater than 60dB. The simulation results indicate that the
differential capacitive sensor provides higher accuracy as it allows very weak analog signals to be
converted into a high resolution digital output. A high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 62.98 dB is
produced with relatively simple circuit topology.
P-324
The Study of Glycolic Acid Ethoxylate 4-nonylphenyl Ether on Drag
Reduction
Md Mokhlesur Rahman, E. Suali(UMP), H.A. Abdul Bari, Z. HassanE. Suali(UMP), H.A. Abdul Bari,
Z. Hassan
Pharmacutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Power saving is the major reason to study the problem of drag in transporting system. The
performance of glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-nonylphenyl ether as drag reducing anionic surfactant was
studied experimentally in closed loop circulation system at room temperature. The major investigated
variables is operation flow rate which from 11235 to 78645 Re and the solution concentration (ppm),
which 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600, respectively. The selected ratio of testing pipe length to diameter
(L/D) is equal to 59. The specific conductivity test was conducted to find the CMC of anionic
surfactant. It was found that the CMC occurred within the range of 100 to 200 ppm of solution. The
maximum drag reduction can be achieved up to 14%. The critical Re was found at 33705 to 56175. The
alignment of micelle with the eddies in turbulent flow was identified as the source of drag reduction in
pipes.
P-329
Improvement of Energy Efficiency in Data Centre
Maisarah Ali, Rahmat Romadhon, Yousif A Abakr, Ayub Mohd MahdzirRahmat Romadhon, Yousif A
Abakr, Ayub Mohd Mahdzir
Building Technology and Engineering,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose to obtain the efficiency of available space utilization makes energy density and heat
dissipation of data centre significantly increase. Serving for mission-critical applications with reliability
99.999%, the data centre requires precision cooling to avoid disruption and failure caused by
overheating. IT equipment and cooling system are the main parts of power consumption in data centre.
It is important to assess energy use of data centers to find the emerging opportunities for energy
efficiency improvement.
Science, Engineering and Technology
Performance of data centre is determined by the efficiency of power utilization and effectiveness of
cooling. The metrics that is used for assessment include the Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) and the
Rack Cooling Index (RCI). The methods of measurement are developed based on PUE and RCI
requirement data. Measurement of power consumption is carried out in certain range of time to look for
the trend of power utilization. Rapid measurement of temperature is carried out in the entire room of
data centre to get the actual 3D profiles of temperature distribution.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is required to develop model and simulation of
cooling systems in the data centre. The models and simulation are validated by precursor measurement
data. The models and simulation are used to identify the performance and any potential problems in
cooling and to optimize the performance of cooling systems before construction.
P-336
A New Approach of Robust Feedback Control Design using Modern
Optimization Algorithms
Mahmud Iwan Solihin, Mahmud Iwan Solihin, Rini Akmeliawati, Ari LegowoMahmud Iwan Solihin,
Rini Akmeliawati, Ari Legowo
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In classical control design, robustness issue has not been addressed inherently. Therefore, robust
control techniques have come up to deal with robustness issues: robust stability and robust performance.
However, the mathematical formulation behind the theory is not trivial. In addition, standard
(conventional) robust control design can result in higher order and complicated controller structure
which is difficult to implement in practice. These motivate us to propose a new approach of robust
control design using modern optimization techniques.
Modern optimization, which is an element of computational intelligence, has been successfully
handled many engineering problems including control engineering. In this work, we propose a new
approach of robust feedback control design using modern optimization algorithms (particle swarm
optimization and differential evolution) in a constrained optimization mode. The feedback controller is
designed based on state space model of the plant with structured uncertainty such that the closed-loop
system would have maximum stability radius. A wedge region is assigned as a constraint to locate the
desired closed loop poles, which correspond to the desired time-domain performance. The proposed
controller design is applied to pendulum-like systems (i.e.: gantry crane, flexible joint/link manipulator
and inverted pendulum stabilization). The experimental results and the comparison with that of
conventional LQR-based controller and H∞ loop shaping controller are made.
P-344
Development of an Intelligent Controller for Tropical food Storage
System
Adeyinka Oluwo, Momoh J.E. Salami, Raisuddin Khan, Aibinu A. MusaMomoh J.E. Salami, Raisuddin
Khan, Aibinu A. Musa
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In this paper, a prototype storage unit for the preservation of potato has been developed. Data
acquired from four different sensors placed in and around a potato storage chamber has been used as the
input data to the proposed intelligent controller for the storage system. A feed forward artificial neural
network trained using acquired data from literature is to control the on-off of the fan so as to regulate
the temperature within the storage chamber. Performance analysis of the developed system shows that
the ANN based system is adequate for the control and regulation of the temperature within a typical
storage volume
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-347
Design of Higher Radix Analog-to-Digital Converter
A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Soheli Farhana, Sheroz KhanA.H.M. Zahirul Alam,
Soheli Farhana, Sheroz Khan
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The design of a higher radix analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit is developed in this research.
The ADC generates multi-valued logic outputs rather than the conventional binary output system. The
design implements pipeline ADC architecture and is simulated using the model parameters for a
standard 0.13ï•-m CMOS process. The performance analysis of the design shows desirable
performance parameters in terms of response, low power consumption, and a sampling rate of 10MHz at
a supply voltage of 1.3 V was achieved. The ADC design is suitable for the needs of mixed-signal
integrated circuit design and can be implemented as a conversion circuit for systems based on multiplevalued logic design.
P-350
Anions and Cations Content in a Number of Bottled and Nonbottled Drinking Water
Jamaluddin Mohd Daud, Jamaluddin Mohd. Daud, Sariza Abdul GhaniJamaluddin Mohd. Daud,
Sariza Abdul Ghani
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The studies on anions and alkaline and alkaline earth cations in drinking water from a number of
brands which are bottled and non-bottled were conducted using an Ion Chromatograph. Whereas the
content of heavy metal ions was analyzed by Inductively-coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). Results from the analyses were treated with statistical analysis (ANOVA) and T test. The outcome
of the studies was compared with the drinking water specifications according to the World Health
Organization (WHO), the European Economic Communities (EEC), German and Malaysian Standards.
From the comparisons, it showed that the concentration of anions and cations in drinking water samples
are in compliance with the standards referred.
P-351
ROBUST H-INFINITY CONTROLLER SYNTHESIS USING
MULTI-OBJECTIVES DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION
ALGORITHM (MODE)
Rini Akmeliawati, Tijani Ismaila BayoTijani Ismaila Bayo
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
One of the major problems associated with H-infinity controller design is the challenges of weighting
function parameters’ tuning. For a given control problem, it is requires to select appropriate
weighting function parameters to satisfy both the stability requirement and time domain specifications.
The conflicting nature of these objectives has made such design exercise a tedious endeavor. In this
study, the optimal-tuning of the H-infinity controller parameters using multi-objective differential
evolution (MODE) technique is proposed, and apply for control of a two-mass-spring system which
represents a typical benchmark robust control problem. The performance of the resulting robust
controller is evaluated both on the nominal plant and perturbed plants with parameter variation. The
simulation results indicate a good compromise between the robustness and time domain performance.
Also, this technique considerable reduced the design effort/cycle when compare to conventional
design approach.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-353
SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION BASED FRICTION
MODELING AND COMPENSATION IN MOTION CONTROL
SYSTEM
Rini Akmeliawati, Tijani Ismaila Bayo, Talib H.H.Tijani Ismaila Bayo, Talib H.H.
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Motivated by the need for simple and efficient friction model required for precision positioning
control, a non-parametric-based technique using -support vector regression (v-SVR) is proposed and
developed in this work for the modeling of friction in a DC motor-driven motion control system. The
effectiveness of the developed friction model to compensate the frictional effects is evaluated
experimentally on the system for both point-to-point (PTP) and tracking positioning control. The
effectiveness of the developed models in representing and compensating for the frictional effects is
evaluated experimentally on a rotary experimental motion system, and the performance benchmarked
with three known parametric based models -(Coulomb, Tustin, and Lorentzian). Significant reduction in
positioning error over the use of only linear controller was recorded up to 90% reduction in steady state
error and 60% reduction in root mean square error for point-to-point (PTP) and tracking respectively
with the proposed AI-based friction compensators as against 78% and 47% reduction respectively with
parametric models.
P-354
PURIFICATION OF UNDECYLPRODIGIOSIN FROM MARINE
STREPTOMYCES sp. UKMCC_PT15 AND ITS POTENTIAL AS
AN ALGICIDAL AGENT
Zaima Azira Zainal Abidin, Zaima Azira Zainal Abidin, Chung-Kuang Lu, Asmat Ahmad and Gires
UsupZaima Azira Zainal Abidin, Chung-Kuang Lu, Asmat Ahmad and Gires Usup
BIOTECHNOLOGY,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Streptomyces sp. UKMCC_PT15 was isolated from the gut of a sea cucumber collected at Pulau
Tinggi, Johor and this isolate was found to produce a deep red pigment which later was identified as an
antibiotic named undecylprodigiosin. This study investigates the potential of undecylprodigiosin
purified from Streptomyces sp. UKMCC_PT15 as an algicidal agent against two dinoflagellates namely
and Alexandrium minutum and Pyrodinium bahamense. These two dinoflagellates are among the causes
of harmful algal bloom that poses considerable impacts to the marine environments, aquatic industries
and even the public health. Purification of undecylprodigiosin involved the preparation of crude
methanolic extract which was fractionated using flash column chromatography followed by further
separation step using Sephadex LH-20. This was followed by the use of high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector in the wavelength range 200-800nm on a
C18, 5µm column and a mobile phase comprising of methanol:0.1% acetic acid (95:5) with a flowrate
of 1ml/min to purify the undecylprodigiosin. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for both for 13C and
1H as well as MS/MS was performed to confirm the identity of the compound as undecylprodigiosin. In
order to test the capability of undecylprodiosin as an algicidal agent, a range concentration of 10-100
µg/ml of undecylprodigiosin was employed against Alexandrium minutum and Pyrodinium
bahamense. Concentration of undecylprodigiosin in the range of 10-100 µg/ml gave almost 100%
algicidal activity for both dinoflagellates. Further testing at concentration below than 10 µg/ml showed
that undecylprodigision was capable of killing significantly high numbers of both dinoflagellate giving a
high algicidal activity. This study demonstrated the versatility of this antibiotic undecylprodigiosin for
its potential as an algicidal agent, besides having other ability as antimicrobial, anticancer and
immunosuppressive agents.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-355
Crime and Housing in Malaysia - A Comparative Analysis of
Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Hanan Mohamed Hassan ElsawahliMohammad
Abdul Mohit, Hanan Mohamed Hassan Elsawahli
Department of Urban and Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Recently, Malaysia has adopted the “Safe city programme― launched by the Federal
Department of Town and Country Planning (2005), which is focused towards achieving four objectives,
the most important of which is creating a city free from violence and crime. In order to achieve the
global concern of creating sustainable communities and to assist the implementation of Malaysia’s
safe city programme which highlights on the importance of quality of life improvements, it is important
to address crime and disorder through studies and researches. So far studies have identified that changes
to the built environment and modifications to the space design can effectively affect both residents and
offenders’ perceptions of criminality. Various Crime prevention through environmental design
techniques are employed to create a place which is easy to defend. This study aims to explore the
relationship between residential crime and the design of the built environment. The designs of the built
environment observed are New Urbanism and Defensible Space. The study analyses and compares the
safety level in Taman Melati Terrace Housing of Kuala Lumpur City in two different locations (Jalan 6
and Jalan 1/5 and 3/5), which reveal characteristics of New Urbanism and Defensible Space design. As
such, the study examines the form of the built environment (New Urbanism/Defensible Space) that has
an impact on the safety level. The results showed that the housing location complying with New
Urbanism planning principles had a higher safety level than the housing location complying with
Defensible Space planning principles.
P-357
Recycling Awareness among Undergraduate Students under KAED
Environmental Education: A Case Study of Students’ Recycling
Behaviour
Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Mohd. Shamsuddin Zahid Sopian, Hanan Mohamed Hassan Elsawahli
Mohd. Shamsuddin Zahid Sopian, Hanan Mohamed Hassan Elsawahli
Department of Urban and Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The combination of the Muslims’ practices of conservation and the environmental education in
KAED ensured the recycling awareness of the students in the faculty. Recycling awareness among the
students helps in cleaning up the environment and participating in the daily natural life cycle to achieve
sustainability. The amount of waste carried out of the studio step in the faculty everyday could be a real
problem. Students work in the studio most of the time, everyone comes with food and drinks plus the
paper used for the projects and model making. The purpose of the research was to analyze the
relationship between the recycling awareness of the students and the environmental education they
undertake in KAED. The study examined the differences in recycling awareness among the students of
KAED and focused towards the students’ recycling awareness in relation to the year of study and
the environmental studies they undertake. Chi-square and correlation were calculated for the data to
determine the difference in recycling awareness among students in different years of study with respect
to gender, department, attitude, facilities location and recycling knowledge undertaken in the faculty.
The findings showed that the students’ recycling awareness is significantly related to the year of
study. Gender and department showed no relation with the recycling awareness of the students. The
results also showed that facilities location played an important part on awareness. Recommendations
included intensifying the environmental educational programmes to plan for more sustainable
environments and increasing the number of recycling bins for better accessibility. Future studies are
recommended to focus on the enhancement of the environmentally friendly behaviour with respect to
sustainable development.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-359
SCREENING OF PKS-I AND NRPS GENES AND EVALUATION
OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN MARINE
ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATES FROM MALAYSIAN WATERS
Zaima Azira Zainal Abidin, Zaima Azira Zainal Abidin1, Asmat Ahmad,Gires UsupZaima Azira Zainal
Abidin1, Asmat Ahmad,Gires Usup
BIOTECHNOLOGY,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysian waters have the potential of becoming important natural resources for exploration of
marine actinomycetes that possess the ability to produce a relatively high rate of new antimicrobial
bioactive agents. Both polyketide synthase type I (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide syntethases
(NRPS) biosynthetic systems are important in the biosynthesis of biologically active polyketide and
peptide such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, immunosuppressive agents and many more. Screening of
PKS-I and NRPS genes was conducted on 60 marine actinomycetes isolated from sediment and
seawater collected in Pulau Tinggi, Pulau Langkawi and Pulau Tioman. Fourteen isolates was found to
exhibit the presence of both PKS-I and NRPS genes, and another 12 isolates displayed only NRPS gene.
These 26 isolates were then challenged against of 5 Gram negative bacteria - E.coli, P. vulgaris P.
aeruginosa , P. mirabilis and S. marcescens; 3 Gram positive bacteria – Methicillin-resistant S. aureus
(MRSA), B. subtilis and S. aureus; and 3 fungi - Candida parapsilosis, A. niger and Candida albicans. In
this study, almost all Streptomyces isolates showed the presence of either both genes or only NRPS
genes compared to other actinomycetes isolates. Furthermore, these Streptomyces isolates also
demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against most of the test organisms which could be related to
the presence of the PKS-I and NRPS genes. However, 3 isolates belonging to the genus Rhodococcus,
Gordonia and Pseudonocardia respectively, displayed no antimicrobial activity at all even though both
genes were detected in them. The presence PKS-I and NRPS genes might not necessarily result in
antimicrobial activities since the function of polyketides is not confined to antimicrobial activities but
may have other useful properties such as antihelmintics, anticancer or immunosuppressive agents.
Nevertheless, evaluation of these isolates based on the presence of both genes would allow us to focus
on the marine actinomycetes isolates that possessed high metabolic potential.
P-360
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MOLD FOR THE
FABRICATION AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE ROTOR
Adetayo Abdulmumin Adebisi, A. A. Adebisi, M. A. Maleque, Q.S. ShahA. A. Adebisi, M. A. Maleque,
Q.S. Shah
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mold design and development is an essential process in the automotive industry that determines the
quality of the cast product. The effect of surface roughness and poor toughness on cast component leads
to irregularities on the surface which forms nucleation sites for cracks and corrosion. In order to develop
a typical aluminium matrix composite (AMC) brake rotor, a die or mold is necessary. In this paper, the
AMC brake rotor mold design has been performed using AUTOCAD software with minimum hole and
developed using oil tempered sand mold for simplicity and better efficiency. In conclusion, it is found
that the developed design and the oil tempered mold sand produced a better surface finish and improved
toughness as a result of minimum holes and optimized air circulation in the cast product or brake rotor.
P-361
A PARALLEL DUPLICATE ADDRESS DETECTION (PDAD)
MECHANISM TO REDUCE HANDOFF LATENCY OF MOBILE
INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (MIPV6)
Farhat Anwar, Farhat Anwar, Omer Mahmoud, Mosharrof Hussain Masud, S. M. Sadakatul
BariFarhat Anwar, Omer Mahmoud, Mosharrof Hussain Masud, S. M. Sadakatul Bari
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Next Generation Networks (NGN) will be fully Internet Protocol (IP) based allowing users to
communicate ubiquitously with improved quality of service. To facilitate with new services Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) has taken several steps in order to fulfill the demand of NGN where
Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (MIPv6) is credited most for many additional features compared to
existing MIPv4. However, MIPv6 is not widely deployed due to several limitations out of which
handoff latency is arguably the most important. It causes packet loss and degrades the Quality-ofService (QoS) especially for real time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP) and video streaming.
Handoff latency of MIPv6 includes link layer establishment delay, movement delay, address auto
configuration delay and binding update or registration delay. Address auto configuration including
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) takes around 70% time of the total handoff procedures even though
it is supposed to play pivotal part in achieving seamless communication. To reduce handoff latency a
parallel DAD (PDAD) model is proposed that will lead to packet loss reduction. According to this
model, a Mobile Node (MN) solicits for a router advertisement (RA) in parallel to its neighboring
routers before leaving the previous point of attachment. Each solicited router creates new care of
address (CoA) by combining the MN’s MAC address and its own address and stores in its cache
followed by checking of uniqueness. Thus, whenever an MN enters to a new area the serving router
configures previously stored CoA without further delay.
P-362
An Improved MAODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh
Networks Using Integrated Multiple Metrics technique
Farhat Anwar, Farhat Anwar, Aisha H. Abdalla, Md. Saiful Azad, Md. Arafatur Rahman, S. M.
Sadakatul Bari, Mosharrof Hussain Masud, Jannatul Naeem and Md. Akhtaruzzaman
Farhat Anwar, Aisha H. Abdalla, Md. Saiful Azad, Md. Arafatur Rahman, S. M. Sadakatul Bari,
Mosharrof Hussain Masud, Jannatul Naeem and Md. Akhtaruzzaman
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) can have permanent or semi-permanent infrastructure. A reliable
path from the source to the destination in WMN can be maintained using an improved and better
performance metrics. Currently, the most widely used performance metric is the minimum hop-count
which is based on the assumption that communication links are either working well or not working at
all. This assumption is true for wired networks however this is impractical for wireless networks where
numerous links suffer from intermediate loss ratios, low throughput, interference and other inherent
limitations. Consequently, researchers have proposed a number of performance metrics for WMNs. It
has also been shown that integrating multiple performance metrics into a routing protocol is effective
for attaining optimal performance since it is highly probable that a single performance metric will not be
able to satisfy the comprehensive requirements of WMNs. A technique of integrating multiple routing
metrics in order to optimize the performance of a routing protocol is proposed. The proposed technique
is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) routing protocol.
Simulation results show a statistically significant performance improvement over standard MAODV for
WMNs.
P-363
DEVELOPMENT OF NONLINEAR ENERGY-BASED METHOD
(NEM) CONTROLLER FOR 3 DOF HELICOPTER
Rini Akmeliawati, Pharmayeni, Rini Akmeliawati, Ari LegowoPharmayeni, Rini Akmeliawati, Ari
Legowo
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Three degree-of-freedom (3 DOF) helicopter model presents quite interesting control challenges due
to its nonlinearities. It is therefore intuitive to design a controller using nonlinear techniques to control
the aircraft. In this study, we design a Nonlinear Energy-based Control Method (NEM) controller for a 3
Science, Engineering and Technology
DOF Helicopter developed by Quanser. NEM is a nonlinear control technique used to design a
controller where the controller can improve performance robustness and avoid excessive control of the
system. It is a control design technique that exploits the energy state of a system to achieve stabilization
and/or tracking. The advantages of using NEM to control systems are: easy to derive the equations of
motion, can handle nonlinearities in dynamical systems, modeling and controlling done in terms of
energy quantities, and each subsystem can be characterized by its own energy, so the analysis becomes
simpler. There are four stages to design NEM controller for the 3 DOF helicopter. The stages are:
energy-based modeling of helicopter dynamics using Euler-Lagrange formalism. Also in this stage, the
model is validated by
simulations of the model with MATLAB using built-in LQR controller. Secondly, the stage involves
with design of the NEM controller based on passivity principle and Lyapunov stability idea, and test the
designed controller via simulations in MATLAB using the nonlinear model of the helicopter. Then, the
stage involves with applying the NEM controller to the 3 DOF helicopter and tuning the controller
gain(s) to satisfy the design criteria. Lastly, the stage involves with robustness analysis in which
performance of the controller is tested with various conditions of flight.
P-365
A New Approach of Robust Feedback Control Design using Modern
Optimization Algorithms
Rini Akmeliawati, Mahmud Iwan Solihin, Rini Akmeliawati, Ari LegowoMahmud Iwan Solihin, Rini
Akmeliawati, Ari Legowo
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In classical control design, robustness issue has not been addressed inherently. Therefore, robust
control techniques have come up to deal with robustness issues: robust stability and robust performance.
However, the mathematical formulation behind the theory is not trivial. In addition, standard
(conventional) robust control design can result in higher order and complicated controller structure
which is difficult to implement in practice. These motivate us to propose a new approach of robust
control design using modern optimization techniques.
Modern optimization, which is an element of computational intelligence, has been successfully
handled many engineering problems including control engineering. In this work, we propose a new
approach of robust feedback control design using modern optimization algorithms (particle swarm
optimization and differential evolution) in a constrained optimization mode. The feedback controller is
designed based on state space model of the plant with structured uncertainty such that the closed-loop
system would have maximum stability radius. A wedge region is assigned as a constraint to locate the
desired closed loop poles, which correspond to the desired time-domain performance. The proposed
controller design is applied to pendulum-like systems (i.e.: gantry crane, flexible joint/link manipulator
and inverted pendulum stabilization). The experimental results and the comparison with that of
conventional LQR-based controller and H∞ loop shaping controller are made.
The advantages of using the proposed approach are:
Use a simple conventional feedback controller structure
Take robustness issue into account
Minimize trial-and-error exercise in conventional feedback control design techniques
Simplify the mathematical formulation involved in standard (conventional) robust control
design.
P-370
Control of an Automatic Drilling Machine by PLC
Md Mozasser Rahman, Md Mozasser RahmanMd Mozasser Rahman
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
What concerns most for manufacturing industry is the automation of factory operation. The
Science, Engineering and Technology
objectives of automation are to enhance productivity while reducing time and cost. This scenario
happens due to the increase of controller applications such as the microcontroller, microcomputer and
programmable logic controller (PLC). The objectives of the research are to design a automatic drilling
machine and work holding device to be controlled by PLC and modify a simple drill machine into a real
automatic drilling machine and finally tested in laboratory. The project is divided into two parts: the
Mechanical Part and the Electrical and Control System Part. Mechanical Part consists of Fabrication of
work holding device and mounting device, modifying of manual feeding of quill lever and integrating
all devices using actuators and sensors. Then, all devices are controlled by PLC. The project has been
successfully tested in laboratory. It has increased the productivity of drilling multi-hole work pieces.
Further improvement could be made to increase the reliability and consistency of this automatic drilling
machine.
P-371
Intelligent Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS) using
wireless communications
Muhammad Mahbubur Rashid, M.M.Rashid, S.M.BannaM.M.Rashid, S.M.Banna
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract: Nowadays, many researchers have committed their efforts to constructs machines and to
provide them with some kind of artificial intelligence to perform monotonous tasks historically assigned
to human beings. Among these mobile robot are certainly in the cutting edge of the current research.
Though considerable progression is made, difficulties in navigating and identifying dynamically
changing environment still exist. Robots face many complexities when they navigate in a real
environment such as identifying and approaching a specific location with simplicity. From the last
decade, numerous robot navigation techniques have been developed by researchers. Dead reckoning
gives the dynamic information of the pose for mobile robot by measuring the parameter such as
position, velocity and orientation. The basic idea behind the dead reckoning navigation technique is the
incremental motion over time. In this technique, small precision error and predictable drift in sensor
leads to increasing cumulative errors in the robot position and orientation. This system requires an
independent reference to correct the errors periodically. Researcher then shifted their interest to vision
based systems. These techniques generally build and use map of the environment. It uses images
obtained from single or multiple cameras onboard and compares it with the reference map to find the
pose of mobile robot. Though matches of the environment will be established, computed position of the
robot still has probable inaccuracy. Vision based technique needs high image processing algorithm
which makes the system complex. Thus the most important issue is to develop robot which can localize
and navigate with the use of simple system. Vision system is extensively used in mobile robot since it
provides reliable solution which is expensive. We present an innovative idea for navigation of mobile
robot without the use of camera and environment map for navigation. In this paper a novel technique
using Hall Effect sensor and FLC, is presented for mobile robot navigation in an unknown environment.
The simulation result shows that with the proposed algorithm mobile robot can reach a target accurately.
P-375
Design of Fuzzy Based Controller for Modern Elevator Group with
Floor Priority Constraints
Muhammad Mahbubur Rashid, M.M. Rashid, S.M.BannaM.M. Rashid, S.M.Banna
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
An elevator group controller system using fuzzy algorithm is a control system that manages
systematically two or more elevators in order to serve passengers as required. This study presents the
design and simulation of a fuzzy control algorithm for managing the traffic of elevator system prototype
for a building with 5 floors and 3 elevator cars. The elevator cars are assigned accordingly in response
Science, Engineering and Technology
to hall calls, so as to optimize waiting time, riding time, power consumption, passengers’ comfort,
etc. A new elevator control system using fuzzy logic algorithm is proposed based on the ordinal
structure theory. It has utilized the ordinal structure fuzzy logic algorithm on a revolutionized elevator
system, where instead of using the simple up and down hall call buttons, destination oriented keypads at
each floor is used. The fuzzy elevator group control system (FEGCS) introduced herein is designed to
respond to a new hall call by determining the most suitable car based on an evaluation function
computed for each car. The car with the lowest value of evaluation function is selected to serve the hall
call. The evaluation function is computed by summation of two terms. The first term is the estimated
arrival time to the floor where the hall call occurs. The second term consists of the floor priority
coefficient multiplied by a fuzzy control variable resulted from fuzzy inference, controlling the
effectiveness of floor priority. This system requires the passengers to enter their desired floors on the
keypad before they enter the car. The system then assigns the passenger the respective optimal car to
take through information displayed on dot matrix display near the keypad. Similar to many practical
elevator systems, five constraints were assumed in the simulation of the proposed intelligent elevator
control system: An elevator will not reverse direction if there is a passenger inside; It will bypass any
hall call if capacity is met; Each elevator travels at a constant speed of 0.5 floor per second; Serving a
floor requires 4 seconds to accomplish; An elevator must not bypass any car call. To increase the
performance of the elevator group three major linguistic variables are introduced within a set of fuzzy
rules. These include the average waiting time (AWT), power consumption (PC), and floor traffic (FT).
During the hours of low passenger traffic, high fuzzy control values resulted in the cars to be positioned
at the floors to which high priority values are assigned. When the passenger traffic is high, the low fuzzy
control values reduce the importance of priority of floors rather the estimated arrival time is to be
minimized. The simulation was accomplished to check the priority of fuzzy system graphically while
the actual prototype of elevator system is programmed by PIC device as a controller. As a result a set of
fuzzy rules was drawn based on practical considerations; mainly minimization of waiting time and
energy consumption. When a few hall requests are registered, the elevator controller will decide which
one of the elevators will serve which of the incoming hall requests.
P-376
Antimicrobial activities of Plumeria alba extracts.
Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Nor Omar, Maryana Mohamad Nor, Deny Susanti, Ahmad
Muzammil ZuberdiMuhammad Nor Omar, Maryana Mohamad Nor, Deny Susanti, Ahmad Muzammil
Zuberdi
Department of Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Plumeria alba (Apocynaceae) has been traditionally used as medicine for the treatment of ulcers,
herpes and scabies. The plants were extracted using various solvents, i.e. hexane, ethyl acetate,
dichloromethane and methanol. In addition, the cold water extraction was also performed to obtain the
aqueous extract. The phytochemical screening of the crude extracts revealed the presence of tannins,
saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phytosteroid and reducing sugar. The
antimicrobial activity of each crude extract was determined using the disc diffusion method for
Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extracts of
the flowers and leaves were very potent in inhibiting A. niger, S. cerevisae, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus
with the zone of inhibition diameters ranging between 7mm and 15mm. Meanwhile, the inhibition
diameters of methanolic extract from the stems and leaves were between 8mm and 11mm, but B.
Subtilis showed no resistance to all extracts.
P-380
Study on antimicrobial activities of Garcinia graffithii extracts.
Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Nor Omar, Tara K Jalal, Deny Susanti, Muhammad Taher,
Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi.Muhammad Nor Omar, Tara K Jalal, Deny Susanti, Muhammad Taher,
Science, Engineering and Technology
Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi.
Department of Biotechnolgy,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Garcinia graffithii has been used in folk medicine to treat a variety of diseases including fever,
hypertension, hepatitis and cancer. The plants were extracted using various solvents of deferent
polarities and by cold water extraction. The solvent extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activities
based on bio-assay guided fractionantion. The results showed that the leave extract possessed the
active principles e.g. terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids saponins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activities
of the extracts were evaluated against four bacteria and two fungal strains using the agar diffusion
method by identifying the presence of the clear inhibition zones around each disc. Methanolic extract
showed the highest inhibition zone against S. aureus compared to ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacteria concentration (MBC) of the
methanol isolated compound/s ranged from 0.013 to 30 mg/ml. Two bioactive compounds (TR1 & TR2)
in methanol fraction were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and eluted with chloroform:
methanol. These bioactive fractions showed different activities whereby the MIC values for TR1 and
TR2 were 0.123 and 1.1mg/ml respectively.
P-381
ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIAL FOR TERRACED
HOUSING USING BIOCLIMATIC PRINCIPLES
Noor Aziah Mohd Ariffin,
Department of Architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysia has experienced rapid economic development in the past four decades. This has resulted in
substantial population growth and rapid urbanization, which in turn has resulted in the increased
demand for housing. Through both public and private sector developments, driven by successive
Malaysia Plans, the country to date has produced more than four million units of housing. The majority
of houses are the medium density terraced mostly built in urban areas and within a short time span. It
would seem that no attention was given to designing the houses to increase human comfort and
minimize energy consumption taking cognizance of the hot humid climatic conditions that prevail
throughout the year. As a consequence residential energy consumption has increased due to what
seemingly are inconsiderate design decisions with regard to energy issues, compounded by an increase
in the use of air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort.
Â
This paper addresses the possibilities of using passive design systems to existing terraced houses to
improve living conditions and conserve energy as well especially in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur.
Given the nature of the climate, which is mostly invariant and outside the comfort range throughout the
year, it considers those design factors such as orientation and utilising insulation in roofs (common but
not obligatory) and walls (not common at all) to try to find alternate design strategies that will reduce
residential energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort. The findings reported through
parametric analysis that with the use of insulation and appropriate orientation minimum thermal comfort
is attainable and energy savings predicted.
P-385
An Alternative Media Formulation for Maximum Production of
Nucleocapsid Protein
Raha Ahmad Raus, Nurul Sakinah Engliman, Maizirwan MelNurul Sakinah Engliman, Maizirwan Mel
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nucleocapsid (NP) protein is the major protein in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that has the
potential to be used as an immunogen in the diagnostic kit to detect the virus in affected blood. Once the
NP gene from NDV is cloned in Escherichia coli, NP protein can be harvested from the bacteria and
used in the kit. For maximum production of NP protein by the E. coli, media formulation using glycerol
Science, Engineering and Technology
as one of its component is formulated in this study. Media containing peptone, yeast extract, KH2PO4,
sodium chloride as well as glycerol were formulated and later screened using Plackett Burman to
identify which component affecting the production of NP. pH and inoculum size were also investigated.
From Plackett Burman analysis, glycerol, yeast extract, KH2PO4, peptone and pH are the significant (at
the 95% significant level) components that influence the NP protein production. Statistical optimization
on those significant components was then carried out to determine the exact concentration of each
component for maximum production of NP protein. To achieve this, a set of experiments that include
those components were designed by Central Composite Design and data obtained from those
experiments were fitted to polynomial regression model. Based on this model, the optimized media
formulation is 5 g/L yeast extract, pH 7.15, 7.2 g/L KH2PO4, 6 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L peptone. Effect
of different media on NP protein production were investigated as well in this study. The results showed
the optimized glycerol-containing media has the highest NP protein yield compared to glucosecontaining media and Luria Bertani media. In conclusion, glycerol-containing media provide a better
alternative media that enhance the production of NP protein.
P-386
Design and analysis of lightweight tubular structure for
crashworthy car body
Kassim AbdulRahman Abdullah, Zahra Roslan, Wan Nur Hidayah Wan SulimanZahra Roslan, Wan
Nur Hidayah Wan Suliman
Mechanical,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This project emphasizes on analyzing lightweight structure tubes in optimizing the energy absorbing
capacity of the structure under several different impacts and crush loads. The core of the project is to
understand the structural crashworthiness concept, structural integrity and to redesign a structure to
enhance the capability of energy absorbing. Focusing onto longitudinal rails in an event of a frontal
crash, analytical study from academic papers had been made to get a summary and overview of the
crushing patterns and further researches that have been done in optimizing the capabilities in energy
theories of tubular and thin walled structures. Next, to investigate and prove the crash theories studied
earlier, simulation is done with explicit finite element analysis utilizing ANSYS LS-DYNA.
Simulations made are subjected to observing crushing patterns align with varying geometrical crosssection shapes and the composition of material constituent in the element member. Furthermore, to
conclude the project, improved longitudinal rail geometries are introduced to improve the current design
and thus creating a new dimension in terms of designing a crashworthy car body
P-387
Admission Control based Quality of Service over Heterogeneous
Network with MPLS Backbone
Omer Mahmoud, Omar Mahmoud Mohamed, Soheli Farhana , Frahat Anwar, Rashid Sead,Shab
AhmedOmar Mahmoud Mohamed, Soheli Farhana , Frahat Anwar, Rashid Sead,Shab Ahmed
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Internet growth in recent years has encouraged many new applications to be provided for
the end users. Providing quality of service for these applications is one of the big challenges,
that is because of the diversity of these applications, in term of bandwidth requirements,
sensitivity to delay and delay variation. To address these challenges three main architectures
were proposed by IETF in an effort to make the IP QoS a reality. They are integrated services
(Intserv), differentiated services (DiffServ) and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).
Sometimes perceived as competitors, these architectures are in fact complementary
developments that approach the QoS challenges from different network perspectives. Thus
these approaches can be used together in order to combine their merits. This study discusses
an improved admission control which is aimed to provide QoS over heterogeneous networks
that uses MPLS as it is backbone. It presents a simulation based evaluation which
Science, Engineering and Technology
demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
P-388
Effects of Religiosity, Spirituality, and Personal Values on Employee
Performance: A Conceptual Analysis
Yusof Ismail, AAhad M. Osman-Gani, Junaidah Hashim, Yusof IsmailAAhad M. Osman-Gani,
Junaidah Hashim, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the effects of religiosity, spirituality, individual values
on employee performance in organisations while it highlights the moderating and mediating effects of
individual values and organisational commitment. This paper developed some propositions that could be
tested through empirical research in future. Based on a conceptual framework that is presented to guide
future research, the implications for professional practice are discussed.
P-393
Design and Modeling of MEMS Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators
on Lithium Niobate
Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Noor AmalinaAnis Nurashikin Nordin, Noor
Amalina
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators are essential components for modern communication
systems. They can function as filters and frequency synthesizers. SAW resonators operate base on the
principle of sound waves propagating along the surface of a solid piezoelectric material. The waves are
generated by injecting electrical energy using interdigitated transducers (IDTs) into the piezoelectric
material which transforms it to propagating mechanical waves. Basic structure of SAW consists of a
piezoelectric substrate with metallic IDTs which from the input and output ports. Metal reflectors are
placed on both sides of the input and output IDTs to contain the wave within a cavity, creating
resonance. The output transducers detect and convert the propagating mechanical waves into sinusoidal
electrical signal. Common piezoelectric substrates are quartz, Lithium Tantalate (LiTO3) and Lithium
Niobate (LiNbO3). This project intends to study the key design parameters that affect the performance
of SAW resonator such as optimum spacing between IDT and reflector, optimum spacing of IDTs and
the numbers of reflector in order to get the highest mechanical displacement. Key requirements of a
SAW resonator include having precise resonant frequency (fr), low insertion losses, and high quality
factors (Q). Meeting these requirements, it is necessity to investigate the key design parameters; number
of reflectors, number of IDTs, periodic distance of transducer fingers (λ), spacing between IDT and
reflector. Finite element simulations to determine the optimum SAW resonator design was performed
using COMSOL Multiphysics. Optimum SAW resonator designs have low losses and high quality
factors.
P-413
New Production of ZnO Crystal using Electric Current Heating
A. G. E. Sutjipto, A.G.E.Sutjipto, S.R.MeskomA.G.E.Sutjipto, S.R.Meskom
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
ZnO crystals have been fabricated using various electric current heating. Several new crystals like
structures were invented by applying different current density into ceramic ZnO bars. The invention of
these crystals could become a starting point for further research to optimize the uniqueness of the
Science, Engineering and Technology
crystals and their properties for their wide applications in engineering especially in such as
photoconductivity, optoelectronics, pyroelectricity, photovoltaics, photonics, piezoelectricity,
fluorescence and sensors.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-414
THE CONTRIBUTION OF ECOLOGICAL DESIGN TO GREEN
PLANNING APPROACH OF A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS IN
MALAYSIA
M.Zainora Asmawi, Abdul Razak Abdul AzizAbdul Razak Abdul Aziz
Department of Urban Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The concept of ecological design has produced positive results in terms of supporting the
achievement of sustainable development in many fields. However, its practice currently faces many
challenges due to many influential factors such as the low level of acceptance amongst stakeholders. As
such, this research attempts to study the application of ecological design in contributing to the approach
of green planning in designing a university campus in Serdang, Selangor. The researcher had made an
observation survey of 23 selected buildings within the Universiti Putra Malaysia area, based on a set of
pre-determined factors and its sub-factors in determining the level of compliance to ecological design.
Generally, the results demonstrated that the level was relatively moderate and many buildings failed to
comply with some factors of ecological design. The reason being that the buildings were built more than
10 years ago in which the concept of ecological design was rather new at that time. Some newer
buildings corresponded fairly well to some ecological design, such as the elements of indoor
environmental quality.
P-415
Expression of Vitamin B12 Enzymes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Chloroplast
Zarina Zainuddin, Zarina Zainuddin, Evelyn Raux-Deery, Saul Purton, Martin J. Warren and Alison
G. SmithZarina Zainuddin, Evelyn Raux-Deery, Saul Purton, Martin J. Warren and Alison G. Smith
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Cobalamin or vitamin B12 plays a vital role in human biological processes as it is required as a
cofactor for two essential enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. It is
exclusively synthesised by prokaryotes and there is no evidence that vitamin B12 can be made by
eukaryotes. Higher plants neither synthesise nor utilise vitamin B12 because they contain no B12dependent enzymes. Deficiencies in vitamin B12 can cause pernicious anaemia. Since vitamin B12 is
synthesised only by bacteria and is found primarily in meat, eggs and dairy products, strict vegetarians
are more at risk of dietary related vitamin B12 deficiency. Commercially this vitamin is available in the
form of tablets or supplementary food. Thus there is a reason to try and devise a biotransformation
system that could lead to the production of vitamin B12 in a ready and useable form. The complete
biosynthesis of vitamin B12 from uroporphyrinogen III requires around 20 enzymes and involves a
number of reactions. The aim of this project is to investigate the possibility of introducing artificial
operons containing two to twenty three biosynthetic genes of vitamin B12 into the chloroplast genome
of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The chloroplast is chosen for the introduction of B12 biosynthetic genes
as multiple transgenes can be introduced as a single operon. Moreover, the precursor for vitamin B12
biosynthesis, uroporphyrinogen III, is available in the chloroplast since it also the precursor to haem and
chlorophyll. The first step towards achieving the objective is to start with a small operon containing
only two genes. This will enable a test of the principle of bioengineering a complex metabolic pathway
in Chlamydomonas. If this is possible, and the functional enzymes are produced, the stable
intermediates will be produced and ultimately vitamin B12 may be synthesised. This project will be the
first attempt to introduce vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway into eukaryotes and has a potential
application in the production of vitamin B12 in higher plants.
P-416
Design and development of die for automotive piston
M Abdul Maleque, A. ArifutzzamanA. Arifutzzaman
Science, Engineering and Technology
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Piston is the crucial automotive device for producing the main mechanical energy to drive the
crankshaft.To upgrade engine capability and reduce engine weight researchers and automotive industrial
experts greatly use the aluminium metal matrix composite (AMC) as an automotive piston
material.Currently, sand casting, metal Casting, die casting, squeeze casting and hot forging
manufacturing methods are used to form automotive engine pistons. The main aim of this paper is to
design and develop a die for the automotive piston for sand casting. A computer aided design (CAD)
software AutoCAD is used for design and drawing the die for automotive piston. The two dimensional
top, front and side view of the die gave the exact dimension of the die and separately upper and lower
parts three dimensional views represented the real view of the automotive pistondie.The main advantage
of CAD die design for automotive piston is to build precise engine piston in less time and at a lower
cost, moreover, integrating the parts in die design also reduce the chance of errors.The automotive
piston die is designed and developed by CAD softwarewith considering the volume of the piston and the
density of the selected pistonmaterial
P-417
THE ROLES OF LAND USE PLANNING IN SUSTAINING
NATURAL RESOURCES
M.Zainora Asmawi, Nur Nabila Ahmad Azam, Nurul Hidayah Yahya, Khin Cho Myint @ Zainab
Nur Nabila Ahmad Azam, Nurul Hidayah Yahya, Khin Cho Myint @ Zainab
Department of Urban Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The concept of sustainable development has become very important item across the world, covering
many disciplines. Land use planning, among others, is challenged to play an active role in obtaining
sustainable natural resources. The main focus of this paper is to study the roles played by land use
planning in sustaining the natural resources. Therefore, this paper includes the study on the roles of land
use via development planning system and development control decision which are to plan and to control
the development. However, land use planning is not retrospective and essentially only deals with
proposals to change land use, it relies on various stakeholders such as owners or land managers to
initiate such changes. The practice of land use planning involves achieving a balance between the
community’s environmental, social and economic needs and demands; between the rights of private
property owners, the role and willingness of government at various levels to set policy and direction,
and the right of the community to have input into the policy formed and decisions made. Thus, this
paper highlights the significant roles played by planners in preserving the assets of Mother Nature in a
sustainable manner.
P-418
Contamination In Biochemicalprocess: Alternative Material for
Bioreactor Lining
Taofeeq Olalekan Salawudeen, Suleyman Aremu Muyibi, Faridah Yusof, Qasim Hassan Shah, Ma'an
Fahimi Alkhatib and Salawudeen Taofeeq OlalekanSuleyman Aremu Muyibi, Faridah Yusof, Qasim
Hassan Shah, Ma'an Fahimi Alkhatib and Salawudeen Taofeeq Olalekan
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Lost of sterility due to contamination in bioreactors has been the most common cause of process
failure and it has surpassed mechanical, electrical or instrumentation problems that occur. Consequence
of contamination includes: Changing in broth conditions such as pH, which degrade products and
adversely affect subsequent product formation, conversion of nutrient to unwanted products and
sometimes, enzymes formation which in turn degrade the intermediate or the final products. Continuous
usage of bioreactor causes early degradation of the most commonly used bioreactor liner materials due
Science, Engineering and Technology
to the effect of various chemicals and consequently resulting to contamination in the bioprocess.
Performance of PP-ternary nanocomposite (PPTN) for its potential application in the fabrication of
bioreactor liner material was investigated. PPTN with percentage of nanoclay fixed at 3% and varying
percentage (0.1 to 0.8%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared by melt intercalation
method. The Composite samples were tested for their chemical resistance using ASTM 543-06 by
exposing them to chemicals typically encountered in bioprocess such as acid, alkaline, water and
bacterial solutions. The effects of these media on the composite samples were tested. Specifically, the
investigation focuses on the changes in the physico-mechanical properties of PPTN following long term
of exposure to these chemicals. All the immersed specimens did not display any changes in terms of
Color, Shape or Integrity after four weeks of immersion. The results of the tests also show a slight
increase in the weight and dimensions of samples in the first few days traceable to the adaptation of the
specimens to the environment. This was followed by a constant reading for the period of 4-weeks. The
performance in terms of physical properties was in the range of PPTN with 0.61% MWCNT > PPTN
0.45% > PPTN 0.17%. No serious mechanical changes were noticed in the test samples when compared
to the control, an indication of stable mechanical properties. Ternary nanocomposite of polypropylene in
the presence of organified layered silicate and multiwall carbon nanotube will serve as a good candidate
for bioreactor liner material fabrication.
P-419
Independent Attacks in Imperfect Settings: A Case for a Two-way
Quantum Key Distribution Scheme
Jesni Shamsul Shaari, Jesni bin Shamsul Shaari, Iskandar BahariJesni bin Shamsul Shaari, Iskandar
Bahari
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
We review the study on a two-way quantum key distribution protocol given imperfect settings
through a simple analysis of a toy model and show that it can outperform a BB84 setup. We provide the
sufficient condition for this as a ratio of optimal intensities for the protocols.
P-420
Decoy States and Two Way Quantum Key Distribution Schemes
Jesni Shamsul Shaari, Jesni Shamsul Shaari, Iskandar Bahari, Sellami AliJesni Shamsul Shaari,
Iskandar Bahari, Sellami Ali
Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
We study the possible application of the decoy state method on a basic two way quantum key
distribution (QKD) scheme to extend its distance. Noting the obvious advantage of such a QKD scheme
in allowing for single as well as double photon contributions, we derive relevant lower bounds on the
corresponding gains in a practical decoy state implementation using two intensities for decoy states. We
work with two different approaches in this vein and compare these with an ideal infinite decoy state
case as well as the simulation of the original.
P-424
Evaluation of Malaysian Children Websites Using Fuzzy Computing
With Words
Noorhazwani Raja Mohd, Dr. Murni Mahmud
Prof. Abu Osman Md TapDr. Murni Mahmud
Prof. Abu Osman Md Tap
Kulliyyah of Information Technology,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Children have difficulty in understanding numbers unlike adults. They are easily attracted to
displayed images and icons rather than numbers. Therefore, in any evaluation with children, it is better
Science, Engineering and Technology
to avoid the use of numerical scaling towards them. For this study is concern on the method used when
evaluating with children, this study promotes the use of linguistic expressions as a method in the
evaluation process. Linguistic expressions are applicable to children where expressions are much
likeable by children than numerical scaling. Evaluation of the linguistic expression is applied during the
interviews, questions and answers session with the children. The children websites was chosen in the
evaluation because websites technology has becoming more permeable towards children nowadays.
Websites are important to children as a medium to provide education learning and entertainment.
Despite that, children websites in Malaysia seems to be limited. It is rare enough to find Malaysian
based websites for children in the search engine. Hence, this study investigates the current status of
Malaysian’s children website and their design and content characteristics as well as proposing the
method of fuzzy computing with expressions in the evaluation process. In the near future, this study
perhaps will initiate Malaysian websites developer to create more children websites in this country.
P-425
Error-Correcting Decoder for 1st-Order Reed-Muller Codes based
on Haar Transform
Hashum Mohamed Rafiq, Prof. Dr. Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Prof. Dr. Othman O. Khalifa, Hashum
M. RafiqProf. Dr. Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Prof. Dr. Othman O. Khalifa, Hashum M. Rafiq
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Haar and Walsh are the two systems considered suitable for spectral representation of Boolean
functions. Haar transform is known to have the smallest computational requirement with a considerable
interest and attraction drawn towards its spectral properties of Boolean functions, and so bringing our
attention to the field of error correcting codes. This research work explores such properties in
determining an approach towards decoding method of the first-order Reed Muller codes, whereby the
error detection and correction process from the Haar domain perspective are discussed. Presented also,
is the summary of the decoding steps involved with respect to an implemented algorithm. Morever, the
algorithm’s complexity is presented including its comparison to known existing methods, as well as
the hardware implementation design and schematic layouts.
P-426
Securing a Low Level Reader Protocol (LLRP) Connection and an
Evaluation of its Performance
Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Mohammad Umar Siddiqi , Sana QadirMohammad Umar Siddiqi , Sana
Qadir
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
RFID technology is in the process of revolutionizing supply chain management and EPCglobal Inc is
the organization in charge of developing standards to govern this process. Products will be identified by
reading the Electronic Product Code (EPC) stored on an RFID tag attached to the product. The expected
benefit to enterprises of adopting EPCglobal standards is the efficient, secure and seamless exchange of
data on a global scale. One of the most recent protocols released is the Low Level Reader Protocol
(LLRP). This protocol standardizes the interaction between an RFID Reader and a Client backend
system. The main bottleneck to the adoption of LLRP is the concern over security. At present, LLRP
connections are vulnerable to eavesdropping and threats posed by malicious Readers. The use of
Transport Layer Security (TLS) to secure an LLRP connection is permitted by the LLRP standard, but
to date, no TLS-LLRP connection has been set up. This poster will describe the design and
implementation of the developed TLS-LLRP endpoints (i.e. a TLS-LLRP Reader and a TLS-LLRP
Client). These endpoints are capable of setting up and exchanging data over a TLS-LLRP connection.
Security comes at a cost, both in terms of performance and resource requirements. Appropriate
metrics are selected to measure the performance of the TLS-LLRP endpoints and the resulting TLSLLRP connection. The aim is to recommend the TLS cipher suite that provides the best compromise
between the level of security and performance. The results show that the optimal cipher suite to use is
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA. In future, when the next level of security is required, the
Science, Engineering and Technology
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA cipher suite should be used instead. The cost of
using TLS to secure a LLRP connection is also assessed by comparing the resource requirement of TLSLLRP endpoints with the resources of current readers in the market.
P-428
Design of a Satellite Receiver at Ku-Band for Tropical Region
Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Arafat A. A ShabanaMd. Rafiqul
Islam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Arafat A. A Shabana
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Receivers designed at Ku-Band are very critical and challenging. Satellite signals travel a very long
path and consequently losses and noises are high. Hence, the designing of low noise amplifier, bandpass
filter, and downconverter needs careful consideration at satellite receivers, especially at Ku-Band. All
designs are based on Microwave Office Simulator (AWR) 2006 version and optimized through many
simulation and analysis of results. A Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is designed with 8.90 dB gain and
2.188 dB noise figure at Ku-Band. Bandpass filter is designed operating frequency ranges from
11.713GHz to 12.215GHz and bandwidth of 502MHz. Downconverter is also designed which converts
12GHz to 1GHz at Ku Band with bandwidth of 475MHz. Tropical region suffers from high humidity,
high temperature, and heavy rainfall. These factors affect the captured signal; this becomes a critical
issue when the frequency goes above 10GHz. Three characteristics of atmospheric losses at Ku-Band
link budget are investigated: scintillation, Cross-Polarization Depolarization (XPD), and rain fade
attenuation. All designed components (LNA, BPF, DC) are also simulated in system level using Visual
Simulation System (VSS). The performance of the designed receiver at clear air and raining condition is
investigated using various modulation schemes. The performance during raining condition using
vertical, horizontal, and the circular polarizations with different availabilities is also investigated and
presented in this thesis. The comparison between the 16-PSK and 16-QAM is done and presented in this
work. The 16-PSK values for the availability A0.1, A0.01, and A0.001 in vertical polarization are found
to be better than the results in 16-QAM. The designed satellite receiver at A0.1 availability gives the
best BER with vertical polarization. At the same time, the values of the bit error rate are proportional
with the availability.
P-430
A novel technique for loose abrasive machining
Mohamed Konneh, Mohd Khairul bin DomadiMohd Khairul bin Domadi
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Manufacturing of precision parts is becoming an important commercial activity today, particularly in
the semiconductor industries. Loose abrasive machining is an essential finishing machining process for
generating mirror-like finishes on hard-brittle materials. Therefore the basic approach to using abrasive
machining should be utilized and rational understanding about the lapping process and abrasive
finishing should be practically developed. Unfortunately of all the machining processes, machining with
abrasives is undoubtedly the least understood and most neglected in practice. This unfortunate situation
appears to have its origin in the mistaken belief that the process is too complicated. Loose abrasive
machining consists of lapping and abrasive polishing processes. Lapping is mainly applied to achieve
high form accuracy at high removal rates compared to polishing process. Polishing on the other hand is
focusing on the generation of minimal surface roughness at only very small removal rates and grain
sizes smaller than 1 µm and soft polishing tool are used. In this project, a low cost novel lapping
and/or polishing process technique has been developed, tried out by lapping mono-crystalline silicon
wafer. The lapping process was conducted to evaluate the flatness and finish of the lapped work
material. Having examined the parameters: pressure applied, relative velocity and lapping times
considered during the experimental work, the result reveals damage-free mirror-like finished silicon
Science, Engineering and Technology
surface
P-431
Formulation Development of Crude Oil Bioremediation by
Indigenous Bacteria Isolated from Oily Sludge
NUR HAFIZAH AZIZAN, Nur Hafizah Azizan, Awang Ahmad Sallehin Awang Husaini, Hairul Azman
RoslanNur Hafizah Azizan, Awang Ahmad Sallehin Awang Husaini, Hairul Azman Roslan
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Enrichment culture technique leads to the discovery of six presumptive TPH-degrading bacteria.
Identification and characterization tests using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques
revealed that the bacterial strains isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (UMAS1PF), Serratia
marcescens (UMAS2SF) and Klebsiella spp. (UMAS3KF) with 99%, 98% and 84% nucleotide
similarity, respectively. All strains were able to use crude oil as sole carbon and energy source for their
growth since they were able to survive in Minimal Salt media supplemented with 1% (v/v) crude oil.
Growth study showed that they produced the highest cell counts on the third or fourth day by 108 –
1011 CFU/ml. Six artificial consortium inoculums has been produced from the growth study. Gas
chromatography analysis showed that all isolates had the ability to degrade aliphatic hydrocarbon with
100% degradation of nC19 – C24 were recorded. Among the isolates, UMAS2SF was the best and
fastest n-alkane degrader as they degraded between 55 – 90% of n-C14 – C18 in 14 days. This was
followed by UMAS1PF and UMAS3KF with 11 – 82% and 1.3% degradation, respectively.
Enhancement study showed that plot with inoculum and NPK addition successfully enhanced n-alkane
degradation. Plot A2:B3+NPK degraded n-alkane the fastest followed by plot treated by C+NPK,
A1:B2, B+NPK and A2:B3. Result showed that UMAS1PF was the best PAHs degrader as most of the
high molecular weight PAHs was degraded. In the enhancement study, the plot amended with A2:B3
showed the highest PAHs degradation, followed by plots A1:B2, A3:B1:C2 and A1:C3 that was
assigned as the third, fourth and fifth best in mineralizing PAHs, respectively.
P-432
Investigation of Path Loss Models for Mobile Communications for
Suburban Areas in Malaysia
Jalel Chebil, Jalel Chebil, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Ali KhadimJalel Chebil, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Ali Khadim
ECE Dep.,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Efficiency of present propagation of path loss models suffers when they are used in the environment
other than for which they have been designed. The Malaysian geographical and morphographical area
varies widely from areas where most models were developed. In addition, several studies in Malaysia
have shown that the known path loss models perform unsatisfactorily when compared with measured
data. Hence, this prompts the necessity to investigate the models that suit the Malaysian environment
conditions. Empirical propagation path loss models were favored in both research and industrial
communities owing to their speed of execution and their limited reliance on detailed knowledge of the
terrain. The study of this work is to investigate empirical path loss models for suburban outdoor
coverage in Malaysia for mobile communications based on the empirical measurements collected in the
International Islamic University Malaysia and the University Putra Malaysia. The measured path losses
were compared with various path loss prediction models. The results were used to evaluate the accuracy
for these models to determine the one that best fit Malaysian environment. The results show that Lognormal shadowing model was the closest to the measured data.
P-446
Fabrication of Micropillar Sheet for Cell Culture Dish
Mohammad Yeakub Ali, Nurul Hajar Mohd FuadNurul Hajar Mohd Fuad
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Demand of miniaturized products has increased tremendously because of its outstanding abilities to
perform several tasks at micro or nanoscale for numerous applications. Developed microfabrication
techniques such as LiGA, laser micromachining and etc. are expensives and complex. Therefore,
focused ion beam (FIB) micromachining is a potential microfabrication techniques that have the ability
to fulfill this demand. Thus, this research investigated the influence of two FIB process parameters, (i)
acceleration voltage, (ii) dwell time with respect to milled depth. The response variables were taper
angle (θ) and average surface roughness (Ra). Statistical models of responses were developed using
Taguchi method of design of experiment. Signal to noise ratio were calculated and analyzed for all of
the responses. Developed models were used for multiple response optimizations by desirability function
approach to obtain minimum θ and Ra. The optimized values were obtained and verified
experimentally. The optimized values of θ were 7.5° at acceleration voltage of 20 keV, dwell time of
15 µs for milled depth of 5 µm. Besides, the optimized values of Ra were 13.7 nm was obtained at
acceleration voltage of 20 keV, dwell time of 15 µs and milled depth of 0.6 µm. By using these
process parameters, an array of micropillars of 1.7 µm of diameter was produced by FIB micromilling.
This micropillars array is to be used as a micropillar sheet in cell culture dish for biological analysis.
P-447
Profiling of plant hormones in Jatropha curcas seed embryos and its
effects on growth performance
Arokiaraj Pappusamy, Afini Narawi, Hafizah NajwaAfini Narawi, Hafizah Najwa
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Jatropha curcas is a member of Euphorbiaceae family and grows well in subtropics and tropics
region. It is now seriously considered as an alternative source of renewable energy, thus a promising
plant for biodiesel production. In order to develop a tissue culture regime for the production of Jatropha
curcas plantlets via organogenesis, it is eminent to initiate some fundamental studies in order to
determine the endogenous type of plant growth regulators and the effects of these and other plant
growth regulators towards growth and development of Jatropha embryos. Here, we report an analysis of
several plant hormones using high-performance liquid chromatrography (HPLC) that is resident in
Jatropha embryos of two accessions (JP1 and JP2). Auxins detected in seed embryos of JP1 embryos are
2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), IBA (Indole-3-Butyric acid) and IAA (Indole -3-acetic acid).
However, only two auxins, 2,4-D and IAA was detected in JP2 embryos. Cytokinins present in seed
embryos of JP1 are BA (Benzylaminopurine) and Kn (Kinetin) while BA and TDZ was detected in JP2
embryos. Another class of growth hormones GA3 (gibberellic acid) was detected in JP1 embryos, but
not in JP2. The growth of seed embryos was focused on several parameters, length of hypocotyls, early
shoot emergence and number of roots. Most of the embryos successfully developed into plantlets. Seed
embryos on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of
GA3 significantly increased the length of hypocotyls for both accessions. Both JP1 and JP2 embryos on
MS medium supplemented with BA, Kn, and various combinations of TDZ contributed to the early
emergence of shoots. For rooting both accessions responded well with IAA as NAA also induced callus
formation. This study would lead to a better understanding of plant regeneration from tissue explants of
Jatropha.
P-449
Minimum Chip Thickness in Machining MEMS Structure Using
Tool Based Micromilling
Mohammad Yeakub Ali, Siti Hamizah Mass Duki, Noor Adila MansorSiti Hamizah Mass Duki, Noor
Adila Mansor
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Tool based micromilling is apromising micromanufacturing technology to produce miniaturized
features of about 25 μm in size for MEMS and Bio-MEMS applications. It is the most flexible and the
fastest way to produce complex tridimensional micro components including sharp edges with a good
Science, Engineering and Technology
surface finish at a reasonable cost. Moreover, it is capable of machining a broader range of materials
such as engineering plastics, aluminium, titanium, etc. However, the issue in tool based micromilling is
the minimum chip thickness which is often between 5-30 % of the tool edge radius. No chip will form if
the depth of cut cannot achieve the minimum chip thickness value. The lack of control on minimum
chip thickness often leads to the coarse machined surface, poor machining accuracy and difficulty in
chip removal from the machining zone which leads to burr formation. Hence, the chip formation
mechanism should be studied deeply to avoid these problems. In this research WC was selected for tool
material and Aluminum Alloy 1100 for work material for the investigation of minimum chip thickness.
The experiment is being conducted on a miniature machine known as Microtools Integrated Multipurpose machine modelled DT-110. The value of chip thickness produced by tool 4.8 µm with 3
mm/min feed rate, 3000 rpm cutting speed and 5 µm depth of cut. This minimum chip thickness is
usefull for machining Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) and Bio-MEMS structures.
P-451
Environmental Impact Of Antibiotic Resistance Transposed From
Genetically Modified Organism To Soil Bacteria
Arokiaraj Pappusamy, Ahmed Jalal Khan ChowdhuryAhmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia routinely employed the neomycin phosphotransferaseII
(nptII) cDNA as a selection marker for generating transgenic Hevea brasiliensis (rubber) plants. One of
the concerns in the planting of genetically modified crops was the theoretical possibility of antibiotic
resistance transferred to soil bacteria when vegetative materials of the transgenic plant falls to the
ground and decompose. As such, a study was carried out to show the prevalence of antibiotic resistant
bacteria in soil areas at 10 sites surrounding the transgenic plots as well as from soil samples at 10 sites
collected from the natural habitat of a rubber plantation. From this study, a profile of antibiotic resistant
bacteria to one or to multiple antibiotics was generated by plating on antibiotic nutrient media at 28ºC
and at 37ºC. Bacterial isolates were identified by Biolog® identification system based on the carbon
source utilized. Preliminary results seemed to confirm that resistance to kanamycin, ampicillin,
carbenercillin, tertracyclin and chlroamphenicol is common among soil samples studied in the
designated areas. Using statistical analysis, there was no significant difference between the number of
bacteria found in transgenic plot and natural rubber habitat (P>0.5) and this was similarly reflected
when tested for its significance for kanamycin-resistant, ampicillin-resistant and carbenicillin-resistant
bacteria between transgenic rubber plot and natural rubber habitat. The high prevalence of kanamycin
resistant organisms already present in the environment would not cause a significant environmental
impact by the presence of the kanamycin resistant rubber plants as the number of bacteria found in the
transgenic rubber plot and natural rubber habitat for kanamycin-resistance was not significant (P>0.5)
P-458
A Novel Hybrid Wireless Security Scheme based on Channel Precompensation and Encryption at the Physical Layer
Sigit Puspito Wigati Jarot, Mohammad Tahir, Sigit Puspito Wigati Jarot, Muhammad Umar Siddiqi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mohammad Tahir, Sigit Puspito Wigati Jarot, Muhammad Umar Siddiqi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The design of conventional wireless network security protocols tend to be layer-specific and
incomplete, due to the absence of the physical layer in the security scheme – the most fundamental
communication layer whereby devices communicate through the coding and modulation of information
into waveforms. In this research, we propose a novel wireless security scheme based on hybrid
Science, Engineering and Technology
encryption and channel pre-compensation at physical layer, to effectively exploit the uniqueness of
physical layer. In the proposed scheme, encryption is performed at physical layer for transforming the
signal constellation from the basic constellation into higher order transformation, so that it becomes
difficult for unauthorized eavesdroppers to detect what modulation scheme is used by the transmitter
and legitimate receiver. To further enhance the security level, the encrypted transmit signal is predistorted at the transmitter using channel pre-compensation, based on the channel state information
available at the transmitter. Since the channel state information in wireless communication is location
specific and also dynamically changing in nature, the pre-compensation pattern will also be naturally
location specific and changing from time to time. Thus it cannot be easily identified by unauthorized
eavesdroppers. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been proofed, by significant gap of
performance between legitimate and unauthorized users, in terms of BER (bit error rate), as well as,
error performances for image and sound transmission. The technology involves minor modifications in
the physical layer and will work in conjunction with any other security approach in the upper layer such
as WPA, WPA2, SSL, and so forth.
P-465
Safety Perception and Crime Experience in Gated and Non-Gated
Low Middle Income Housing in Malaysia: Case Studies from Kuala
Lumpur Metropolis
Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Aishath Abdulla
Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Aishath Abdulla
Urban and Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
A safe living environment is one of the fundamental needs a resident would want most. The question
is how safe is our living environment. The crime rate in Malaysia in the past years has increased
significantly. As a step to reduce these acts, Department of Town and Country Planning (JPBD),
introduced the ‘safe city program’ based in 2004. One of the ways to achieve this safe city is by
‘designing out crime’ in the residential neighborhoods. Oscar Newman’s defensible space
theory (1973), CPTED and 2nd generation CPTED are theories that have been applied in different parts
of the world to help in reducing crime at the residential neighborhoods. Among them putting up gates
and fences are being practiced to prevent crime. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the
effectiveness of gated communities (GCs), in providing a safe living environment for the residents in a
Malaysian context. Two communities, a gated and a non-gated community (NGC) were chosen for the
study. Relationship between residents’ safety perception and crime experiences and having gates
and fences were studied, compared and analyzed. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey
conducted with the residents of the apartments. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify the
connections between the different variables. The level of safety in the GC and NGC was identified and
analyzed concluding that the GC is not safer than NGC. The effectiveness of GC was evaluated by
comparing the safety perception of the residents and their crime experiences. It showed that crime rates
are higher in the GC than in the NGC. Recommendations were made based on the findings;
strengthening the target hardening features, improving the surveillance and building up neighborliness
were emphasized. Since this research is only confined to low-medium cost apartments, and the results
could be different for medium or high cost apartments, condominium and other residential units the
need for further studies were also indicated.
P-466
Comparative Assessment of Residents’ Satisfaction with Older
and
Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Ashim Oladimeji Ogundele
Mohammad Abdul Mohit, Ashim Oladimeji Ogundele
Urban and Regional Planning,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
Current rate of urbanization in Malaysia is 63% and it is projected that the rate will be 75% by the
year 2020. Although there are 170 urban centres in Malaysia, it is expected that the increase in urban
population will mostly concentrate in larger urban conurbations around Kuala Lumpur, Georgetown,
Johor Bahru and Kuantan, which receive most of the rural-uban migrants in the country. One outcome
of the rapid urbanization is the need to provide housing for the growing populace which initially started
in Kuala Lumpur in a low density fashion, but it gradually turn into high density because of increasing
land price and shortage of land in the core urban areas. The growth of condos in Kuala Lumpur during
last the two decades, as high density housing, is a respose to the growing demand for housing in the city.
So far housing research in Malaysia is focussed on public or private low-cost with little attention paid to
the growing condo sector. Therefore, a research need arises due to limited studies on the subject and
further that due to more than one reason, Malaysian middle class city dwellers prefer to live in condos
than their preferred terrace housing. Against the above backdrop, this paper provides a comparative
asessment of residents’ satisfaction with condominiums of different ages – older (>10 years) and
younger (<10 years) within the metropolis of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Three basic components of
satisfaction – dwelling unit variables, dwelling unit support services, neighbourhood and
management, have been studied. Two hundred respondents participated in the survey exercise with 100
residing in older condos and another 100 living in younger condos. Findings from the study indicate that
the residents of the older condos are not satisfied with the dwelling unit support services and
management and over 40% of the residents are also planning to relocate due to current housing
situation. On the contrary, the younger condo residents show a relatively high level of satisfaction with
the dwelling unit support services and they are moderately satisfied with condo management. The older
condos showed a more significant and positive relationship between the overall housing satisfaction and
the tested variables as compared to the younger condos due to the age differences between the two
types. Finally, the paper comes up with three basic issues where immediate attentions are required to
improve condo management and enhance residents’ satisfaction.
P-467
Structural determination of a new diterpene from Knema
patentinervia
Deny Susanti Darnis, Deny Susanti, Muhammad Taher, Mohd Fazlin RezaliDeny Susanti, Muhammad
Taher, Mohd Fazlin Rezali
Biomedical Science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
A new diterpene has been isolated from Knema patentinervia. The compound was isolated by
chromatographic methods and the structure was established by means of spectroscopic analysis such
ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. The compound showed no
inhibition on leukemia cancer cell growth.
P-471
Grain Refinement in Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds via Elemental
Powder Addition
Shahjahan Mridha, Shahjahan Mridha, Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AmudaShahjahan Mridha,
Muhammed Olawale Hakeem Amuda
Manufacturing and Marterials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Grain coarsening is a critical problem in fusion welded ferritic stainless steel leading to poor ductility
and lower notch-toughness. In these steels, the refinement of the weld grain size during post weld
solidification is not feasible due to the absence of any phase/polymorphic transformation. However, it
might be possible to induce grain refinement in the weld via inoculation to create heterogeneous
nucleants among many other techniques. This is usually achieved by adding the inoculants as electrode
flux coatings or producing experimental steels that contains the elemental inoculants. This process is
Science, Engineering and Technology
tedious and quite expensive as well. In the present work, grain refinement in medium chromium ferritic
stainless steel weld was attempted via elemental powder pre-placement technique. A Box-Behnken
experimental design was adopted with current, travel speed and amount of elemental powder as the
process factors under TIG torch melting. The weld was characterized using optical microscopy, X-ray
diffractometer and microhardness tester. The degree of grain refinement achieved was estimated using
an innovative index known as Grain Refinement Index.
P-472
Exploratory Study on Grain Refinement in Medium Chromium
Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds Via Cryogenic Cooling
Muhammed Olawale Hakeem Amuda, Muhammed Olawale Hakeem Amuda, Shahjahan
MridhaMuhammed Olawale Hakeem Amuda, Shahjahan Mridha
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The grain coarsening phenomenon in fusion welded ferritic stainless steel may be controlled by
ensuring faster heat transfer dynamics. This may be achieved by enhancing the solidification dynamics.
Cryogenic cooling offer means for ensuring faster cooling from the grain coarsening temperature. In the
present work, exploratory study is conducted on grain refinement in medium chromium ferritic stainless
steel weld via cryogenic cooling. It emerged from the study that grain refinement averaged 25% in
cryogenic liquid environment with production of equiaxed grains. The weld width to depth ratio also
reduces correspondingly. The refinement in the cryogenic liquid is due to the steep thermal gradient
provided by the cooling liquid leading to improved mechanical properties.
P-475
Differential Transducer Measuring Micro-level Fluid Measurement
For DCS Applications
SHEROZ KHAN, SHEROZ KHAN, AHMED AWADH BIN OMAIRAH , ABDULLAH SALEM
ALAMODI, ASIHA HASSAN ABDELLAH, ANIS NOR ASHIKINSHEROZ KHAN, AHMED AWADH
BIN OMAIRAH , ABDULLAH SALEM ALAMODI, ASIHA HASSAN ABDELLAH, ANIS NOR ASHIKIN
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this project is to develop a system to monitor and control a plant or equipments for
advanced control systems in industrial processes applications such as Distributed Control System
through wireless communication protocol.
This project focuses on acquiring a signal from a differential transducer which is combined with a
resistive liquid level sensor and transmit the acquired signal wirelessly to the coordinator controller.
The differential resistive transducer converts a very small change on resistance such as 1Ω into a
pulse with width its proportional to change in resistances which represents the measured liquid level.
Simulation is done to show the efficiency of this circuit for making measurement in resistance
changes in the 1Ω range. Moreover, the experimental results reflect a good linearity and accuracy of
this circuit where resistance changes from 1Ω to 10Ω are realized to show the performance and
validity of the cirucit.
The simplicity of the converter makes it suitable for smart sensors implementation, which gives a
digital output directly connectable to a microcontroller that carries ZigBee features and stack.
The working principle is that a ramp voltage is applied to each input of the two resistance-tunable
Schmitt triggers whose threshold voltages are proportional to resistance values.
We have developed a graphical user interface to enable the user to monitor a multi-node star network
through ZigBee protocol. The system performance is supported by the validation of the experimentally
obtained under adverse conditions including studying the effect of WiFi on the ZigBee-to-ZigBee signal
transmission.
The directionality of the system is validated through another experimental plot obtained in a clear
line of situation with varying degree orientation of directions.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-494
COURTYARD ORIENTATION AND PHYSICAL BUILT FORM
– IMPLICATION ON ITS MICROCLIMATE: A CASE STUDY
OF KAED COURTYARDS
Aniza Abu Bakar, Noor Aziah Mohd. AriffinNoor Aziah Mohd. Ariffin
Department of Landscape Architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Courtyards have been integrated as part of spaces designed for private and public buildings, namely
residential buildings, hotels, colleges, hospitals and others. Courtyards are said to have the potential to
bring nature within a building and moderate nature’s extreme.
The orientations and shapes of courtyards can be influenced by the planning of the site in terms of its
street layout (grid pattern) and sun path. In less restricted or non-restricted areas, courtyards are oriented
at the north-south/east-west or at 45°. The latter orientation is considered as ‘democratic’ in
terms of its sunlight distribution on the façades throughout the year. However, this depends on regions
and whether solar radiation is favourable.
In regions where direct sunlight is unfavourable, like Kuala Lumpur, rectangular elongated east-west
courtyard is preferred because of the maximum shaded area obtained and its advantage especially in
preventing the longer facades to be exposed to the direct sunlight when compared to the rectangular
elongated north-south courtyard.
Thus, this research is intended to investigate the microclimate shaped by the design and physical
built form of courtyards by looking into the courtyard’s dimension, orientation and built form. The
climatical parameters studied are the wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity,
rainfall and solar radiation. As for the physical built form, the dimension of the courtyard, its
orientation, and degree of openness to the sky are being considered. It is hypothesized that the solar
orientation has certain impact on the microclimate of the courtyard, and it is also affected by the
physical built form of the courtyard.
The methods adopted for this research includes shadow simulation using SketchUp software,
investigation on the courtyards’ physical form and dimensions, and collection of the climatical
parameters mentioned for each level of the courtyards. Thus, these factors are set to be studied to see
their co-relationship.
P-496
Influence of Impeller Type, Speed and bottom clearance on FAME
yield during Waste Cooking Oil Transesterification
AKM Mohiuddin, Nabeel Adedapo Adeyemi, AKM Mohiuddin, Tariq JameelNabeel Adedapo Adeyemi,
AKM Mohiuddin, Tariq Jameel
Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
At 6:1 alcohol: oil mole ratio, the Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) L9 method was used to design an
experiment for WCO transesterification in a stirred reactor using Rushton and Elephant ear impellers.
Using three reactor parameters (temperature, impeller speed and bottom distance). An optimum
condition of 70ºC, 650 rpm impeller speed and impeller bottom distance of 30 mm for Rushton
impeller and 70ºC, 700 rpm impeller speed and impeller bottom distance of 25 mm using an elephant
ear impeller were used to obtain FAME yield of 89-94%. From the Signal noise (SN) ratio of the mean
effect, the bottom impeller distance and speed were observed to have the most significant effect on yield
using the Rushton and elephant ear impeller respectively. This result shows the significance of internal
physical configuration in stirrer reactor, which subsequently affected FAME yield.
P-509
Potential of E. Crassipes and N. nucifera for monitoring Heavy
Metal Contaminants at more than 1000 Ex-mining areas at Kampar,
Science, Engineering and Technology
Perak
RASHIDI OTHMAN, Rashidi Othman, Ruhul ‘Izzati Shaharuddin, Izawati TukimanRashidi Othman,
Ruhul ‘Izzati Shaharuddin, Izawati Tukiman
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The aim of the research is to study the potential of aquatic plant species to be used as biomonitoring
of heavy metal pollutants at more than 1000 ex-mining areas at Kampar, Perak which was well-known
for high tin reserves previously. Increasing industrialization and urbanization leading to the degradation
of the environment. Water bodies and abandoned mining pond are the main targets for disposing the
pollutants directly or indirectly. In fact, heavy metals are the main hazardous contents of water pollution
and cannot be degraded. Thus, ecological engineering offers a simple, cheap and energy efficient
method of treating polluted water and wastewater. In this study, the elemental concentrations in water
were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analytical data obtained demonstrate
high heavy metal pollutants concentration in water especially Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), and Iron (Fe).
However, certain heavy metal showed high concentration and exceeded the limits of recommended
range by Canadian standard (CCME)-protection of aquatic life and Interim National Water Quality
Standard (INWQS) class II. The results indicate that E. Crassipes and N. nucifera has the ability to
accumulate these metals from water, making it a good candidate species for monitoring heavy metal
contaminants at ex-mining area. Therefore in can be concluded that heavy metals run-off that polluted
over 100 ex-mining area at Kampar can be easily monitored by using phytotechnology rather than
taking water samples for monthly or annually
P-519
Parameter Identification for an Autonomous Quadrotor
Ari Legowo, Norafizah Abas, Ari Legowo, Rini AkmeliawatiNorafizah Abas, Ari Legowo, Rini
Akmeliawati
Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In recent times, Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s) represent a useful class of flying robots and
have attracted considerable interest for a wide variety of different applications. An autonomous fourrotor UAV like quadrotor have found potential applications in military purposes, civilian purposes as
well as research and development program which need flying vehicles to perform various experiments.
Quadrotor is referring to a small agile vehicle that has four rotors located at the front, rear, left, and right
ends of a cross frame. It requires no cyclic or collective pitch. Quadrotor can be highly maneuverable,
has the potential to hover, take off, fly and land in small areas and needs only simple control
mechanisms. It is mechanically simple and is controlled by only changing the speed of rotation for the
four rotors. In this research, development of an autonomous quadrotor vehicle will be studied. A
commercially available remote controlled (R/C) quadrotor will be modified; the electronics that come
with the R/C quadrotor will be replaced with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), an ultrasonic sensor,
and a microcontroller. The sensor will be used to measure the test data through data acquisition. Then,
the unknown parameter will be identified using state estimation method that to implement the
Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). The UKF is an efficient recursive filtering technique used to estimate
the state of a dynamic system from a series of incomplete and noisy measurements. It needs the previous
time step and the current measurement to compute the estimation for the current state. In contrast with
other techniques no history of observations and/or estimates is required. After obtaining all the
parameter needed, a PID controller will be designed and simulated using MATLAB. Finally, all the
hardware and software will be integrated and tested.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-520
Multiple-surface sliding mode control for 3DOF helicopter
Rini Akmeliawati, Mostafa A. Hamood, Rini Akmeliawati , Ari LegowoMostafa A. Hamood, Rini
Akmeliawati , Ari Legowo
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The three degree of freedom (3DOF) helicopter is a simplified model that is used to study the
behaviours of the helicopters. It is an example of a so- called underactuated mechanical system that has
a fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom. Application of multiple-surface sliding mode control to
such model looks attractive, that is because the ability of this method to stabilize the underactuated
systems and also it has the ability to deal with uncertainties that usually accompany to such systems. In
this paper, a multiple-surface sliding mode is proposed to control the elevation and travel angles of the
3DOF helicopter.
P-521
Development of Control System for a Small Rocket
Ari Legowo, Ari Legowo, Farah Hanan Othman, Siti Nabilah Ahmad azharAri Legowo, Farah Hanan
Othman, Siti Nabilah Ahmad azhar
Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The aim of this project is to design a control system for IIUM Rocket. The control system is mainly
consisting of a step motor and arm specially designed to fit in the rocket’s body. However, to design
the control system, the exact deflection of canard must be found. Before that, the shifting of the centre
of gravity of the rocket is calculated. The major challenge faced was the calculation of the forces. This
is because as the propellant is being burn, the centre of gravity of the rocket is shifting. Therefore, lost
of our time were spent on these calculations. Moreover, the sensitivity of the calculations involved was
quite high since the slightest change in one variable resulted in changes of other values. Furthermore,
understanding of the mechanism of step motor also took a lot of time. We have used Microsoft Excel
2007 worksheet for the calculations and CATIA V5R17 to design the controller’s arm. From this
research, we have found the shifting of centre of gravity, aerodynamic forces, deflection of canard,
moment and step pulse required to be applied to counter the canard’s deflection.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-522
Merging Autopilot/flight control and navigation-flight management
Systems
Ari Legowo, Ari Legowo, Rini Akmeliawati, Khaleel AlrahmanAri Legowo, Rini Akmeliawati, Khaleel
Alrahman
Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The existing Autopilot Flight Director System (APFDS), Flight Control System (FCS), and Flight
Management Systems (FMS) perform functions that are dependant and related to each other, also they
consists of similar hardware components. Each of these systems consists of at least one computer,
control panels, and displays that exhibits selection and aircraft response. They receive several similar
sensor inputs, or outputs of one system is fed as input to the other system. By combining the three
systems, repeated and related functions are reduced. Since these systems perform related functions,
designers and programmers verify that conflict between these systems is not present ( if such occur
regulatory agncyies as FAA/IESA issue rules to modify the equipemnt to eliminate such anomaly).
Combining the three systems will elminate such possibility. Also used space, weight, wires, &
connections are decreased, consequently electrical consumption is reduced. To keep redundancy, the
new system can be made of multiple channels.
P-532
Nanoscience in Advanced Characterization using Scanning Electron
Microscope
A. G. E. Sutjipto, Agus Geter Edy SutjiptoAgus Geter Edy Sutjipto
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A new technique in characterization of dielectric strength of insulator was invented. A scanning
electron microscope (SEM) is used not only to gather the surface image of materials but also to generate
surface breakdown that showing the dielectric strength of insulator. Nano-current density of energetic
electrons of a SEM can charge an uncoated insulator (dielectric material) and creating a surface
breakdown.
P-536
NAHAR (Mesua ferrea) SEED KERNEL: OIL EXTRACTION,
APPLICATIONS AND COMMERCIALIZATION POTENTIAL
Dr. mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani, Ahmed Idris
Adewale, Muyibi Suleyman Aremu, Jamal Ibrahim Daoud, Mikail Maryam AbimbolaMohamed
Elwathig Saeed Mirghani, Ahmed Idris Adewale, Muyibi Suleyman Aremu, Jamal Ibrahim Daoud,
Mikail Maryam Abimbola
BTE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The use of novel, natural antimicrobial agents and disinfectants which are bio-degradable, reasonably
cheap and readily available is attractive if their disinfection and bactericidal performances and efficacies
can be demonstrated to be good enough for a range of pathogens found in aqueous suspensions. This
work is thus aimed at determining the proximate composition of Nahar (Mesua ferrea) Seed Kernel
(NSK), its antimicrobial property and disinfection capability. The proximate composition was
determined using AOAC official methods, while the antimicrobial property was evaluated using agar
diffusion techniques and the disinfection kinetics was studied using heterotrophic plate count (HPC),
using Colony Forming Unit per milliliter (CFU/mL), pour plate method, 35 0C/ 48h, plate count agar.
The proximate analysis of NSK revealed that the seed kernel contained 3.55±0.50% moisture content,
80.0±2.0 % crude oil, 1.50±0.20% crude protein, 1.25±0.20% ash content and 13.70±0.73%
carbohydrate. The antimicrobial assay of the oils showed a remarkable inhibition zone against all the
tested bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus
Science, Engineering and Technology
aureus). The disinfection kinetics studies suggested that NSK oil fits first-order model and the kinetic
equation developed as;
CA = 25.23e– 0.040t
Where CA (CFU/mL) is the final residual concentration of bacteria upon treatment with 1.0 mg/mL
at a given time t (minutes)
Key Words: Antimicrobial, Disinfection Kinetics, Extraction, Nahar (Mesua ferrea) Seed Kernel
(NSK), Proximate Composition.
P-542
Natural Quinolone antimicrobial agents from Malaysian Rutaceous
Species
Norazian Mohd Hassan, Norazian Mohd Hassan,Muhamad Zakaria,Nurhaya Md Taib,Laina Zarisa
Mohd Kamal,Khairul Anuar Abdul Karim, May Khin Soe.Norazian Mohd Hassan,Muhamad
Zakaria,Nurhaya Md Taib,Laina Zarisa Mohd Kamal,Khairul Anuar Abdul Karim, May Khin Soe.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Natural quinolone antimicrobial agents from Malaysian Rutaceous Species
Norazian Mohd Hassan, Muhamad Zakaria, Nurhaya Md Taib, Laina Zarisa Mohd Kamal, Khairul
Anuar Abdul Karim, May Khin Soe.
Various 4-oxygenated and 2-substituted 4-quinolone alkaloids with diverse structural types have
been isolated and were found unique to the Rutaceae plant family. Some of these alkaloids have been
demonstrated to have promising antimicrobial activity. These alkaloids possess chromophore with some
structural similarities to that of the pharmacophore of the conventional 4-quinolone antimicrobial
agents. Therefore it is presumed that this type of natural quinolone alkaloid could also share the same
activity as the conventional agents. Three Malaysian Rutaceous species have been investigated for their
natural quinolone antimicrobial agents, namely Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC., Lunasia amara
Blanco and Ruta angustifolia (L.) Pers. Bioassay-guided isolation facilitated by using bioautographic
agar overlay assay against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 35213 and
Candida albicans ATCC 90028 as the indicator microbes has led to the isolation of antimicrobial 4quinozolone alkaloid, identified as arborine, 2-quinolone namely lunidonine and 4-quinolone with the
trivial name graveoline from G. pentaphylla, L. amara and R. angustifolia, respectively. These alkaloids
possessed promising antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged
between 125 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml against the tested microbes. Arborine and graveoline showed
synergistic antimicrobial effect when tested in combination with ampicillin against E. coli with FIC
index of 0.38 for each combination. These results found a great importance in view to find new
structural type in overcoming the emergence of quinolone resistance against some microbes which has
been a disturbing feature of microbial infections.
Keywords: Natural quinolone, antimicrobial agents, Malaysian Rutaceae
P-543
Design of a Novel Walking Gait for Humanoid System
Amir Akramin Shafie, Md. AkhtaruzzamanMd. Akhtaruzzaman
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Designing a suitable and efficient gait for the Biped Intelligent Machine (BIM) is a complex task.
Nowadays many researchers are engaged on this field to make the humanoid more adaptable, intelligent
and representable to the dynamic environment. In this paper a Geometrical Analysis Technique (GAT)
is presented to identify the movements and positions of the Center of Gravity (CoG) of a humanoid
system while it balancing itself in the Single Support (SS) mode. SS mode while standing on single leg
is a very critical job for a bipedal system. In this paper the GAT is described and analyzed to design the
novel gait and it is implemented on a bipedal humanoid robot, BIOLOID kit, for standing on a single leg
Science, Engineering and Technology
during Single Support (SS) mode, Natural Walking Gait for flat surface, Turning Gait, Gait for step up
and down stairs and obstacle overcoming. The attempt of this simple project is considered as the initial
step to establish a natural, human like gait for the BIM. The GAT focuses on changing characteristics of
the CoG point of the bipedal system. The actuator movement patterns are also resulted and scrutinized
in the result section to identify the behavior of the angular positions. Bipedal humanoid systems have a
better mobility to move on the rough terrains, steep stairs, inclined surface and obstacle environments.
So, walking pattern synthesis is one of the major topics of interest in the field of humanoid robot
research.
P-547
Mathematical Analysis and Geometrical Representation of Musical
Rhythm and a Novel Strategy Based on Multi Polygonal Model
Amir Akramin Shafie, Md AkhtaruzzamanMd Akhtaruzzaman
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Representation and measuring the similarities between Musical Rhythms are fundamental problems
in computational music theory. It also becomes an interesting problem in computer science, particularly
in computational geometry. Basically a Rhythm is nothing but a combination of some claps and waves
and a common way to represent a Rhythm is as binary format, ‘1’ indicating clap or sound and
‘0’ indicating wave or silent. Rhythm is the key element of Music and to identify the properties of
Music, it is necessary to understand its hidden Rhythm. To understand the Rhythm it is important to
analyze the characteristics of it. In this paper, the mathematical representation system, proposed by
Toussaint, is studied with a view to building up a classification system that can categorize the Rhythms.
This representation can be considered as a Single Polygonal Model (SPM) which is also applied to
represent some North Indian Musical Rhythms (NIMR). The paper also proposed a Novel Multipolygonal Model (MPM) to avoid some complexity to represent the Critical North Indian Rhythms.
Here the term ‘Critical North Indian Rhythm (CNIR)’ is used to indicate the Rhythms those are
totally impossible to represent based on the single polygonal model. For similarity measurement,
Turning Function (TF) strategy is used to measure the distance among the polygonal structures of
Rhythms. Based on the distances some graphical representations are also established and scrutinized
where various types of Phylogenetic Trees are used to build up the classification trees. Basically the
paper exemplifies the visual structure of Rhythms having various characteristics and their comparison
results to establish the classification system which are very important in Musical Similarity
measurement and prevent the Music Piracy.
P-549
Optimization of Process Condition for Isolation of Glutathione
(GSH) from Garlic Bulbs
Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Nur Izzah Ismail, Najibah Omar @ Halim, Parveen Jamal, Hamzah
Mohd Salleh, Faridah Yusof, Azura Amid, Irwandi Jaswir, Mohamed Elwathig, Ibrahim Ali
NoorbatchaNur Izzah Ismail, Najibah Omar @ Halim, Parveen Jamal, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Faridah
Yusof, Azura Amid, Irwandi Jaswir, Mohamed Elwathig, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol compound in mammalian and other living organisms. It
has a great variety of clinhical applications due to its significant physiological functions and also has
important role as ingredients in food and cosmetic. This study focuses on the isolation of GSH from
garlic bulb to explore the potential of garlic as an alternative halal source of GSH. The garlic was
chosen due to its pungent smell, indicating the presence of sulphur which coincides with the glutathione
pathway. The isolation process was carried out using homogenizer at selected process conditions which
are garlic concentration (%w/v), isolation time (s), homogenizer’s rotation speed (rpm) and process
temperature (ËšT). The optimization was carried out using Central Composite Face-Centered (CCF)
design at four parameters with three levels (MODDE 9, Umetrics, Sweden). GSH concentration was
determined using spectrophotometric method. The highest GSH concentration (1.304 g/mL) was
Science, Engineering and Technology
obtained when using 50% garlic (w/v) at 10000 rpm/30 s/20ËšC. Although this work has not reached
the optimal region based on the response surface methodology, it has set a direction for further
improvement of the extraction process conditions to obtain an alternative halal source for GSH. Future
work will focus on refining the optimization using both simulation tool (Optimizer) in the MODDE 9
software as well as empirical work.
P-550
GCMS-based Metabolomics (Global Metabolite Analysis) of CHO
Cells at Different Growth Phases
Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Salfarina Ezrina Mohmad Saberi, Vasila Packeer Mohammed, Azura
Amid, Raha Ahmad Raus, Maizirwan Mel, Micheal J. Gibney, Lorraine Brennan and Mohamed Al
RubeaiSalfarina Ezrina Mohmad Saberi, Vasila Packeer Mohammed, Azura Amid, Raha Ahmad Raus,
Maizirwan Mel, Micheal J. Gibney, Lorraine Brennan and Mohamed Al Rubeai
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mammalian cells have increasingly being used as tools to produce various bioproducts such as viral
vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, recombinant glycoproteins and blood clotting factors. An ideal
mammalian cell culture system would constitute high productivity at high cell density with minimum
metabolic ‘wastage’. A battery of analyses including biochemical and cell counting is commonly
performed as part of bioprocessing control measure to achieve the ideal system. Metabolomics (global
metabolite analysis) is capable to survey a large amount of metabolites within cells in a culture system.
It holds the potential as a single and or complementary analysis tool to understand and characterize the
cellular state and its dynamic relationships to the production of desired products. Our study aimed to
analyze metabolites of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells at different growth phases using (Gas
Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) GCMS. CHO-KI cells producing insulin-like growth factor-I
(IGF1) were obtained from ATCC. Cells were grown in T-flask and incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 until
70-80% confluent. Samples were taken at designated intervals for routine cell counting (trypan blue dye
exclusion method), biochemical responses (glucose, glutamine and lactate using YSI 2700 analyzer),
ammonia (Ammonia assay kit SIGMA-ALDERICH), total protein content (Bradford protein assay),
IGF1 expression (ELISA) and global metabolite analysis (GCMS). Conditioned media from each time
point were spun down before subjecting to direct injection in GCMS. Deconvoluted data from GCMS
was then transferred to SIMCA-P+ Version12 for chemometric evaluation using Principal Component
Analysis (PCA). The results show that the GCMS-based global metabolite analysis recovered a large
range of metabolites at different growth phases of CHO cells. The metabolites may be further
investigated to gain insights of the interaction of culture environment, cell growth behavior and
bioproducts production leading to use of metabolomics approach for rationalizing and optimizing
mammalisan cell culture-based bioprocessing.
P-551
On a cubic p-adic dynamical system
Farrukh Mukhamedov, Wan Nur Fairuz Alwani Bt Wan RozaliWan Nur Fairuz Alwani Bt Wan Rozali
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Applications of p-adic numbers in p-adic mathematical physics and many others braches of
mathematics stimulated increasing interest in the study of p-adic dynamical systems. On the other hand,
the study of p-adic dynamical systems arises in Diophantine geometry in the constructions of canonical
heights, used for counting rational points on algebraic vertices over
a number field. Also some applications of p-adic dynamical systems to some biological, physical
systems were investigated by many researchers. The most studied discrete p-adic dynamical systems
(iterations of maps) are the so-called monomial systems. Very recently perturbated monomial
dynamical systems have been studied. It was investigated the connection between monomial and
perturbated monomial systems. These investigations show that the study of perturbated dynamical
systems is important. Even for a quadratic function , its chaotic behavior is complicated. The aim of
Science, Engineering and Technology
this work is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of a cubuc p-adic dynamical system, which is a
generalization of the p-adic logistic map. In the work we consider all possible cases of the perturbated
term with respect to the parameter a. Note that globally attracting sets play an important role in
dynamics, restricting the asymptotic behavior to certain regions of the phase space. However,
descriptions of the global attractor can be difficult as it may contain complicated chaotic dynamics.
Therefore, we investigate the basin of attraction of such a dynamical system. Moreover, we also
describe the Siegel discs of the system, since the structure of the orbits of the system is related to the
geometry of the p-adic Siegel discs
P-559
Developing a New Fade Slope Prediction Model for Terrestrial
Microwave Propagation
Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Jalel Chebil, Al Hareth Zayuod, Hassan DaoMd. Rafiqul Islam,
Jalel Chebil, Al Hareth Zayuod, Hassan Dao
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Rain fade refers to the absorption and scattering of a microwave signal by rain drops which become a
critical issue at frequencies above 10 GHz. Knowledge of the dynamics characteristics of rain fade is
important for communication system designs since it determines the system availability and assigns the
system resource. It is also very essential information for implementation of fade mitigation techniques.
Limited research has been conducted on rain fade dynamics modeling and prediction. Those researches
were conducted on rain fade dynamics data collected from the temperate regions not the tropical areas,
where the rain intensity is very high. Prediction models which are available in literature and adopted by
International Telecommunication Union – Radio (ITU-R) have been proposed for earth to satellite
links only and not for terrestrial links. In this project 16 months measured rain attenuation data in
Malaysia for six microwave links at four different frequencies (15, 23, 26 and 38 GHz) were analyzed.
Fade slope for terrestrial links was investigated, and compared to models proposed by ITU-R for
those parameters. Significant discrepancies have been observed with prediction models and measured
data. It was found that, ITU-R model did not fit the measured data for attenuation level higher than 4
dB. None of six link’s measured fade slope data fit with ITU-R prediction models. A new modified
model for rain fade slope prediction has been proposed based on measured data. The proposed modified
fade slope model fits the measured data at all four frequencies and for all attenuation levels.
P-560
Sustainable Landfill Leachates and Greenhouse Gases
Intervensional Techniques
Nassereldeen Kabbashi, Nassereldeen. A. Kabbashi, MD. Zahangir Alam, Opatokun Suraj Adebayo,
and Salihu Aliyu. Tijani T.R.DNassereldeen. A. Kabbashi, MD. Zahangir Alam, Opatokun Suraj
Adebayo, and Salihu Aliyu. Tijani T.R.D
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The environmental and health implications of heavy metals from landfill leachates, greenhouse gases
from the landfill are currently of global concern. Landfill leachate treatment as end of pipe treatment
was interceded to ensure leachate quality and quantity and reduce GHG gas emission using Life Cycle
Inventory (LCI) of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).
IIUM Municipal Solid Wastes were characterized using simple waste audit and source separation
techniques, the study indicates that organic wastes generated are 75% by weight (18% by volume), 16%
by weight (53% by volume) are soiled papers and 9% by weight (29% by volume) are non –
compostable. Landfill leachate treatment as end of pipe treatment was interceded to ensure leachate
quality and quantity using Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). MSW
leachates from waste compactors were collected and analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC),
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD),
Science, Engineering and Technology
Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Zinc (TZn). Leachates pH ranges from 3.82 - 4.43, COD ≥ 33100
mg/l COD and ≤ 101900 mg/l COD, the TDS ranges from 2.45 to 10.10g/l, Conductivity range are
4.51 to 17.06 dS/m. The pollution potential indicator ratio of BOD/COD was also considered. These
parameters were compared with selected landfill leachates to estimate the efficacy of the natural
attenuation, while their correlation coefficients were discussed.
P-561
Effect of Extraction Methods on Microwave Attenuation Analysis
for Earth-to-Satellite Communication Links
Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Khalid AS. Al-Khateeb, Sheroz Khan, Jalel Chebil, Hassan Dao,
Al-Hareth ZyoudMd. Rafiqul Islam, Khalid AS. Al-Khateeb, Sheroz Khan, Jalel Chebil, Hassan Dao, AlHareth Zyoud
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Design of satellite communication systems is essentially required availability, statistical knowledge
of climatic propagation effects. Accurate information is required to model, develop and predict
attenuation on microwave signals for earth-satellite links. An efficient approach and model for
investigation and data analysis of such techniques is needed. This work analyzes and compares several
extraction methods based on MEASAT3 satellite beacon in Ku-Band that received by 2.4 m diameter
parabolic dish antenna at Satellite Lab in the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). The
effect of Propagation discrimination such as tropospheric scintillation and attenuation due to rain will be
present. Furthermore, variation of parameters such as cutoff frequencies, data sampling time and
filtering method will also be presented and analyzed how theses parameters affect accuracy of
extraction.
P-562
Optimization of bioremediation process of crude oil-contaminated
soil utilizing a waste as nutrient source
MA'AN ALKHATIB, Maan Fahmi Alkhatib, Md Zahangir Alam, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Iman A.F
HusainMaan Fahmi Alkhatib, Md Zahangir Alam, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Iman A.F Husain
BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Experimental work was carried out to bioremediate cude oil contaminated soil (COCS) using
bacterial consortium and domestic waste as nutrient source. The bacterial strains were isolated from
COCS by enrichment culture using minimal salt medium (MSM) with crude oil as sole carbon source.
The isolated strains were purified and monitored for their growth by monitoring the optical density
(OD600). Four bacterial consortiums were formed and monitored for their growth on MSM with crude
oil as sole carbon source. The fastest growing consortium (Cons.1) was selected for the kinetics study
and the biodegradability test in soil slurry. The biodegradability test showed 95.8% removal of TPH at
day 7 of incubation. The bioremdiation experiments were designed using DesignExpert 6.0.8 software
by optimizing the amount of TPH, microbial inoculum and the waste which are initially added to the
autoclaved soil. 15 runs were carried out for 13 days until no more microbial activity was noticed. The
optimum degradation obtained was 99.3% were the concentration has dropped from 4.417 to 0.033
g/100 g soil within 13 days.
P-563
Compression-feasible Encryption Model for Video Images.
Mohamed Abu Mualla, Mohamed Abu Mualla, Othman Khalifa, Aisha-Hassan A. HashimMohamed
Abu Mualla, Othman Khalifa, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim
Department of Electrical and Computer,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
Modern and conventional encryption methods normally result in a random data sequence which is
hard to be further compressed or shrink in addition to the random key sequence that was used to encrypt
it. Securing large volume of multimedia files stored on PCs. or transferred over network and exploiting
the high processing power of today microprocessors strike the need for an addition stage after the
encryption that deploy a lightweight encryption and decryption algorithm to reduce the size of such files
and hence the time to store and retrieve information.
In this research a new model for compression-feasible encryption for yuv video images based on
stream cipher plus a new method to generate the key sequence will be proposed along with the results
obtained, and finally the advantages of the new model are highlighted.
P-565
Design of a New Ultra Wide Band Antenna for Very High Capacity
Communication Systems
Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Shaker mm Alkaraki, Muhammad Feroze KhanMd. Rafiqul
Islam, Shaker mm Alkaraki, Muhammad Feroze Khan
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The development of ultra wideband antennas in the recent years has played an essential role to justify
the needs of high bandwidth and capacity demand over a wide frequency spectrum in the current
wireless communication systems. It can be used in the wireless communication as a solution for current
higher bandwidth demand amongst the users. Patch antennas are popular for their well known attractive
features, such as low profile, light weight and compatibility with Microwave Integrated Circuit (MIC)
and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC). But it suffers from serious limitations such as,
narrow bandwidth and low gain . However, in this project, rectangular microstrip patch antenna is
designed and fabricated to operate in UWB frequencies. During the design of the proposed patch
antenna new techniques based on slotted partial grounding were used and implemented. Moreover, the
proposed antenna operates over 14 GHz bandwidth ranging from 3 to 17 GHz and has an average gain
of 6 dB. The simulations were done by using the electromagnetic simulation software CST Microwave
Studio (CSTMWS). The simulated result is compared with the test results.
P-566
Media Optimization for Bioethanol Production from Sugar Cane
Molasses
Nassereldeen Kabbashi, Nassereldeen. A. Kabbashi, Md Z Alam, and Nur Rabbiha Binti
AbdullahNassereldeen. A. Kabbashi, Md Z Alam, and Nur Rabbiha Binti Abdullah
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Ethanol production was conducted by utilizing sugar cane molasses, and the ethanol producing
microorganism, Sacromyces cerevisae using fermentation method. Molasses was chosen because of its
low cost and its effect of having high yield of ethanol. The fermentation is done by using fermentation
media with nitrogen (NH4NO3) and potassium (KH2PH4) source. The presence of the Sacromyces
cerevisae helps to convert the sugar into ethanol. The experiment was conducted by varying media
compositions such as sugar cane molasses concentration, nitrogen source (NH4NO3) and potassium
source (KH2PH4). The optimization study was done to find the optimized media composition for
ethanol production from sugar cane molasses. All the experiment was conducted in shake flask. The
design of the experiment was conducted using Design Expert software (version 6.0.6). Analysis at every
12 hours interval was carried out for the concentration of remaining total sugar, the concentration of
ethanol produced and the quality of ethanol produced. The experiment showed that the optimum media
composition for ethanol production were at 1:5.5 molasses and water dilution (104.11 g/L) , 275 mg/L
of nitrogen source and 275 mg/L of potassium source. The finding of this project can be applied to
produce the bioethanol in large amount from low cost sugar cane molasses.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-567
Developing of Path Adjustment Factors for Dust Storm Attenuation
Prediction
Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Elfatih A. A. Elsheikh, Zain ElabdinMd.
Rafiqul Islam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Elfatih A. A. Elsheikh, Zain Elabdin
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dust storms are significant meteorological phenomena which occur for a significant percentage of
time in arid and semi arid areas especially at African Sahara and Middle East. Measurements at existing
microwave links have showed that the dust storms can potentially result in serious attenuation in signal
level especially at Ku band and higher frequencies with direct impact on telecommunications system
performance.
It has been found that the dust storm intensity is not uniformly distributed horizontally (terrestrial
links) and vertically (earth satellite links) around the area covered by the dust storm. Few prediction
models have been developed to calculate the attenuation due to dust storm in dB/km. However, to
predict the total attenuation due to dust storm that a microwave link might suffer, an path adjustment
factor is needed to account for the variation of dust storm intensity along the propagation path.In this
research an adjustment factor which reflects the variation of dust storm horizontally (terrestrial links)
and vertically (earth satellite links) has be developed based on the analysis of dust storm behavior
horizontally and vertically.
P-568
Evaluation of palm oil mill effluent treatment with concomitant
phenolics production by Aspergillus niger IBS-103ZA
Parveen Jamal, Zulkarnain Mohemed Idris, Prof. Dr. Md. Zahangir AlamZulkarnain Mohemed Idris,
Prof. Dr. Md. Zahangir Alam
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Previous results show that fermentation of POME with Aspergillus niger IBS-103ZA has
successfully increased the phenolic content and also antioxidant activities of the extract. In this study,
the potential use of Aspergillus niger IBS-103ZA to treat the effluent for removal of COD and heavy
metals were evaluated. The percentage of COD removal was very low. Only 24.44% of COD was
removed after 120 hours of fermentation period. Aspergillus niger IBS-103ZA biomass absorbed Pb2+
ions from POME more rapidly than Zn2+ ions. Within 24 hours of fermentation period, the percentage
removal of Pb2+ ions was 76.08%. The Pb2+ ions were totally removed after 72 hours of fermentation
period. The removal of Zn2+ ions from POME was not as efficient as Pb2+ ions. Only 24.79% of Zn2+
ions were removed after 120 hours of fermentation period. No Cd was detected in POME during the
study. Thus, treating POME via fermentation with Aspergillus niger IBS-103ZA not only increases its
value added product but also reduces the pollution load in the effluent.
P-570
Modeling and Control of Mobile Robots when Subjected to Wheel
Slips
Shahrul Naim Sidek,
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
For real wheeled mobile robot (WMR) applications, slip is natural phenomena and is required for the
robot to move. In high speed navigation on a terrain where friction coefficient is low, the effect of slips
will be exaggerated and can cause the performance of the WMR to become unstable. The expert driver
of a rally car on the other hand, uses slip to his advantage as he maneuvered the car stably even the
wheels slip at high speed by using his body inertia as sensor. In this project we propose to develop a
Science, Engineering and Technology
dynamic model of WMR that can navigate at high speed autonomously by using model-based
controller. This can result on better performance of WMR navigation and could produce more realistic
simulation scenario. In order to introduce slip in the model, we include slip constraint equations in the
dynamics of the generic nonholonomic WMR model thus introduce longitudinal and lateral slips as state
variables. The model is then validated through a series of experiments done under a structured
environment. The path following controller is then developed by using input-output feedback
linearization and the performance of the control scheme is shown in simulation study.
P-571
Using Affinity Set on Mining the Necessity of Computed
Tomography Scanning
Moussa Larbani, Yuh-Wen Chen 1,Moussa Larbani 2 , Tzung-Hung Li 1 and Chao-Wen Chen 3YuhWen Chen 1,Moussa Larbani 2 , Tzung-Hung Li 1 and Chao-Wen Chen 3
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Using Affinity Set on Mining the Necessity of Computed
Tomography Scanning
Yuh-Wen Chen 1,Moussa Larbani 2 , Tzung-Hung Li 1 and Chao-Wen Chen 3
Abstract
-Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging
method of tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to
generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of a patient
from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken
around a single axis of rotation. The scanning ofCT has become
an important tool in medical imaging to supplement X-rays and
medical ultrasonography. Although it is expensive, it is the best
tool to diagnose a large number of different disease entities;
especially, for the trauma patients in emergency room. In this
study, the trauma patients, who were treated by the CT
scanning are collected in order to discover the critical
knowledge; that is, what characteristics of trauma patients
would lead to the necessity of CT scanning? The data mining
model of affinity set and neural network (NN) are both used for
resolution and comparison. Finally, studying results show that
he affinity model performs better than the NN model, but the
collected data lacks the explanatory power in practices. Thus, a
further research is necessary.
P-573
Development of Identification System for Early Warning of Fruit
Flies
Aimi Shazwani Ghazali, Shahrul Na’im bin Sidek, Aimi Shazwani Ghazali, Siti Fatihah
ZulkifliShahrul Na’im bin Sidek, Aimi Shazwani Ghazali, Siti Fatihah Zulkifli
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
One of the main goals of the Malaysian National Agricultural Policy (NAP) is to increase
competitiveness and productivity in agricultural sector especially in fruit industry. The fruit industry has
increasingly contributed to the nation income from the high volume of trade of fruits like papaya,
watermelon, pineapple and mango. However, there are a few numbers of factors that could hamper the
fruit productivity in this country. One of the main problems faced by most of the fruit farmers is the fruit
flies. The flies are considered as quarantine pests and have caused countries to impose strict trade
barriers that also lead to total prohibition of the import of infected fruits from endemic countries. Recent
technique of managing the threat of the fruit flies can be further enhanced if the presence of the flies in
the farm area can be detected earlier. We have developed a system which is able to identify the fruit
Science, Engineering and Technology
flies and capable to give early warning to the farmer to take a precaution steps to control the situation.
The hardware of the system is composed of a set of through-beam sensors called photoelectric sensors.
The sensor is used to capture the voltage fluctuation due to the wing-beat pattern of the flies. The signal
is then processed using LABVIEW software to identify the fruit flies. An array of LEDs will illuminate
to signal the warning once the fruit fly is detected.
P-575
Palm Olein-in-Water Emulsion as Topical Delivery Vehicle for
Cassia Alata Extract
Kausar Ahmad, Mohd Sufian Nawi, Muhammad Taher, Kausar AhmadMohd Sufian Nawi, Muhammad
Taher, Kausar Ahmad
Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Many studies reported that the crude water and the ethanol extracts of Cassia alata (C. alata) have
anti-fungal and antibacterial activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of the
C.alata crude extracts on microbial properties and stability of the palm olein emulsion, which served as
vehicle for topical delivery of the extract. Water, ethanol and 50% (v/v) ethanol/water crude extracts of
C. alata were obtained by maceration method. Base emulsion containing 20% (w/w) palm olein with
25% (w/w to oil) mixed surfactants of Span 20 and Tween 20 at effective HLB of 10.5, thickened with
0.3% (w/w) of Carbopol 940 were prepared by direct homogenisation at room temperature. Emulsions
consisting up to 8 mg/g C. alata extracts were prepared by addition of the solutions of extract residues in
water and polypropylene glycol into the base emulsion. The extent of the creaming of the emulsion, the
change in oil droplet size and the rheological properties of the emulsions during storage were monitored.
The ethanol bark extract and leaf water extract of C. alata at a concentration of 30 microgram per
microlitre can be used as antifungal agents against Candida albicans. As antibacterial agents against
Staphylococcus aureus, the leaf water extract and the bark ethanol extract were effective at
concentrations of 15 and 10 microgram per microlitre respectively. Using the right formulation, C. alata
extracts have the potential to be used as antimicrobial drugs against certain microorganisms and could
be delivered in topical emulsion form while maintaining palm olein-in-water emulsion stability
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-576
Development of Artificial Neural Network Simulator for Prediction
of Wastewater Treatment Plant Parameters
Mohammed Saedi, Mustapha Mujel and Nassereldeen A. KabbashiMustapha Mujel and Nassereldeen
A. Kabbashi
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) simulation is very complicated due to the complex nature of the
system that consists of physical, chemical and biological interactions of the process. It is difficult for
deterministic model to combine all the ecological situations as a whole for proper performance
evaluation. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as a black box model has the advantage of integrating
various operation situations of a system and modeled it for proper simulation. The paper explore the
theory of ANN using feed forward back-propagation algorithm and developed a simulation
environment for the prediction of wwtp performance using data acquired from Bandar Tun Razak
Sewage treatment plant (STP) Kuala Lumpur. The study found out that effluent Biological Oxygen
Demand (BODout) prediction by the model is satisfactory for process evaluation. A coefficient of
determination (R2) and mean square error (MSE) for BODout was found to be 0.8239 and 0.1443
respectively.
P-577
A NOVEL BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF
PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME)
Ahmad Tariq Jameel, Abass O. Alade, Ahmad T. Jameel, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Mohamed I. Abdul
Karim, Md Zahangir AlamAbass O. Alade, Ahmad T. Jameel, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Mohamed I. Abdul
Karim, Md Zahangir Alam
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Palm oil mill effluent is a high strength organic wastewater, which adversely affect the aquatic life as
well as the human life directly or indirectly. This has attracted much attention due to the rapid
expansion of the oil palm industries in countries like Malaysia and Indonesia which currently contribute
about 80% of the world palm oil. The conventional treatment techniques have reported to be less
effective for the increasing volume of POME as well as the new stringent wastewater standards. The use
of semifluidised bed bioreactor containing immobilized cells for the biodegradation of various high
strength organic wastewater have been reported as highly efficient treatment method . The fluidized bed
operation in process industries, especially its application in the cracking of crude oil and petrochemical
industries is well known owing to intimate contact of fluid phases resulting into efficient heat and mass
transfer between phases and high conversion rate. In the treatment of waste water and POME, fluidized
bed operation has obvious advantage of obviating blockage and providing large contact area between
fluid phase and immobilized catalyst on solid support. This results into high rate of biodegradation of
organic pollutants and subsequent reuse of immobilized catalyst. Semifluidized bed operations are
sometimes preferable to avoid attrition and damage of immobilized catalyst thus enhancing the lifetime
of catalyst for effective usage. Thus, in order to address the increasing environmental impact of POME
in the palm oil producing nations, the application of semifluidised bed bioreactor as a novel technology
for the treatment of POME in the palm oil industry will be of immense benefit, economically and
environmentally. Here we present an overview of fluidized bed operation for the aerobic digestion of
organic waste in POME with special reference to oil and grease. The role of fluidized/semifluidized bed
operation and its current state of the arts technology and future applications in waste water treatment,
especially POME are highlighted.
P-579
WATER FROM WASTE: EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE
TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT
Mohammed Saedi, Mohammed Saedi, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Idris Munirat AboloreMohammed Saedi,
Science, Engineering and Technology
Suleyman A. Muyibi, Idris Munirat Abolore
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The production of palm oil results in the generation of huge quantities of polluting wastewater
commonly known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). POME is a thick brownish liquid that contains
high amount of total solids, oil and grease, chemical oxidation demand (COD), biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD), and if not properly treated, can disrupt the natural ecosystem and pose a serious threat
to human health. However, with the stringent regulations on discharge of waste into the environment,
there is need to retrofit the existing biological system by adding tertiary treatment in form of coagulation
to remove contaminants in order to meet the current discharge regulations. This paper compares the use
of coagulants ferric chloride and aluminium sulphate to reduce turbidity that is associated with the
effluent. Series of batch coagulation and flocculation processes with ferric chloride and aluminum
sulphate under different conditions, i.e. dosage and pH were conducted in order to determine their
optimum conditions. Polyacrylamide was used as coagulant aid and its optimum dose was also
determined. The result of the coagulation process showed that ferric chloride gave a better reduction of
turbidity at dosage of 100 mg/L, pH of 8 and with polyacrylamide (coagulant aid) dose of 100mg/L than
alum.
P-580
Potential of soil colour properties to predict shallow slope failure
RASHIDI OTHMAN, Rashidi Othman, Shahima Shafiai, Noor Shakilah Mhd Radzi, Muhammad
‘Ariff Haji Kamarudin, Luthfi Anuar and Muhammad Hazrin GhafarRashidi Othman, Shahima
Shafiai, Noor Shakilah Mhd Radzi, Muhammad ‘Ariff Haji Kamarudin, Luthfi Anuar and
Muhammad Hazrin Ghafar
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Landslides in Malaysia have always seen as serious issue and posed severe threats to any settlements
and structures that support transportation, natural resources, as well as tourism. In fact, the geology of
Malaysia is quite stable, unfortunately, excessive development and urbanization leads to deforestation
and weathering and erosion of the covered soil masses causing serious threat to slopes. The extent of
damages could be reduced or minimized if a long-term early warning system predicting the landslide
prone areas would have been in place. The aim of the research is identifying the soil colour properties to
be manipulated as indicator to forecast shallow slope failure. It mainly focuses on soil chemical
properties and soil physical properties through soil sampling at selective stable and unstable slope at
different locality. The study illustrates the initial consideration to use soil colour properties as an
indicator for shallow slope failure for future development. Though many factors may contribute to the
potential of slope failure but this research is aiming on the identifying differences of physical properties
and chemical properties of stable and unstable soil based on soil colour. As a result, the indicator to
predict shallow slope failure is ranged from 5YR to 10YR based on Munsell soil colour chart. The hue
that indicate stable slope are between 2.5 YR - 5YR while the hue that indicate unstable slope are
between 5YR – 10YR. This due to high contents of clay and sand that affect the soil colour to
yellowish, red and whitish.
P-583
STUDIES ON CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
STABLE AND UNSTABLE SLOPE OF HIGHLY WEATHERED
SOIL (OXISOLS)
RASHIDI OTHMAN, Rashidi Othman, Noor Shakilah Mhd Radzi, Shahima Shafiai, Muhammad
‘Ariff Haji Kamarudin, Luthfi Anuar and Muhammad Hazrin GhafarRashidi Othman, Noor
Shakilah Mhd Radzi, Shahima Shafiai, Muhammad ‘Ariff Haji Kamarudin, Luthfi Anuar and
Muhammad Hazrin Ghafar
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
Shallow slope failure is the problem that seem like have no ending in the highway construction field
in Malaysia. Most of the oxisols in Malaysia is highly weathered and thus it is essential to study the soil
properties between stable and unstable slope in terms of physical and chemical characteristics that will
lead to the factors of shallow slope failure. The aim of the study is to compare stable and unstable slope
of oxisols soil in term of physical and chemical properties. Chemically, clay contents, micronutrient
contents, soil texture, soil pH value, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon contents, nitrogen
contents, phosphorus content, and heavy metal contents such as Fe3+, Fe2+, Mg2+, and Al3+ are the
important elements in soil that could make the soil structure strong or weak. All of them have various
relationships to each other as binding agents that affects the strong soil structure. Shallow slope failure
have strong relationship between CEC and hydrogen content in the soil because both play an important
role in binding the negative and positive charges in soil that lead to the stability of the soil structure.
Furthermore, water elements also cannot be neglected since the shallow slope failure happen at the
study site happened after continuous raining from two to three days and it’s have strong relationship
with soil texture. Based from the results, indicators that can be used to predict shallow slope failure are
low content of Plumbum (Pb), Aluminum (Al), Nickel (Ni), high content of Chromium (Cr), low
content of micronutrients, nitrogen (N), organic carbon, CEC, Phosphorus (P), and pH.
P-585
ENHANCEMENT OF DEWATERING PROPERTIES OF
SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
Mohammed Saedi, Mohammed S. Jami, Tariq Jameel, Mardhiah Farhanah Bt Noor IzanMohammed S.
Jami, Tariq Jameel, Mardhiah Farhanah Bt Noor Izan
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This work reports the results on enhancement of dewaterability of sludge using kaolin synthetic
sludge as model material by addition of cationic polyacylamide (PAM-C) in the presence of surfactants
which is anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this study, kaolin synthetic sludge was used as
model material as it has similar property of being very difficult to dewater like sludge. Previous study
reported that pretreating the kaolin with surfactants can further increase or decrease settling rate
depending on the type of surfactants and concentratioons used. However, the flocs formed showed
better filtration and dewatering behavior in terms of reduction in specific cake resistance to filtration
(SRF) and cake moisture content. In this study, the kaolin synthetic sludge dewaterability was enhanced
by addition of flocculant and surfactant. The results of different concentration of PAM-C – SDS
combinations used was compared and optimized. Sludge dewaterability was expressed in terms of
settling rate and specific resistant of cake to filtration (SRF) for various concentration and combination
of dewatering aids. Accordingly the optimum concentration of PAM-C and SDS are found to be 0.96
mg/g and 0.25 mg/g, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the optimal dosage of flocculantssurfactants combination was tested on actual sludge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).
P-586
Fern Species as potential phytoindicator to forecast microclimate
changes at urban area
rashidi othman, Rashidi Othman,Nur Hanie Mohd Latiff, Mohd Arami Md Jais, Izawati
TukimanRashidi Othman,Nur Hanie Mohd Latiff, Mohd Arami Md Jais, Izawati Tukiman
landscape architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The aim of the research is to explore the potential of fern species in landscape ecology, as natural
indicators to forecast the microclimate changes in the urban area and at the same time can be applied in
landscape design. Ferns which also called as pteridophyte are not only valuable in term of its ethnobotany uses such as food and medicine but also useful in ecological values. For example, fern can be
used to treat unhealthy environment such as absorbing the methane gas, fertilizing the land and to treat
heavy metal such as arsenic. Fern also can be used as an ecological indicator for micro climate changes.
Fern species are able to indicate similar relationships between the environment and also as indicators for
the early signs of climate changes at different latitude. In this study, two set of case studies were made
Science, Engineering and Technology
and observed. The observation of different changes of latitude were done at Gunung Jerai and Lata
Jarum while the urban heat island (UHI) study were conduct at rooftop garden of Hospital Serdang and
Secret Garden, One Utama Shopping Complex (OU). From the observation made at Gunung Jerai and
Lata Jarum, there were 12 fern species detected at Gunung Jerai while 20 fern species at Lata Jarum.
The species found at Gunung Jerai were Sellaginella willdenowii, Arcypteris irregularis (0 to 100 meter
elevation), Adiantum caudatum, Pityrogramma calomelanos (101 to 200 meter elevation), Histopteris
stipulaceae, Athyrium cardifolium, Osmund wachellii (201 to 300 meter elevation), Histopteris
stipulaceae, Cyathea sp. (301 to 400 meter elevation), Histopteris stipulaceae and Lygodium
circinnatum (401 to 500 meter elevation), while Sellaginella willdenowii, Asplenium sp., Arcypteris
irregularis, Cyathea contaminants, Dicranopteris linearis (201 to 300 meter elevation), Dhymatodes
scolopendria, Antrophyum callifolium, Arcypteris irregularis, Phymatodes crustachea, Sellaginella
willdenowi, Angiopteris evecta, Aglamorpha Heraclea (301 to 400 meter elevation), Osmunda
wachellii, Adiantum latifolium, Arcypteris irregularis, Angiopteris evecta, Athiyrium cardifolium,
Sellaginella plana, Tectaria semipinnata, and Cyathea sp. (401 to 500 meter elevation), were found at
Lata Jarum. Therefore, climate is the main factors of affecting the occurrences of the fern species. The
microclimate has strong relationship with the distribution of the fern species whereas altitude influenced
the distribution of fern species. Therefore fern species are excellent phytoindicator which can be used as
indicator for unhealthy environment such as harsh urban area environment
P-587
Development of Smart Back Massager based on Stress Level
Nasibah Dzulkifly, SHAHRUL NA'IM SIDEK, NASIBAH DZULKIFLY, FARIHA MOHD
HARITHSHAHRUL NA'IM SIDEK, NASIBAH DZULKIFLY, FARIHA MOHD HARITH
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Stress is common in every people’s life. Massage has been used as a healing tool for stress for
thousands of years in many cultures. Research shows that massage give benefits to human physically
and mentally. Massage can be applied by rubbing, stroking, kneading, or slapping. Due to the change of
lifestyle, people find massager as an alternative to visit massage therapist. However, the current
massager in the market features massage patterns that are preset and the massager cannot detect the
stress level of a person. Therefore, an interactive massager is needed to give an effective massage to
relieve the stress. This project is about developing a mechanical massager that can massage at different
speed based on the stress level of a person. The human stress level is sensed by using non-invasive
methods. In this project, we used surface electrode and temperature sensors for stress detection. The
surface electrode sensor is used to detect the muscular electrical activity due to contraction or movement
of the muscle. The temperature sensor is used to measure human temperature at the fingertip. The
signals from the sensors are sent to the microcontroller for processing and the output is use to command
the motor to actuate the massage machine. The massage machine speed is based on the stress level and
the type of massage the machine applies is rolling type of massage. When the massager detects
moderate stress, the system massage at lower speed and the massager massages at higher speed if
extreme stress is detected.
P-590
Palm Olein Emulsion Formation Using Crude Extract of Syzygium
aromaticum as Emulsifier
Kausar Ahmad, Janan Hadi, Muhammad Taher, Norazian Mohd Hassan, Kausar AhmadJanan Hadi,
Muhammad Taher, Norazian Mohd Hassan, Kausar Ahmad
Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
One of the most commonly used dosage form in drug delivery systems is emulsion. It is useful for
the delivery of drugs with poor water solubility, which do not formulate well in aqueous solutions. An
emulsion is a dispersed system containing at least two immiscible liquid phases, typically a lipid phase
and an aqueous phase. Emulsions may be either oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. In
Science, Engineering and Technology
the oil-in-water emulsion, oil droplets of the lipid phase are dispersed throughout the aqueous phase,
while in water-in-oil emulsion, the aqueous phase is dispersed as droplets throughout the lipid phase. In
addition, multiple emulsions such as oil-in-water-in-oil or water-in-oil-in-water emulsions can be
prepared. The objective of this research is to determine the emulsion formation using various crude
extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, commonly known as clove. The extracts were obtained by
macerating in four types of solvents and followed by drying. The palm olein-water interfacial tension
containing extracts from water and ethanol/water (1:1) decreased to 21-22 mN/m. Palm olein-in-water
emulsions were prepared by homogenizing palm olein and distilled water in the presence of 10% crude
extracts at 11,500 rpm for 20 minutes at 24 ±1°C. Tween® 20 was used as control. The extent of
phase separation and changes in particle size distribution were monitored. The most stable emulsions
can be obtained using the aqueous and ethanol/aqueous extracts (1:1). There was no phase separation
and no significant change in the particle size within six months. Emulsion stability was poor when
extracts from isopropanol/chloroform or ethanol/water (9:1) were used.
P-594
RF Magnetron Sputtered YSZ for Intermediate Temperature Solid
Oxide Fuel Cell
Raihan Othman, Shahrul Razi Meskon, A.G.E. Sutjipto, M.H. Ani and Raihan OthmanShahrul Razi
Meskon, A.G.E. Sutjipto, M.H. Ani and Raihan Othman
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In order to obtain high ionic conductivity of a solid electrolyte at intermediate temperatures, a very
thin dense film is crucial due to its reduced ohmic losses. This work describes the fabrication of yttriastabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thin films using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. YSZ
thin films are deposited onto stainless steel foils at varying substrate temperatures (Ts) of 150, 200, 250
and 300°C, while other sputtering parameters i.e. argon gas flow rate, RF power and deposition time
are fixed. The sputtering targets are sintered YSZ pellets. Ultra-thin YSZ films are successfully
deposited with thickness ranges from 300 to 600 nm as determined from the scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). Phase composition analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed cubic matrix
with tetragonal and monoclinic crystalline phases of zirconia. Impedance spectroscopy (IS) is conducted
at room temperature (RT) to measure the alternating-current (ac) total conductivity of the thin films. The
conductivity increases with increasing substrate temperature from 150ï‚°C to 250ï‚°C but slightly drops
at Ts of 300C. The highest room temperature ac total conductivity obtained was 1.61 x 10-6 Ω-1.cm1 and the value is comparable with the reported dc bulk conductivity measured at a significantly higher
temperature of around 283°C.
P-597
A Novel Method to Evaluate Metallic Coatings Properties: MetalAir Electrochemical System
Raihan Othman, A.L. Nor Hairin, M.H. Ani and Raihan OthmanA.L. Nor Hairin, M.H. Ani and Raihan
Othman
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A novel method to evaluate electrodeposited zinc coatings has been introduced i.e. utilizing zinc-air
electrochemical system. Zinc-air system uses oxygen from the ambient air to operate. As the oxygen in
not stored within the system, any changes in the electrochemical performance are attributed to the
electroactive zinc material. Therefore zinc-air system could be utilized to determine the zinc coating
properties i.e. in particular the pore volume density and the specific surface area. This method is
applicable to other metallic coatings as well such as aluminium, iron and tin.
P-598
A new Modeling of Light-Tissue Interaction in Pulse Oximeters
Othman khalifa, Malek Harbawi, Othman O. Khalifa, Muhammed Ibn Ibrahimy and Sheroz
Science, Engineering and Technology
KhanMalek Harbawi, Othman O. Khalifa, Muhammed Ibn Ibrahimy and Sheroz Khan
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Pulse Oximeter (PO) is an opto-electronic device used for measuring hemoglobin oxygen saturation
based on Beer-Lambert law. The basic idea relies on detecting the absorption of tissues when it is shun
by red and infrared light. Light beams are made to traverse through tissues assuming that modulation
effect is only due to arterial blood. An empirical calibration has to take place during manufacturing
process to ensure the accuracy of estimated signals and to compensate the effect of ignored factors. In
order to address all factors affected light transmission in POs, a complete model of light-tissue
interaction is studied using reflected-type PO with different placements. The results of this model help
in understanding any loss or deviation in reading.
P-600
Socially Interactive Humanoid – Introducing Robots to Human
Society
Dr. Amir Akramin Shafie, Amir A. Shafie, Aseef Iqbal, Raisuddin Khan, Mohd F. Alias, Nahrul A.
Khair, Jamil Radhi, Rini Akmeliawati, M. BouhabbaAmir A. Shafie, Aseef Iqbal, Raisuddin Khan, Mohd
F. Alias, Nahrul A. Khair, Jamil Radhi, Rini Akmeliawati, M. Bouhabba
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Robots have already paved their way in the categories such as domestic services, therapeutics and
entertainment. In all these sectors, humanoid robots has been playing increasingly significant role within
human society. Now the research thrust is into making these robots BEHAVE (interact) with humans as
humanly as possible. This research output innovates the way a robot with human-like face should
interact with human exchanging emotional expressions. The problem of interacting with humans
exchanging emotional expression is particularly challenging since it impossible to completely model the
emotional states expressed by the human and they way they should be responded to. The task becomes
more complex as different person express different degrees of expression in different emotional states
and expects different response in reply. Planning actions for this type of interaction involves high level
of uncertainty that must be taken care of. The primary goal of this research is to produce a practically
useful computational model of this interplay for the purpose of controlling an agent in socially situated
tasks. More generally, this work suggests a novel approach to modeling and planning for a particular
kind of multi-agent system: one in which self-interested agents pursue their own goals in a shared
environment while following some set of guidelines for behavior. In most cooperative and many
adversarial domains, the goals of the other agents are known.
P-610
Enhancement of Fast Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Protocol to Support
Mobility Management
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Omar Zakaria, Othman O. Khlifa,
Loay F. HussienAisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Omar Zakaria, Othman O. Khlifa, Loay F. Hussien
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mobility and real-time traffic such as Voice over IP are two expanding areas within communication
systems. The concept of combining these two areas contains several challenging problems. Providing
real time data traffic to the real time application which cannot tolerate delay has become ever more
important feature of mobile networks in recent years. Fast Hierarchal mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) reduces
the packet loss and improves the handover consequences in case of micro-mobility movement, by
reducing the network registration time and the address resolution time. However it doesn’t suit in
case of macro mobility when the mobile node moves to different network with different MAPs
(Mobility Anchor Points). More efforts are needed to support both macro and micro mobility (inter/intra
domain movement). This work aims to present and evaluate a new approach to support macro mobility
movement. The evaluation of this proposed approach is done using simulation and analytical approach.
The proposed protocol is benchmarked with the standard Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile
Science, Engineering and Technology
IPv6 (HMIPv6) which are proposed by Internet Engineering Task Force. The results obtained show that
the proposed protocol has better performance than MIPv6 and HMIPv6 in term of packet loss and
handover latency.
P-613
A STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AND ITS EFFECT TOWARDS
WORKERS AND PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.
SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD DIN, NIK NURUL HIDAYAH, SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD
DINNIK NURUL HIDAYAH, SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD DIN
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Architecture &
Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nationally, air pollutions have become great concern for it is listed within top ten environmental
problems found. Thus, most illnesses related to environmental exposures stem from air pollutants
concentration that may roots from the construction industry. The construction site increases the risks of
various adverse health effects toward construction workers. Interviews and data collection has been
done with relevant government officer from Department of Environment; Social Security Organisation;
Department of Safety and Health; Public Work Department; and with selected contractor. Through this
research, the activities during the construction phase are found as the highest contributor of air
pollutants. Lorry had been viewed as construction vehicle that emits most air pollutants in construction
site. It is also found that cement has become the prominent source of air pollution in a construction area
through the emission of huge amount of PM10, CO, and SO2 to the atmosphere. Furthermore, the
construction type that release large air pollutants is residential. Thus, this factors lead towards the
decrement of productivity in construction workers while increases the cost and time of project delivery.
These are due to the temporary and permanent health effect cause by air pollutions. The key findings is
airborne particulates (PM10) are the largest type of pollutants that emitted by the construction industry
especially during construction phase that brings negative impact towards human health. Besides,
airborne particulates (PM10) had been found to as one of the medium that contributes towards delay of
a project and increases overall project cost. Hence, it is to be supported that air pollution that grounds by
the construction industry is by turning back it cycle, improve enforcement, which could provide harmful
health effects towards the construction workers and the project itself.
P-616
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) ISO 14001 IN MALAYSIA
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY.
SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD DIN, SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD. DIN, BASYIRAH
RIDUANSHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD. DIN, BASYIRAH RIDUAN
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING,,Kulliyyah of Architecture &
Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Today, with the world climate is unsure and is in the critical condition, the need of preserving the
environmental is crucial to prevent environmental problems arises rapidly. Sustainable development
requires a balance between economic growth, social expansion and environmental protection. In order
to pursue sustainable development, the construction industry itself has to be sustainable and give
emphasis to environmental matters, in addition to economic gains and social obligations. The ISO
14001 is a set of international standards for voluntary environmental management that has the potential
to significantly impact the activities poses in construction to industry. This study aimed to investigate
the level of awareness on the EMS 14001 among construction company and to seek any obstacle or
problems that obstruct the implementation of ISO 14001 in construction industry in Malaysia.
Questionnaire-based interviewed was done to selected contractor Grade 7 around Selangor and Wilayah
Persekutuan to reach the objective of this study. Frequency Statistical Analysis and Average Index
Analysis had been used to measure the questionnaire done. Seven construction companies were
Science, Engineering and Technology
successfully interviewed which three of them are contractor who had not yet implement the EMS ISO
14001 and the balance four are from companies who had been applied the system. Based on the findings
and analysis, level of awareness has been answered where there is still lack of understanding and
knowledge among non-certified construction company with ISO 14001 compared to the certified
companies. Ten barriers also have been determined to be the problems that impede the implementation
of EMS ISO 14001 in construction industry. The main barriers which obstruct the implementation of
EMS ISO 14001 in Malaysia Construction Company are lack of government pressure, lack of client
support and weak environmental culture among other competitors. In conclusion, several strategies
including compulsion from government to make EMS ISO 14001 as compulsory requirement and
support from the government have been proposed based in interviews and other countries action to
facilitate the adoption of environmental management system (EMS) ISO 14001 in Malaysia
Construction Industry.
P-625
Assess the Concrete Properties with Glass Waste Aggregate
Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Atika Razali, Zaifuddin Mohd. IdrisMuhammad Abu
Eusuf, Atika Razali, Zaifuddin Mohd. Idris
Department of Quantity Surveying,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Due to the urban growth, the management of waste materials becomes one of the crucial issues in
Malaysia. As according to Global Environment Centre (GEC), solid waste is one of the three major
environmental problems in Malaysia, where, it is over 23,000 tons of waste produced each day in
Malaysia. The problem is predicted to become worse as this amount is expected to rise up to 30,000 tons
by the year 2020. Thus, ‘recycling’ is the best way in reducing the amount of waste, all at once
solve the problem of shortage of landfill area, and promote the environmental sustainability. The recycle
item selected was based on the parameter of recycling rates in which the lowest rates of recycling item
is glass waste. The clear/flint container glass waste is recycled as aggregate in the concrete mix. The
laboratory experiment was conducted in order to study the recycling of clear container glass waste into
concrete mix. The mix ratio was designed as 1:2:4 and the grade of the concrete were 21. In this
experiment, a proportion of the natural sand was replaced by glass waste aggregate with particle sizes
range of 1.5 – 3.3 FM. The mix design was regulated by BS and MS method (fc28= 21MPa) with 0%,
5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 40% and 60% glass waste aggregate replacements method. The samples
investigated in terms of the physical characteristics, strength and workability. The result of the
experiment from the research suggested that glass waste aggregate is potential to be used as a recycled
material in concrete applications in which the glass waste aggregate function similar to natural fine
aggregate and impressively it enable to improve the properties of conventional concrete. This new
invention is not only beneficial to improve the performance of conventional concrete in construction
industry but it contributes to disseminate of new knowledge, increase the GDP of country and sustain
the environment.
P-626
Assess the Concept of Green Building adapted to the Building
Sustainability
Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Siti Norsyahinas bt Che ManMuhammad Abu Eusuf,
Siti Norsyahinas bt Che Man
Department of Quantity Surveying,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Green Building Index (GBI) is a new system that has been introduced in Malaysia. In the tenth
Malaysia plan, government has announced that all government building in future will incorporate with
GBI. The launch of Malaysia’s green building rating system, GBI has been heralded as a major step
towards promoting the construction of environmental friendly buildings in the country. This research
study is on the assessment of building sustainability based on the GBI criteria. The aim of the study is to
study the rating system for Green Building in Malaysia which is the GBI Rating Criteria. The objective
Science, Engineering and Technology
of this research are to determine the effects on the realization of Green Building Index in Malaysia and
to evaluate the application process of GBI rating in micro-level which is the KAED building where the
design concept for this building is based on vernacular architecture and traditional Malay culture.
Furthermore, this research study is conducted through the library research, literature review,
questionnaire and also experiment that conducted at KAED Building in order study the indoor
environment at KAED Building. From the research, it has found that there are three major potential
effects on the realization of GBI in Malaysia which are from the aspect of environment, economy and
social. For the study at micro-level it has found that in term of indoor environment quality, KAED
building still do not comply with the criteria that specify by the GBI but majority of the KAED
occupants satisfy with the air quality and thermal comfort at KAED building.
P-627
The Consequence of Inadequate Design on Building Maintenance
Potential
Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Mansor Ibrahim, Khairuddin A. RashidMuhammad
Abu Eusuf, Mansor Ibrahim, Khairuddin A. Rashid
Department of Quantity Surveying,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this study is to categorize the defects and faults during the design stage that affect
building maintenance potential in Malaysia. To perform this study it is essentially needs to organize
field survey among the sustainable users such as constructors, builders, architectural/engineering firms
and owners from the east Malaysia. The survey included probable defects and the respondents were
asked to indicate their degree of importance. The defects are grouped into several sets. The level of
importance of the defects and the sets are measured and ranked by their rigorousness index for
sustainable users. The aim of the present investigation is also to develop an advanced design model for
the behaviour of structural components into account of the soil-structure-interaction. The results of tests
on the performance of structural materials are presented. The experimental results indicate that the
failure plane is observed on flat slabs, and the beam.
P-628
Investigate the Outcome of Climate Change and Waste Composition
on Leachate Formation and Gas Emission from Malaysian
Perspective.
Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Mansor IbrahimMuhammad Abu Eusuf, Mansor
Ibrahim
Department of Quantity Surveying,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Infiltration of water into a landfill affects the process of waste composition. An analysis of variation
in landfill gas production and composition; and leachate formation, in response to climate change and
waste composition were studied in some selective landfill sites in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. The
study indicates a strong relationship between climate variation and production of gas emission; waste
composition and leachate formation.
It is found that the solution of this problem is acute and crosses the boundary, which has led the
multidisciplinary actions as socio-anthropological, political, technical, ethical and finally engineering. In
the view of the problem solution, this study is triggered by a team of professionals on various fields.
Erstwhile, climate change or variation is one of the demanding environmental concerns to the
professionals and policy makers throughout decades. The characterization of leachate and gas emissionproduction sources and sinks, as well as their behavior in the complex atmospheric environment,
continuous, long-term activity in many countries.
Waste is considered as a source of generation of gases owing to the decomposition of organic
materials. On the other hand, it is found that the total scenario is highly dependent on the efficient and
effective management practices.
This paper also highlights the management practices in Malaysia. This study also estimated present
and corresponding future scenario in Malaysian context, suggested alternative to overcome the adverse
Science, Engineering and Technology
effects of climate variation and waste generation on the leachate formation and gas emissions.
P-629
The Management of Plastic Waste from Construction and
Demolition Work
Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Nurul Husna Bte DzakiMuhammad Abu Eusuf, Nurul
Husna Bte Dzaki
Department of Quantity Surveying,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Generation of waste from Construction and Demolition (CD) site is identified as a major problem in
the construction industry that has implication towards the environment. Plastic waste generated on CD
site such as PVC pipes and plastic packaging contributes a portion from the total waste of CD. Thus,
plastic waste generated from CD site need to be managed properly by the contractors in order to sustain
the environment. This research is conducted to study the types of plastic waste generation; to recognize
the management method and suggest improvement; and then to identify the practice of plastic recycling
from CD waste. The questionnaire survey is conducted in order to achieve the objectives of the study.
The respondents consist of registered contractors under Pusat Khidmat Kontraktor (PKK) from Class AC, the consultants and academicians located within Klang Valley area. The data is tabulated using
Microsoft Excel and SPSS software and then analyzed using frequency and mean-score methods. In
conclusion, the management of plastic waste generated from CD is identified and discussed. The
management methods of plastic waste from CD are Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle, Refuse and disposal to
the landfill.
During the period of study the biggest problems is time constraint which limits the targeted
respondents to be from the Klang Valley area only.
P-630
Parameters Influence the Life of RC Buildings with Various
Structural Components
Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Muhammad Abu Eusuf, Mansor Ibrahim, Maisarah Ali, Khairuddin A.
RashidMuhammad Abu Eusuf, Mansor Ibrahim, Maisarah Ali, Khairuddin A. Rashid
Department of Quantity Surveying,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Parameters of spatial time-dependent structural reliability are investigated for a RC building subject
to their influence. The probable parameters are as building height, bays, Percentage of shear walls, ratio
of structural and non- structural panels to total number of panels and type of frame on the life of RC
buildings are investigated. The life of RC frames depends on the serviceability limit of structural
components. Due to the nonlinear behavior of structural components, an iterative modal analysis can be
used to determine the duration of models. The presence of shear walls in RC frame buildings is also
providing a critical influence on the life period of structure. The parameters influenced on life periods
are also compared with current code of practices. A new equation, which is a function of the selected
parameters, is also proposed for forecasting the life period of buildings, using multiple linear regression
analysis.
P-636
Mobile Multicast Support For Real Time Multimedia Applications
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim , Mistura Laide Sanni, Rashid A.
Saeed, Gharib Subhi Mahmoud Ahmed & Shihab A. HameedAisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim , Mistura
Laide Sanni, Rashid A. Saeed, Gharib Subhi Mahmoud Ahmed & Shihab A. Hameed
Science, Engineering and Technology
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Generally ad hoc networks have no provision for Internet connection. Private Mobile Radio Systems
can only offer voice communication capabilities because they employ low frequency signals, thus visual
and other media data communication could not be transmitted. Therefore Wireless Mesh Networks can
be deployed as the access network. Because it can be rapidly deployed with low cost overhead, high
speed broadband Internet coverage, and with mobility support for users moving at reasonable speed. In
addition, the flow of live multimedia information is very important among the disaster recovery teams;
hence multicast communication is an effective way of transmitting single copy information to many
recipients. Multicast enhanced with mobility support will reduce traffic on the network, bandwidth
wastage and buffer usage; in addition to handling on-going multicast session disruption. Thus endless
waiting for response is avoided in such critical disaster recovery interventions.
The main objective of this research work is to analyse the scenario for an improved seamless
connectivity when mobile multicast communication entities move with a view to supporting real time
multimedia services on Wireless Mesh Networks especially during disaster recovery interventions. The
requirements for disaster recovery and emergency networks are identified. The issues in the existing
related research works in Wireless Networks, Wireless Mesh Networks, Multicasting, mobility
management and routing are examined. The design considerations for Communication networks used in
emergency and disaster recovery scenarios are addressed. It was found out that larger percentage of
existing related research works treated these concepts in isolated manner, and the handful that addressed
the integration of mobile multicast in Wireless Mesh Networks still requires improvements in handover
latency and packet lost. The analysis of mechanisms to effectively deliver multimedia data services and
high speed broadband Internet accessibility in a disaster recovery and emergency scenarios is timely as
there are large scale occurrences of bush fires, flood, earthquakes, and hurricanes. These disasters are
normally associated with huge loss of lives and destruction of communication infrastructure which
hinders the response efforts during recovery operations. Thus this effort is necessary to reduce the heavy
mortality in disaster recovery and emergency scenarios.
P-637
Position-based Quality of Service Multicast Routing Protocol for
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim, Mohammad M. Qabajeh, Othman Khalifa ,
Liana K. Qabajeh, & Jamal Ibrahim DaoudAisha-Hassan A. Hashim, Mohammad M. Qabajeh, Othman
Khalifa , Liana K. Qabajeh, & Jamal Ibrahim Daoud
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are composed of collection of wireless mobile nodes that
communicate with each other without the aid of any established infrastructure. MANET is a promising
alternative when wired networks infrastructure is either unavailable or inaccessible. However, MANETs
face several challenges that have to be addressed including dynamic topology changes, lack of
infrastructure, shared wireless medium and limited resources. These features make working in MANETs
more complex than their wired counterpart. Multicasting is efficient communication that can support a
wide variety of applications where many users have to interact in a close manner over MANETs. Using
multicasting has many benefits including reducing communication costs, minimizing bandwidth
consumption and reducing processing and delivery delay. Meanwhile, multimedia and real-time
applications are becoming essential needs for MANET users. Thus, it is necessary to design efficient
and effective multicast routing protocol to support this type of applications.
In this work, the problem of scalability of multicast routing protocols to support Quality of Service
(QoS) over MANETs is investigated. In particular, we introduce a Position-Based QoS Multicast
Routing Protocol (PBQMRP). The main objective of this protocol is to design a lightweight scalable
QoS multicast routing scheme irrespective of the number of multicast members and network size. This
is achieved by applying the following strategies: (a) Making use of the location information of the
mobile nodes to develop a novel and scalable virtual architecture and provide efficient cluster
management scheme to handle dynamic movement of mobile nodes. (b) Providing efficient location
Science, Engineering and Technology
service algorithm, by using a simple and effective strategy to limit propagating of packets between
clusters. (c) Using hierarchical construction approach to manage the multicast members to further
improve scalability (d) Performing efficient position-based multicast routing discovery for QoS paths.
The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using the GloMoSim simulator environment
and compared with ODMRP protocol as a benchmark. Various simulation parameters are considered to
investigate their influence on the results including number of multicast sources, number of receivers,
node mobility, bandwidth requirement, network size and network density. Our simulation results show
that using the virtual hierarchical construction helps in maintaining stable and scalable network structure
without incurring noticed overhead. Furthermore, using restricted directional flooding routing eliminates
network flooding and significantly reduces routing overhead. It is found that the hierarchical
construction of the multicast members shows real scalability in terms of multicast members and
improves forwarding efficiency. It is also observed that PBQMRP out performs ODMRP protocol in
most of the studied metrics and scenarios.
P-638
A Diffserv Approach To Enhance QoS In Mobile Ipv6 Based
Networks
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim , Loay F. Hussien, Farhat anwar,
Shihab A. Hameed, Omer Mahmood , Omer Zakaria
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim , Loay F. Hussien, Farhat anwar, Shihab A. Hameed, Omer Mahmood ,
Omer Zakaria
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Supporting Quality of Service (QoS) in the Internet is considered one of the main challenges facing
many researchers. QoS is the ability of a network elements (e.g. application, host and router) to provide
some level of assurance for consistent network data delivery. The standard Mobile IPv6 was designed to
allow nodes to be reachable and maintain ongoing connections while changing their location within the
topology. However, it can only provide Best-Effort services to its applications, i.e. there is no QoS
commitment offered. The Best-Effort service works fine with the conventional Internet applications
(non real-time applications) such as remote login, electronic mail and file transfer. In contrary, real-time
applications like video telephony and virtual conferencing require QoS guarantee in lieu of the BestEffort delivery. As a result, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed three major models to
support QoS in the Internet namely, IntServ, DiffServ and MPLS. Above all, the most promising one
due to its simplicity and scalability advantages is DiffServ. Nevertheless, those approaches were
initially designed without mobility in-mind. Hence, they are not fully adapted to mobile environments
yet. Integrating QoS with mobility support seems to be needed to fulfil the necessity of users. This work
aims to propose a new scheme that takes the advantage of DiffServ to enhance QoS in the mobile IPv6
networks. The proposed scheme was evaluated using two methods namely, simulation and analytical
analysis. The proposed scheme is benchmarked with the standard MIPv6 which was proposed by IETF.
The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the standard MIPv6 protocol in terms
of packets loss and handover latency.
P-645
A Cryptographic one-to-many Mapping for IPv6 Address
Generation using AES
Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Akhmad Unggul Priantoro, Nashrul Hakiem,
Talib Hashim Hasan
Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Akhmad Unggul Priantoro, Nashrul Hakiem, Talib Hashim Hasan
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The proliferation of enterprise wireless networks raises the security concern in any organization
Science, Engineering and Technology
despite the unarguable benefits it brings about. At the same time, the initiatives to migrate from IPv4
(Internet Protocol version 4) to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is gaining momentum across the globe
to resolve the IP address depletion problem as well as reaping the benefit of IPv6.
This research proposes a new scheme to manage IPv6 addresses in an enterprise wireless local area
network (WLAN) which may be implemented into DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
IPv6) software. Each user will be assigned a group of IP addresses that are generated cryptographically
with user attributes as parameters. Each time a user tries to access the network, he/she will be given
different IP address which will be generated using CFB (Cipher Feed Back) mode of AES (Advanced
Encryption Standard) algorithm. There is a one-to-many reversible mapping between user and IP
addresses.
The network administrator will be able to identify the user in real time from the IPv6 address to
facilitate tracking of network anomalies or violation of policies. By using the proposed pseudo-random
IPv6 address generation, the enterprise will be able to protect user’s privacy even though the
communication is transparent end-to-end.
P-646
A new Compression-feasible Encryption Model for Video Images
Othman Khalifa, Mohamed Abu Mulla, Othman O. Khalifa, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashin and A. M.
ZahirulalamMohamed Abu Mulla, Othman O. Khalifa, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashin and A. M. Zahirulalam
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The rapid growth of multimedia processing technologies and the wide availability of network access
enable many powerful and creative new applications. Due to their large size, video images present a
great challenge to currently available encryption algorithms; the computationally intensive processes
introduce delays that are beyond acceptable real-time video application limits. In this research, a new
model for compression-feasible encryption for yuv video images based on stream cipher was developed.
A new method of key sequence generation was proposed. Results were presented where the advantages
of the new algorithm were highlighted.
P-648
Error-Correcting Decoder for 1st-Order Reed-Muller Codes based
on Haar Transform
Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Prof. Dr. Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Prof. Dr. Othman O. Khalifa,
Hashum M. Rafiq
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Umar Siddiqi, Prof. Dr. Othman O. Khalifa,
Hashum M. Rafiq
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Haar and Walsh are the two systems considered suitable for spectral
representation of Boolean functions. Haar transform is known to have the smallest computational
requirement with a considerable interest and attraction drawn towards the spectral properties of Boolean
functions, and so bringing our attention to the field of error correcting codes. This research work
explores such properties in determining an approach towards decoding method of the
first-order Reed Muller codes, whereby the error detection and correction process from the Haar
domain perspective are discussed. Presented also, is the summary of the decoding steps involved with
respect to an implemented algorithm. The algorithm’s computational complexity is presented
including its comparison to known existing methods, as well as the hardware implementation design and
schematic layouts.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-651
A Novel Forgery Detection of Digital Watermarking by Increasing
the Accuracy and Convergence Speed of Real-Valued Artiﬕcial
Neural Network
Othman Khalifa, Rashidah Funke Olanrewaju, Othman O. Khalifa, Aisha-Hassan A. HashimRashidah
Funke Olanrewaju, Othman O. Khalifa, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Digital watermarking has proven to curb counterfeiting and piracy of digital media in issues related
to intellectual property, image authentication, copyright protection and tamper detection. One of the
downside of the current watermarking system is the inevitable distortion caused by date embedding.
Distortions introduced during data embedding greatly affect the quality of the image and in tern
significant reduce the specificity and completeness of the information. Specifically, such distortion
results in vulnerability of the algorithm to attacks. This work presents an innovative scheme of blind
detection of watermark bits when a watermarked image is distorted. Capabilities of Neural Networks
features have been exploited by increasing the accuracy and convergence speed of a Feed forward
Back propagation algorithm of a Real Valued Neural Network (RVNN) with sigmoid activation. This
technique was used to determine the embedding coefficients of the host image in Fast Fourier
Transform FFT domain. The results obtained by introducing batch method of weight initialization and
update and adaptive learning rate technique gives more accurate result and significant reduction in
convergence time when compared the traditional method of back propagation algorithm, thereby
making the proposed decoding scheme able to detect any slight alterations in the watermarked image.
Consequently, it achieves promising improvement in terms of detection time, determination of
embedding coefficients and bit correct ratio in comparison to the existing detection scheme.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-679
REDUCTION OF WIP AND SYSTEM NERVOUSNESS AT IC
ASSEMBLY LINE THROUGH REVISED SAMPLING PLAN
A. N. Mustafizul Karim, A. N. Mustafizul Karim, Nornilwati Binti Hj. YusopA. N. Mustafizul Karim,
Nornilwati Binti Hj. Yusop
Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Unpredictable work-in-process (WIP) inventory in the inspection area of an IC assembly line acts as
a source of uncertain requirement of additional human resource and unpredictable production lead time.
When a lot of about 5000 IC units fails to pass through on the basis of the sample due to detection of
more defective items than the specified acceptance number by the sampling plan and requires a 100%
rectification of the rest of the lot, mobilization of additional human resources to expedite the inspection
process appears to be an uneasy situation for the concerned manager. With fierce competition in place,
companies cannot afford to keep human resources in reserve for such purposes. As a result the manager
is forced to stop or reduce the activities of other work-station(s) and spare the operator(s) to tackle the
emergent situation at the inspection area. As a result the whole system of IC manufacturing line
becomes unstable and undergoes a kind of nervousness. Under this kind of situation, securing outgoing
quality of IC unit without lingering the production lead time and allocation of additional human
resources often become major bottlenecks for such companies. Upon a critical study of the current
practices of the assembly line to resolve the issues, several alternative sampling plans (double and
multiple) have been tried which could adequately meet the current average outgoing quality limit
(AOQL), a parameter indicating the level of outgoing lot quality reaching the customer. The selected
sampling plan has been found to minimize the WIP level as well as system nervousness of the assembly
line. With the proper adoption of this plan it would be possible to reduce the WIP by about 30% and
shortening the inspection time for rectification of the post sampled lot by about half of its current level.
Though, the proposed sampling plan is expected to increase the average sampling number (ASN) and
average total inspection (ATI), the benefits to be accrued should outweigh the drawbacks due to
increased ASN and ATI as the inspection at the assembly line involves only visual observation without
conducting any destructive or expensive tests.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-681
Optical characterisation of modulation doped quantum dot laser
structures
Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah, M. Hopkinson, R.R. Alexander, R.A. Hogg, J.P.R. David, T.J. Badcock and
D.J. MowbrayM. Hopkinson, R.R. Alexander, R.A. Hogg, J.P.R. David, T.J. Badcock and D.J. Mowbray
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Recent developments in quantum dot (QD) lasers suggest that inserting modulation p-doping in the
active region improves the T0 and has been shown to give a temperature insensitive operation up to
70ï‚°C. Several reasons have been proposed to explain this. The improvement maybe due to the effects
of the broadening of the holes across closely spaced energy levels in the valence band and/or the
availability of a large number of holes in the QD causing a faster carrier relaxation time.
We recently described how the integrated EL intensity (IEL) from simple mesa structures
could give valuable insight into the non-radiative processes occurring in QD laser structures. A similar
investigation has been undertaken on a series of modulation p-doped QD laser structures with increasing
levels of doping.
In this work, a series of 7 stacks of InAs QDs in InGaAs quantum well separated by 50nm of GaAs
spacer with p-type modulation doping of 0, 6, 12 and 18 acceptor/dot (A/dot) were fabricated into mesa
diodes. Electroluminescence measurements from the surface were measured for all of the samples at
room temperature (RT) as a function of injection current and also as a function of temperature with a
constant injection current of 0.1mA.
Figure 1 shows that the RT IEL variation with current is significantly different for the different
samples. The gradient of a log-log plot decreases with increasing doping level, with the 18 A/dot sample
having a slope of 1 and the magnitude of the IEL from the 18A/dot sample is only 5 times lower than
the 10K IEL at all injection currents. Figure 2 shows the temperature dependence of the IEL for the 0
and 18 A/dot devices. It appears that the heavily doped sample has a higher activation energy, Ea,
possibly accounting for the higher T0 at room temperature.
P-685
New Automobile Monitoring and Tracking Model with Mobile
Facilities
Dr Shihab A. Hameed, Aisha Hassan, A.W. Naji, Shaima Abdulla, Mohd Ershad, Fauzan ZahudiAisha
Hassan, A.W. Naji, Shaima Abdulla, Mohd Ershad, Fauzan Zahudi
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Number of car theft is increasing rapidly locally and internationally; although many car security
systems had been produced lately. Thieves are inventing cleverer and that need more powerful security
systems. This paper proposes a new Automobile Monitoring and Tracking model to solve the issue. It
introduces a powerful and economic security model that can send SMS and MMS to the owner or police
to have fast response. Database offers the required information about cars, owners and suspected
intruders, which will help police or security authorities in tracking the car using GPS system that can be
link to Google Earth and other mapping software. The testing results show the success of AMTM
prototype in sending MMS to owner within 40 seconds and receiving acknowledgment to the database
(police or security unit) within 3-4 minutes. This result is suitable to owner and police to take suitable
action against intruder.
P-688
Handheld Devices to Facilitate Medical Emergency
Dr Shihab A. Hameed, Vladimir MihoVladimir Miho
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Several drawbacks and weaknesses are shown in the current Malaysian emergency, healthcare and
medical information systems. It includes lack of sharing between hospitals, lack of utilizing real-time
and mobility technologies. The main focus of this work is to incorporate the real-time and mobility
technologies with medical emergency systems. It can offer: SMS, MMS, live audio and video coverage
of emergency situations, location-based access to emergency situation, wide area coverage, and
provides flexibility for the user. A prototype for the model is implemented using open source tools.
Samples of implementation results are shown.
P-689
New Model for Data Confidentiality in Healthcare and Medical
Emergency
Dr Shihab A. Hameed, Wajdi al-khateeb, Habib YuchohWajdi al-khateeb, Habib Yuchoh
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Data confidentiality is a major problem for healthcare and medical emergency system since it
accumulates significant information. Sharing and transmission of private via Internet leads to easily
intercept it by unauthorized parties. Attackers need to access private information by capturing data
transmission and forging themselves as authorized user. We need a multilevel security in Healthcare and
Medical Emergency System since its database contains information of various confidentiality levels.
This research, address the confidentiality issue by designing and developing new model of data
confidentiality. It provides a view of data sensitivity and suggests areas in cryptography to protect data
at different sensitivity levels. The proposed model protects transmitting data and database by using rolebase security policy and cryptographic system. We classified related information into several categories.
A suitable cryptography is provided for each level of data sensitivity to support this System. Result of
implementation shows that it keeps specific sensitive data confidential at a certain degree with a good
performance comparing with normal system and existing security protocols such as SSL and PGP.
Furthermore, the cost of encryption and decryption is not high and kept at acceptable level.
P-690
Graphical Password to Enhance Authentication
Dr Shihab A. Hameed, Ahmad Fathi Zainazlan, Herman SazwanAhmad Fathi Zainazlan, Herman
Sazwan
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysian Government has appointed an organization as the sole Certification Body for the
evaluation and certification scheme based on MS ISO/IEC 15408:2005 Information TechnologySecurity Techniques – Evaluation Criteria for IT Security. There are significant measures to improve
the security as well as to ease user with authorization. This project enhances the Graphical Password
Model with the implementation of timing factor and multi level security. Nowadays, there are projects
to develop graphical password but the implementations are limited due to several reasons. The current
text base passwords are fragile and expose to attacks. Even though the many model are introduced by
researchers, but the authentication are still breakable. Thus, there are rooms to improve the current
graphical password design and to fetch all the needs of user. In this study, two levels of security were
used in order to improve the access control. This paper will provide comprehensive comparison between
existing model and the proposal of the new design.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-692
REASONS AND EFFECTS OF SINGLE- STOREY TERRACE
HOUSING MODIFICATION
Zaiton Abdul Rahim, Zaiton Abdul Rahim, Shafinaz Ahmad ShazalliZaiton Abdul Rahim, Shafinaz
Ahmad Shazalli
Department of Architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study examines the reasons behind housing modification in single-storey terrace housing located
outskirt of urban areas and its effects on the housing design and occupants. It is exploratory in nature as
part of an understudy for student design thesis. The study uses a case study of a housing area namely
Taman kami D, Taiping, Perak. A combination of survey interview, in-depth interview and observation
of housing units were employed to achieve the objectives of the study. There were forty (40)
respondents in the survey interview. Nine housing units were selected for in-depth study. The
respondents for the in-depth study were selected based on voluntary basis. Findings indicate that there
are many reasons for housing modification namely changes in family life-cycle which resulted in
changes in housing needs, expression of personal identity and cultural consideration.The findings also
show that there while housing modification resulted positively in providing a more spacious area for the
family and support overall housing needs of the occupants, it also resulted in many negative
consequences with regards to the housing design and the quality of life of the occupants. Modification
of housing units resulted in the lack of natural lighting and ventilation, and privacy of the occupants and
the community as a whole. Similarly housing modification due to expression of personal taste resulted
aesthetically chaotic façade of the housing area. The study recommended an evaluation of housing
design guidelines with regards to building setback, requirement for natural ventilation, daylight and
inclusion of privacy needs in the guidelines.
P-693
Historical and Scientific Analysis on Sizing Materials Used in
Persian Manuscripts and Miniature Paintings
Mandana Barkeshli, Dr. Mandana BarkeshliDr. Mandana Barkeshli
Department of Applied Arts & Design,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The present study aims to investigate historical and scientific analysis of sizing material used in
Persian manuscripts and miniature paintings. A large number of sizing materials has been introduced
according to historical treatises from the Taimurid (fifteenth century), Safawid (sixteenth), and Qajar
(nineteenth century) periods. In order to investigate the presence of sizing materials mentioned in
historical literary references, sample analysis was conducted on the sizing materials of eleven historical
Persian and Indian miniature paintings and illuminated manuscripts from sixteenth to eighteenth
century.
Out of the twelve sizing materials that were recommended by masters based on the historical
survey, the mucilage of cucumber seeds was the most common sizing material on the paper samples as
identified by the FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) method.
The present historical and scientific survey suggests a wide range of natural sizing materials that
can be used as tools for conservation and restoration of paper documents where the sizing of paper is
required.
P-694
Wanli and Diana Shipwrecks: Conservation and Restoration of Blue
and White Porcelain
Mandana Barkeshli, Nor Salwa binti Mohd Anas, Dr. Mandana BarkeshliNor Salwa binti Mohd Anas,
Dr. Mandana Barkeshli
Science, Engineering and Technology
Department of Applied Arts & Design,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
This research discusses about conservation and restoration works applied to ten (10) pieces of the
blue and white porcelain from the Wanli and Diana shipwrecks; two different ships that sank on their
way through the South China Sea.
Scientific analysis test about the nature of the materials used in the porcelain and its deterioration
factors that contributed to its defects have been carried out using laboratory microscope. It has been
identified that there are three deterioration factors to the damages of porcelain which are basically
physical, biological and chemical. Based on the deterioration factors that are identified on these ten
porcelains, treatment processes have been proposed to preserve these valuable artifacts namely;
cleaning, joining and consolidation, Plaster Of Paris (P.O.P) and detaching technique.
In this research also a new tool has been designed and proposed to be used in Museums as preventive
conservation tool. Investigation has been done and in the present case study it has been found that the
existing storage and container that these valuable porcelain are kept are not suitable for the storage. A
new portable padded storage for porcelain is suggested to ensure that the artifacts will be protected
while in repository or during transportation.
P-695
Defects and Conservation Techniques on Ecofacts - Human Bones
Mandana Barkeshli, Dr. Mandana Barkeshli, Rashidah Rosli
Dr. Mandana Barkeshli, Rashidah Rosli
Department of Applied Arts & Design,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
In archaeology, ecofacts is an object, found at an archaeological site that carrying archaeological
significance, but previously unhanded by humans. Ecofact are frequently as important as artefacts; they
constitute general environmental evidence that might be entombed alongside that human activity.
Ecofacts recovered from a salt water environment are often well preserved but of a very friable nature.
In general, artefacts recovered from anaerobic marine environments are recovered in better condition
than artefacts recovered from aerobic marine environments.
The deterioration factors of the ecofacts divided into two types; physical factors and chemical
factors. In this study the defects and the conservation techniques of ecofacts-human bones is identified
and investigatation is carried out to explore the right techniques on conserving the ecofacts namely
human bones focusing on the ecofacts found from wet environments.
In this research the archeological data also was collected from the site along with the data collected
on conservation process and the conserved ecofacts as output.
A good understanding of the conservation techniques on ecofacts and also the proper design of
temporary storage will help to maintain and preserve the condition of the archaeological bones thus
preserving the historical values. In this research also a new conservation tool is proposed. This new
conservation equipment has been designed to act as the temporary storage sieve tray during the
desalination process of the ecofacts for the usage in the conservation laboratory.
Science, Engineering and Technology
P-696
Historical and Scientific Analysis of Traditional Boat: Conservation
and Restoration of Petalawati Boat
Mandana Barkeshli, Dr. Mandana Barkeshli, Tn. Hj Zainal Abidin b. Jamaludin, Nuur Farhana binti
Khairuddin,Dr. Mandana Barkeshli, Tn. Hj Zainal Abidin b. Jamaludin, Nuur Farhana binti
Khairuddin,
Department of Applied Arts & Design,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The present research is to identify the conservation and restoration work that is needed in order to
preserve Petalawati boat: a Kelantan’s royal boat that is presented by Siamese King to Sultan
Muhammad II in 1846 (or 1261 H.). In this regard in the first stage since the form and shape of the boat
under investigation is very unique and distinctive from common traditional boat, the historical analysis
based on the background and the design of the boat is carried out.
In the second stage the material technology of the boat is investigated and the boat which is red dark
meranti, is analyzed with the aim of understanding the causes that distribute to the deterioration and
damages on the whole part of the boat. Based on the investigation and observation of the deterioration,
three factors of damages have been identified which are environmental effects (climate, temperature,
relative humidity and light), human factor (handling and storage), and also biological effects i.e.
termites attack.
In the final stage the investigation has been carried out to identify the techniques to preserve and the
methods of maintenances especially in the museum is proposed in order to avoid further damages to this
valuable boat. This include redesigning the boat support with the aim of giving more stable and firm
stand as the existing boat support is too small and has already broken. A few of conservation and
restoration process is also carried out according to the treatment’s proposal in-situ such as cleaning,
restoring and painting.
P-697
Preservation of Wooden Building from Fire Threats: Case Study on
Traditional House of Rumah Penghulu Abu Seman at Jalan Stonor,
Kuala Lumpur
Mandana Barkeshli, Dr. Mandana Barkeshli, Tn. Hj Zainal Abidin b. Jamaludin, Mohd Idham
Zuhaimee bin HamidDr. Mandana Barkeshli, Tn. Hj Zainal Abidin b. Jamaludin, Mohd Idham
Zuhaimee bin Hamid
Department of Applied Arts & Design,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Old heritage buildings in Malaysia hold the richness of cultural architectural and have the significant
in terms of history that could show the pride of Malaysian. Traditional Malay house is also known to be
decorative with rich cultural relics which have been evolved by the Malays over generations. It has been
designed to adapt their needs, culture and environment. Nevertheless, most of the traditional buildings
are exposed to fire threats.
Rumah Penghulu Abu Seman which located at Jalan Stonor, Kuala Lumpur is one of the traditional
Malay houses that demonstrates and holds this cultural uniqueness. The house is resident to penghulu
(headman) Abu Seman b. Nayan which originally assembled in Sungai Kechil, Kedah around mid 1920s
and 1930s. However, since the house is made of timber, it is naturally prone to physical damages by
fire. Fire resistance is one of the ways to minimize the outbreak of fire from destroying historical
buildings.
In the present research the investigation has been carried in two phases. In the first phase the
techniques and methods of wood preservation has been studied. In the second stage scientific
investigation was carried out to find a suitable solution to act as an effective inhibitor to prevent the
traditional house structure made of timber from fire.
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-41
ANALYSIS OF NOVEL FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER CIRCUIT
SHEROZ KHAN, SHEROZ KHAN, Nurul Nadia Azman,Khairina Hussin, Leena Omer Mohamed, Nur
Fatin Mohd Zakki, Siti Shukrina Ismail, Nur Hasiah A’sri
SHEROZ KHAN, Nurul Nadia Azman,Khairina Hussin, Leena Omer Mohamed, Nur Fatin Mohd Zakki,
Siti Shukrina Ismail, Nur Hasiah A’sri
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Based on a two non-contact inductive coupling approach, a novel measurement method is used to
characterize the impedance of any passive component (R, L or C) under a direct current (dc) biasing
condition.
With a premeasurement calibration process, the proposed method has the ability to eliminate errors
due to the measurement equipment and measurement tools. Using resistor as a device uner test,
impedance characterization of a component up to 500Hz with good accuracy has been demonstrated.
The proposed method provides insight of the impedance behavior of a critical component under its
intended biasing condition, so that proper choice of a component can be made for a specific biasing
condition to achieve optimal circuit performance.
PP-44
CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS FOR
INDUCTIVE TRANSDUCER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
SHEROZ KHAN, Atika Arshad, Sheroz Khan, AHM Zahirul Alam, Ezamurni Bt. Zulkefly, Aisyah Bt.
Jaafar, Khairun Nissaa’ Bt Abdul Latif, Norain Bt. Abidin, Siti Norkhairani Bt Abd Wahab, Nurul
Syuhadah Bt. Izwar ArfaniAtika Arshad, Sheroz Khan, AHM Zahirul Alam, Ezamurni Bt. Zulkefly,
Aisyah Bt. Jaafar, Khairun Nissaa’ Bt Abdul Latif, Norain Bt. Abidin, Siti Norkhairani Bt Abd
Wahab, Nurul Syuhadah Bt. Izwar Arfani
ECE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Passive transducers are non-contact devices employed in normally inaccessible locations, powered
from power supply batteries and read-out with non-wired electronics. Non-contact wireless technology
is gaining a growing popularity for applications in several engineering fields in modern day automation
and control, particularly those used in streaming data through narrow spaces and gaps. The peculiar
applications of transducers depend upon whether they are capacitive, resistive, and inductive. Inductive
transducers are working on the principle of the magnetic induction of magnetic material, and research in
magnetic materials has been getting renewed interests by researchers over the recent past.
The induction of a magnetic material depends on a number of variables such as the number of turns
of the coil on the material, the dimensions of the magnetic material, and the permeability of the flux
path.
PP-46
Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Potential Agro-Waste Rambutan
Seed
AHMED JALAL KHAN CHOWDHURY, Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Abul Bashar Mohammed
Helal Uddin, Mohd Sufian Mohamad Shukri,Kamarul Rahim KamarudinAhmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury,
Abul Bashar Mohammed Helal Uddin, Mohd Sufian Mohamad Shukri,Kamarul Rahim Kamarudin
BIOTECHNOLOGY,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Now a days agricultural wastes increased with the increase in production of processed fruit products
enormously in Malaysia. Large amount of these wastes poses the problem of disposal and creastes
environmental pollution. A valuable byproduct that can be obtained from fruit wastes is the adsorption
Science, Engineering and Technology
capacity of its peel and seeds. Besides, the presence of heavy metals in our water system nowadays is
considered hazards towards public health. Manufacturing industries contribute the second highest
amount of pollution (45.1%) into Malaysian water system and most of the compounds can be
categorized as heavy metals. Waste water originated from industries has a potential hazard for our
environment because of introducing various contaminants such as heavy metals into soil and aquatic
environment. Wastes are also produced in large quantity from agro-based industries such as fruit peels
and seeds. In this present study, removal of heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni),
and Zinc (Zn) from synthetic waste water has been investigated by using Rambutan seeds (Nephelium
lappaceum, L) as a natural biosorbent. Different volumes of metal ions solution and pH have been used
in this study. The results of this study indicate that the removal efficiency is highest for Pb compared to
other heavy metals. 1 gram and 0.5 gram of Rambutan seeds in aqueous solution at pH 4 showed that
the adsorption rate was 97.5 % and 97 % respectively. Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer (AAS)
was used to measure the amount of adsorption of heavy metals. The study portrays that the Rambutan
seeds have an ability to adsorb heavy metal which could be utilized as a low cost natural bisorbent for
treating waste water from industrial sources.
PP-49
Recombinant Bromelain: A Novel Source of Anti-cancer
AZURA AMID, Azura Amid, Nurul Azira IsmailAzura Amid, Nurul Azira Ismail
BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Commercial bromelain is used as a digestive aid, a burn debriment agent as well as for prevention of
swelling or ederma, smooth muscle relaxation, enhancement of antibiotic absorption, cancer treatment,
ulcer prevention, sinusitis relief, appetite inhibition, and osteoarthritis. The commercial productions of
bromelain are really depends on the pineapple plantations besides the tedious steps of purification to get
a pure bromelain for therapeutic applications. Therefore, this study aims to observe the anti-cancer
activity of recombinant bromelain that have been produced by DNA recombinant technology thus ease
the purification steps. The in-vitro cytotoxicity assay was carried out on the recombinant bromelain
treated and un-treated breast cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (Vero). Then the half maximal
inhibitory concentration (IC50) on all samples were recorded. Commercial bromelain served as the
control in this experiment. The IC50 for both enzymes are 0.29mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL for recombinant
and commercial bromelain respectively. Based on the IC50 values, both of recombinant and commercial
bromelain did affect the cell line at high concentration which is more than 0.25 mg/mL. The IC50
obtained from MCF-7 cells treated with recombinant and commercial bromelain are 0.20mg/mL and
0.16mg/mL respectively. Therefore, recombinant bromelain behaves similarly to the commecial
bromelain in their anti-cancer activity especially to the MCF-7 breast cancer and Vero cells lines.
PP-50
Recombinant Bromelain: A Novel Source of Meat Tenderizer
AZURA AMID, AZURA AMID, NURUL AZIRA ISMAILAZURA AMID, NURUL AZIRA ISMAIL
BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Beside papain, commercial bromelain is one of the most popular substances used during meat
tenderizing process. The commercial productions of bromelain are really depends on the pineapple
plantations besides the tedious steps of purification to get a pure bromelain for many applications.
Therefore, this study aims to observe the meat tenderizing activity of recombinant bromelain that have
been produced by DNA recombinant technology thus ease the purification steps. The effect of
recombinant bromelain as a meat tenderizer was carried out on the fresh beef. Transmission Electron
Microscopy (TEM) observed the efficiencies of those enzymes on beef. The untreated beef was acted as
a negative control. The meat treated with commercial bromelain had a dark muscle fibre, a slightly
bright extracellular matrix structure and its Z-line were light than the untreated meat after 24 hours of
Science, Engineering and Technology
incubation at 4oC. Meanwhile the Z-line and the muscle fibre band of meat treated with recombinant
bromelain became blurred than the commercial bromelain. The excellent effect of recombinant
bromelain in changing the structure of Z-line, muscle fibre and extracellular matrix is not doubtful. It is
suggested that recombinant bromelain is also a suitable meat tenderizer and can substitute commercial
bromelain in the food industries.
PP-51
Tomato Leaves: A Novel Source of Anti-cancer
AZURA AMID, Azura Amid, Wan Dalila Wan Ismail, Parveen JamalAzura Amid, Wan Dalila Wan
Ismail, Parveen Jamal
BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) are well known for its anti-oxidant, anti-gout and anti-cancer
activities while, the tomato leaves extract is unknown in its therapeutic effects especially on the anticancer activity. This study aims to investigate the cytotoxicity effect of tomato leaves extract on breast
cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (Vero ) using in-vitro cytotoxicity assay to indicate its
half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Samples were partially purified by column
chromatography. The purified sample gave a rational effect towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells with
IC50 value of 5.85 µg mL-1 compared to Taxol with IC50 value of 0.039 µg mL-1. The purified
sample also considered harmless as it has IC50 value of 765.6 µg mL-1 in Vero cells treatment while
Taxol gave IC50 value of 0.045 µg mL-1. Further investigation was carried out at the genes
expression level by microarray procedure. The results revealed that most of the cancer related genes
were affected by the partially purified extract. Thus, this observation suggesting that partially purified
tomato leaves extract do have an anti-cancer activity especially on the breast cancer cell and it is not
harmful to the normal cell. Therefore, it might not give severe sight effect compare to Taxol.
PP-52
Tomato Leaves: A Novel Source of Anti-inflammatory
AZURA AMID, Azura Amid, Sulawati Semail, Parveen JamalAzura Amid, Sulawati Semail, Parveen
Jamal
BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) are well known for its anti-oxidant, anti-gout and anti-cancer
activities while, the tomato leaves extract is unknown in its therapeutic effects especially on the antiinflammation actions. In this study, the pharmacologic effects of Solanum lycopersicum leaves extract
were investigated by observing the Nitric Oxide (NO) production. The inflammatory activity of LPSstimulated murine macrophage cells RAW264.7 treated with different concentration of tomato leaves
extract (0, 20, 50 and 100µg/ml) were monitored by Griess assay. Results showed that the tomato
leaves extract inhibited the productions of NO which plays a central role in the anti-inflammatory
response. At the highest concentration (100µg/ml) of tomato leaves extract tested, the NO production
was inhibited 84.95%. The results were further investigated by observing the Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)
level. The results agreed with the previous observation when at the highest concentration (100µg/ml)
of tomato leaves extract tested, the PGE2 production was reduced 37.41% compared to the untreated.
Hence, these results indicate that the leaves of Solanum lycopersicum extract have the antiinflammatory activity.
PP-66
Development of a Fuel Efficient Hybrid Engine towards Sustainable
Development
Dr. Ataur Rahman, Prof. Waqar Asrar, Dr. Sany Ihsan Izan, Dr. Kassim Abdullah,Dinie Rifdi, Mohd
Firdaus, 'Abdur Rauf,TG Aiman,Hazli, Zam Hadzrami, SyazwanProf. Waqar Asrar, Dr. Sany Ihsan
Izan, Dr. Kassim Abdullah,Dinie Rifdi, Mohd Firdaus, 'Abdur Rauf,TG Aiman,Hazli, Zam Hadzrami,
Science, Engineering and Technology
Syazwan
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The main focused of this study is to develop a fuel efficient and zero tail pipe emission hybrid engine
to operate the designed and developed Urban car of weight 1.42 kN. The hybrid engine is developed by
coupling a high efficient 12 volt generator with a 33.5 cc engine of power 1.18 kW @7000 rpm. The
generator is activated from the battery power before start the engine in order to turn the armature into an
electromagnet. Once start the engine, the battery is disconnected from the generator. The generator starts
to power the DC motor to propel the car as soon as started the engine. The engine optimum speed is
considered to be 4000 rpm to operate the generator to power the DC motor for propelling the car on 0%
slope. While, it is operated at 6000 rpm to power the vehicle on 33% slope. Two super-capacitors each
of 2 Farad are equipped in parallel with the generator in order to maintain the constant power supply to
the DC motors for propelling the car with speed of 35 km/h. The hybrid engine was run at 65%
efficiency which is 118% more than the conventional IC engine.
PP-67
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID ENGINE
POWERED FUEL EFFICIENT URBAN VEHICLE
Dr. Ataur Rahman, Ataur Rahman, Sany Ihsan Izan, Kassim Abdullah, Waqar Asrar Muzaffar,
Amirul Rafiq, Rodahtun, Asri, Khairy, and Hannah
Ataur Rahman, Sany Ihsan Izan, Kassim Abdullah, Waqar Asrar Muzaffar,
Amirul Rafiq, Rodahtun, Asri, Khairy, and Hannah
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The main focused of the designed and developed hybrid engine powered car was to improve the fuel
consumption and reduce the emission. The hybrid engine is developed by coupling a high efficient 12
volt generator with a 33.5 cc engine of power 1.18 kW @7000 rpm. The generator starts to power the
DC motor to propel the car as soon as started the engine. The engine optimum speed is considered to be
4000 rpm to operate the generator to power the DC motor for propelling the car on 0% slope. While, it
is operated at 6000 rpm to power the vehicle on 33% slope. Two super-capacitors each of 2 Farad are
equipped in parallel with the generator in order to maintain the constant power supply to the DC motors
for propelling the car with speed of 35 km/h. The hybrid engine was run at 65% efficiency which is
118% more than the conventional IC engine.
The design of this car was started with whole-car integration which was mainly based on farreaching, light weighting, drag reduction, fuel efficient and emission. The car chassis frame and body
are made with aluminum except the chassis side bars and the cross members which lead the car weight
of 1.48 kN. The drag of the car is significantly reduced by using low drag tires. The energy efficient
hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads
on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by
electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor
generator. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 4000 rpm to power the DC motor for propelling
the car. The car was tested by using 100 ml fuel both in laboratory and road experiment. It was found
that the vehicle has travelled 140 km/litre (70% of the targeted distance) without any problem of the
engine.
PP-70
RESISTIVE ELEMENT UNDER TEST WITH DIFFERENT
CORE AND BIASING CONDITIONS
SHEROZ KHAN, Sheroz Khan, Atika Arshad, Sustra Hadiyanto, Mohd Fadeli B Md Halid, Mohd
Fadzli bin JohariSheroz Khan, Atika Arshad, Sustra Hadiyanto, Mohd Fadeli B Md Halid, Mohd Fadzli
bin Johari
ECE, ENGIEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
This work relates to non-contact measurement of a passive resistive element under low frequency
applications. In this case input signal is applied to the primary of inductively coupled coil, the secondary
of which is connected to a circuit consisting of the resistive element under test. A given piece of
resistive element is tested for various core materials of the coupled coils in the form of derived
secondary voltage when a sinusoidal primary signals in the low frequency range is applied.
The results show deviations which could be termed as characterizing the materials used as air core in
the coupled coils. Also, results for various biasing conditions are obtained under different materials
conditions, reflecting the fact that a resistive element under biasing conditions is more vulnerable to
interference effects compared to no biasing conditions.
PP-105
Endo sensor – An Endotoxin Detector in Liquid Biological
Samples
Kamaruzzaman Yunus, Akbar John B, Kamaruzzaman YB, Jalal KCA, Zaleha KAkbar John B,
Kamaruzzaman YB, Jalal KCA, Zaleha K
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Endotoxins from gram-negative microorganisms initiates clot formation in blood when it is
accidentally encountered by horseshoe crab. This property was extensively studied by various
researchers as a result Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test was established. The LAL tests in general
were 3 to 300 times more sensitive than the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test
method. It should be noted that major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of
sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the
same endotoxin. Based on above perspective a portable Kit (Endo sensor) was developed to detect the
presence of bacterial endotoxin in liquid biological samples using Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL)
as a source. Sensitivity of the Kit was determined using various concentrations of prepared endotoxin
standards and pyrogen free water samples. It was observed that Endo sensor can detect up to nano gram
level endotoxin in liquid biological samples which could be expressed in (EU/ml). PE sensor works
under the principle of chromogenic substrate method and optical density (OD) was observed at 405nm.
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-137
Application of Low Cost Polyurethane Foam for Fabricating Porous
Zuraida Ahmad, Zuraida Ahmad, Fariza Abdul Rahman and Iis SopyanZuraida Ahmad, Fariza Abdul
Rahman and Iis Sopyan
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
There are many ways of producing porous ceramic body used as bone substitute. Generally the
classification can be deposited into three groups which are by utilizing organic fillings, foaming agents
and replication of porous structure. Organic fillings can be expensive to employ plus the pore produced
is undesirable which is from closed type. On the other hand, foaming agents provide porous structure
with non-uniform pore size distribution as well as production of porous graft method utilizes many steps
in removing organic substances from the cancellous bone itself. A method of developing porous TCP by
using low-cost PU foam is introduced to overcome the limitations of existing method of producing
artificial bones. Porous tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) was produced via polymeric sponge method. The
slurry was prepared by mixing TCP powder with distilled water and subsequently undergone
homogenization process for 24 hours. Three days drying process took place before sintering. The
porosity was obtained by sintering at 1100°C for 3 hours. This method produces porous tri-calcium
phosphate with porosity between 35.9-37.1% and compressive strength of 0.68 MPa to 1.02 MPa. SEM
examination of the pore size and pore interconnectivity verified that the obtained porous TCP is suitable
for synthetic bone graft application. Optimistically, this research may help providing the sufficient
amount of bioresorbable materials without causing extra pain to the patient, disease transmission and
also reducing the operation cost
PP-138
Film Casting Starch As Bio-Sanitary Solution
Zuraida Ahmad, Zuraida Ahmad and YuslizaZuraida Ahmad and Yusliza
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In the last years, biodegradable polymers have been widely used for packaging with the emphasis on
the reduction of environmental pollution. The interest on starch-based polymers is constantly increasing
due to its low cost and abundantly available. In this research, thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared
from native sago starch plasticized with glycerol and water by film casting technique. The main
objective was to investigate on the sago starch gelatinisation properties and microstructure with a range
of water-glycerol concentrations. The amount of glycerol to sago starch was kept constant at 30% w/w.
The water contents were varies from 5% to 30% w/w. TPS was fabricated into films/sheets by solution
preparation, gelatinization, casting and drying process. The materials were left to dry for 24 h in an oven
at about 40-75°C to a constant weight, and followed by materials testing. The samples were tested by
X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cystallinity of the materials change as a
function of water content were recorded by XRD. It was found by DSC that the addition of glycerol
increased the gelatinization onset temperature depending on the water content in the materials. The
morphology of the specimens was a bit complex with phase separations on different water levels were
also identified.
PP-154
Intelligent Solar Tracking System Using Webcamera and Sound
Card
Samir A. Abdul kareem, Samir A. Abdul kareem, Rizah Muhida, Rini AkmeliawatiSamir A. Abdul
kareem, Rizah Muhida, Rini Akmeliawati
Science, Engineering and Technology
MCT,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A novel two degree of freedom (DOF) intelligent solar tracking system using fuzzy logic control is
presented in this project. The fuzzy control algorithm for solar tracking system is implemented using a
webcamera as a vision sensor, two PC sound cards as output signal controller, and two DC motors as a
pan-tilt driver mechanism. Two Fuzzy logic controllers are designed to control the camera panel angles
of the proposed solar tracking system. The fuzzy controller input parameters (light source pixel
coordinate) and output parameters (variation of duty cycle) are used to generate the optimal pulsewidth- modulated (PWM) under different operating conditions to drive the motors. The motors will
react accordingly when they receive signal from the sound card to make sure the camera always focuses
on the centroid of the light source. The major issues addressed in this project are reducing the number of
pulses that are sending through sound cards to move the motors, this will significantly reduce the power
consumption required to drive the camera panel to the desired location. Also using a webcamera and a
sound card reduces the circuitry required when compared with conventional solar tracking systems,
hence, saving components such as xPC target, Encoder, Tachometer, ADC or DCA and others. The
system tested at different locations. The data which were obtained by experiment were able to show a
validity of the proposed controller.
PP-159
‘Green’ Superabsorbent from Carrageenan-based Hydrogel
Jamaluddin Mohd Daud, Jamaluddin Mohd Daud, Rumaisa Nordin, Ahmad Muzammil
ZubardiJamaluddin Mohd Daud, Rumaisa Nordin, Ahmad Muzammil Zubardi
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
This work was initiated to promote the use of natural plant-based ingredients for preparation of
“greener― superabsorbent polymer, replacing the petroleum-based synthetic polymer. Hence,
carrageenan originated from seaweed was used to prepare superabsorbent hydrogel by reacting with a
particular monomer, an initiator and a cross-linking agent. The formation of the graft copolymers was
confirmed by using the Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Based on certain conditions
of the experiment, maximum swelling capacities of the hydrogel in distilled water and in synthetic urine
were found to be 42.26 g/g and 41.10 g/g dried hydrogel respectively. The swelling capacity experiment
was also conducted for a commercial polyacrylate normally used in branded diapers for comparison.
Swelling behavior of the hydrogel was also tested in various concentrations of NaCl solution. Besides
that, swelling capacities of the hydrogel in solutions of different pHs were also measured, and pH 7
showed the highest water absorption. Preliminary investigation on the swelling kinetic of the hydrogel
was also performed.
PP-160
IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF INDOOR USER LOCATION
TRACKING DETERMINATION USING IEEE 802.11 SIGNALS
Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Media A. AyuDr. Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Media A. Ayu
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
In smart environment, making a location-aware personal computing working accurately is a way of
getting close to the pervasive computing vision. Currently, Location-Aware Computing becomes a
rapidly growing field in the area of Context-Aware Computing.
Location-Aware Computing which promises accuracy, economy and ease of deployment, is currently
still seen to be under construction. Numerous location models have been proposed in different domains
and can be categorized into two classes, i.e. symbolic or descriptive (hierarchical, topological) location
such as a city or a room, and coordinate (Cartesian, metric or geometric) location such as coordinate in
GPS. The location of a user and devices are the target of developing location-aware applications.
Unfortunately a range of mobile devices (Laptop, PDA, Smart Phone) in the market are still lacking of
satisfactory location technology especially for indoor user location.
Science, Engineering and Technology
This study presents the current development on a light-weight algorithm, which is easy, simple but
robust in producing the determination of user location using Wi-Fi signals. This project improved the
accuracy of the user location determination by developing a new user location model which based on
"multiple observers" ηk-Nearest Neighbour. The “multi observers― of ηk-Nearest Neighbour
(ηk-NN) Algorithm is an instance-based learning algorithm which normalizes the sample data set of the
Wi-Fi signal strength and signal quality to achieve the best correct result for symbolic user location at a
room scale. Data normalisation is found to play an important role in determining the quality of the
training data-set which has direct impact on the estimation result. The algorithm has been compared to
other light and weight algorithms including the variant of k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) and the
“multi observers― of ηk-Nearest Neighbour (ηk-NN) Algorithm, and it shows promising results
for mobile environment.
PP-163
HajjLocator: a GPS tracking System for Hajj Pilgrim
Teddy Mantoro, Teddy Mantoro, Media A. Ayu, Murni Mahmud, Moha Asri Abdullah, Amir Borovac.
Abi Dzar Jaafar, Mohd Fadhli Md. Aris.Teddy Mantoro, Media A. Ayu, Murni Mahmud, Moha Asri
Abdullah, Amir Borovac. Abi Dzar Jaafar, Mohd Fadhli Md. Aris.
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hajj, an annual Muslim pilgrimage, is one of the pillars of Islam and every able Muslim must at least
perform this once in their lifetime. During this pilgrimage, millions of pilgrim from all over the world
congregates for religious rituals in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To add to the over-crowding
problem, there are many cases of lost pilgrims during the Hajj period. In Makkah, the cases of missing
Hajj pilgrims are not uncommon.
Although a good number of tracking systems have been introduced with a wide range of tracking
facilities, there are still needs to have a better solution in over-coming the issue. Nonetheless, the
operational cost of majority of these systems is quite expensive thus preventing a widespread use.
Thus, we propose a hajj pilgrimage tracking system using GPS that provides the location of a Hajj
pilgrim, especially the elderly. HajjLocator provides the availability, reliability and accessibility towards
the pilgrims tracking system. HajjLocator availability can be increased by using various connections
including WiFi, GSM/GPRS or SMS to send the user location from a PDA/Smart Phone to the
HajjLocator server.
The main aims of the HajjLocator are to reduce the worrying and to save pilgrim’s life.
It reduced worrying of the family members by providing a real time tracking facility on the web of
the pilgrims when they perform hajj. Hajj provider and the family members can track the Hajj pilgrim
using their mobile devices.
In saving pilgrim’s life, a save our soul (SOS) button was developed which can be used during a
panic situation. In the case the pilgrims lost in a crowded and unfamiliar environment, they just slide
and press the SOS button on their mobile device and it will send their current location to the family and
to the relevant agencies to give proper assistance.
PP-170
An Implementation on Domain Name System Security Extensions
Framework in IPv6 Environment
Teddy Mantoro, Saiful Azhar Norhanipah, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Bidin, Teddy MantoroSaiful Azhar
Norhanipah, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Bidin, Teddy Mantoro
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a set of extensions which adds security to
the DNS. The major problem in DNS as originally specified in RFC 1035 are it does not offer any form
of security and it is vulnerable to spoofing, man-in-the-middle and cache poisoning attacks. This kind of
Science, Engineering and Technology
attacks can compromise all communications to the host that initiate any connection that require address
translation.
By implementing DNSSEC on IPv6 environment, the Internet infrastructure will be further protected
from malicious attacks. The specifications for implementing DNSSEC are based on RFC 4033, 4044
and 4055 where it provides origin authentication of DNS data, data integrity, and authenticated denial of
existence. Without security mechanism, DNS is easily vulnerable to simple attack. Easiest example of
such attacks can be done using Ettercap, a network sniffing tool. Using the tool, any DNS query can
easily be directed to the attacker's chosen host.
The problem arise when the sending and receiving sides do not know whether they are getting data
from the right place, and sending data to the right place. With no further improvements are made on
DNS, the safety and security of web users would be jeopardized. In past years, a wide variety of security
attacks have been occurred in the wild from modifying DNS data to system and application crash and
resource starvation. However, not all kind of attacks can be avoided using DNSSEC. It depends on the
technologies that have been used.
The solution can be addressed by offering specific prototype to accommodate the needs in
technology in securing the DNS. In a nutshell, this work aims on studying the concept and the problem
domain of DNSSEC, as well as proposing a better solution of a secured framework. The prototype of
DNSSEC is presented in this exhibition.
PP-171
A Wireless Node Implementation Base for the Development of a
'plug and play' Smart Home System
Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Teddy Mantoro, ElbaraDr. Teddy Mantoro, Elbara
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
There have been many smart home projects undertaken in the past and a primary goal of each has
always been to maximize relaxation and enjoyment of occupants, and to develop a green smart home for
energy efficiency purposes. An easily implementable and installable of the smart sensors are amongst
the target of this study.
The idea revolve around a system of wireless nodes communicating with a central hub that is
connected to the internet to allow a home owner to be able to monitor conditions and control his home
from anywhere and through any mobile internet enabled device. The wireless nodes are chosen to
minimize the mess of wiring and the smart home system can be optimized by developing ‘plug and
play’ smart sensors and its application which can be set up in anyone’s home in a simple
manner.
Sensors attached to the nodes of this system will assist in sending alerts to the home owner or
relevant authorities if any security issues or hazards such as fires or thieves are detected. Sensors would
also communicate amongst each other to enhance the relaxation of occupants by minimizing and
improving an occupant’s physical interaction with the home. By using pattern matching as the core
of the Artificial Intelligent approach, the smart home is capable in making their own action in assisting
occupants including the energy efficient strategy such as electricity or water usages.
This project is an ongoing project and it relies on the advent of micro computing systems and the
relative ease of integrating them with off the shelf sensors and creating complex systems without the
exorbitant costs often associated with R&D done at these levels. The ambition is to finally create a low
cost base system out of which many extended features can be added, from advanced web interfaces for
remote controlling, to voice recognition for enhanced interaction and security in user mobile
environment.
PP-185
A New Type of Glass Ionomer Cement as Root Canal Sealer
(certified patent)
Ammar Mustafa, Ammar A. Mustafa, Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Ahmad Faris IsmailAmmar A. Mustafa,
Khalid A. S. Al-Khateeb, Ahmad Faris Ismail
Science, Engineering and Technology
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to create and evaluate a new type of Glass Ionomer
Cement (GIC), which exhibits remineralisation effects. This effect is due to a new formula that can be
used as a root-canal sealer. Hence, it stops the decay effect, which is caused by the demineralization of
the internal surface of the root canal and consequently on the existence of accessory canals.
Materials and Methods: A new formula for a GIC-based root canal sealer has been prepared. The
main formula is a boro-tri-fluoro-alumino-silicate. Fifty samples of human teeth in vitro were used in
the study. Conventional root canal therapy with no root canal filling was performed on each sample.
Then the samples were multi-sectioned longitudinally and subjected to a demineralizing process acting
on the internal side of the canal. The demineralizing solution was of a pH of 5.0 at a temperature of
37°C for periods of 14-30 days to produce caries-like lesion. The sections were examined under
transversal micro-radiography. The fifty specimens which were selected for this study were only those
with clear demineralization and obvious accessory canals. A film layer of the sealer was applied to each
specimen, and the specimens were divided into three groups for re-evaluation after 14, 28, and 60 days.
Results: A significant decrease in the depth of the lesion was observed in all groups with a statistical
level of confidence of more than 95% (i.e. p < 0.05). The change in the quantity, form and texture of the
accessory canals was quite noticeable. Upon comparison of transverse micro-radiography results most
of significant differences were observed in the specimens of the 28 and the 60 days groups, but the
difference in the 14 days group was not very significant.
Conclusion: The incorporation of boron-tri-fluoride into the formula of the new type of sealer has
proved to be very effective in the remineralisation effect of the hard tissues of the teeth and
consequently will result in reducing the width and the length of the accessory canals. It is therefore
anticipated the new material will have a strong impact on operative dentistry.
PP-192
MEMS Piezoelectric Inertial Energy Generator
Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Raihan Othman, Hanim Salleh, Aliza Aini Md
RalibAnis Nurashikin Nordin, Raihan Othman, Hanim Salleh, Aliza Aini Md Ralib
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Vibration based inertial energy generators have become significantly popular due to the growing
demand of wireless sensor networks which need miniature, portable, long lasting and easily recharged
sources of power. Usage of hazardous batteries is an unacceptable solution to power up the densely
populated nodes due to their bulky sizes and high battery replacement cost. As such, the viability of
‘green’ MEMS vibration based inertial energy generator has become even more dominant. This
work reports the design and simulation of a cantilever piezoelectric inertial energy generator based on
bulk silicon micromachining for wireless condition monitoring in power plants. Power plants generate
ambient vibrations in the low kHz range which can be harvested to power the wireless condition
monitoring circuits. Output power of the system will be optimized when it is operated at the ambient
resonance frequency [1]. This poster discusses the effect of various lengths, shapes and volume of the
cantilever beam, to its natural resonant frequency. The effect of the different piezoelectric material with
the maximum output power produced is also highlighted. The design and finite element modeling was
conducted using MEM PZE module in CoventorwareTM. A series of zinc oxide piezoelectric cantilever
beams functioning in the range of 230 Hz until 1.5 kHz were simulated. The cantilever beams operate in
transversal modes. Zinc oxide was chosen as the piezoelectric layer because it requires relatively low
deposition temperature, has high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and excellent bonding to substrate
materials such as silicon [2]. A comparison of power output produced between two different
piezoelectric materials is also highlighted.
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-194
Fabrication and Characterization of MEMS Surface Acoustic Wave
Resonators on Lithium Niobate
Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Ioana Voiculescu, Fatini SidekAnis Nurashikin
Nordin, Ioana Voiculescu, Fatini Sidek
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators are essential components in communication devices and
are used mainly as oscillators, frequency synthesizers and transceivers. Common piezoelectric
substrates are quartz, Lithium Tantalate (LiTO3) and Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3). In this paper we
describe the fabrication and characterization of SAW resonators on LiNbO3. Two SAW resonators with
resonance frequency of 218MHz with varying number of reflectors were fabricated and measured.
Fabrication of SAW resonators typically requires a single deposition step, in comparison to their more
fabrication-complex film bulk acoustic wave resonators counterparts [6]. Fabrication of such excellent
topology can serve as a means of evaluating the resonator design methods of using equivalent circuit
model. Having such justifications, prototype SAW resonators designed using the equivalent circuit
models were manufactured on top of lithium niobate substrates. Standard lithographic fabrication
methods involving optical lithography, metal evaporation and lift-off were used to quickly prototype the
first generation SAW resonators [9]. The photo mask consists of different designs of two-port SAW
resonators with lambda of 16 μm with aluminium thickness of 0.2 µm. A necessary procedure before
performing measurements is calibration of the equipment. Calibration using SMA standards eliminates
the network analyzer and cabling errors while calibration substrates eliminates the probe errors. After
the calibration procedure, we proceed with measuring the SAW resonator. By placing the probes on the
SAW resonator’s probe pads, the output traces can be obtained using the network analyzer. The
series (fseries) and parallel resonant (fparallel) frequencies of both resonators were measured to be 216
MHz and 221 MHz and 217 MHz and 221MHz respectively. Both resonators show insertion losses in
the range of -47 to -49 dB. The difference between both resonators are the number of reflectors in the
device. For Resonator 1 there were 250 reflectors compared to Resonator with only 125. This reflect
that, with a higher number of reflectors in the SAW resonator it will reduce the insertion loss of the
device.
PP-204
Production of Astaxanthin from Seafood Industry By-Products
Through Fermentation Process
Irwandi Jaswir, Irwandi Jaswir, Hasan Talib, Maizirwan Mel
Irwandi Jaswir, Hasan Talib, Maizirwan Mel
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Production of Astaxanthin from Seafood Industry By-Products
Through Fermentation Process
Irwandi Jaswir, Hasan Talib, Maizirwan Mel
Biotechnology Engineering, Kuliyyah of Engineering,
International Islamic University Malaysia
The global production of total shrimps in worldwide has been annually grown recently and lifts the
unprocessed wastes (40–50% of the total weight) to cause serious environmental problems. These
wastes contain carotenoids (particularly astaxanthin) which regarded as high value naturally occurring
pigment with the cost US$ 1500-2000 per kg if chemically synthesis. This pigment has many significant
applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The most commercial application, it
served as the main pigment substituent in aqua-farming. In addition, the super antioxidant property
which is ten times higher activity than β- carotene. In order to extract this highly unstable pigment
effectively with maximum yield, shrimp waste must be stabilized; lactic fermentation is a simple and
environmentally friendly method to achieve this goal. In this study, shrimp wastes were inoculated with
Science, Engineering and Technology
Lactobacillus bacterial cultures for few days. Carotenoids were then purified with an organic solvent
system and the final yield was determined spectrophotometcally. This study revealed the potential
astaxanthin habituation from Malaysian shrimps that not only reduce the environmental problems but
maximize the processor profit.
PP-205
Novel Plant-Based Gelatin Replacers
Irwandi Jaswir, Irwandi Jaswir, Abeer Alotaibi, and Parveen JamalIrwandi Jaswir, Abeer Alotaibi,
and Parveen Jamal
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Novel Plant-Based Gelatin Replacers
Irwandi Jaswir, Abeer Alotaibi, and Parveen Jamal
Department of Biotechnology Engineering ,Faculty of Engineering,
International Islamic University Malaysia,
Gelatin is one of the most widely used food ingredients. Its applications in food industries are very
broad including enhancing the elasticity, consistency and stability of food products. Gelatin is also used
as a stabilizer, particularly in dairy products and as a fat substitute that can be used to reduce the energy
content of food without negative effects on the taste. Besides the food industry, gelatin is also useful in
medicine, pharmaceutical and photographic industries. It was reported that 41% of the gelatin produced
in the world is sourced from pig skin, 28.5% from bovine hides and 29.5% from bovine bones.
However, factors such as the outbreak of BSE (a.k.a. mad cow disease) and increasing demand for nonmammalian gelatin for halal and kosher food markets have revived the interest in gelatin replacers from
plant. In this study, we have successfully extracted valuable pectin from various types of plant wastes.
Pectin, for some extent, can be utilized as a gelatin replacer. Pectin designates those water soluble
pectinic acid (colloidal polygalacturonic acids) of varying methyl ester content and degree of
neutralization, which are capable of forming gels with sugar, and acids, under suitable condition.
Results showed that citric asid was found to be the best solution for recovery of pectin from mango
peels. This study also revealed optimum conditions for extraction of pectin from Malaysian fruit wastes.
PP-206
Rapid Detection of Ethanol Content in Beverages using IIUMDeveloped Portable Electronic Nose
Irwandi Jaswir, Irwandi Jaswir, Rini Akmeliawati, Nurul Asyikeen Ab. MutalibIrwandi Jaswir, Rini
Akmeliawati, Nurul Asyikeen Ab. Mutalib
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Rapid Detection of Ethanol Content in Beverages using IIUM-Developed Portable Electronic Nose
Irwandi Jaswir, Rini Akmeliawati, Nurul Asyikeen Ab. Mutalib
Biotechnology Engineering, Kuliyyah of Engineering,
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study has been successfully conducted to develop a method for rapid detection of ethanol
content in beverages using IIUM-developed portable electronic nose. Electronic nose (E-nose) is a
device to mimic human’s olfactory system and widely used in food analysis. However, E-nose used
food industry are big instruments and not portable. The very recently-developed portable device used in
this study is very handy and practical for use. Results from this study revealed that the device could be
used for rapid detection of ethanol content in various beverages, such as alcoholic beverages, isotonic
drinks, soft drinks and fruit juices of different brands in Malaysia with high accuracy and reliability,
where it could detect ethanol content as low as 0.1%. The analytical condition for the detection was
achieved with the lowest voltage output of 0.43V
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-225
Automatic Fruits Identification System Using Hybrid Technique
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, A. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, A. A. Shafie, N. Hazali and N. TermidziA. M.
Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, A. A. Shafie, N. Hazali and N. Termidzi
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In this work, a combination of artificial neural network (ANN), Fourier descriptors (FD) and spatial
domain analysis (SDA) has been proposed for the development of an automatic fruits identification and
sorting system. Fruits images are captured using digital camera inclined at different angles to the
horizontal. Segmentation is used for the classification of the preprocessed images into two nonoverlapping clusters from which shape boundary and signatures are estimated using FD and SDA
technique. Furthermore, color information obtained from the extracted red-green-blue color components
of the fruits images during ANN training process is used in accurately detecting the color of such a fruit.
The two independent paths are then combined for fruits sorting and identification purposes. The
performance of the developed hybrid system has been evaluated at three different angles of camera
inclination from which an accuracy of 99.1% was obtained.
PP-226
Dinar and Dirham detection Machine
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, A. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, H. Farooqi and A. B. BoolakyA. M. Aibinu, M. J.
E. Salami, H. Farooqi and A. B. Boolaky
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Long ago Muslims used gold and silver by weight as money. Banknotes or promissory notes were
then seen as a promise to pay someone back in gold or silver upon the presentation of the promissory
notes. But with the gradual removal of precious metals in the monetary system, the banknote is just a
piece of paper with no value backing it up.
The re-introduction of shariah’ money necessitate the development of Dinar and Dirham
detection machine to be used by various business outlet, vending machines, shops, moneychangers and
government agencies. The proposed dinar and dirham detection machines has the ability to detect the
originality of the coins by accurate measurement of the weight, size and the content of the newly
introduced coins.
Results obtained from the application of the proposed techniques shows that the method can
accurately detect and sort the coins.
PP-229
A Programmable Dirham Coin based Hajj Saving Electronic Device
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, A. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami and M. A. ShahA. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami and
M. A. Shah
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hajj, one of the five pillars of Islam requires long-term saving. As most of the Muslim majority
countries are developing countries and also facing financial instabilities, savings tend to lose value due
to depreciation of the national currencies, political and economic conditions of the countries. As a
solution to this problem, hajj saving in gold has been proposed has the solution to this paper money
devaluation. Previous studies have proven that there is a significant effect in cost of hajj when it is
priced in gold oppose to paper currency.
Science, Engineering and Technology
A prototype of novel programmable dirham coin based hajj saving electronic device has been
implemented in this work. The device will is fitted with a two inch liquid crystal display (LCD), to
converts the instantaneous weight of the coin in the saving compartment to alphanumeric numerals for
display on the LCD screen. A tampered proof unit will be fitted with the device and warning alert sound
is triggered incase of unwarranted access of the content. Thus, this work will be a contribution to the
fulfillment of the fifth pillar of Islam and also a step towards establishing a non-inflationary and stable
shariah compliant savings and economy
PP-255
THE STUDY OF GRAPHICS VISUALIZATION FOR MOBILE
USER NAVIGATION IN PERVASIVE COMPUTING
ENVIRONMENT
Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Media A. AyuDr. Teddy Mantoro, Dr. Media A. Ayu
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
In a pervasive computing research area, the technology of mobile user navigation using Global
Positioning System (GPS) have matured for many years, currently user can navigate to the street level to
certain target destination in asimple 3D manner. Unfortunately, the current application does not enable
user to navigate more detail than a street especially in the outdoor building environment.
This study aims for a user navigation technique using GPS in a 3D walk-space and at the same time
navigates the users by showing their location in a 3D projection map on their mobile devices.
The proposed approach is unique, because it provides visualization of 3D maps in virtual 3D
workspace environments which assist users to navigate to a target location and helps the users to take
the shortest path that they can reach to destination in a shortest time. The map will show the location of
a user in the scene to navigate to the location of another user to meet on the same image plane. In this
study, A* algorithm and Panda3D are proposed for the project development. A* algorithm is an
example of the best-first search that uses a more complex heuristic to select a path through the tree.
This study significantly add-values to mobile navigation by offering a more realistic 3D walk-space
image. The basic functionalities of our prototype are presented in this exhibition.
PP-256
Online Authentication Using Smart Card Technology in a Mobile
Phone Infrastructure
Teddy Mantoro, Teddy Mantoro, Admir MilišićTeddy Mantoro, Admir Milišić
Computer Science,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
With ever-increasing number of Internet users sharing their personal information online, means of
securely authenticating them have the great emphasis. The problem is that users are willing to share
their personal data with their acquaintances, but most of the time, they lack experience and knowledge
to protect themselves from theft and exploitation. Additionally, in the spirit of pervasive computing,
user is mobile, often using public terminals, with no personalized configuration available and no
guaranty that the environment is secured.
With the widespread of Internet usage, e-commerce becomes a common way of conducting business,
making potential damages of even greater magnitude. Therefore, most of the potential consumers
choose to abstain from online money transfer due to privacy concerns. In order to strengthen the trust
and gain user’s acceptance, security improvements are required. At the same time, however,
solution needs to be convenient, entailing ease of use and higher mobility. Ensuring that every
individual is who they claim to be is the basis and starting point for authorization, non-repudiation, as
well as confidentiality and integrity of data transmitted.
Proposed solution is the involvement of mobile network and usage of popular mobile phone,
benefiting from SIM card’s tamper resistance to become trusted entity guarding personal
information and identifying each user. Mobile phone’s SIM card using short-range wireless
Science, Engineering and Technology
technology such as Near Field Communication (NFC) is convenient for safely storing security
parameters essential for secured communication. SIM card-equipped phone becomes secure entity
compulsory for getting access to privacy sensitive application. Mobile phone passes the personal user
keys only when needed, giving additional strength to the traditional public key cryptography approach
in terms of security and portability. Ease of use, portability and mobility are guaranteed while
parameters such as cryptography keys or credit card numbers are securely updated through the mobile
phone network.
PP-258
Underwater Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) for Surveillance
Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair bin Alang Md Rashid, Mohd Zairi bin Sumadin,
Muhamad Akmal bin Mohd RamliNahrul Khair bin Alang Md Rashid, Mohd Zairi bin Sumadin,
Muhamad Akmal bin Mohd Ramli
Department of Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) is the commonly accepted name for tethered
underwater robots in the offshore or oil and gas industries. This prototype is designed for making an
observation and surveillance underwater up to about 10 meters deep. The control system consists of
Sony Dualshock PS2 joystick controller connected to a microcontroller. The ROV is equipped with
motors for manuevering and a camera placed in water tight enclosure for surveillance. To have crystal
clear vision RGB camera is used. The ROV can be used for visual investigation of underwater
envrionment. investigation and rescue. Due to cost consideration, the ROV prototype is designed using
PVC tubes as frames.
PP-270
Educational Game for Hajj Ritual Using Intelligent Agent
Teddy Surya Gunawan, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Mira Kartiwi, Willy Wahyu MulyanaTeddy Surya
Gunawan, Mira Kartiwi, Willy Wahyu Mulyana
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hajj ritual involves many pilgrims from more than one hundred countries with more than two million
people every year. This project presents educational game based on simulation of the hajj ritual using
intelligent agent. To best model the hajj crowd, intelligent agent can be utilized as it enables each
character in the crowd to have different goals and different behaviors which reflects the real world. To
realistically model the real world, the agent model not only must have the capability to make decision,
but also must have location specific capability. The concept of intelligent agent is applied to the
individual pilgrim to build the crowd behavior. The objective of this project is to develop hajj crowd
simulation based on intelligent agent so that it can perform more natural and more complex behavior
compare to the one based on fluid particle. The results showed that hajj crowd simulation is able to
demonstrate more realistic pilgrims’ behavior for three hajj activities, i.e. thawaf, sa'i, and jumrah.
Moreover, subjective evaluation revealed that the developed system can be used for training the pilgrim
before they perform actual activities. Moreover, the developed system has been used for educational
aspect (edugame) to improve Muslim knowledge about hajj ritual.
PP-271
Development of Final Year Project Portal for Engineering Degree
Programs
Teddy Surya Gunawan, Abdul Mutholib, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Akhmad Unggul Priantoro, Sany Izan
IhsanAbdul Mutholib, Teddy Surya Gunawan, Akhmad Unggul Priantoro, Sany Izan Ihsan
Science, Engineering and Technology
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Final Year Project (FYP) is an important element for engineering degree programs. Transparent and
objective evaluation of each individual is very challenging which is essential to introduce continuous
quality improvement (CQI) as mandated by Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC). This project
aims to develop online portal under Open Source Initiative addressing above mentioned requirements.
The application will be made available to the public for gaining maximum benefits to all. Moreover, the
portal will be able to facilitate FYP coordinators to efficiently managing FYP from beginning to end.
Namely, registration of FYP proposals, vetting, registration, progress reporting, scheduling, assessment,
repository of resources and archiving. Nonetheless, security must also be given adequate consideration.
The portal provides security system which can handle the system from any kinds of attacking or
cracking to the system, such as Access Control List (ACL) which manages user’s privileges in order
to access CRUD database system, encryption session that encrypt every session in server and client, and
defined script in order to avoid direct access into source code. The most important in software
development is the life cycle which is able to ease in maintaining the source code and the system up to
date. Thus, the system is developed into modules. It means that every transaction has its own module. In
addition, the system is developed using PHP script, MySQL database system and javascript framework
(jquery).
PP-277
GEOMETRIC METHOD A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS
AUTHENTICATION OF FATS OF HALAL AND NON HALAL
ANIMALS
Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani Mirghani, Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, Adeeb Hayyan, Hamzah M.
Salleh,
Maan Hayyan, Mohammed A. Al-SaadiMohamed E. S. Mirghani, Adeeb Hayyan, Hamzah
M. Salleh,
Maan Hayyan, Mohammed A. Al-Saadi
BTE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The increasing global halal market needs advanced processes, technologies and rapid methods for
authentication and analyzing food products. Providing new methods to analyze, identify and
authenticate halal and non halal foods is crucial because halal food is obligatory for Muslims. Malaysia
has the potential of being the leader of halal food industry in the world. To support halal industry, this
study was carried out using simple and rapid method to identify fats and oils extracted from halal and
non halal animals to gain new knowledge about fatty acids compositions for edible oils and fats.
Different types of animal fats had been presented via plotting the number of carbon atoms of fatty acids
against present of the same fatty acid as part of the fatty acids composition of each type of animal fat. A
comparison among different animal fats (tallow, mutton, Arabian camel, whale blubber, chicken and
lard) and vegetable oils (palm oil) were carried out. Significant representative images were shown to
different types of animal fats used in this study, which could be used for authentication of pure type of
animal fats. The results of this study provide a new library to authenticate halal and non halal fats.
PP-289
Design and development of Variable length Hyper-redundant robot.
Md. Raisuddin Khan, Dr. Md. Raisuddin Khan, Annisa Bt. Jamali, Dr. Mozasser Rahman.Dr. Md.
Raisuddin Khan, Annisa Bt. Jamali, Dr. Mozasser Rahman.
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Variable length Hyper-redundant robot can be a practical and cost saving approach in complex and
unstructured area. Such a robot can be used for inspection inside pipes, holes, engine compartments and
even inside human body. In one particular operation, the variable length Hyper-redundant robot can
provide shorter trail and shorter time as well compared to fixed number of links when the number of
links used is calculated based on the final desired position. In this project Virtual Layer Approach and
Displacement Distribution scheme is applied to determine a coil shape path to reach the desired
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position. An algorithm is then developed to control the links of the robot along the path so that the robot
will grow in such a way that each of the follower links will take place of earlier link’s position. The
method can be used for n-numbers of links considering multiple obstacles in planar mode. In order to
demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm, a prototype of variable length hyper redundant
robot is fabricated and experiments are carried out for validation purposes.
PP-300
FABRICATION OF A GENE DELIVERY SYSTEM FROM A
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER
Farahidah MOHAMED, Farahidah MOHAMED, Abd Almonem DOOLAANEA,Ahmad Fahmi HARUN
ISMAILFarahidah MOHAMED, Abd Almonem DOOLAANEA,Ahmad Fahmi HARUN ISMAIL
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres is a promising gene carrier
system to deliver the gene in gene therapy. This study describes fabrication and characterization of
plasmid DNA-loaded PLGA microspheres using a versatile double-emulsion (w/o/w) solventevaporation method.
For microsphere fabrication, plasmid DNA in TE buffer was added to PLGA solution, previously
dissolved in DCM, and was homogenized to form the primary water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion. This w/o
emulsion was immediately injected into 1% aqueous PVA and homogenized to form the secondary
water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion. The w/o/w emulsion was then transferred to a continuously
stirred hardening tank of 1% aqueous PVA and the stirring was continued for 2 hours to allow
complete evaporation of DCM. The hardened microspheres were collected by centrifugation, washed
and freeze-dried.
Several parameters have been investigated including PVA concentration, different types of
surfactants and surfactant blends.
Resultant microspheres were characterized for size distribution and external morphology by laser
sizer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Encapsulation efficiency was also calculated and
the DNA was quantified by UV absorbance (NanoQuant). It was found that, increasing the PVA
concentration from 1% w/v to 5% w/v reduced the mean particle size from (10.25±0.16) µm to (3.39
± 0.01) µm. These sizes were also evident by the microimages that depicted smooth surfaces of
microspheres yielded for the range of PVA concentration. This research is still ongoing and future aims
include transfection on neuro cell line to see feasibility of using this carrier system to deliver relevant
gene to treat neurodegenerative diseases at molecular level.
PP-302
MICROENCAPSULATION OF DRUG INTO BIODEGRADABLE
POLYMER AS A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Farahidah MOHAMED, Farahidah MOHAMED, Ahmad Fahmi HARUN ISMAIL, Abd Almonem
DOOLAANEAFarahidah MOHAMED, Ahmad Fahmi HARUN ISMAIL, Abd Almonem DOOLAANEA
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mycoplasma pulmonis is one of the major causes for arthritis which can be treated with the model
drug, Gentamicin. The microencapsulation of Gentamicin with PLGA polymers was demonstrated by
using multiple-emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation method, which is postulated to enhance the
efficacy of the treatment. The resultant micropsheres were characterized with scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) for external morphology and the size analysis of the micropsheres was done by
using laser diffraction. The encapsulation efficiency was carried out using ninhydrin assay method to
quantify the Gentamicin concentration available in the microspheres by using UV spectrophotometer at
400 nm. Several parameters were tested including different concentration of PVA, different molecular
weight of PLGA and different types of surfactants on several characteristics which included external
morphology of the micropsheres, the size distribution and the encapsulation efficiency of Gentamicin.
Our result showed that the concentration of PVA was inversely proportionate to the size of
micropsheres as 1% PVA yielded mean size distribution of micropsheres around 13.68 µm (± 0.052
Science, Engineering and Technology
µm) whereas 5% of PVA yielded 3.78 µm (± 0.008 µm). This ongoing research is aimed to
transfect Gentamicin-loaded PLGA micropsheres onto Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line (Saos-2).
Success of the study will indicate promising use of a novel drug delivery system for therapy in bone
diseases.
PP-319
Biotransfomation products from Clarius batrachus oil
Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Nor Omar, Nur Aziyah Zainuddin, Nur Shahidatul Ahlam Md
Yusoff, Latifah Munirah Bakar, Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi, Kamaruzzaman YunusMuhammad Nor
Omar, Nur Aziyah Zainuddin, Nur Shahidatul Ahlam Md Yusoff, Latifah Munirah Bakar, Ahmad
Muzammil Zuberdi, Kamaruzzaman Yunus
Department of Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Biotransformation can be defined as an application that utilized natural and recombinant
organisms’ enzymes secreted by yeast, fungi and bacteria or whole cells as catalyst in synthesis of
organic compound. Therefore, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium has been chosen to be the biocatalyst
for biotransformation of ω fatty acids extracted from Malaysian catfish, Clarias batrachus
emphasizing on bioconversion of arachidonic acid. In addition, arachidonic acid was one of
prostaglandin precursor which exerts a variety of pharmacological effects on human and animals. In this
study, the fatty acids were extracted from the catfish using modified Folch method where the fish flesh
was freeze dried prior to homogenization with the chloroform and methanol system. Then, the crude
lipid extract was added to the bacterial culture and incubated for 4 days. After incubation, the
biotransformation product was extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass
spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify the fatty acids and other compounds. It was found that several fatty
acids, especially ω-fatty acids were converted to cholesterol. This indicates that ω-fatty acids can be
used as starting materials for other bioactive metabolites for pharmaceutical purposes.
PP-323
New Cooking Oil from Virgin Coconut-Palm Olein Blends
Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Nor Omar, Farhani Mohd Roslee, Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi,
Jamaluddin Mohd DaudMuhammad Nor Omar, Farhani Mohd Roslee, Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi,
Jamaluddin Mohd Daud
Department of Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The effects of virgin coconut oil in palm olein during deep-fat frying of French fries for 8 hours per
day for five consecutive days were compared in this study. Nowadays, the reusing of oil is normal
procedure but it gave a major impact to human health. Thus, this study was done to improve the oil
stability during frying by blending. The oils that were used in this study were of control oil (100% palm
olein (PO)), VCO/PO (10:90 v/v), and VCO/PO (20:80 v/v). All samples of frying oils were
periodically collected, and their free fatty acid (FFA) content, total polar content (TPC) and total
polymer material (TPM) were examined. The results of this study indicated that virgin coconut oil
(VCO) can be used to improve oil stability in palm olein during deep frying. The oils became darker,
increased in yellow color at the beginning, and became yellow-reddish throughout the process. For all
physicochemical properties studied, the blends of VCO and palm olein oil during frying process were
better than palm olein only. VCO/PO (20:80 v/v) showed the lowest total polar content while VCO/PO
(10:90 v/v) was lowest in total polymer material. In terms of FFA, the decreasing order of the
percentage of FFA was: VCO/PO (10:90 v/v) > VCO/PO (20:80 v/v) > control oil. Therefore, this study
suggests that a blend of palm olein and VCO showed a slight improvement in frying performance over
control oil. For sensory evaluation, it showed that there was no significant difference in oiliness while
there was a significant difference (*p < 0.05) in colour, odour, crispiness, taste and overall score and
acceptability of French fries fried in all three different oil samples. In general, frying stability of the
palm olein was improved by the blending of small proportions of virgin coconut oil into the palm olein.
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-333
Accessing maximum coverage of the commercial free space optic
(FSO) system
Wajadi Al-Khateeb, Dr.Wajadi Al-Khateeb, Myat Tun OoDr.Wajadi Al-Khateeb, Myat Tun Oo
Electrical and computer,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Free-Space Optics (FSO) is a line-of-sight technology that uses lasers to provide optical bandwidth
connections. Currently, FSO is capable of up to 2.5 Gbps of data, voice and video communications
through the air, allowing optical connectivity without requiring fiber-optic cable or securing spectrum
licenses. The biggest challenge of the FSO is the distance it can cover because the longer the distance
will result in lower the availability and it quality. Unlike the microwave and radio frequency, FSO
system cannot be set up more than few kilometers in commercially available devices. Commercial FSO
system is available for maximum distance of 5 km. In this experiment, we investigated the maximum
possible distance of the commercial FSO link. We experiment the possibility of the maximum possible
link distance by installing the link at fixed distanced of about 1 km. And the maximum distance could
be extrapolated by understanding the receiver threshold and the system link margin. By gradually
limiting the amount of the received light by using an appropriate mask, it was possible to determine the
maximum reachable distance without the need to experiment with various distances until reach the limit,
when the received power reach the threshold.
PP-334
Halia (= Ginger) Bukit Tinggi: Towards Commercialization
Julia Retno Andayani Budi Muljono, Shazatul, A.S., Retno. A. Budi MuljonoShazatul, A.S., Retno. A.
Budi Muljono
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Halia (= Ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc.) cv. Bukit Tinggi
Towards Commercialization Process
Shazatul A.S., Retno A. Budi Muljono
Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Micropropagation of ginger (= halia, Zingiber officinale Rosc.) cv. Bukit Tinggi has been achieved
successfully by plant tissue culture technique (PTC). Starting from a single ginger-bud as an explant,
about 150 of the young ginger plants can be produced in four months period. Infra red
spectroscopy/Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR/ATR) technique was chosen to characterize the green
house-derived ginger rhizomes and their mother plants from the ginger farm. 1Without any sample pretreatment, the FTIR/ATR data of ginger powder was obtained at the wave number range 4000-700 cm-.
Absorbance and second derivative spectra were employed for the measurements. Several characteristic
peaks of ginger rhizome were observed at the wave lengths 3244 cm-1; 2920 cm-1, 1635 cm-1 , 1335
cm-1, 1149 cm-1, 1075 cm-1, 997 cm-1and 859 cm-1. The results indicated that there is no marked
different in the chemical profiling of both ginger rhizomes and hence the PTC-derived ginger cv. Bukit
Tinggi is appropriate for a further commercialization process.
Keywords: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.,), Plant Tissue Culture, FTIR-ATR, Commercialization
Process
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-335
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MASS
DAMPER FOR VIBRATION CONTROL
Ismail Ladipo, Ismail Ladele Ladipo
Dr. Asan Gani MuthalifIsmail Ladele Ladipo
Dr. Asan Gani Muthalif
MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
PP-338
Green Extraction Using SFE
Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Nor Omar, A'ishah Azman, Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi, Maliza
Azrain Sham Mohd. AzmiMuhammad Nor Omar, A'ishah Azman, Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi, Maliza
Azrain Sham Mohd. Azmi
Department of Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract the essential oil from clove bud (Eugenia
caryophyllata). The essential oil was then analysed using TLC, GC and GC-MS. This study aims to
extract bioactive metabolites from natural products via ‘green extraction’ process using the
supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE). Analytical data showed that the major compounds found in
the clove bud oil were eugenol, β-caryophyllene and eugenyl acetate.
PP-341
Development of a Multi-Robot Indoor Localization System (ILS)
Md. Raisuddin Khan, Md. Raisuddin Khan, Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Normaziah Abdul
AzizMd. Raisuddin Khan, Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Normaziah Abdul Aziz
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In this project a multi-robot system is developed which uses a new algorithm for indoor localization.
A problem of self-organizing of a group of autonomous robots in an unknown environment is
considered here. The algorithm developed here will be very useful in undertaking reconnaissance inside
collapsed buildings, inside mines etc. Localization in an unknown indoor environment presents a
challenging problem in robotics because of unavailability of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals in
such environment. Accelerometer and gyroscope is used in this research to localize the position of the
robots in indoor environment. Using Monte Carlo Localization, an Indoor Localization System (ILS) is
developed and implemented on Mobile Robots. This invention addresses the problem of mobile robots
executing complex group behavior in an attempt to form collaborative group behavior by
communicating their position in any indoor based surveillance mission.
PP-342
Virtual 3D Mapping Software for Unknown Environment.
Md. Raisuddin Khan, Md. Raisuddin Khan, Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Normaziah Abdul
AzizMd. Raisuddin Khan, Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Normaziah Abdul Aziz
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mapping of 3D terrain using vision system requires extensive and complex computation. Moreover
Science, Engineering and Technology
machine vision based systems are highly dependent on lighting. An application software has been
developed in this project that is able to produce 3D map of unknown terrain using data that is received
from a set of non-vision sensors mounted on a platform. As such this system can operate without light.
The sensors used in this project for acquiring terrain data are Accelerometer, Rate gyro and Push button.
With the help of open Graphical Language the received data is mapped in 3D. This virtual environment
represents the real environment that shows complete information of a terrain which can be used for
different activities like navigation, rescue mission etc.
PP-348
BanLect – Nutraceutical from Banana Flower
Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Nor Omar, Azizah Mahmood, Nurziana Ngah, Ahmad Muzammil
ZuberdiMuhammad Nor Omar, Azizah Mahmood, Nurziana Ngah, Ahmad Muzammil Zuberdi
Department of Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The consumption of fruits and vegetables has attributed to the lower risk of cancer, heart disease,
hypertension and stroke in human due to the present of various phytochemicals/nutraceuticals and
antioxidant constituents. Pisang Nipah (Musa x paradisiaca) was analysed for its tannin, flavanoids,
saponin, alkaloids, total phenolic and antioxidant activities using established methods. The study
showed the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of banana flower (IC50=29.75 µg/g) was
stronger than the activity from its aqueous extract (IC50=1.52 µg/g). Meanwhile, the study on the
effect of BanLect (powdered aqueous extract) on lactating rats was carried out. It was found that the
amount of milk consumed by the pups increased in days of lactation, except when the dam did not feed
their pups during a period of one hour milking. Besides that, the statistical data showed that there was a
significant difference (p<0.5) in milk yield in lactating rats between the control group and petroleum
ether extract group.
PP-356
DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTELLIGENT CONTACTLESS
BIOMETRIC SYSTEM
M. O. Rotinwa-Akinbile, M. O. Rotinwa-Akinbile, A.M. Aibinu and M. J. E. SalamiM. O. RotinwaAkinbile, A.M. Aibinu and M. J. E. Salami
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The public demand for hygienically reliable biometric devices justifies the evolving development of
various contactless biometric systems. In this research, a contactless biometric system with a novel
artificial intelligent (AI) based shape analysis and classification techniques is proposed.
Images were acquired with low resolution camera and undergo the complete processing chain which
includes image pre-processing for: illumination equalization; Filtering; segmentation and shape
boundary extraction. The extracted shape boundary are normalized and formatted as input and output
pairs for ANN training. The synaptic weights and coefficients of the activation functions coefficients are
extracted for shape descriptor determination and classification upon convergence,
Experimental verification of the proposed method yielded good classification result which is
invariant to rotation, scale, translation and choice of the starting point of the boundary pixels.
PP-358
Development of an intelligent biometric system for Household
control
abiodun musa aibinu, A. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, and M. O Akinbile-RotinwaA. M. Aibinu, M. J. E.
Salami, and M. O Akinbile-Rotinwa
mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
In this work, new methods of shapes analysis, classification and recognition using parametric
modeling approach have been proposed and evaluated. Parameters estimation of the newly introduced
shape classification scheme have been determined using artificial neural network based parameter
estimation techniques. The newly developed shape modeling approaches have been found to be
invariant to rotation, scale, translation and choice of the starting point of the boundary pixels.
Areas of application of the proposed techniques include hand held tooth monitoring ,
students’ training kit and newly introduced biometric system for access control
PP-367
Design of Tuning Fork Shape Ultra Wide Band (UWB) antenna
A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Sheroz Khan,Ahmad Fiaz Yahaya,
Audi Munzir Mahmud
A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Sheroz Khan,Ahmad Fiaz Yahaya, Audi Munzir Mahmud
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
In this work a tuning fork type structure of Ultra Wideband (UWB) antenna is proposed. The antenna
offers excellent performance for UWB system, ranging from 3.7 GHz to 13.8 GHz. The antenna
exhibits a 10 dB return loss bandwidth over the entire frequency band. The rectangular patch antenna is
designed on FR4 substrate and fed with 50 ohms microstrip line by optimizing the width of partial
ground, the width and position of the feedline to operate in UWB. The rectangular patch is then
modified to tuning fork structure by maintaining UWB frequency range. The experimental verification
is done to prove the functionality in (UWB) range in terms of return loss. The tuning fork type antenna
creates some space for utilization. This space can be utilize to accommodate other components/
circuitry.
PP-372
Design and Development of Humanoid Robotic Hand
Md Mozasser Rahman, Md Mozasser RahmanMd Mozasser Rahman
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The end-effectors provide the connection between machines and the environment. The evolution of
end-effectors design nowadays has been enhanced to be humanoid robotic hand. The human hand
provides the ideal parallel for a dexterous end-effectors design. This project discusses efforts to design a
humanoid robotic hand, focusing on the detailed design, fabrication, and testing of an individual
modular finger with considerations into overall hand configuration.
The first project aims is to define requirements for anthropomorphism and compare the geometry and
motion of the robotic hand design to that of the human hand. Active and passive ranges of motion are
studied along with coupled joint behavior and grasp types. The second objective is to study the
mechanism of the hand grasping, then we have to investigate the suitable actuator and sensor which can
control the movement of the hand. Finally, a kinematic model is developed to predict tendon tensions
and tip forces in different configurations. The results show that the measured forces are consistent with
the predictive model. In addition, the coupled joint motion shows similar behavior to that of the human
hand.
PP-378
SPT-Care: Online School Management System
Mira Kartiwi, Mira Kartiwi, Abdul Rauf Othman, Tuan Noor Azienie Tuan AzizMira Kartiwi, Abdul
Science, Engineering and Technology
Rauf Othman, Tuan Noor Azienie Tuan Aziz
Information Systems,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Previous studies highlight the critical role of parents-teacher communication on child/student’s
learning performance. These studies found that children do better in school when parents talk often with
teachers and aware of their children learning activities and performance at school. In older days, one of
the ways for parents to keep themselves informed about their child's progress is through phone calls and
visits to the classroom. However, today, as more and more parents have busy lives and challenging
work schedules, there is a need for a system that enables student, parent and teacher communication
electronically. Such system should also allow parents to monitor their children learning performance
without the need of leaving their office during the day. Unfortunately, the authors aware of little or no
ready-made system that could address the aforementioned needs of our education systems today.
Therefore, it is the aim of this study to develop a prototype of a school online system, named as SPTCare (Student Parent Teacher Care). It is a web based system, targeted to be used for primary to
secondary school. As denoted by its name, the user of SPT-Care would be the teachers, students and
parents of the particular school that adopted this system. Each user will have different interfaces and
functionalities, however, all user are connected to the same database. In the long run, the system would
be able to reduce the teacher’s workload on administrative work, such as producing a monthly
students’ learning progress report, photocopying and distributing course materials to students. Also,
the teacher could distribute the announcement of school activities to parents in no time and at no cost.
This highlights another benefit of the SPT-Care system.
PP-379
An Implementation of Natural Language Processing on Ontologybased Electronic Health Website: A Case of Female-related Diseases
Domain
Mira Kartiwi, Mira Kartiwi and Dini HandayaniMira Kartiwi and Dini Handayani
Information Systems,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Today, the advent of Internet has changed the way people live and search for information. Study
showed that browsing on health information is amongst popular activities on the Internet, particularly
among women. Despite a wide range of information one could gathered from the Internet, no website
provides facility for the user to query information using natural language, which is a human written or
spoken language and not a machine language. Whereas, searching for information on human disease
using keywords on a web-based search engine often returns too many results. Of these results, many do
not contain the information that one need. This vagueness in the results needs to be resolved by
semantically annotating resources on the Web, thus allowing only results with high relevancy to the
topic to be retrieved. Therefore, it is the aim of this research to develop a prototype that allows both
individuals and medical practitioners to query information from the web using natural language. The
prototype will also be enhanced by using semantic technology and ontology to allow the sharing of
knowledge among medical practitioners on related terms or treatment on female-related diseases.
PP-383
Mobile Phone Application using Location-based Query for Disaster
Management in Rural Developing Countries
Mira Kartiwi, Rasheed Mohammed Nassr, Mira Kartiwi, Teddy Surya GunawanRasheed Mohammed
Nassr, Mira Kartiwi, Teddy Surya Gunawan
Information Systems,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Indonesia is one of countries in the world that vulnerable to natural disaster due to its geographic
location. In the year of 2010 alone, right after the flood tragedy in West Papua and earthquake-triggered
tsunami hit Mentawai Islands in West Sumatra, Mount Merapi erupted. Hundreds of people have been
killed in these recent calamities. Natural disasters have become a great challenge for Indonesians.
Another challenge that has worsened the situation is the lack of an efficient disaster management system
Science, Engineering and Technology
that will help in times of need. One common scenario during disasters is that the location of rescuers,
relief and volunteer teams were unable to be identified, let alone well-coordinated. Particularly when
these people had reached rural areas of Indonesia, where many have no access to basic infrastructure
such as electricity. During such situation, the use of equipment with minimum consumption of energy is
critical. Other critical issues also include transferring the most appropriate type of data that enable the
rescue team to make prompt decision in precarious situation. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify a
possible solution using location-based query method which can be used to assist the disaster
management centre, by providing important information such as the approximate location of the
survivors, required logistics, and the nearest rescue teams to the survivors’ location. A prototype is
developed to simulate the scenarios and to evaluate its effectiveness.
PP-412
Bioactivity Analysis of Lemongrass (Cymbopogan Citratus)
Essential Oil
Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani Mirghani, Mohamed E. S. Mirghani, Parveen Jamal,Liyana
YahyaMohamed E. S. Mirghani, Parveen Jamal,Liyana Yahya
BTE,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study is focused on the extraction, identification and analysis of several potentiality of
bioactivity from lemongrass (Cymbopogan citratus) essential oil. The first part of the research work was
to extract the essential oil using steam distillation from various parts of lemongrass plant, which are
stalks and leaves, for doing comparison studies on essential oil. The bioactive components of essential
oil from leaves and stalks were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS).
The analysis on chemical composition of essential oils from both parts showed the existence of
bioactive components. The total phenolic content analysis showed a high range of phenolic content in
stalk’s part compared to the leaves’ part. Four biological analyses were done which are anti
oxidant, anti diabetic, anti gout and anti cancer. The lemongrass stalk’s essential oil showed a better
quality with almost higher inhibition in all four biological analyses compared to the leaves’ part.
Thus this project aimed to find the potentiality of lemongrass essential oil which could be the alternative
approach due to the adverse effects associated with the use of synthetic drugs for the treatment of many
forms of diseases.
PP-423
User-Centred Web Development for GMI Alumni Website
Media Ayu, Media A. Ayu and Noor Azura ZakariaMedia A. Ayu and Noor Azura Zakaria
Department of Information Systems,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
The internet has become an influential tool for the society nowadays and promotes pleasant facility to
the society. Previously, technology is placed as centre of web development but the current situation is
changing whereby the primary concern is more on developing usable website to achieve the user’s
satisfaction. User-centred is one of a technique that can maximize the web usability as well as the
user’s satisfaction. In the context of this study, a framework has been employed with a humancentred approach in order to redevelop the GMI alumni website. The user’s role has been placed in
the centre of the redevelopment process to ensure that the outcome meet the requirements and passed
the usability criteria. Several techniques which are qualitative and quantitative were conducted to
acquire and analyse the data. Paper-based and unstructured interview were utilised in the requirements
elicitation whereas the focus group was employed in the pre-evaluation process. Finally, web-based
survey was conducted to assess the web usability. In terms of data analysis, the SPSS tool was utilised
to analyse the paper-based questionnaire systematically, the unstructured interview was transcribed to
gain useful insight, theme and code were developed from the retrieved focus group data and fuzzy
conjoint analysis was utilised in the electronic survey. Design consideration was an integrated element
to judge on the suitable requirements expressed by clients and users to be added in the website. There
were six metrics adapted to examine the web usability which are the effectiveness, learnability, control,
Science, Engineering and Technology
ease of use, attractiveness and satisfaction. Acquired results from the satisfaction parameter showed that
the users strongly agreed that the delivered product meets their satisfaction. This result proved that by
incorporating the user-centred technique in the redevelopment process, the web usability can be
increased and the users are satisfied with the end product.
PP-427
Design and Development of a Dual-band RFID Tag Antenna
Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md Rafiqul Islam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Abubeker Abdulkerim YussufMd
Rafiqul Islam, A.H.M. Zahirul Alam, Abubeker Abdulkerim Yussuf
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a rapidly developing wireless technology that utilizes
electromagnetic waves for the automatic identification and tracking of objects. An RFID system
composes of a transponder or tag, which is attached to an object and uses an antenna to communicate
with a reader. This research work presents the design of micro wave Dual-band RFID tag antenna with a
modified Minkowski fractal. A Dual-band antenna with a modified Minkowski fractal was selected,
due to its many attractive characteristics. This fractal geometry has space-filling properties that can be
utilized to miniaturize antennas. In addition, the self-similarity properties of fractals make them
especially suitable to design dual-band antennas. These proposed antennas are designed using the
electromagnetic simulation software CST for a passive RFID tag operating in the Microwave frequency
band.
A Dual-band antenna with a modified Minkowski fractal has been designed, fabricated, and
measured. The proposed antenna is fed by microstrip line, and it consists of modified Minkowski
radiating element on the top layer and partial ground on the bottom layer. Simulated and measured
performance results are presented for a modified Minkowski small size (2.4x3.3cm) fractal antenna. The
measured result for return loss of the proposed antenna shows that the antenna has two operating
frequency bandwidth the lower frequency from 2.2-2.475GHz and the upper frequency from 5.7755.85GHz. The measurement results showed good agreement with the simulation result.
PP-429
MICROSPHER-iiUM, A NOVEL, CONTROLLED-RELEASED
DRUG/GENE DELIVERY SYSTEM
Farahidah Mohamed, Farahidah MOHAMED, Abd Almonem DOOLAANEA,Ahmad Fahmi HARUN
ISMAILFarahidah MOHAMED, Abd Almonem DOOLAANEA,Ahmad Fahmi HARUN ISMAIL
Pharmaceutical Technology Department,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Multiple-emulsion, solvent-evaporation method was employed to synthesise MICROSPHER-iiUM.
Biodegradable co-polymer, poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), was used as the matrix to form the
microspheres. Briefly, an appropriate amount of PLGA was dissolved in dichloromethane to form the
primary emulsion. This phase was then homogenised with an aqueous phase, containing surfactant and a
model drug (e.g. plasmid DNA or small molecules drug) for certain duration and at appropriate speed.
The resultant water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion was then dispersed in a bigger volume of aqueous
stabiliser. The mixture was then transferred to a continuously stirred hardening tank containing the same
stabiliser. Stirring was continued for certain duration to allow complete evaporation of the solvent. The
hardened MICROSPHER-iiUM was harvested by means of centrifugation and washing with distilled
before it was freeze-dried. Characterisation of the MICROSPHER-iiUM was conducted to investigate
its surface morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro release profile. Different
protocols were adopted depending on the types of the model drug to analyse the model drug. This
MICROSPHER-iium has demonstrated robustness in encapsulating different types of agents with
substantial encapsulation efficiency. The controlled-release profile was also achievable due to the
inherent degradation rate of the co-polymers, PLGA, of which the rate and duration is dependent on its
molecular weight. The colloidal size of this delivery system and the release of drug that can be
Science, Engineering and Technology
controlled are envisaged to enhance the quality of therapy in chronic diseases as it can improve patient
compliance towards drug regimen owing to reduction in frequency of dosing and reduction in side
effects.
PP-436
Application of Piezoelectric Material in active vibration absorber
Asan Gani Abdul Muthalif, Ahmad Asyraf Abu Bakar, Alif Roozaime Ab Rahman, Dr. Asan Gani
Abdul MuthalifAhmad Asyraf Abu Bakar, Alif Roozaime Ab Rahman, Dr. Asan Gani Abdul Muthalif
Mechatronics Enginnering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Vibrations cause undesirable motion and affect performance of many engineering systems. Hence,
reducing vibration is vital in achieving desired objectives of the systems. One of the ways to reduce
system vibration is by using dynamic mass absorber (DMA). DMA are often considered passive and
tuned to absorb a single resonant frequency. However, in a system with more than one resonant
frequency, an active DMA that can absorb those frequencies is required. In this project, an active DMA
is designed and developed using piezoelectric material (PZT). PZT is used as a mean to vary
DMA’s stiffness to absorb vibrations at more than one resonant frequency. Prototype model of a
three story building, which will exhibit three resonant frequencies, is build to test the performance of the
active DMA. LabVIEW based data acquisition system is used to measure resonant frequency of the
building. PID control algorithm developed and used to send appropriate control signal to the active
DMA to absorb vibrations at the resonant frequency. The active DMA has successfully achieved its
objective.
PP-453
Novel Preparation Method to Produce Bone Cement for Bone Filler
Application
IIS SOPYAN, Iis Sopyan, Asep Sofwan Faturohman Alqap, Nor Athirah Mohamad Yacob, Mahmud
Husni Abdul HadiIis Sopyan, Asep Sofwan Faturohman Alqap, Nor Athirah Mohamad Yacob, Mahmud
Husni Abdul Hadi
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications
due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Cement is ceramic material
strengthened by aging and employed in least loading areas of human organ and tissues. In this work, we
have succeeded in developing a novel, straightforward method to produce bone cement. A one-pot
synthesis process employing CaO and NH4H2PO4 as the precursors were conducted at a temperature as
low as 90ºC. The reaction product was then directly subjected to aging for setting the cement. The
results indicate that calcium phosphate potentially strengthens by aging directly after synthesis. The
samples set in mould were conducted under human’s fingers ejection. The strengthening peaks were
achieved at 3 or 6 hours after mixing. The average strength was 1 MPa that is closer to cancellous bone
strength having lower density. The novelty of the work is a straightforward one-pot synthesis method in
producing bone cement without any complex steps such as pH control, high temperature heat treatment.
PP-454
Novel porous alumina-hydroxyapatite composites for
Iis Sopyan, Iis Sopyan, Ahmad Fadli, Maizirwan Mel, Nor Syahidah, Nur NadiaIis Sopyan, Ahmad
Fadli, Maizirwan Mel, Nor Syahidah, Nur Nadia
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Porous alumina-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have been developed via protein-foaming
consolidation method using egg yolk as a pore creating agent. The slurries were prepared by stirring the
Science, Engineering and Technology
alumina powder, HA powder, yolk and Darvan 821 A in a beaker glass for 3 h with rate of 150 rpm. The
slurries were cast in cylindrical open stainless steel mold. Thermal foaming-consolidating was done in
an air oven at temperature of 180°C for 1 h. The green body removed the mould was heated in a
furnace at rate of 10°Cmin-1 rate up to 600°C and then at rate of 2°Cmin-1 up to 1550°C for 2 h.
The porous alumina-HA bodies with compressive strength in the range of 0.1 to 4.9 MPa and porosity
of 39 to 53% as well as pore size of 100 to 700 µm were obtained. Subsequently, the spherical porous
alumina-HA samples were tested as microcarriers for Vero cell cultivation in a stirred tank bioreactor.
Sampling was conducted every twelve hours for 120 hours. Specimens were fixed with 4%
glutaraldehyde for 30 min and dehydrated in solutions containing increasing percentages of ethanol
before they dried in air oven over night at 37°C. Samples were examined using SEM for the cell
morphology and EDX analysisThe HA addition in samples would increase cells number attached on cell
carrier surface. SEM analysis of cultured cells showed a good compatibility of the Vero cells to all the
porous microcarriers, since the cells were observed already attached at the surface of microcarriers at 8
and 120 h culture.
PP-476
Development of an Innovative and Customizable Decision Support
System (DSS) for Flood Management
Abdullah Al Mamun, M. Billah, S.A. Muyibi, N.A. Kabbashi,
A.J. Shaaban, A.H. Ghazali
M. Billah, S.A. Muyibi, N.A. Kabbashi,
A.J. Shaaban, A.H. Ghazali
Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Flood is the most recurring and damaging natural disaster throughout the world. Local Authorities of
every nation face huge pressure in managing frequent floods due to involvement of high socio-economic
losses. A decision support system (DSS) is developed by the open graphical language to aid relevant
authorities in managing flood situations. The DSS can be customized to call any hydrological and
hydraulic computer software to simulate the floods and can suggest the type of management action to be
taken by the relevant authority. It can be linked with the remote cameras to verify and observe the flood
situation and activities at the evacuation centers. It is robust and customizable to fit the need of the
authority and stakeholder. The DSS is able to show the catchment 2 and 3-dimensional images based on
the digital terrain model (DTM) data or any other option, which is in the form of x, y and z coordinates.
The user can input the rainfall data into the calibrated watershed model to generate the water level
elevations along the river(s). It is also possible to link with the satellite or radar rainfall data, which can
be used for flood forecasting. Availability of such data would assist to reduce the damages and losses by
providing early forecasting. The flood situations can be broadcast through cell phone, radio, television
and websites. The output results can be improved with better forecasting techniques, improved
watershed models, experience in using the DSS, and increasing public awareness on flood warnings.
The system developed can be easily adapted and applied in any area with slight modification.
PP-478
Qur’anic Values and Engineering Studies: Approaches and
Methods in the Process of Islamizing Engineering Curriculum
Abdi O. shuriye Shuriye, Assoc. Prof. Dr Abdi O. Shuriye, Professor Dr. Ahmad Faris IsmailAssoc.
Prof. Dr Abdi O. Shuriye, Professor Dr. Ahmad Faris Ismail
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Qur’anic Values and Engineering Studies: Approaches and Methods in the Process of Islamizing
Engineering Curriculum
Abdi O. Shuriye
IIUM
Ahmad F. Ismail
Science, Engineering and Technology
IIUM
Today engineering is a major subject of science and technology. The history of technology itself is
extensive and multifaceted. In our contemporary times we talk of scientized technology. Here we must
comprehend that technology is not merely applied science, rather it is a unique structure of accepted
wisdom. It has been contended that modern science was derived from technology through the wisdom
accumulated via technical arts and through the invention of a few critical instruments such as the
telescope, the microscope, and the barometer. Those who adhere to this contention see technology as
practical science or the science of the techniques. Engineering is the application of scientific principles
to practical operations or the practical application of science. In present days, the argument is no longer
on what constitutes science, technology or engineering, instead, in this complex age of globalization,
postmodernism and information, the concern is whether what we teach to our students have values and
norms which are inline with the ethos and the culture of the students? This is where the process of
Islamization becomes relevant. There are no works, in our limited knowledge that addresses this issue or
provides guidance on how to provide input to the process of infusing values into engineering sciences.
On the threshold of this work it should be stated that the challenge of Islamization lies in the
implementation and measurement aspects. The idea of Islamization becomes more important as the
current state of the curriculum in Islamic universities could not, to a larger extent, fulfill its mission or
serve the desired purpose. In this work we have argued that the process of learning engineering and the
methods of teaching should focus on values and normative principles as these values influence actions
in life. In fact engineering curriculum should be designed to investigate the values of engineering
sciences through the dynamic teachings of Islam.
It is also our believe that, engineering curriculum may be Islamized by focusing suitability and
subject matter in various engineering disciplines, current heavy emphasis on the technical aspects of
engineering courses could be lifted to pave the way for more comprehensive curriculum, prioritization
should be balanced and the emphasis on values should not affect the scientific and engineering
ingredient in the course.
Islamization of engineering could be achieved provided the non-technical topics will be included in a
fashion that suits the course without destructing the engineeringness of the course and specific strategy
is required to maintain and uphold conditions set by the accreditation agencies. One approach suitable is
inter-disciplinary approach, a common method in teaching practices of many programs in engineering.
Nonetheless the process of infusion itself is a tricky task. In this work we have selected an area of
infusion then format the integrative aspects of the curriculum. For instance a conventional engineering
course on Mechanics may be redesigned to emphasis some Qur’anic concepts related to it. We do
comprehend the fact that every subject has its own structure and accordingly covers themes or topics
under its possession according to the area of study. Naturally therefore the approach of infusing
Qur’anic values in to selected engineering courses will be according to the nature of the course and
the constituents of its themes.
PP-486
A NOVEL HYPERBOLA-PAIR BASED LANE DETECTION
SYSTEM FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
Othman Khalifa, Imran Khan, Aisha-Hassan Abdulla and Sheroz KhanImran Khan, Aisha-Hassan
Abdulla and Sheroz Khan
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The United Nations has ranked Malaysia 30th among countries with the highest number of fatal road
accidents, registering an average of 4.5 deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles. Increasing safety and
reducing road accidents is the main aim of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. In the last two
decades, a great deal of research in the domain of vision-based driver assist systems has been conducted
to improve safety conditions. Among the most challenging tasks of future road vehicles is road lane and
boundary detection. This is a difficult problem because of the varying road conditions that one can
encounter while driving. In this project, a vision-based lane detection algorithm is developed that is
capable of achieving acceptable real time operation under various road conditions. The system acquires
the front view using a camera mounted on the vehicle and uses a hyperbola-pair model to represent the
lane boundaries. In this way, a lane is drawn out in a predictive manner even if it is detected to a very
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short distance ahead of the vehicle. The proposed lane detection algorithm is capable of detecting both
painted and unpainted road as well as curved and straight road in different weather conditions. This
novel system has been implemented both forensically and in real-time mode using MATLAB and tested
to show that the proposed scheme is robust and accurate under different operating conditions. Proposed
applications involved real-time vehicle control and guidance that can easily be achieved with the
developed software.
PP-488
Low Cost Industrial Enzymes: Lignocellulolytics
Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Mohd Ismail A. Karim, Hamzah M. Salleh, Suleyman A.
Muyibi, Nassereldeen A Kabbashi, Shah Samiur Rashid, Afifah Drani, Muna Tasnim Mukhparuddin,
Mohd Yusouf bin Abdul LatifMd. Zahangir Alam, Mohd Ismail A. Karim, Hamzah M. Salleh, Suleyman
A. Muyibi, Nassereldeen A Kabbashi, Shah Samiur Rashid, Afifah Drani, Muna Tasnim Mukhparuddin,
Mohd Yusouf bin Abdul Latif
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The invention is to produce industrial enzymes such as cellulases and ligninase with higher activity
having the potential in the production of bioethanol through hydrolysis of the cellulosic materials such
as rice straw, empty fruit bunches (EFB). Currently such industrial enazymes have the potential
industrial applications in the textile industry for finishing of the cellulosic materials and biobleaching,
detergent industry to provide cleaning and fabric-care benefits such as the brightening of colour in faded
garments and paper industry in the pulp management, de-inking and delignification. The abundant
renewable resources such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) and IWK sewage sludge have been used as
a major medium due to low cost through bioconversion by filamentous fungi to produce the industrial
enzymes. A commercial strain of Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 was used for cellulases production
while Phanerocheat crysosporium was introduced for lignin peroxidase (ligninase). Maximum
production of cellulase found in the fermentation process was 30-40 U/mL (CMCase) which is purified
into 10-fold for applications. Using POME media, ligninase was produced to 12-14 U/mL (based on
Azure B). A pilot scale was successful to produce these indusial enzymes which are ready for
commercialization. Two local companies (IWK Sdn Bhd and MItoMasa Sdn Bhd) are collaborated as
the industrial partner for commercialization of these enzymes.
PP-489
UIAzymes: POME Based Industrial Lipase
Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Aliyu Salihu, Mohamed Ismail Abdulkarim and Hamzah
Mohd SallehMd. Zahangir Alam, Aliyu Salihu, Mohamed Ismail Abdulkarim and Hamzah Mohd Salleh
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Lipases are industrial enzymes that are considered to be the third in volume of sales (after proteases
and amylases), due to their application versatility. They owe potentials to catalyze both hydrolytic and
synthetic reactions. The recent interest in the production of lipases is associated with their applications
as additives in food (flavor modification), fine chemicals (synthesis of esters), detergent (hydrolysis of
fats), waste water treatment (decomposition and removal of oily substances), cosmetics (removal of
lipids), pharmaceuticals (digestion of oil and fats in foods), leather processing (removal of lipids from
animal skins) and biomedical assays (blood triglycerides). The major obstacle hindering the expansion
of lipase technology on large scale is the production cost; as medium for the production accounts for
substantial amount of the total lipase production costs. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) being abundantly
available and cheap renewable residue in Malaysia can serve as a basal medium for lipase production.
POME supplemented with nitrogen source and inducers was found to be the optimized medium for
lipase production by C. cylindracea ATCC 14830 using face centred central composite design. Lipase
activity of 20.26 U/ml was realized which was 5.19 fold higher than what was obtained in Plackett-
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Burman design during screening experiments. Using the optimized medium, process parameters
(temperature, agitation, aeration) were also studied in 2L and 30L bioreactor using a factorial design. It
was found that bioreactor based production resulted in further increase in the overall lipase production.
This study innovatively developed a fermentation medium utilizing renewable palm oil mill effluent
(POME) to produce lipase.
PP-490
Development of Reactor for Biodiesel Production from New
Feedstock-Sludge Palm Oil
Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Mohamed E.S. Mirghani, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi, Adeeb
Hayyan, Maher Mohammed Ali, Noor Irma Nazashida Mohd Hakimi, Yosri Mohd Siran, Shawaluddin
TahiruddinMd. Zahangir Alam, Mohamed E.S. Mirghani, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi, Adeeb Hayyan,
Maher Mohammed Ali, Noor Irma Nazashida Mohd Hakimi, Yosri Mohd Siran, Shawaluddin
Tahiruddin
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The main challenges in biodiesel industry are its production cost and limited availability of fats and
oils resources. There are two aspects of the production cost of biodiesel, the costs of raw material and
the cost of processing. The cost of raw materials accounts for 60 to 70% of the total cost of biodiesel
production. However, there are large amounts of low grade oils from palm oil industry that could be
converted to biodiesel such as sludge palm oil (SPO). SPO is a by-product of the palm oil milling
process that contains high free fatty acids (FFA). The use of SPO can lower the cost of biodiesel
production significantly. The problem in processing SPO to biodiesel is the high free fatty acid content
in the oil restricts the conversion to biodiesel when using conventional transesterification process. This
invention develops a reactor system (20L) and processes to treat the SPO and produce biodiesel within
the standard specifications for biodiesel fuel. A two-step process is optimized to produce biodiesel. The
operating conditions of the reactor is important to scale up the production of biodiesel using SPO as a
renewable feedstock for further development.
PP-491
Rapid and Pathogen Free Composting of Oil Palm Industrial Waste
by Multi-enzymatic Fungal Treatment
Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Noor MohammadMd. Zahangir Alam, Noor Mohammad
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Oil palm production is a major agricultural industry in Malaysia. The oil palm biomass (OPB)
produces about 40 million tonnes per year. This OPB can be categorized as a form of empty fruit
bunches (EFB), oil palm trunks (OPT) and oil palm fronds (OPF) and the rest are palm oil mill effluent
(POME). EFB and POME among them are major concern due to their more harmful effect on the
environment. Composting has been considered to be one of the most suitable, economic and
environmentally friendly ways of converting these organic wastes into compost (bio-fertilizer) that are
beneficial for plant growth. Thus, the utilization of EFB and POME as substrate for the composting is
crucial to convert into value added product and treat the biomass simultaneously. This study is
conducted to convert EFB with POME into rapid and pathogen free compost by introducing multienzymatic fungal systems based on the properties of raw materials. The compatible fungal systems lead
to better substrate utilization with shorter time, increased productivity, and make sure of pathogen free
of the product which is one of the key targets for plant growth. Solid state bioconversion is carried out
to produce mature within the optimum fermentation time of 30-35 days.
PP-492
Process Development on Glucoamylase from Non-Food Starches
Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Hamzah M. Salleh, Nurhidayah A. Hassan, Juwairiyah A.
Karim, Siti Najlaa Othman, Radhiah AriffinMd. Zahangir Alam, Hamzah M. Salleh, Nurhidayah A.
Science, Engineering and Technology
Hassan, Juwairiyah A. Karim, Siti Najlaa Othman, Radhiah Ariffin
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The production of economical important glucoamylase is very essential for the conversion of starches
into glucose. This enzyme is extensively used in starch liquefaction, paper industries, food,
pharmaceutical and sugar industries. To meet the demand of above mentioned industries, low cost
medium is required for the fermentation of glucoamylase. The invention is carried out on the production
of glucoamylase from low cost of raw materials especially rice bran and non-food cassava using
potential fungal strains. A group of basidomyceltes and Aspergillus niger locally isolated are used to
find out a potential strain. A media optimization followed by the process conditions are observed to
determine the optimum fermentation conditions through maximum glucoamylase production using the
lost cost substrates. This invention shows potential in higher production of glucoamylase which would
be competitive to the commercial enzymes as the production cost would be low.
PP-493
Cellulosic Bioethanol by Enzymatic Treatment
Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Zahangir Alam, Nur HidayahMd. Zahangir Alam, Nur Hidayah
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Bioethanol is a promising alternative energy source over the limited crude oil and it has been
producing through the fermentation of sugars. Current production of bioethanol using corn and sugar
cane are not practical since these raw materials are needed for food and feed production. A abundant,
sustainable and potential raw material is one of most challenging part of bioethanol production as the
part of second generation biofuels. The locally generated oil palm empty fruit bunches as a
lignocellulosic material could be one of the alternatives to overcome of biofuels problems. Therefore,
EFB is chosen for the production of bioethanol as its generation is huge by the major oil palm industry
in Malaysia. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion of lignocellulosic material to
reducing sugar which is pre-treatment to remove lignin followed by the hydrolysis using cellulase
enzyme to produce reducing sugars. Cellulase enzyme used is locally produced from palm oil mill
effluent (POME) as another waste in the same industry where the cost of production is lower compared
to commercial cellulases. The invention is to develop the enzymatic hydrolysis process on the EFB for
sugar production followed by the fermentation of bioethanol production.
PP-524
Optimization of Glutathione (GSH) Production from Selected
Malaysian Local Fruits by Ultrasonic Method
Parveen Jamal, Parveen Jamal, Afraha Baiti [email protected], Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani, Yumi
Zuhanis Has-Yun HashimParveen Jamal, Afraha Baiti [email protected], Mohamed Elwathig Saeed
Mirghani, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The use of traditional medicine as an alternative source for treatment of chronic disease is
encouraged due to the adverse effects of chemical drugs. Glutathione (GSH) is a volatile substance,
which is sweet in taste, comprised of the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine. Glutathione is
very important since it is the regulator and regenerator of immune cells and the most valuable
detoxifying agent in the human body. Low levels are associated with hepatic and immune dysfunction,
cardiac disease, and premature aging. Therefore this research was done to investigate the potential
Malaysian source of Glutathione (GSH) and to optimize its production by using ultrasonic method. The
potential source was selected by isolating the reduced glutathione (GSH) from three selected local fruits
of Malaysia by using three mechanical methods; homogenizer, ultrasonic and autolysis for disrupting
the fruits cells for maximum GSH content. Different methods of cell disruption gave different effect on
the GSH production. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was found to be the best local fruit that contain
higher GSH followed by Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophylus) and Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), while
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ultrasonic was the best cell disruption method which gave the maximum amount of GSH, followed by
homogenizer method and autolysis method. Design expert software was used to optimize the production
of GSH with ultrasonic method by selecting Central Composite Design with four process parameters;
fruit concentration, temperature, isolation time and rotation speed. This study emphasized on the
optimization and production of GSH by using safe and nontoxic solvent and fruits as a low cost source
to be used in pharmaceutical and food industries.
PP-525
New Development of Process Conditions for Antibacterial
Compound from Psidium guajava
Parveen Jamal, Parveen Jamal, Erlina Abdullah, Ismail Abdul Karim, Raha Ahmad RausParveen
Jamal, Erlina Abdullah, Ismail Abdul Karim, Raha Ahmad Raus
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The huge diversity of Malaysian flora has various chemical constituents that make them as
outstanding natural product candidates for the treatment of infectious diseases. The screening practice
for phytochemicals in them is essential to explore more natural sources to replace synthetic antibiotics,
which generally have side effects such as hypersensitivity, immune-suppression and allergic reactions.
In this research, the leaves of five local plants which are Centella asiatica (‘pegaga’), Ficus
deltoidea (‘mas cotek’), Orthosiphon aristatus (‘misai kucing’), Polygonum minus
(‘kesum’), and Psidium guajava (‘jambu batu’) were evaluated for their antibacterial
properties. Methanol, ethanol, and distilled water were used as solvent to extract the plant samples.
Preliminary screening showed that ethanol extract of P.guajava had shown the highest zone of inhibition
(12 mm) against Bacillus subtilis growth. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate
the optimum process conditions for the extraction of antibacterial compounds from Psidium guajava
leaves. Experiments were carried out as designed by Central Composite Design (CCD) using Design
Expert software 6.0.8. Three parameters of extraction process that were optimized include agitation,
temperature, and incubation time. All factors were studied at five levels and experimental data showed
optimum condition for extraction were 150 rpm, 50°C and 60 hours. The Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) demonstrated that the speed, temperature as well as, interaction between both factors
significantly (p< 0.05) affects the extraction process. High determination of coefficient (R2) value
indicated that the parameters were positively fit the model and highly contributed to the response. In
conclusion, this study supports the medicinal use of P.guajava by folklorian people and the optimized
process conditions will be useful to obtain maximum amount of antibacterial compounds for future
studies.
PP-526
Carica papaya Leaves: A Novel and Safe Source of Xanthine
Oxidase Inhibitor (XOI) as Gout-Remission Agent
Parveen Jamal, Parveen Jamal, Saiful Mohammad Nizam Azmi, Azura AmidParveen Jamal, Saiful
Mohammad Nizam Azmi, Azura Amid
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of hypoxanthine and xanthine
into uric acid. It is responsible for the medical condition known as gout, which is caused by the
deposition of uric acid in the joints leading to painful inflammation. Inhibition of XO leads to remission
in gout. Carica papaya is a member of the small family Caricaceae. In folk medicine, C. papaya has
been used as an important traditional herbal medicine due to its vast bioactive compounds. Our
preliminary screening study showed that aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves possessed promising XO
inhibitory activity at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. Thus, response surface methodology (RSM) from
Design Expert® v.6.0.8 software was used to study the effects of temperature (ºC), time (hour),
agitation speed (rpm), and ratio of sample to the solvent (g/ml) on enhancement of XOI. Statistical
optimization helped in developing the process conditions and the maximum XOI percentage (86.93%)
obtained at 30ºC, 17 hours, 125 rpm and 1g/19ml. The activity was less by 7% as compared to the
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activity of allopurinol, a synthetic XOI. The extract was subjected to reversed-phase flash column
chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) for the purification.
Chemical screening conducted on the partially purified sample of distilled water extract of C. papaya
leaves showed the presence of several secondary metabolites, mainly, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins,
sterols/terpenes, saponin and xanthine glycosides, which could partially explain the pharmacological
properties of this plant and demonstrates its importance in alimentation and daily intake especially for
gout patient.
PP-527
New Development of Process in Bioreactor for Biosurfactant from A
Novel Source
Parveen Jamal, Parveen Jamal, Wan Mohd Fazli Wan Nawawi, Md. Zahangir AlamParveen Jamal,
Wan Mohd Fazli Wan Nawawi, Md. Zahangir Alam
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Biosurfactants are valuable microbial derived molecules with effective surface-active and biological
properties applicable to several industries and processes. It exhibits excellent detergency, emulsification
activity, foaming and dispersing trait and is also a promising alternative to chemically synthesized
surfactant due to it biodegradability, low toxicity, and environmental acceptability. Currently,
widespread use of biosurfactants is hampered due to high production cost associated with the use of
expensive substrate and low production yield. By utilizing sludge palm oil (SPO) as a novel substrate,
not only a cheap raw material is introduced but it will simultaneously help in managing palm industry
waste with less cost and high production of value added end product. In addition, a new process was
developed in bioreactor by employing statistical optimization to optimize environmental conditions
during liquid submerged fermentation processes to enhance biosurfactant production. 3k-1 factorial
design from STATISTICA 7.0 software was used to design and optimize the process conditions during
scale up studies in 1.5L bioreactor. Three independent variables; pH, agitation, and aeration were varied
during optimization study while fixing the temperature and inoculum size at 370C and 6% (v/v)
respectively. Critical micelle dilution at ten times dilution (CMD-1) was used as a response throughout
the experiment. Optimal process conditions for biosurfactant production were found as pH 8.6, agitation
315 rpm, and aeration 1.8 vvm. Validation experiment at developed model showed CMD-1 reduction
from >40mN/m in un-optimized control to 30.32 mN.M at optimized conditions.
PP-544
Optimal Navigation System for Humanoid Robot in Indoor
Environment
Amir Akramin Shafie, Md AkhtaruzzamanMd Akhtaruzzaman
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A human like autonomous robot which is capable to adapt itself with the changing of its environment
and continue to reach its goal is considered as Humanoid Robot. Dynamic advanced locomotion system
makes the robots able to walk, run, climb stairs and even avoid static and dynamic obstacles while
navigating. Navigation is nothing more than plotting an efficient route from one point to another.
Fundamentally robot navigation includes just two things such as the ability to move and a means to
determine whether or not the goal has been reached. The trick is finding the most efficient way to reach
a destination. In this project an indoor navigation map is designed having three different paths with two
complex and difficult obstacles such as stairs and lower-high obstacle to overcome. The navigation
environment has two points, source and destination, where the robot moves by selecting the optimal
path based on three different modes, Hurry, Modest and Relax. The three different modes are chosen
depending on three different commands. A suitable human like gait also designed and implemented on
the biped system for turning, walking, stair steps and overcoming obstacle. The result of the experiment
presents that, the system takes lowest time to navigate through the shortest path with complex obstacle
than the longest, obstacle free path. For the Modest mode, the system selects the difficult path having
another obstacle and takes less time than Relax mode but more time than Hurry. Basically locomotion is
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the important and main characteristic studied in humanoid robotics and only after achieving the natural
walking and locomotion control of the humanoid systems in the natural environment, they will learn
how to interact with the social surroundings using its artificial intelligence.
PP-545
Phi, the Golden Ratio, and its Geometrical Substantiation
Amir Akramin Shafie, Md AkhtaruzzamanMd Akhtaruzzaman
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter, usually in lower case, phi (φ) which is an irrational
mathematical constant, approximately 1.6180339887. Because of its unique and interesting properties,
many mathematicians as well as renaissance artists and architects studied, documented and employed
golden section proportions in remarkable works of sculpture, painting and architecture. The golden
section proportions are found in natural world through human proportions and the growth patterns of
many living plants, animals, and insects and also in the universe. Basically golden ratio is always
considered as the most pleasing proportion to human eyes and many work has been done, also going on
where the ration concept are analyzed. Human detection, human face detection and recognition, emotion
detection, beauty detection of an image, biological inspired robot structure design, locomotion analysis
of human and animals are some of the fields where the golden section proportion are being used. The
ratio also plays an oracular role in the geometry and mathematics. The research seeks to represent a
panoptic view and unimaginative enigmatic beauty of the golden section proportion in geometry.
Geometrical validation of the equation of the phi is also explicated and proofed here showing the
relation, intimacy and roll of the dynamic rectangles such as √5 rectangle, in the internal structural
strength of the equation.
PP-546
CELLULOSIC COMPOUNDS DEGRADATION BY
CELLULASES ENZYME IMMOBILIZED ON CARBON
NANOTUBES (CNTS)
MA'AN ALKHATIB, MA'AN ALKHATIB,MD. ZAHANGIR ALAM,HAMZAH MOHD SALEH,RASHA
MOHAMMEDMA'AN ALKHATIB,MD. ZAHANGIR ALAM,HAMZAH MOHD SALEH,RASHA
MOHAMMED
BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The fast growing palm oil industry in Malaysia generates, amongst other wastes, Empty Fruit Bunch
(EFB) which consists of cellulosic materials. It is one of the major sources of Greenhouse Gases (GHG).
The bioconversion of cellulosic materials in OPEFB, a renewable biomass, to valuable products will be
the solution to the disposal problem and hence minimize the pollution. The degradation of cellulosic
materials to glucose can be achieved using cellulase enzyme. However, the enzyme does not fulfill the
industry requirement because it is unstable, soluble, and undergo inhibitions. In this study, cellulase
enzyme extracted from sewage treatment plant sludge was immobilized on the functionalized
MWCNTs. The results from FTIR, FESEM, and BET analysis for functionalized MWCNTs showed
that the acid treatment helps in imparting hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups. The preliminary
screening using Plackett –Burman design (PBD) showed that only three parameters (EDC dose, pH,
and temperature) have significance effects on immobilization. The optimization using Face Centered
Central Composite Design (FCCCD) showed that at the optimum conditions the activity of immobilized
enzyme was about 98% of its initial activity. The existence of cellulase enzyme on MWCNTs was
confirmed by FESEM and FTIR techniques. Moreover, degrading of OPEFB using immobilized
enzyme resulted in high reducing sugar concentration about 0.62 g/g at the end of 48 hrs of hydrolysis
in addition to its ability to catalyze the hydrolysis over prolong period. The evaluation with commercial
cellulase enzyme showed very close results which support our finding.
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PP-564
Mercury Adsorption from Aqueous Solution on Activated Carbon
Derived From Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)
Nassereldeen Kabbashi, Nassereldeen. A. Kabbashi1, Ili Nadirah Bt Jamil, Mohammed
ElwathigNassereldeen. A. Kabbashi1, Ili Nadirah Bt Jamil, Mohammed Elwathig
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Mercury is a heavy metal and is used widely in the industry, making it a global problem. It accounts
for approximately 70 per cent of man-made emissions. Activated Carbons was found to be efficient for
the adsorption of Hg(ll) in aqueous solution. The characterization of Hg (ll) uptake showed that the
mercury binding is dependent on initial pH, agitation speed, amount of dosage, and also the interaction
between pH and contact time. From the experiment, the initial concentration of mercury was set to 1.6
mg/L. It was found that the minimum residual concentration of mercury was 0.0075 mg/L (99.53%) at
the condition of pH 6.5, agitation speed of 100 rpm, contact time of 70 minutes and AC dosage of 20
mg. This value was considered acceptable as it met the requirement of the Department of Environment,
Malaysia. The experimental results were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations.
Correlation coefficients (R2) showed that the Langmuir model was used as it best described the model.
Results from this study were described by the Langmuir Isotherm in which the highest adsorption
capacity obtained from this analysis was 1.521 mg/g.
PP-572
Effect of Homogenization in Breaking Protein-Carotenoid
Complexes for Releasing Active Compounds
Parveen Jamal, Parveen Jamal, Nurhasri Mulyadi Hashim, Irwandi JaswirParveen Jamal, Nurhasri
Mulyadi Hashim, Irwandi Jaswir
Department of Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Carotenoids usually exist in association with stabilizing agents such as proteins, fatty acids and
sugars which prevent the molecule from oxidizing or otherwise degrading. Not only do these stabilizing
agents protect the carotenoids, they can also affect the solubility of carotenoids, which are typically
water insoluble. The effect of homogenization in breaking protein-carotenoid complexes from cassava
leaves was examined by monitoring three process conditions; amount of solvent per 0.5 g sample (ml),
homogenization speed (rpm) and homogenization time (s). Acetone-n-hexane (1:1, v/v),
tetrahydrofuran-methanol (1:1 v/v) and acetone were employed in the extraction process. The solvent
that exhibited the best characteristics in extracting the highest β-carotene yield from the sample was
selected for further study. Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) was chosen to set the
Design of Experiment. A total of 20 experiments comprised of three factors, three levels and 6 center
points were conducted to facilitate the optimization of the process conditions for maximum β-carotene
concentration. Analysis of results was done by utilizing Design Expert software, version 6 (DX6).
Acetone was found to extract the highest yield of β-carotene compared to the other two solvent systems.
The maximum β-carotene yield of 17 544 µg /100 g sample was achieved with the solvent ratio of 12
ml to 0.5 g sample, homogenization speed of 22000 rpm and homogenization time of 57 s. Overall,
homogenization plays a huge impact in releasing β-carotene from being bounded by the pigmentprotein complex in the leaf matrix of cassava.
PP-591
Novel Humidity Micro-Sensor based on Green Electrochemical
System
Raihan Othman, Hens Saputra, A.G.E. Sutjipto, R. Muhida, M.H. Ani and Raihan OthmanHens
Saputra, A.G.E. Sutjipto, R. Muhida, M.H. Ani and Raihan Othman
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
A Zn/MCM-41/O2 dry cell has been developed for relative humidity measurement. The open circuit
voltage (OCV) of the cell varies according to relative humidity content of the ambient air and thus can
be used as humidity indicator or sensor; higher OCV value indicates higher humidity level. Upon
calibration with a commercial digital humidity sensor, the variation in the relative humidity readings by
the Zn/MCM-41/O2 dry cell are less than 0.5% over a wide range of humidity level i.e. 40 – 80%.
The cell consists of zinc metal foil, silica-based MCM-41 membrane, a carbon-based air electrode and
free from corrosive electrolyte. All cell components are abundance in nature, environmentally friendly
and low cost. The Zn/MCM-41/O2 cell prototype measures 1 cm2 x 350 ï•-m thick and is possible to
design as thin as 10 ï•-m thick cell.
PP-593
A Hybrid, Green Electrochemical Power Source: Zinc-Laccase
Biofuel Cell
Raihan Othman, Abd. Aziz Ahmad, F. Yusof, M.F. Abd Wahab and Raihan OthmanAbd. Aziz Ahmad, F.
Yusof, M.F. Abd Wahab and Raihan Othman
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A hybrid biofuel cell, a zinc-air cell employing laccase as the oxygen reduction catalyst has been
introduced. The test cell consisted of zinc metal foil as the anode and a carbon-based air electrode as the
cathode, encapsulated in a single chamber, home-made acrylic board casing. The electrolyte composed
of laccase and syringaldazine in a potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer. The hybrid cell registered an
open-circuit voltage of 1.2 V and is able to generate a maximum power density of 3.28 mW at 0.4 V.
Despite its simple design features as compared to typical biofuel cells, the power output is comparable
to that of a biocatalytic cell utilising a much more complex system design.
PP-596
Real Time Face Detection and Facial Expression Recognition
System: Development and Applications to Humanoid Head
Interaction.
Amir Akramin Shafie, A.A.Shafie, E.M.Bouhabba, A.Rini, S.Bilal, A.Iqbal, J.Radhi, M.F.Alias,
M.R.Khan, N.A.KhairA.A.Shafie, E.M.Bouhabba, A.Rini, S.Bilal, A.Iqbal, J.Radhi, M.F.Alias,
M.R.Khan, N.A.Khair
Mechatronics Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract— Enabling computer systems to recognize facial expressions and infer emotions from
them in real time presents a challenging research topic. In this research, a real-time method is proposed
as a solution to the problem of facial expression classification in video sequences. We employ an
automatic facial feature tracker to perform face localization and feature extraction. The facial feature
displacements in the video stream are used as input to a Support Vector Machine classifier. We evaluate
our method in terms of recognition accuracy for a variety of interaction and classification scenarios. Our
person-dependent and person-independent experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of a support
vector machine and feature tracking approach to fully automatic, unobtrusive expression recognition in
live video.
PP-603
Harvesting Bioelectricity from Glucose Oxidase-Laccase Fuel Cell
Raihan Othman, N. Asrul, A.S. Awang Bakar, F. Yusof, H.M. Salleh, M.F. Abd Wahab and Raihan
OthmanN. Asrul, A.S. Awang Bakar, F. Yusof, H.M. Salleh, M.F. Abd Wahab and Raihan Othman
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A glucose oxidase-laccase enzymatic biofuel cell has been designed and studied. Glucose oxidase
(GOx) from Aspergillus niger and laccase from Rhus vernificera have been utilized. β-D- glucose and
Science, Engineering and Technology
syringaldazine are used as the catalysis substrate for glucose oxidase and laccase respectively. FAD coenzyme is also included. The electrolyte buffer is phosphate buffer of pH 6.5. Nickel mesh of 200 mesh
is used as the anolyte current collector while air electrode which consists of laminated fibrous carbon
structure is used for catholyte current collector. The EFC prototype is home-made from acrylic boards
with holding capacity of 3000 mL. A single chamber design is employed i.e. there is no semi-permeable
membrane separating the anolyte and catholyte compartments. The EFC is capable to generate
bioenergy in the mW range.
PP-606
A Novel Dirham and Dinar ATM machine
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami,M. J. E. Salami,
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A prototype of new ATM that dispenses shiny dinar (Gold) and dirham (Silver) coin is developed in
this work. Fitted with a computer flat screen to choose appropriate dinar and dirham coin, the machine
dispensed the appropriate coin in a glassy white box tamper proof cover. This newly introduced
machine alleviates the problem of intermediary in the sales of Dinar and Dirham and is able to update
the unit price of the coin on a regular basis.
PP-607
High Energy Density, Low Cost Zn/MCM-41/MnO2 Cell for
Microsystems Applications
Raihan Othman, N.M. Zawi, M.H. Ani and Raihan OthmanN.M. Zawi, M.H. Ani and Raihan Othman
Science in Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
MCM-41 inorganic membrane technology has been employed to develop a high energy density zinccarbon or zinc-manganese oxide cell. The high pore volume and high surface area properties of MCM41 material make it possible to increase the power density of the cell. The anode consisted of
electroplated zinc and dipped with MCM-41 parent solution. The cathode composed of manganese
oxide, polyethylene glycol and activated carbon paste, mixed with ammonium chloride electrolyte. The
cell with thickness less than 0.5 ï•-m is suitable for applications in microelectromechanical system or
MEMS.
PP-611
Solar Generator
zafri azran abdul majid, Zafri Azran Abdul Majid, Norazlanshah Hazali, Abdul Latif Ibrahim, Shamsul
Ezan Zairi, Abdul Adam Abdullah, Megat Ahmad Kamal Megat HanafiahZafri Azran Abdul Majid,
Norazlanshah Hazali, Abdul Latif Ibrahim, Shamsul Ezan Zairi, Abdul Adam Abdullah, Megat Ahmad
Kamal Megat Hanafiah
Department Of Diagnostic Imaging,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Solar Generator is used to generate electricity from sunlight. It will be use to take place Petrol
Generator which usually used by stall especially at Pasar Malam. The problem with Petrol Generator is
heavy, oily, high maintenance and need petrol to generate electricity. The solar power use is 16 watts.
With this power can supply up to 8 hours of electric energy especially for lighting and running the fan.
The power output is AC current using inverter with 300 watt maximum power, suitable for all
commercial single phase electric appliances. Smart controller is used to maximize the charging rate, at
the same it protect the battery. The system is low maintenance where only battery needs to be change
every three to four years time, depend on the usage. The material that was used to develop the system
can be obtained from local market, this made the cost of developing the system had a good potential to
be commercialised.
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-614
Halal Gelatin Coated Microcarrier for Vaccine Production
Maizirwan Mel, Maizirwan Mel, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Azmir Mohd Arifin, Hamzah Mohd Salleh,
Mohd Ismail Abdul Karim, and Iis SopyanMaizirwan Mel, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Azmir Mohd Arifin,
Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Mohd Ismail Abdul Karim, and Iis Sopyan
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Microcarriers are tiny beads or particles (matrix) with a surface chemistry that facilitates attachment
and growth of anchorage-dependent cells in cell culture processes. Tuning the interactions of cells to the
engineered matrix is a major challenge in cell and tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to
develop polymeric microcarrier to obtain higher cell density in bioreactor culture for vaccine
manufacturing from animal cell thus ensuring the whole process is halal. This cell-carrier was
developed from micro-size polystyrene beads (100-150µm) which have been surface modified by
UV/ozone treatment and covalent immobilization of by gelatin (bovine and fish) on the material surface.
Cell loading test in Vero cell culture was performed to evaluate their performance as carrier system. It
was found that the system used was effective to develop gelatin coated polystyrene beads having good
microscopic and suspension ability, good surface for cell attachment and proliferation, easy sampling
and easy cell recovery with highest maximum cell number obtained with no toxicity to the cells. The
novelty of this product includes simple and improved technique to prepare halal microcarrier with
cheaper production. In addition, less concentration of microcarrier (3g/L) can be used for cell culture
compared to commercial microcarrier (4g/L - 20g/L). Thus, this matrix can be used to substitute
commercial microcarriers which were developed from non-halal resources (porcine gelatin) such as
Cytodex 3, FACT III, Collagen from Solo Hill, CGEN 102-L and many more. Therefore, the product is
applicable for large scale production and ready for commercialization.
PP-615
Ethanol Production from Sorghum Starch
Maizirwan Mel, Najiah Nadir, Maizirwan Mel, Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim and Rosli Mohd
YunusNajiah Nadir, Maizirwan Mel, Mohamed Ismail Abdul Karim and Rosli Mohd Yunus
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The conversion of starch to sugar can be achieved by hydrolysis process. The two-step enzymatic
hydrolysis of sweet sorghum was performed by commercially available α-amylase and glucoamylase.
An optimisation study was carried out to optimise the factors of the hydrolysis process, namely, amount
of substrate, liquefaction and saccharification temperature, liquefaction and saccharification time, and
amount of α-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes. The screening of significant hydrolysis factors were
done by using the two-level factorial design (TLFD) under the factorial design (FD). The results
indicated that the liquefaction and saccharification temperature, and amount of glucoamylase enzyme
were found to be the major factors for further optimisation. The major factors for hydrolysis were
optimised by the central composite design (CCD) under the response surface method (RSM). The
analysis of variance (ANOVA) result showed that glucoamylase enzyme (p < 0.0021) and
saccharification temperature (p < 0.0181) were significant factors for hydrolysis of sorghum starch.
Also, the statistical analysis showed that the optimum dextrose equivalent (69.07% (g/g)) were obtained
at 90°C of liquefaction temperature, 47°C of saccharification temperature, and 0.24% (v/w) of
glucoamylase enzyme. Then, ethanol production from hydrolyzed sweet sorghum was processed under
different fermentation conditions using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch culture. As shown in
ANOVA result, the concentration of inoculum, urea, initial pH, and agitation have contributed more
significant effect on fermentation of hydrolyzed sweet sorghum. The major factors for fermentation
were optimized by the central composite design (CCD) under the response surface method (RSM). After
further optimization using CCD, the optimum fermentation conditions for maximum ethanol production
of 75.48 g/L were predicted at 0.43% (w/w) of inoculum concentration, 5.62 of initial pH of
Science, Engineering and Technology
fermentation media, and 50 rpm of agitation speed.
PP-617
High Value Products from Co-culture Microbes
Maizirwan Mel, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Maizirwan Mel, Gek Cheng NgohAzlin Suhaida Azmi, Maizirwan
Mel, Gek Cheng Ngoh
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Several techniques have been employed to efficiently producing biochemical products with low cost
material and energy consumption. One of techniques is co-culture fermentation from raw un-hydrolyzed
starch which reduced the cost of enzymes. This technique required amylolytic mold which typically can
be found in ragi tapai. Ragi tapai is a dry-starter culture, usually used to make tapai from cassava or
glutinous rice. In the dry starter consist of at least one yeast and one Mucoraceous mold were present
with one or two of bacteria of types of cocci. Depending of the co-culture mixture used, several valuable
byproducts have been produced from the fermentation process. The objective of this study is to
determine the significant parameters for multi-valuable fermentation products such as ethanol, lactic
acid and glycerol from co-culture fermentation of raw unhydrolyzed cassava starch in a batch fermenter
in order to improve the process using Taguchi’s method. The result shown that the optimum level
for two nutrients which were NPK and urea were at 0.09% (w/w) and 0.8% (w/w), respectively. The
optimum concentration of the dry starter of ragi tapai was 10% (w/w) which was best subsequent cocultured at 3 h later with 10% (w/w) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The process was best operated at
30oC of fermentation temperature with 100 rpm of agitation speed.
PP-618
AMIR-III: Emotionally Expressive Humanoid Head
AMIR AKRAMIN SHAFIE, AMIR AKRAMIN SHAFIE, MOHD FARID MD ALIAS, JAMIL RADHI,
ASEEF IQBAL, NAHRUL KHAIR ALANG MD RASHID, MD RAISUDDIN KHAN, MEHDI
BAHOUBBAAMIR AKRAMIN SHAFIE, MOHD FARID MD ALIAS, JAMIL RADHI, ASEEF IQBAL,
NAHRUL KHAIR ALANG MD RASHID, MD RAISUDDIN KHAN, MEHDI BAHOUBBA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Advances in robotics technology and artificial intelligence worldwide has shone the prospect of
robotic applications penetrating human-existing environments. As robots provide services to humans
such as at home, they would inevitably have to interact with humans to receive commands, provide
information and learn new skills. The emergence of study on human-robot interaction (HRI) stems on
the need to create safe and friendly interaction between robots and humans. The emotional aspect of
robots can be communicated by having expressive humanoid head. The challenge remains as how a
humanoid head should be designed in order to optimize the communication effect of facial expression
component belonged to it. Thus, in our research we present our third version of emotionally expressive
humanoid head capable of producing a range of facial expressions. The major upgrade of this latest
prototype version named as AMIR-III is the embedment of two cameras acting as its eyes to provide
stereo vision capability. Its performance is measured in terms of the accuracy, efficiency and
repeatability of actuator positionings in which our testings return satisfactory results. In conclusion, our
prototype of humanoid head robot is practically prepared for implementation of artificial intelligence.
Science, Engineering and Technology
PP-633
HRD Programme for Exchange of ICT Researchers/Engineers
Through Collaborative Research 2008
Muhammad Ibn Ibrahimy, Prof. Dr. Shinji Tsuruoka, Prof. Dr. Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali, Dr. Md.
Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz, S.M.A. Motakabber, Md. Asraful Hasan, Wan Yusri Wan YusufProf. Dr. Shinji
Tsuruoka, Prof. Dr. Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali, Dr. Md. Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz, S.M.A. Motakabber, Md.
Asraful Hasan, Wan Yusri Wan Yusuf
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
This project presents a research work that is concerned to implement an emergency medical care
information system for fetal ECG (FECG) monitoring. The research work comprises of three major
parts i.e. development of an abdominal ECG (AECG) data acquisition system, networking of
transferring and receiving AECG data between patient (client) and physician (server), and improvement
of existing techniques for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. The main function of AECG data
acquisition system is to acquire the mother’s ECG data using a commercial chip called CARDIC
and store it in a local terminal. On the other hand, the networking application serves the purpose of
transferring the AECG data to the remote terminal via the established connection for remote monitoring
and diagnosis purpose. Eventually, the AECG signals are processed in the remote terminal to extract the
FECG from the AECG signal for efficient FHR monitoring. The networking system is a client/server
application known respectively as Local Patient Monitoring System (LPMS) and Remote Patient
Monitoring System (RPMS). It supports transferring of AECG data file and online chatting session. The
diagnoses of the reading will be done by the specialists and action can immediately be taken in
emergency cases.
PP-639
Future Surfing with an Intelligent Guidance
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim , Ahmed A. Mosa, Othman O. Khalifa,
Rashid A. Saeed & Omer Mahmood
Aisha-Hassan Abdalla Hashim , Ahmed A. Mosa, Othman O. Khalifa, Rashid A. Saeed & Omer
Mahmood
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Internet availability anywhere/anytime helps accelerating services in vital places (i.e. airports, ports,
and main stations). Using Intelligent Guidance approach provides accurate details about a country that
assists the passengers and tourists in general. It makes use of the available wireless technologies (i.e.
WiFi, and WiMAX). The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the conceptual and intuitive
topography through a 3D virtual life representation. Hotels, theme parks, vital terminals, and commuters
are established as a realistic animation. This approach uses Google Maps to replace the traditional
Garmin GPS.
PP-641
Quadraped Walking Robot
Amir Akramin Shafie, Muhammad Khairul Azim Khairudin
Abdul Mustaqim
Muhammad Khairul Azim Khairudin
Abdul Mustaqim
Mechatronic Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
Science, Engineering and Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
This project reports on the design and development of quadruped walking robot to realize pitching
motion by mimickinga cat. Electronics components that had been used in this project are servomotors,
Arduino microcontroller board,LiPo battery and voltage regulator.
Four joints configuration were obtained by simplifying real cat’s body. Joint motion trajectories
were designed and a motion mapping relationship between lower link and upper link were formulated
for this robot by referring to leg motion of a cat.
PP-642
Chocolate Chip Cookies Machine
Amir Akramin Shafie, Khairul Nizar Shazwan Wan Salihin
Muhammad Farhat KamaruddinKhairul Nizar Shazwan Wan Salihin
Muhammad Farhat Kamaruddin
Mechatronic Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The project report a design of a chocolate cookies machine, which are meant for Small Medium
Industries (SMI). The invention enable the SMI to expand the market to a larger scale and ensure that
the recipe of the chocolate cookies remains true to the original.
The current cookies shaped machine use compression to shape the cookies. This will alter the taste of
the recipe. In this invention we design and develop a scooping machine that scoop the chocolate
cookies dough and place it on the baking tray without compressing the dough.
The machine is design according to food safety regulation to ensure market acceptability. The basic
equipment used in the project include pneumatic cylinder, programmable logic controller (PLC),
solenoid valves and sensor.
PP-671
LOW TECHNOLOGY COMPOSTING OF FOOD WASTES AND
YARD TRIMMINGS USING LOCALLY ISOLATED FUNGI
STRAINS
Nassereldeen Kabbashi, Nassereldeen. A. Kabbashi. MD. Zahangir Alam. Opatokun Suraj
AdebayoNassereldeen. A. Kabbashi. MD. Zahangir Alam. Opatokun Suraj Adebayo
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
The consumeristic lifestyle adopted by Malaysians due to economic improvement causes an increase
in the amount of food related wastes. The environmental and public health implication of these wastes
especially the organic constituents is of great concern on the landfill challenges across the states. Food
wastes (FW) together with Yard trimmings (YT) were intercepted and utilized for composting using
locally isolated fungal strains (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergilus niger and Penicillium sp).
Results obtained indicate 10% degradation rate while C/N of the produced compost was found to be
16%; indicating its viability for large scale production since the acceptable range for efficient compost
is about 12%. The 74% Total Organic Matter (TOM), 2.76 mS/dm Electrical Conductivity (EC), 7.2 pH
and 117% Germination Index (GI) further showed the potentials of the compost. Based on these, FW
and YM showed an economic potential for sustainable production of compost and waste management.
PP-674
A Prototype a Wearable Ring Transmittance Pulse Oximeter
Othman Khalifa, Muhammad Arham Bin Amiru’d-Din, Syed Zulfauzi, Othman O. Khalifa, Teddy
Surya GunawanMuhammad Arham Bin Amiru’d-Din, Syed Zulfauzi, Othman O. Khalifa, Teddy
Surya Gunawan
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Science, Engineering and Technology
To save life, casualty care requires that trauma injuries are accurately and expeditiously assessed in
the field. This project investigates and design the initial bench testing of a ring shaped wearable pulse
oximeter developed based on transmitteance of two light waves which are the red and infrared waves. In
this project, a prototype is being built it phases and results from the phases are taken and analyzed. The
problems that relates to the current pulse oximeter are the constraints of mobility and wearability of this
healthcare device. The project aims to solve the problems and also to reduce the cost of the pulse
oximeter to make it affordable to the open market. The hardware implementation is being done by
producing the stereotype of the pulse oximeter which is wearable and comfortable for the patient.
Environmental testing had also being done on the ring-shaped wearable pulse oximeter in order to test
its reliability in different environment.
Health and Allied Sciences
P-14
Biodynamics of HCV infection in haemodialysis patients in Pahang
Mohammed Imad Al-Deen Mustafa, M. I. A. Mustafa1, M. S. Abdul Majid1, H. A. Binti Hamzah1, M.
H. Bin Hasmaini2
1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 2Department of Internal Medicine, International Islamic
University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
M. I. A. Mustafa1, M. S. Abdul Majid1, H. A. Binti Hamzah1, M. H. Bin Hasmaini2
1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 2Department of Internal Medicine, International Islamic
University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Hepatitis C is a global disease, WHO has described it as a “viral time bomb―. In
Malaysia, the sero-prevalence is 1.6%. HCV infection is frequent in patients undergoing maintenance
haemodialysis, with prevalence between 8 and 10%. Hepatitis C has an adverse effect on both patient
and graft survival in those who get renal transplants. There are relatively scarce reports on the natural
fluctuation in viral load and alpha interferon (α-IFN) level in patients on chronic hemodialysis.
Methods: A longitudinal short-term three months study where 27 chronic hemodialysis patients
infected with known HCV genotypes were recruited from seven hemodialysis centers in Pahang. Serum
samples were collected monthly, both pre- and post-hemodialysis sessions, over a period of three
months. Viral RNA was extracted from serum using QIAamp Viral RNA Extraction kit (Qiagen). The
HCV viral load was measured using one step reverse transcriptase qPCR (Applied Biosystems)
targeting the 5`HCV non-coding region. The serum α-IFN level was measured using commercial
ELISA kit (Amersham, UK). Six biochemical liver function tests (AST, ALP, TP, albumin, ALT and
TB) were also done for all pre-hemodialysis samples.
Results: All patients showed persistant low level viral load that varied significantly over the study
period (P = 0.001). HCV genotype 1 viral load was significantly higher than that of genotype. The
difference between pre- and post-haemodialysis viral load was statistically insignificant. No significant
correlation between viral load and liver function status was noted. No correlation was observed between
pre-haemodialysis serum α-IFN level and pre-haemodialysis viral load. The difference between pre and
post-haemodialysis plasma α-IFN levels was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: HCV infected haemodialysis patients experience significant fluctuation in viral load
with time but no correlation with biochemical evidence of liver injury. HCV genotype 1 is associated
with higher viral load as compared to genotype 3. Single-step rt qPCR assay has the potential for rapid
HCV genotyping.
P-15
Fruit Seeds and Peels – from Byproducts to Potentially
Commercial Antioxidants
Kamarul Rahim Kamarudin, Norshazila Senawi, Nurliyana Ruzlan, Mustapha Suleiman Koya, Syed
Zahir Idid, ‘Aisyah Mohamed Rehan, Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Kamarul Rahim
KamarudinNorshazila Senawi, Nurliyana Ruzlan, Mustapha Suleiman Koya, Syed Zahir Idid, ‘Aisyah
Mohamed Rehan, Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury, Kamarul Rahim Kamarudin
Department of Biotechnology,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Until recently, the uses of fruit seeds and peels for commercial purposes especially as antioxidants
remain low due to their lack of popularity and lack of antioxidant research. In food processing industry,
edible portions of fruits e.g. pulps are processed into products such as puree, canned slices, juice and
pickles. On the other hand, most of the time the seeds and peels will be discarded as waste or
byproducts since most of them are not currently utilised for any commercial purposes. We, therefore,
had evaluated seeds of guava, papaya and mango for their antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary
and secondary); and compared antioxidant levels and activities in pulps and peels of two species of
Health and Allied Sciences
dragon fruits, Hylocereus undatus (white dragon fruit) and Hylocereus polyrhizus (red dragon fruit) in
order to investigate the possibilities of utilising the selected fruit seeds and peels as commercial
nutraceuticals in the future. The results suggest that mango seed relatively had the highest antioxidant
level and primary antioxidant activity, and followed by guava seed and papaya seed, showing its
promising potential to be exploited as commercial primary antioxidant in the nutraceutical industry.
Besides, peels of H. undatus and H. polyrhizus contained higher phenolic contents than their pulps, with
relatively high radical scavenging activities and moderate metal ion chelating effects. In terms of journal
publication, two Scopus-indexed full research articles on the findings were published i.e. "Norshazila
Senawi, Syed Zahir Idid, Mustapha Suleiman Koya, ‘Aisyah Mohamed Rehan and Kamarul Rahim
Kamarudin (2010). Antioxidant Study of Selected Seeds of Malaysian Tropical Fruits. Malaysian
Journal of Nutrition, 16(1): 149-159. ISSN 1394-035X" and "Nurliyana Ruzlan, Syed Zahir Idid,
Mustapha Suleiman Koya, ‘Aisyah Mohamed Rehan and Kamarul Rahim Kamarudin (2010).
Antioxidant study of pulps and peels of dragon fruits: A comparative study. International Food Research
Journal, 17: 367-375. ISSN 1985-4668".
P-33
DIFFERENTIAL DETECTION OF COMMON BACTERIAL
CAUSES OF COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA USING
MULTIPLEX REAL-TIME PCR
Mohammed Imad Al-Deen Mustafa, M I A Mustafa, Farah Al-Marzooq, S H How, Y C Kuan
Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
M I A Mustafa, Farah Al-Marzooq, S H How, Y C Kuan
Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Establishing a microbial diagnosis for patients with community-acquired pneumonia
(CAP) is still challenging and often identified in as few as 30-50% of cases. This is mainly due to
difficulties and/or delay in obtaining results of culture and serology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
has been shown to be more sensitive than conventional microbiological methods and it could help to
increase the microbial yield for CAP patients.
Hypothesis: This study was designed to develop and evaluate multiplex real-time PCR as a method
for rapid differential detection of five bacterial causes of CAP (Streptococcus pneumonia, Burkholderia
pseudomallei and atypical bacterial pathogens namely Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila
pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila).
Materials and Methods: Five sets of primers and probes were designed based on an appropriate
specific gene for each pathogen. Specificity testing was done and each primers-probe set performance
was tested in monoplex real-time PCR before combining them in multiplex assays. Two multiplex realtime PCR assays were then optimized; duplex for the differential detection of Streptococcus
pneumoniae and Burkholderia pseudomallei, and triplex for the differential detection of the atypical
bacterial pathogens. Moreover, 91 clinical samples (46 blood and 45 respiratory samples) were collected
from 46 adult CAP patients admitted to Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA)/ Kuantan. These
samples were analyzed by both multiplex real-time PCR assays in addition to conventional methods.
Results: Two multiplex real-time PCR assays were successfully developed. The microbial aetiology
of CAP could be established for 39.1% (18/46) of the patients by conventional methods and this figure
was increased to 65.2% (30/46) with the additional use of multiplex real-time PCR. The most frequently
detected pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (21.7% - all by PCR alone), followed by Klebsiella
pneumoniae (17.3%), Burkholderia pseudomallei (13% - 83% by PCR alone and 17% by both culture
and PCR), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.5%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (6.5% - all by serology),
Chlamydophila pneumoniae (4.3% -all positive by both PCR and serology), Legionella pneumophila
(2.1% - all by PCR alone), E.coli (4.3%). Haemophilus infuenzae, Acinetobacter lwoffii and
Acinetobacter baumannii were detected in one case each by conventional bacteriological methods (2.1%
for each).
Discussion: Multiplex real-time PCR is a useful rapid method for identifying CAP causative agents.
By supplementing traditional diagnostic methods with real-time PCR, a higher microbial detection rate
was achieved for both typical and atypical bacterial pathogens.
Health and Allied Sciences
P-39
Survival Analysis and Prognostic Factor of Non-Hodgkin’s
Lymphoma Treated in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
Nur Sabrina Che Soh, Nur Sabrina Che Soh, Norsa’adah Bachok, Abdul Aziz Baba, Wan Mohd
Zahiruddin Wan Muhammad
Nur Sabrina Che Soh, Norsa’adah Bachok, Abdul Aziz Baba, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan
Muhammad
Biomedical Science,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
INTRODUCTION: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is included in the ten leading cancers
worldwide, accounting for an estimated more than 63 thousand new cases and over 19 thousands deaths
per year. The study on survival rate and prognostic factors may be useful in building a better
intervention program as well as improving survival rate.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the survival and to identify the prognostic
factors that influence the risk of death of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in Hospital Universiti
Sains Malaysia (HUSM).
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective record review was conducted involving 154 patients diagnosed
as NHL from 1st January 1997 till 31st December 2006. Additional three years follow-up after the
recruitment of the subjects was done to verify patients’ status. All patients who fulfilled the
inclusion criteria were included in the study. The required information at time of diagnosis as well as
patients’ survival status until 31st December 2009 was retrieved from medical records. For some
patients who were still alive upon discharge from hospital but defaulted appointment or were loss to
follow-up were traced by telephone calls and home visit to obtain information on patients’ survival
status. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 12 and STATA version 9. Kaplan-Meier
procedure was used to calculate survival estimates while Cox Proportional Hazards Model was used to
determine prognostic factors.
RESULTS: The overall 5 and 10-years survival rates for NHL in HUSM was 33.2% (95%CI: 25.2,
41.4) and 26.9% (95%CI: 18.7, 35.8) respectively. Adjusted for other variables, the significant
prognostic factors identified by Cox Proportional Hazards Model are age at diagnosis (HR=1.02;
95%CI: 1.0, 1.2; p=0.009), number of extranodal involvement (HR= 3.2; 95%CI: 1.4, 7.0; p=0.005),
thrombocytopenia (HR= 2.0; 95%CI: 1.2, 3.6; p= 0.001) and lymphocytopenia (HR= 2.3; 95%CI: 1.3,
4.2; p= 0.006).
CONCLUSION: The 5 and 10-year survival of NHL patients treated in HUSM was lower compared
to other studies. The significant prognostic factors identified in this study were age at diagnosis, number
of extranodal involvement, thrombocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. However, other important
significant prognostic factors such as stage, treatment modalities and grade were not identified as
prognostic factors in this study after adjusting other variables.
Key word: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, survival, prognostic factors.
P-56
The Measurement of Fractional Urinary Oestrogen Level During
Late Pregnancy as an Indicator of Foetal Well-being
Maung Maung Cho, Maung Maung ChoMaung Maung Cho
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Six hourly fractional urine samples for two consecutive days from 15 women during late pregnancy
(36 weeks onwards) were taken to study the presence of circadian rhythm of urinary oestrogen
excretion. A circadian rhythm was observed. The urinary oestrogen fell in second fraction (1300 hr to
1900 hr), rose in third fraction (1900 hr to 0100 hr), and declined again in the fourth fraction (0100 hr to
Health and Allied Sciences
0700 hr). Analysis of variance indicated significant variations in urinary oestrogen levels (p < 0.01).
Moreover, high correlation between urinary oestrogen excretion of the second fraction and that of 24
hours sample was observed (correlation coefficient 0.9812). Thus, this study had shown that the urinary
oestrogen excretion in pregnant women collected between second fraction (1300 hr to 1900 hr) as the
most reliable indicator of foetal well-being in place of 24 hours urine sample.
P-61
DIGITAL WATERMARKING FOR AUTHENTICATION OF
MEDICAL IMAGES
Akram Zeki, Akram M. Zeki, Azizah A. ManafAkram M. Zeki, Azizah A. Manaf
Department of Information System,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
Many hospitals are facing problems with managing large amount of data storage such as
administrative document, patient’s information and medical images. Therefore, it is important to
handle those data accurately to avoid problem of lost, tampering and mishandling record at the hospital
[1]. There are few ways to manage the patient’s information and the medical images and one of
them is using the watermarking technique in medical images. The objective of the paper is to develop an
authentication technique of watermarking medical images using the intermediate significant bits ISB
technique. The patient’s information will be encrypted first, the best location of the medical images
will be identified in order to embed the watermark (patient’s information) without affecting the
quality of the images. The developed system can be used to identify the medical image by
authenticating the patient identity. And to overcome the weaknesses of losing and mishandling of
medical images that will risk the patients.
P-73
Serum Adiponectin Status as a Biomarker of Metabolic Syndrome
Among Malaysians
Mohd Aznan Md Aris, Samsul Draman, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Razman Mohd Rus, Muhammad
Muzaffar Ali Khan KhattakSamsul Draman, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Razman Mohd Rus, Muhammad
Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
Family Medicine,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Adiponectin is a collagen-like circulating protein secreted by adipocytes. Several studies have
demonstrated that low adiponectin also has strong association with metabolic syndrome components
such as it is decreased in obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and coronary artery
disease. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the level of adiponectin between
metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome subjects. A cross-sectional comparative study was
carried out among 76 participants of metabolic syndrome and 76 participants of non metabolic
syndrome based on IDF criteria. This study was held at three primary care clinics and two villages in
Kuantan, Pahang from 1st March to 30th September 2009. The majority of respondents were Malay
(88.8%) and female (57.9%) adult with mean age of 51 years old. Most of them are non-smoker (77.6%)
and had history of Hypertension (51%) and Diabetes Mellitus (46.4%) with mean waist circumference
of 88.5 cm and mean weight of 66.6kg. The study revealed that age, weight, waist circumference, blood
pressure, fasting glucose, HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly different in both group
(P<0.05). The metabolic syndrome group had a significantly lower adiponectin concentration than nonmetabolic syndrome group (mean: 11.64 ug/ml vs 13.21 ug/ml; P<0.05). Hence, this study concluded
that serum adiponectin was a significant biomarker for metabolic syndrome.
P-101
Assessment of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) status in chronic
cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neurodegeneration.
Dr. Anil Kumar Saxena, Saif S Abdulmajeed, Anil Kumar Saxena.Saif S Abdulmajeed, Anil Kumar
Saxena.
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
Health and Allied Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Aging related reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been linked with neurodegenerative
disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Experimentally, a condition of chronic
cerebral hypoperfusion due to reduced CBF can be induced by permanent bilateral occlusion of
common carotid arteries (2-vessel occlusion, 2VO) in rats. Since oxidative stress, leading to neuronal
apoptosis and death, is one of the mechanisms which is thought to play a significant role in chronic
degenerative neurological disorders, the present study was planned to assess the alterations in oxidative
and anti-oxidant mechanisms that might occur during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Malondialdehyde
(MDA) concentration and antioxidant enzymes namely glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide
dismutase (SOD), and catalase were measured in the brain tissue after eight weeks of 2VO induction in
rats. Results show an increased level of oxidative stress as reflected by significantly elevated levels of
MDA, GPx, SOD, and catalase enzymes as compared with the control group. It is possible that
compensatory rise in antioxidant enzymes occurs in response to increased oxidative stress following
ischemic insult.
P-103
Esophageal Surface Cells in Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) :
Scanning Electron Microscopic Study
Yi Yi Myint, Dr Yi Yi Myint , Dr Ye Tun , Dr. Nasser Muhammad Amjad , Nor linda Abd Rashid , Dr.
Mohd Zailani Mat HassanDr Yi Yi Myint , Dr Ye Tun , Dr. Nasser Muhammad Amjad , Nor linda Abd
Rashid , Dr. Mohd Zailani Mat Hassan
Basic Medical Science,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is the most common phenotype of gastro
esophageal reflux disease. Dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) in prickle cell layers are considered as early
signs of acid damage to the esophageal epithelium. In order to enter the mucosal intercellular spaces,
acid and pepsin have to penetrate the intercellular adhesion sites of the most superficial epithelial cells.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore cellular attachments in most superficial esophageal
cells of NERD patients and to find out any association between reflux symptoms and DIS.
Material and methods: The study group included 8 NERD patients with reflux symptoms, normal
mucosa on endoscopy and positive 24-hour pH monitoring (NERD) and 5 normal controls. Specimens
were routinely processed for SEM. The nature of cellular attachment and intercellular spaces between
superficial cells of esophageal mucosa were viewed by SEM.
Statistical analysis: The association between DIS and categorical data as well as reflux symptoms
was accessed by using Chi-Square test & Fisher’s exact test respectively. p <0.05 were considered
to be statistically significant.
Results: We found out that cellular attachments in the superficial cells differ significantly among the
normal controls and patients with NERD (p value 0.007) .There was no association between both
heartburn and acid regurgitation with DIS as the p value were 0.128 and 0.487 respectively.
Discussion: Our results showed that DIS was found in all NERD patients and 3 out of 5 (60%)
controls. This is because SEM only views the surface cells of the epithelium and even in normal, the
surface cells are terminally differentiated and in varying stages of being desquamated into the lumen.
Conclusions: We can conclude that SEM study on DIS in esophageal surface cells is not a useful
diagnostic test for differentiating between normal and NERD patients.
P-104
DILATED INTERCELLULAR SPACES OF ESOPHAGEAL
EPITHELIUM AMONG MALAYSIAN WITH NON- EROSIVE
REFLUX DISEASE: TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
Assistant Professor Dr Yi Yi Myint, Dr Yi Yi Myint , Dr Ye Tun , Dr. Nasser Muhammad Amjad , Nor
linda Abd Rashid , Dr. Mohd Zailani Mat HassanDr Yi Yi Myint , Dr Ye Tun , Dr. Nasser Muhammad
Amjad , Nor linda Abd Rashid , Dr. Mohd Zailani Mat Hassan
Basic Medical Science,Kulliyyah of Medicine
Health and Allied Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Dilated intercellular space (DIS) is considered as early signs of acid damage to the
esophageal epithelium. The diffusion of refluxed gastric acid into the intercellular space activates chemo
sensitive nociceptors whose signals are transmitted via the spinal cord to the brain for symptom
(heartburn) perception as well as initiated a short reflex arc to esophageal (longitudinal) smooth muscle
as means of precipitating a sustained esophageal contraction.
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the intercellular space of oesophageal epithelium and to find
out the association between clinical symptoms and DIS among Malaysian with NERD.
Materials and methods: The study group included 8 NERD patients with reflux symptoms, normal
mucosa on endoscopy and positive 24-hour pH monitoring and 5 normal controls. Specimens were
routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The intercellular spaces between
prickle cells were viewed and their widths were determined by TEM.
Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)
version 16. The difference in mean DIS among NERD patients and controls was tested using
independent t test. The association between categorical data and dilatation of intercellular space was
tested using Chi-Square test. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: Morphometric analysis performed on transmission electron microscopy microphotographs
showed mean intercellular space diameter values of NERD patients were significantly ( two times)
higher than that in normal controls (p<0.001). Intercellular space with width above > 0.93 μm is
considered as dilated (cut-off value). There was strong association between dilated intercellular space
with heartburn (p 0.001) and not with acid regurgitation (p 0.075).
Conclusions: We can conclude that DIS at prickle cell layer is a promising diagnostic finding of early
damage of esophageal epithelium.
P-111
Some Aspects of Visual Function and Plasma Retinol Levels in two
different aged groups
NILAR AUNG, Nilar Aung, Ohmar,Nyunt Wai,
Nilar Aung, Ohmar,Nyunt Wai,
Department of Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
The comparism of the dark adaptation and serum retinol level was a potentially useful method of
studying the basic nature of the aging process in vision. The purpose of this study was to determine the
effect of aging upon the dark adaptation time and serum retinol level. To find out the influence of serum
retinol level and age on some aspects of visual function, dark adaptation time and visual fields studies
were done on two different age groups of Myanmar subjects (young adults: 18-25 years and middleaged subjects: 40-60 years) (n=30 each). Dark adaptation time (DAT) was determined by a rapid dark
adaptation test adopted from Thornton (1977). Visual field was assessed by manually setting kinetic
perimetry. Serum retinol level was determined by colorimetric method using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).
None of the subjects exhibited subnormal serum retinol levels. Although their serum retinol levels were
comparable to those of their younger counterparts (66.3 (5.2)µg/dl vs 61.4(8.1) µg/dl)(mean(SD)),
the middle-aged subjects had significantly longer DAT (5.7 (1.4) vs 3.6 (1.3) minutes; P<0.05) and
significantly greater reduction (P<0.05) in visual fields of both eyes. There was a significant negative
correlation (P<0.05) between serum retinol level and DAT in the middle-aged subjects, but not in young
adults. No correlation was found between serum retinol level and visual field reduction in both groups.
Even with comparable serum retinol level, longer DAT and greater reduction of visual field in middleaged subjects indicated that retinal function might also be affected by the age-related changes in retina.
Health and Allied Sciences
P-121
THE ROLE OF MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
(MSCT) IN THE DETECTION OF TRAUMATIC INTRA
ABDOMINAL INJURY: OUR EXPERIENCE IN HOSPITAL
TENGKU AMPUAN AFZAN (HTAA), KUANTAN, PAHANG
Radhiana Hassan, Radhiana H, Azian AA, Mubarak MY, Azlin S, Amran ARRadhiana H, Azian AA,
Mubarak MY, Azlin S, Amran AR
Radiology,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Introduction:
Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple injuries and these injuries are often difficult to be
accurately evaluated via clinical assessment. Currently, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scan
is the imaging modality of choice in assessing clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma.
This study assessed the role of MSCT in the detection of traumatic intra abdominal injury and correlates
the findings with subsequent patient’s management.
Methodology
This is a retrospective study approved by our institutional review board. All cases of CT scan
performed to rule out traumatic intra abdominal injury from January 2008 until December 2009 was
traced from the registration book. CT scan images were retrieved and reviewed. Analysis of findings
was done and organ injuries were graded according to AAST (American Association of Surgery and
Trauma). Case notes and surgical findings were reviewed for correlation with CT findings.
Results
There were 151 cases included in this study. Positive scan were seen in 130 patients (86.1%). Liver,
spleen and renal injuries were seen in 40.8%, 33.8% and 26.2% of cases respectively. Laparotomies
were performed in 42 patients from 130 positive scans (32.3%) and in 3 patients who had negative scan.
Out of 45 patients who had undergone laparotomies, 10 patients had significant surgically injuries that
were missed on CT scan findings. The injuries were bowel perforation (n=4), serosal tear of bowel
(n=1), mesenteric injuries (n=2), spleen injury (n=1), liver injury (n=1) and laceration of broad
ligaments with oozing of blood from ovarian artery (n=1).
Conclusion
CT scan is a useful tool in the evaluation of blunt abdominal injuries in haemodynamically stable
patients especially in the detection of solid organ injuries and retroperitoneal haematoma. However
assessment of bowel and mesenteric injury was not similarly effective in our study.
P-134
Anti-cancer properties of Thymoquinone, constituents of Black Seed
(Nigella sativa) on human HSC-3 oral cancer cells
Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Wastuti Hidayati Suriyah,
Muhammad TaherSolachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Wastuti Hidayati Suriyah, Muhammad Taher
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Oral cancers have been generally treated by a combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation.
Unfortunately, most of chemotherapy drugs are toxic to normal cells as well as cancer cells. Herbal
remedies have been used for thousands of years with very minimal side effects and clearly merit
extended research for their ability to selectively kill cancer cells. Nigella sativa, commonly known as
“Black Seed” or “Habbatul-barakah― has been traditionally used for centuries in many
Asian, Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries for culinary and medicinal purposes. Thymoquinone
(TQ), the main constituent of Black Seed essential oil has been shown to exhibit in vitro and in vivo
anti-neoplastic activities against various tumor cell lines. However, there is no available information on
the effects of TQ on human oral cancers. Here, we report that TQ exhibits anti-proliferative effect and
induces apoptosis in HSC-3, a well-known highly invasive human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell
line that lack p53 tumor suppressor gene. MTT assay showed that TQ markedly inhibited HSC-3 cell
proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis induced by TQ was clearly detected
by DNA fragmentation assay. Moreover, caspase activity assays revealed that TQ-induced apoptosis in
Health and Allied Sciences
HSC-3 cells is associated with the activation of caspase-3 and -8 whereby this activation is caused
predominantly by an up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 mRNAs as shown by real time RT-PCR. Taken
together, these results identify TQ as a potential therapeutic agent for human oral cancers.
P-140
Synergistic anti-cancer effects of recombinant adenoviruses DRIL1
and p53 gene transfer against human lung cancer cells
Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Muhammad Taher, Masa-Aki
IkedaSolachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Muhammad Taher, Masa-Aki Ikeda
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Lung cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer worldwide. Because of the aggressive and
metastatic nature of many forms of the disease, it is frequently diagnosed late and responds poorly to the
therapies currently available including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have not improved the
survival rates of patients lung cancer. Even, tumors recur in some patients whereas some tumors have
become resistant to either chemotherapy or further radiotherapy. For this reason, gene therapy has been
developed and considered as a new approach that may effective in combating lung cancers. The
application of gene therapy indeed aims for specifically kill cancer cells without disturbing normal cells.
We have reported previously that DRIL1, which encodes a member of AT rich interaction domain
(ARID) family proteins, is a novel target of tumor suppressor p53 and induced following DNA damage.
Here we show that ectopic expression using recombinant adenovirus DRIL1 gene transfer induced
transcription of p53-target genes in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells in a dose dependent
manner. Moreover, these effects were synergistically enhanced by p53 co-expression. Consistently, coexpression of DRIL1 with p53 efficiently induced apoptosis in A549 cells accompanied by augmented
activation of genes involved in p53-regulated growth arrest and apoptosis. This study suggest that
combination of recombinant adenoviruses DRIL1 and p53 gene transfer may provide an efficient
method to treat non-small cell lung cancer.
P-141
Chronic Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Coronary Artery
Disease: Finding a Bridge.
Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Aminu Ishaka, Niza Samsuddin, Razman Mohd Rus,
Abdul Hadi MohamedNor Zamzila Abdullah, Aminu Ishaka, Niza Samsuddin, Razman Mohd Rus, Abdul
Hadi Mohamed
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Organophosphates (OPs) are commonly used as pesticides in agriculture. They are hydrolyzed by
paraoxonase (PON1) which is a high density lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme known for its
function to hydrolyze OPs into a relatively harmless substance. PON1 is also known to prevent
atherosclerosis by hydrolyzing oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) as well as preventing the
accumulation of lipid peroxides on LDL. Reports showed low PON1 activity among OPs-exposed
individuals, while low PON1 activity was associated with a high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
The link between chronic OPs exposure and lipid parameters which are known risk factors of CAD has
not yet been reported. This study aimed at comparing the activities of PON1 and lipid parameters (oxLDL, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C) between workers who are exposed to OPs and non-exposed
comparative groups. A cross sectional study was carried among 53 selected pesticides sprayers from 4
farms in Kuantan who fulfilled the criteria and 50 control subjects who were age, ethnicity and income
bracket-matched. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C (lipid
profiles), ox-LDL and PON1 activities after the hydrolysis of substrates paraoxon, phenylacetate and
diazoxon. Results showed a significantly lower (p<0.05) diazoxonase activity (mean: 890.93vs 990.48
U/ml) and higher ox-LDL (median: 4.89 vs 2.83 mU/L) among the OPs-exposed group. The PON1 to
ox-LDL ratio which probably reflect the ability of PON1 to hydrolyze ox-LDL were also significantly
lower (p<0.001) among the OPs exposed group. There were no differences in lipid profiles (p>0.05)
between the two groups. Our study suggested that OPs-exposed individuals might be predisposed to
Health and Allied Sciences
atherosclerosis and CAD through the decreased PON1 ability to hydrolyze ox-LDL but not through lipid
profiles. A larger scale study is required to confirm our observation.
P-151
Palm-tocotrienol rich fraction has hypohomocysteinemic effect in
rats fed high methionine diet.
Norsidah Ku Zaifah, Norsidah Ku-Zaifah , Ahmad Asmadi Yusof , Azizi Ayob , Faizah Othman ,
Kamisah YusofNorsidah Ku-Zaifah , Ahmad Asmadi Yusof , Azizi Ayob , Faizah Othman , Kamisah
Yusof
BMS,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is associated
with elevation of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of palm-tocotrienol
rich fraction (TRF), a known anti-oxidant, at various doses on plasma total homocysteine level (tHcy)
and activity of hepatic cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in rats fed high methionine diet, as compared to
folate. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 was the control. Groups 2 to 6
were fed 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet) or palm TRF
(30, 60 or 150 mg/kg diet) were added into the diet of groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Body weights were recorded
weekly. The rats were then sacrificed and plasma tHcy at week 0, 5 and 10, and the activity of liver
cystathionine-β-synthase were determined. High methionine diet did not affect body weight. It raised
plasma tHcy but was prevented by palm TRF at various doses, as well as folate. However, unlike folate,
palm TRF significantly caused reduction of liver CBS activity. In conclusion, palm TRF was
comparable to folate in reducing plasma tHcy in rat fed high methionine diet. Furthermore, it probably
has a negative feedback effect on liver CBS resulting in its significant reduction.
Health and Allied Sciences
P-153
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Based
Metabolic Fingerprinting of Malaysian Ginger (Zingiber officinale
Rosc.)
Julia Retno Andayani Budi Muljono, J. Retno Andayani,B.M., Mahdi, H.J., IshakJ. Retno
Andayani,B.M., Mahdi, H.J., Ishak
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
A comprehensive metabolic fingerprinting of three micro propagated ginger explants, Bukit Tinggi,
Tanjung Sepat and Sabah cultivars, was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass
spectrometry (GC-MS). The ginger leave tissues were fractionated in a polar (MeOH) and non polar
(CHCl3) solvents, subsequently methoximated and silylated prior to GC-MS analysis. By applying this
technique, over 300 metabolites (polar and non-polar) in total were detected in each ginger cultivar.
However, only about 25% of these compounds can be definitely characterized by using the Wiley7n.1
and the NIST Mass spectra libraries for the best hit of the molecular ion peaks and the fragmentation
patterns. Fatty acids and sugars (mono and disaccharides) as the main constituents of the ginger leaf
tissues besides a small amount of essential amino acids as well as some organic acids. A distinct GCMS metabolic fingerprinting of the ginger cultivars provide “ an unequivocal pattern recognition―
among the ginger phenotypes derived from Bukit Tinggi, Tanjung Sepat and Sabah, Malaysia.
P-166
A Study on the Use of Contraception and Its Effects on
Breastfeeding among Women at Maternal and Child Health Clinic
laith Issa yassin, Laith Issa Yassin, Kamaruzaman Wan SuLaith Issa Yassin, Kamaruzaman Wan Su
,Kulliyyah of Nursing
International Islamic University Malaysia
P-167
Knowledge of Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise (Kegel Exercise) Among
Women at Beserah Polyclinic and Jaya Gading Community Health
Clinic
laith Issa yassin, Laith Issa Yassin, Kamaruzaman Wan SuLaith Issa Yassin, Kamaruzaman Wan Su
,Kulliyyah of Nursing
International Islamic University Malaysia
P-172
Pain Intervention for Failed Conservative Chronic Pain Treatment:
The Light at the End of the Tunnel
Abdul Hadi Mohamed, Abdul Hadi Mohamed, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Mohd Fahmi Lukman, Mohd
Ashri Ahmad, Basri Mohd Nor, Ariff OsmanAbdul Hadi Mohamed, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Mohd
Fahmi Lukman, Mohd Ashri Ahmad, Basri Mohd Nor, Ariff Osman
Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, International Islamic University Malaysia,Kulliyyah
of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Chronic pain is a major public health problem that places serious stress on afflicted individuals and
associated with deficits in quality of life, psychological adjustment, disability, reduced income potential,
high levels of health care utilization and great loss to the nation as a whole. Chronic pain with the
multitude of aetiologies is not only difficult to diagnose but also impose a great challenge in its
management. Oral analgesics are considered as first-line therapy where stronger analgesics are used
Health and Allied Sciences
when pain control is not optimised. However, when pharmacological therapy or conventional surgery
fails to control the pain, the role of minimally invasive interventional procedures become an option for
the treatment of chronic pain. Interventional procedures target the neural structures that are presumed to
mediate the experience of pain. This service is still very limited in our country as a result of limited
expertise in this area. The Pain Management Clinic and Intervention Service at the International Islamic
University Malaysia, Kuantan is one of the few centres in this country to have such a service. This
service can be a niche area for research and a centre of excellence for our university in the future. We
reported two classical cases of chronic pain that were treated with pain intervention to control severe
pain after failing conservative management. After suffering for such a long period, these patients finally
see lights at the end of the tunnel.
P-176
COMPARISON OF SURVIVAL BETWEEN TWO
TREATMENTS (CAPD & HD) AMONG END STAGE RENAL
DISEASE PATIENTS WITH UNDERLYING CARDIAC DISEASE
NORAZSIDA RAMLI, Norazsida Ramli, Mohd Ramli Seman, Halimahtun Sa’adiah
IsmailNorazsida Ramli, Mohd Ramli Seman, Halimahtun Sa’adiah Ismail
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) was recommended for End Stage Renal Disease
(ESRD) patients with underlying cardiac disease. Previous study showed that CAPD has been shown to
have beneficial effects over Haemodialysis (HD) in patients with altered cardiac morphology and
performace, and in those with underlying heart disease. However, controversy exists as to whether the
cardiovascular benefits of CAPD improve survival compared to HD. In addition, the prevalence of
peritoneal patients was decreased and it was reported many cases of changing dialysis modality among
patients who undergo peritoneal dialysis. For this retrospective study, a total of 101 of treatment files for
ESRD patients with underlying cardiac diseases were reviewed (41 files from CAPD, 60 from HD). Cox
Regression curves were done to compare the survival between these two treatments and to evaluate the
effects of sex, age and comorbidity towards types of modality. Besides, the effect of different treatment
of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) on patients’ survival evaluated by using the same analysis method.
In one year survival comparison curve between CAPD and HD, it can be observed that, at the beginning
of the year, there was no much different of survival between CAPD and HD patients. However, as the
duration of the treatment given increase, the difference of cumulative survival between these two
treatment groups became wider. As the time increase, the number of patients who were still alive in
CAPD patients decreased more compared to the number of HD patients. It showed that the HD give
better survival compared to CAPD. Statistically significant of the P values derived from t-test for both
dialysis modality and presence of DM, P=0.000 and P=0.004 respectively showed that both of the
factors affect the patients’ survival. For the conclusion, this study showed that the survival rate was
relatively higher in HD patients.
P-177
ANTITRYPANOSOMAL STUDY OF Persea americana LEAVES
EXTRACT IN MICE
NORAZSIDA RAMLI, Norazsida Ramli, Hendy Putra HermanNorazsida Ramli, Hendy Putra Herman
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
Medicinal plants have been studied worldwide for their therapeutic effects. Persea americana is one
of the medicinal flora that believed to have beneficial active compound against some diseases. This
study was carried out to determine antitrypanosomal effect of P. americana leaves extract in mice. 15
ICR mice were used with their body weight between 20-35 g. All mice were infected from 4.4 x 106
Trypanosoma evansi/ 10 µl T. evansi by inoculating 1 µl of infected blood with 1 mL of
Alsever’s solution intraperitoneally. They were divided into 5 groups of treatment. Group T1
received P. americana extract (PAE) before the infection, T2 right after the infection, and T3, a few days
after infection. T4 act as positive control was given by force feeding every morning. Daily body weight
was measured and thin blood film was prepared for all mice to examine mean parasitemia level. Based
Health and Allied Sciences
on the results obtained by analysis of Mann-Whitney U Test, the use of PAE was only effective to
prevent T evansi infection as shown in T1 with p=0.022. It can be concluded that PAE treatment able to
act as preventive treatment than curative one from T.evansi infection.
P-180
Changes in high sensitivity serum CRP under periodontal therapy
and its association with the depth of pathological periodontal pocket
Lina Al-Bayati, DR. WISAM A. KAMIL, DR. ROLA HABASHNAH, DR. LINA H. ABBOODDR.
WISAM A. KAMIL, DR. ROLA HABASHNAH, DR. LINA H. ABBOOD
Periodontics,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Despite the fact for effectiveness of periodontal treatment in modifying the serum levels of Creactive protein (CRP), incomplete or inadequate treatment of extensive periodontal disease will not be
expected to have a significant impact on systemic mediators. The aim of this study was to explore the
outcomes of periodontal therapy in terms of changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) and its effect on the
depth of pathological periodontal pocket.
Following protocol review and approval by Institutional Review Board of Jordan University of
Science and Technology, a total of fifty five periodontitis patients randomly distributed into either a
treatment group (37 patients) received non-surgical periodontal therapy with intensive oral hygiene
instructions and repeated therapy course for residual bleeding periodontal pockets or control group (18
patients) received delayed periodontal treatment after completion of clinical trial evaluation. Medical
history, demographic data and clinical periodontal parameters and C-reactive protein were collected at
baseline and three months at reassessment appointments.
The results showed statistically significant improvements for all periodontal clinical parameters, and
significant reduction of hs-CRP levels (p=0.003) after the treatment regime within the tested treatment
group compared to control patients, and there was a significant positive correlation (p=0.006, r=0.411)
between elevated serum levels of CRP and deep pathological periodontal pockets.
P-181
Blood Levels Of Tryptophan And Serotonin And Their
Relationships With Mood Changes During Pregnancy And
Postpartum Period
A. B. M. Helal Uddin, M. Saeed, Umeed A. Khan, Ahmad Murad ZainuddinM. Saeed, Umeed A. Khan,
Ahmad Murad Zainuddin
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract
Women are vulnerable to mood changes during pregnancy and postpartum period. A significant
majority of women are reported to commonly suffer from psychiatric morbidity in the form of anxiety
and depression both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Serotonin has been implicated in the
pathophysiology of depression and bipolar disorders. A total of 104 women could be enlisted in the
study. Their racial distribution was Malay (78%), Chines (17%), Indians (2.8%) and others (0.9%).
After the analysis of the questionnaire received from the subjects enlisted for this study it was found that
23.08% women were clinically depressed during pregnancy 22.61 % women were clinically depressed
after childbirth and 29.76% women experienced a brief period of “pathological― happiness (joy of
motherhood) after childbirth. The levels of serotonin and tryptophan were determined in two groups of
subjects identified experiencing depression during pregnancy and after child birth. Chromatographic
analysis was performed on 39 subjects, of which 24 had experienced prenatal depression and 15 had a
postpartum depression. High performance liquid chromatographic method for the detection of the
neurotransmitters namely serotonin and tryptophan were developed to detect the analyte in human blood
plasma. Spiked standards were detected using a fluorescence detector after chromatographic separation.
For chromatographic separation a C18 column was used. Mobile phase consists of 97% phosphate
buffer and ion pairing reagent pH adjusted to 5.5 together with 3% acetonitrile. It was found that mean
blood level serotonin was (12.7and 11.9) and tryptophan was (7.4and 7.7) for pre natal and post natal
Health and Allied Sciences
depression respectively.
P-184
A successful method to enhance the retention and stability of
mandibular complete denture in geriatric patients with flat residual
ridge
Ammar Mustafa, Dr. Ammar A. Mustafa,Dr. Ammar A. Mustafa,
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
OBJECTIVES: TO EVALUATE THE EFFECIENCY OF ORAL MUSCLES ON STABILITY
AND RETENTION OF MANDIBULAR COMPLETE DENTURES IN LOWER RESORBED
RESIDUAL RIDGES.
METHODOLOGY: TWELVE GERIATRIC PATIENTS WERE SELECTED FROM
PROSTHODONTIC CLINIC KULLIYYAH OF DENTISTRY IIUM, KUANTAN CAMPUS. ALL
WERE WITH BONE RESORPTION IN THE LOWER JAW AND HAVING PREVIOUS
UNSATISFACTORY LOWER COMPLETE DENTURE BECAUSE OF POOR RETENTION AND
STABILITY. TWO SETS OF DENTURES WERE SERVED FOR EACH PATIENT; THE FIRST SET
WAS MADE ACCORDING TO THE CONVENTIONAL WAY OF DENTURE CONSTRUCTION
(CONTROL-DENTURE) WHEREAS THE SECOND SET PREPARED AND MADE USING A
SPECIAL POLISHED SURFACE TECHNIQUE (TEST-DENTURE). DURING THE TRY-IN
STAGE, ZOE IMPRESSION MATERIAL WAS USED TO REGISTER THE FUNCTION OF THE
SURROUNDING TISSUES. TEST-DENTURES HAVE NOT BEEN CARVED OR OVERPOLISHED DURING PROCESSING. THE PATIENTS WERE GIVEN THE CONTROLDENTURES TO BE USED FOR THE FIRST MONTH AND THEN THE TEST-DENTURES HAVE
BEEN ISSUED. METHODICAL INTRA-ORAL EXAMINATIONS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED TO
EVALUATE THE STABILITY AND RETENTION USING (REDDICK & GRANT) INDECES AND
TO EXAMINE THE STATUS OF THE ORAL CAVITY. DESCRIPTIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND
SIGNIFICANT TESTS WERE USED TO TEST RESEARCHER’S HYPOTHESIS AND
QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS WAS USED TO TEST PATIENTS’ SATISFACTION ON
DENTURES.
RESULTS: AFTER TWELVE MONTHS OF FOLLOWING-UP THE PATIENTS, IT WAS
OBVIOUS THAT ALL PATIENTS HAVE STOPPED USING THE CONVENTIONAL DENTURES
BUT THEY KEPT ON USING THE TEST-DENTURES.
CONCLUSION: THE OBTAINED DATA HAVE CONFIRMED THAT THE NEUTRAL ZONE
TECHNIQUE TOGETHER WITH POLISHED SURFACE IMPRESSION TECHNIQUE HAVE
ATTESTED TO BE A PRACTICAL SOLUTION TO IMPROVE THE RETENTION AND
STABILITY OF COMPLETE DENTURES FOR GERIATRIC PATIENTS WITH LOWER
RESORBED RESIDUAL RIDGE.
P-198
The use of special techniques in the construction of complete
dentures; to what extent we follow the dental curriculum.
Ammar Mustafa, Dr. Ammar A. Mustafa,Dr. Salwana Binti Supa’at
Dr. Ammar A. Mustafa,Dr. Salwana Binti Supa’at
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Objectives: The current study aims to prove that dental curriculum should be a receptacle tool to
accept the imposition of newly modified techniques in making complete dentures.
Methodology: The use of special techniques during the construction of complete denture in the dental
clinic of year 3 & 4 Kulliyyah of Dentistry IIUM is obviously increasing. This indicates the importance
of counting these methods in the teaching curriculum for dental students. The data is to be collected
Health and Allied Sciences
from the archive system of the dental clinic KOD IIUM. All the cases are to be examined systematically
and any use of special techniques or modification to the conventional methods of constructing the
complete denture is to be considered. Statistical analysis is to be conducted to review the results.
results: There was significance in the quantity of using special techniques in complete denture
construction over the use of conventional methods. These results lead to comprise the newly modified
techniques in the dental curriculum for complete denture construction.
P-199
Cytotoxicity effect of new primer materials by determining
biological effect on Human Keratinocytes (Hacat) cells
Ammar Mustafa, Ammar A. Mustafa1, Mohammed Imad Al-Deen Mustafa, Solachuddin JA Ichwan,
Jukka MatinlennaAmmar A. Mustafa1, Mohammed Imad Al-Deen Mustafa, Solachuddin JA Ichwan,
Jukka Matinlenna
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Aim of the study: is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of new primer materials that have been developed by
Faculty of dentistry Hong Kong University and hence to investigate their proficiency and competence to
use inside human oral cavity.
Materials and Methods: In the study, to determine the biological effect of the solutions on Human
Keratinocytes (Hacat) cells in vitro, wound-healing assays (scratch assays) were performed. Scratch
assays are a classic and commonly used method for studying cell migration and the biology underlying
it, as well as the discovery and validation of small molecule leads and other perturbations that affect cell
migration. One of the major advantages of this method is that it mimics to some extent migration of
cells in vivo. The Hacat cells were purchased from Tokyo Medical and Dental University and incubated
according to the standard protocol. The cells were exposed to the solutions at different concentrations
and then analyzed after certain incubation periods.
Results: We found that all of the solution tested did not affect the migration of Hacat cells.
Conclusion: The material is confident and proficient to be applicable to use inside human oral cavity.
Further suggestions: we are going to confirm this result further by MTT assay to determine whether
the solutions do not induce cytotoxicity on Hacat cells.
P-211
Derivation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells
Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, MUHAMMAD LOKMAN MD ISAMUHAMMAD LOKMAN MD ISA
,Kulliyyah of Nursing
International Islamic University Malaysia
Investigating the mechanisms of human primordial germ cell (PGC) and gamete development is
important for understanding the causes of infertility, effects of chemicals on reproductive development
and cancer; and may eventually lead to new clinical applications. Previous studies show that primordial
germ cells (PGCs) can be derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) although the
proportion of cells subsequently undergoing gametogenesis and meiosis remains very small. The aim
here was to investigate a monolayer method to isolate PGCs and later germ cells. Shef hESC lines (Shef
2 and 4) were cultured on mouse embryonic feeders (MEFs) and allowed to undergo spontaneous
differentiation in the presence of fetal calf serum or in medium supplemented with retinoic acid and/or
the P53 inhibitor, pifithrin, to prevent early apoptosis. Differentiation to germ cells was monitored using
cell surface markers and mRNA expression by Q-PCR. There are six novels gene meiosis marker being
introduced to determine the differentiated primordial germ cells using Q-PCR. Fluorescent in-situ
hybridization (FISH) has been done to detect the cell undergo meiosis with random probe. After 4-7
days in culture with retinoic acid, up to 20% of hESCs displayed a PGC phenotype as determined by
antibody markers (ckit, SSEA-1, VASA, DAZL, CXCR4) although there was batch to batch variation.
After 7 days of culture, there showed an increase of genes meiosis marker expression in culture
Health and Allied Sciences
supplemented with retinoic acid. The expression of germ cell-specific mRNA correlated with proportion
of cells exhibiting appropriate surface marker. We manage to get a small population of cells undergo
meiosis using FISH. Next step was done by using Shef4 line to be cultured in EBMRA for 7 days and
sorted with double germ cell protein surface marker antibodies, SSEA1 and SSEA3. The sorted cells
were cultured in neonatal mouse testis conditioned media (NMTCM) for 45 days and further culturing
in NMTCM with adding spermatogenesis hormones (FSH, LH, and testosterone). The differentiated
Shef4 had undergone later stage of germ cells development in order to produce spermatozoa in vitro.
P-212
Management of Pesticides and Handling Practices among Female
Pesticides Sprayers in estates in Peninsular Malaysia
Niza Samsuddin, Niza Samsuddin, Syed Zahir Idid Syed Osman Idid, Mohd Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohd
Shukri Mohd Aris, Nurul Wahida Saad, Saiful Azhar Mohd SaidNiza Samsuddin, Syed Zahir Idid Syed
Osman Idid, Mohd Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohd Shukri Mohd Aris, Nurul Wahida Saad, Saiful Azhar
Mohd Said
Community Medicine,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Pesticides are used widely in the agricultural sector. Females contribute a large labour
force in this sector and they are at risk of pesticides toxicity.
Objectives: To assess the possible health risk faced by female pesticides sprayers in the agricultural
sector.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study among 102 female pesticides sprayers in 13 estates in
peninsular Malaysia. It involved interview with questionnaire among the female pesticides sprayers.
Data was also collected using a standardized checklist through observations and interviewing the
workers and supervisors in the estates.
Results: The pesticides used ranged from class 1b to class IV. The female workers were exposed to
pesticide 24 to 30-hr per week. About 13(13.2%) workers had experienced tank leakage, and 22(23.4%)
workers had experienced pesticides drift onto their own faces. The common areas of spillage on the
body with pesticides were hands, buttocks and legs. About 66 (64.7%) workers did not change clothes
and 82(80.4%) of them did not bathe after completing spraying of pesticides. All employers provided
Personal Protective Equipments (PPE), training and supervision on handling pesticides to the workers.
Over 90% of the workers used goggles, respirators and gloves. The obvious problem in the estates was
providing inappropriate PPE to workers and the lack of proper toxic waste disposal system.
Conclusion: Currently employers show much better effort in handling safety and health issues in the
workplaces compared with last decades. However, improvement measures need to be taken as the
female sprayers were still at high health risk of pesticides poisoning due to the types of pesticides used
and their working practices.
P-213
Current Health Status of Female Pesticides Sprayers in Estates in
Peninsular Malaysia
Niza Samsuddin, Niza Samsuddin, Syed Zahir Idid Syed Osman Idid, Mohd Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohd
Shukri Mohd Aris, Nurul Wahida Saad, Saiful Azhar Mohd Said, Jaseema Begum Nazir KhanNiza
Samsuddin, Syed Zahir Idid Syed Osman Idid, Mohd Ibrahim Adham Taib, Mohd Shukri Mohd Aris,
Nurul Wahida Saad, Saiful Azhar Mohd Said, Jaseema Begum Nazir Khan
,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Studies in last decade showed poor social and health conditions of female workers in
the agricultural sector. With the new shift of occupational health and safety measures in Malaysia, it is
justifiable to know the current health scenarios of female pesticides sprayers.
Objectives: The study is to assess the social and health status of female pesticide sprayers in
Peninsular Malaysia.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 102 female pesticides sprayers in 13
Health and Allied Sciences
rubber and palm oil estates in 5 states in Peninsular Malaysia. The study involved questionnaire
administration, clinical examinations and blood withdrawal for pseudo-Cholinesterase activity levels.
Results: The mean age of workers was 43.0±8.3. The majority of them were Indians (56.9%) and
Malays (33.3%). About 80.4% of them had attended formal school. About 36.3% of them were obese
and 26.5% were overweight. About 31.3% of them had high blood pressure. None of them showed
systemic pesticide poisoning and the means pseudo-Cholinesterase activities were within normal range
limits. A few of them had local toxicity like contact dermatitis (9.8%), asthma (1.9%) and allergic eyes
(1.9%). The most common symptoms related to pesticide exposure were muscle cramps, wheezing and
fatigue. Generally, all the prevalence of chronic symptoms reported by the workers were lower
compared to other studies among female workers.
Conclusion: The current social and health status of female estates workers are much better than that
was in last decades. However, the workers are at risk of chronic health problems associated with modern
lifestyle like obesity and hypertension.
P-215
Effects of Spices and Herbal Extract on Preadipocyte Cell
Differentiation:Preliminary Results
Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Nuraniza AZAHARI, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan
KHATTAK, Muhammad TAHER, Solachuddin JA ICHWANNuraniza AZAHARI, Muhammad Muzaffar
Ali Khan KHATTAK, Muhammad TAHER, Solachuddin JA ICHWAN
Nutrition Sciences,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Type 2 diabetes is multifactorial and polygenic diseases associated with an increased risk of
mortality and morbidity. The causes and cure of diabetes are not entirely clear but diet certainly plays an
important role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Recent research has shown that there is negative
association between adipokines and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the normal amounts of the
adipokines are considered important for the normal functioning of the body (glucose homeostasis). This
project was designed to study the effect of selected Malaysian spices and herbs (based on the traditional
use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes). The spices and herbs namely Syzgium colyanthum, Peronema
canescens, Orthosiphon stamineus, Lagerostroemia speciosa, Momordica charantia, Tinospara crispa,
Pithecellobium jiringa, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Andrographis paniculata were procured through
local supplier and water extracts were obtained and freeze dried. The extracts effects were studied on
cell growth using an in-vitro model of 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. The preliminary test carried out was
to know the effect of the listed extracts to induce changes from preadipocyte to adipocyte. This test was
performed by using a mixture of dexamethasone, 1-isobutyl-3-methylxantine (IBMX) and the extracts
from the aforementioned spices and herbs. Preliminary results indicate that among the extracts used,
Orthosiphon stamineus and Lagerostroemia speciosa had stronger activity/effect on preadipocyte
differentiation. This is of clinical importance both for type 2 diabetes as well as for obesity. The extracts
from the same sources will be incorporated to preadipocytes culture for further tests including protein
analysis, adipogenesis and adipolysis assays using appropriate kits. Lastly, the adipocytes will be
assessed for adiponectin and leptin protein concentration using competitive colorimetric enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit known as the B-bridge adiponectin ELISA kit method.
Preliminary results indicate that Orthosiphon stamineus and Lagerostroemia speciosa induce cell
differentiation in preadipocytes which will be further investigated.
P-216
Full-field Digital Mammography and Screen Film Mammography:
A Comparative Study
Narina Norddin, Narina Norddin, Sharifah Nur Hidayah Syed Abu BakarNarina Norddin, Sharifah Nur
Hidayah Syed Abu Bakar
Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Health and Allied Sciences
Early detection of breast cancer in women makes possible to treat the disease more effectively may
save the patient’s life. According to the study conducted in 2008, in Malaysia, 31.1% new breast
cancer cases have been registered. Currently, mammography examination is the gold standard for early
detection of breast cancer. Screen film mammography (SFM) was the method of choice till the year
2000. In recent years, a remarkable technological improvement in mammography systems has been
made. The full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the latest technology that has been introduced in
Malaysia. It has the ability to provide high resolution breast images. Thus, allows the detection of early
stage breast abnormalities as compared to SFM. Studies conducted in Western countries show that
FFDM offers great advantage over SFM. In this study, attempt is made to assess the working experience
of mammographers using FFDM and SFM throughout the country. A questionnaire consisting open and
close ended questions regarding the issue pertaining to the FFDM and SFM was distributed among 41
mammographers and the responses are 100%. Results showed that, more than 50% of the radiographers
agreed that FFDM offers great advantage as compared to SFM, in terms of time taken to perform
mammography, effective image archival, and reduction in reject and repeat rates. It is concluded that,
this study shows statistically significant perception on mammographer’s working experience
towards FFDM relative to SFM.
P-217
Plasma Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase1 Activities among
Organophosphate Pesticides Exposed Estates Workers
Niza Samsuddin, Niza Samsuddin, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Ishaka Aminu, Razman Mohd Rus, Abdul
Hadi MohamedNiza Samsuddin, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Ishaka Aminu, Razman Mohd Rus, Abdul Hadi
Mohamed
Community Medicine,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: Plasma Cholinesterase (CHE) and Paraoxonase (PON) are both biological enzymes that
interact with organophosphates (OPs). OPs inhibit plasma Cholinesterase whereas PON1 hydrolyze
them into nontoxic substances in the body. Literatures have shown depressed activities of plasma CHE
and PON1 among workers exposed to OPs pesticide. Nevertheless, the correlation of plasma CHE and
PON1 in chronic OPs pesticides exposure has not yet been reported.
Objectives: The aim of this report was to look at the trend of Plasma CHE and PON1 activities
among workers exposed to OPs pesticides.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among 52 OPs-exposed subjects and 53 matched
comparative subjects through convenient sampling after screening of the inclusion and exclusion
criteria. The subjects were from 4 palm oil estates in Kuantan, Pahang. Data collection was through
interviewed questionnaire and serum analysis for PON1 and plasma-Cholinesterase activities. The
PON1 enzymes namely paraoxonase, arylesterase and diazoxonase were determined
spectrophotometrically.
Results: The worker’s period of working (surrogate of exposure) were ranged from 7-204
months. The study found that the median plasma CHE of exposed group (7699.93, IQR=2306.57U/L)
was non-significantly higher compared to non-exposed group (7680.39,IQR=±2364.70U/L)(p=0.78).
Two of the exposed workers had plasma CHE below laboratory normal range. There was no correlation
between plasma CHE and duration of exposure. Among the three PON1 enzymes, only diazoxonase
showed lower enzyme activities among the exposed group compared to the non exposed group.
Diazoxonase showed statistically significant lower activity level among the exposed group (820.84,
IQR=270.84U/ml) compared to the non-exposed group (927.09, IQR=220.21U/ml)(p=0.04). All the
three PON1 enzymes showed no correlation with plasma CHE. Only diazoxonase showed a weak
negative correlation with duration of working (r=-0.3, p=0.03).
Conclusion: PON1 enzymes are potential biological parameters in monitoring chronic
organophosphate pesticides toxicity.
P-219
Isolation of the compounds from antimicrobial active fraction from
the stem barks of Entada spiralis Ridl.
Health and Allied Sciences
Siti Zaiton Mat So'ad, Siti Zaiton MAT SO’AD, Aiza HARUN, Norazian MOHD HASSAN, and
Neni Kartini CHE MOHD RAMLISiti Zaiton MAT SO’AD, Aiza HARUN, Norazian MOHD
HASSAN, and Neni Kartini CHE MOHD RAMLI
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Entada spiralis Ridl. which is locally known as Sintok or Beluru is a woody climber with a
characteristic spiral stem. The stem bark is traditionally used as natural shampoo and body wash among
Malays due to its high content of saponins and its medicinal properties. The methanol extract of the
stem bark possess promising antimicrobial activity against some species of skin diseases caused
microbes The extract was further fractionation with different solvent gradient and repeated test on
dermatophytes were done. The most active fraction is chloroform: methanol(9:1(V/V)). From this
fraction we managed to isolate five compounds. The structure elucidation of the compounds were based
on spectroscopic data ( 1H and 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC and DEPT135).
P-228
Pesticide Handling Practices and Neurotoxicity Assessment among
Workers in Vector Unit, Kuantan Distric Health Office
Niza Samsuddin, Niza Samsuddin; Noor Artika Hassan, Nurul Wahida Saad, Nor Zamzila Abdullah,
Ailin Razali, Nur Aiza Zakaria; Masran Mohamad
Niza Samsuddin; Noor Artika Hassan, Nurul Wahida Saad, Nor Zamzila Abdullah, Ailin Razali, Nur
Aiza Zakaria; Masran Mohamad
Community Medicine,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
A cross sectional study was conducted to assess pesticide handling practices and health effects
among 78 workers in vector unit, Kuantan District Health Office. The data collection was through
questionnaire to assess the pesticide handling practices and prevalence of symptoms related to pesticide
toxicity. Blood was taken for pseudo-cholinesterase activity level. Current Perception Threshold was
conducted by using a neurometer. The mean age of the workers was 36 ± 9 with 98.7% of them were
Malays and the rest were Chinese. The workers consists of general workers (47%), public health
assistants 36% and drivers 17%. The use of chemical group of pesticide was not consistent ranging from
WHO class II to III. The availability of Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) was from 97% for
respirator and 55% for plastic apron. There was also a variation in the percentage on the usage of
different types of PPE during mixing and fogging operation among the workers. About 25% of them
had poor technique of fogging, 95% never bathe and 70% never change clothes after fogging. The parts
of body that commonly splashed with pesticide were hands (84.6%) and face (66.7%). Workers
experienced spillage due to wind during fogging (80%), mixing (47.4%) and tank leakage (30.8%).The
most common symptoms complained by the workers were respiratory symptoms, skin and eye
problems. All the pseudo-cholinesterase activities were within the normal range and the mean activity
level was 11100 ± 2232 U/L. Many of the workers had hypoesthesia: 9% at 2000Hz, 54% at 250Hz
and 31% at 5Hz. Less than 5% of them had hyperesthesia. The chronic symptoms and neurotoxicity
among the workers is possible due to poor pesticide handling technique and personal hygiene practices
at workplace. Education and awareness programme on proper pesticide handling technique and close
supervision among the workers is recommended.
P-233
Chronic diseases and association with abnormal body mass index
(BMI) among adults in Kg. Bukit Sekilau, Kuantan
Razman Mohd Rus, Razman MR, Jamalludin AR, Group C1Razman MR, Jamalludin AR, Group C1
Community Medicine,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
A cross – sectional study was conducted in Kampung Bukit Sekilau, Kuantan, Pahang with the aim
to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases (Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery
Health and Allied Sciences
disease) among adults population age 18 and above and factors associated (abnormal body mass index
(BMI), age, gender and family history). Simple random sampling was used. Face to face interviews
were conducted by trained survey teams using standardized questionnaire. Known diabetes and
coronary artery disease were by self-reported. Blood pressure was determined using questionnaire and
blood pressure measurements. A total of 360 respondents participated in this study. 99.2% of the
respondents were Malay with mean age of 43.4 (SD =16.1) years old. More than half (59.2%) of the
respondents were female. 99.2% had formal education and 71.4% were married. The prevalence of
diabetes and coronary artery disease were found to be 11.9% and 3.1% respectively. The overall
prevalence of hypertension (known and newly diagnosed) was 36.1%. In addition, 37.5% of the
respondents were found to be obese and 31.7% were overweight. Logistic regression analysis revealed
that abnormal BMI is significantly associated with hypertension (p = 0.003). However, abnormal BMI
was found not significantly associated with diabetes (p = 0.381) and coronary heart disease (p = 0.239).
In conclusion, the prevalence of chronic diseases together with prevalence of overweight and obesity
has risen in the last decade. Therefore, an effective public health program to control the situation is very
much needed.
P-235
Isolation of anti-hyperglycemic agent (WOGONIN) from the leaves
of T. indica Merr. (Dilleniaceae) (mempelas paya)
Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Bashar B.S. Dogarai,
Qamar U. Ahmed,
Abdulrashid Umar,
Jalifa LatipBashar B.S. Dogarai,
Qamar U. Ahmed,
Abdulrashid Umar,
Jalifa Latip
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Diabetes is a chronic disease that has no cure. The National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006
revealed that 14.9 per cent of Malaysians were diabetic. Hence, there is an urgent need to discover new
antidiabetic agents to cure this chronic disease efficaciously. Natural products are considered potent
candidate for this aim. Present research investigates the antidiabetic activity of aqueous (AQ) and
methanol (MEOH) extracts of the leaves of Tetracera indica Merr. (Dilleniaceae) in alloxan induced
diabetic and normal male albino rats (Sprague Dawley strain). Attempts were also made to isolate active
principles. Both AQ and MEOH extracts at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. and active principle at 0.5 and 1
mg/kg b.w. were evaluated in vivo. Both extracts exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity in
alloxan induced diabetic rats, however in normal rats, no hypoglycemic activity was observed, when
compared with +ve and –ve controlled groups. The antidiabetic activity was found to be comparable
with glibenclamide (GLBC), a known oral hypoglycemic agent (0.25 mg/kg b.w.). The LD50 of AQ and
MEOH extracts was found to be more than 5000 mg/kg b.w. and no lethal toxicity was observed within
this range. 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (wogonin) was identified as an active principle from
MEOH extract which revealed siginificant anti-hyperglycemic activity in vivo comparable to GLBC.
Besides active principle, isomeres of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol glycosides; betulinic acid; 5,7,8trihydroxyflavone;
4’,5,7-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone;
4’3,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone;
3’,4’,3,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone were also isolated whose
existence in the leaves of T. indica is being reported for the first time. Structures of aforementioned
compounds were elucidated through extensive 1H- & 13C NMR, UV, IR and MASS spectral analysis.
Wogonin could prove useful in the management of diabetes. This study provides scientific evidence
about the leaves of T. indica which possess antidiabetic agents and further justifies its utility by the local
herbalists to treat diabetes in Malaysia.
P-244
Tear Ferning: Effect of Gender and Menstrual Cycle
Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim1, Mohd Radzi Hilmi1,
Health and Allied Sciences
Asmahul Husna Ishak1 & Azrin Esmady Ariffin2
Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences1
International Islamic University Malaysia1
Faculty of Optometry and Vision ScMuhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim1, Mohd Radzi Hilmi1,
Asmahul Husna Ishak1 & Azrin Esmady Ariffin2
Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences1
International Islamic University Malaysia1
Faculty of Optometry and Vision Sc
Department of Optometry and Visual Science,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study aimed to investigate whether tear ferning (TF) pattern is affected by gender and the
menstrual cycle. The first phase of this study investigated if there were any TF pattern differences
between genders. The second phase of this study investigated the changes in TF pattern during the
menstrual cycle. For each subjectt, 10 microliters of tear fluid was collected and dropped onto a
microscope slide using a micro capillary tube and then dried in a temperature & humidity-controlled
room ie at temperature of 22.9±1.6°C and relative humidity (rH) of 51+1.5%. The dried droplet was
divided according to distinct morphological features based on four types according to Rolando’s
classification of TF patterns. For the first phase of the study we found no significant changes in TF
pattern between genders. We found that approximately 37.5% (N=30) of our study population obtained
TF pattern of type II. Type III consisted of 21 subjects (26.3%) while type IV consisted of 17 subjects
(21.2%). The least number of TF patterns observed was type I (N=12, 15.0%). The majority of our
subjects obtained TF pattern of type II whereas the type I pattern was found in the least number of
subjects. For the second phase of our study Type 2 pattern was the most frequently recorded during the
“in-between menstruation― visit. However, Types 3 and 4 were more frequently recorded during
“menstruation―; ANOVA showed a significant difference in TF pattern during
“menstruation” and “in-between menstruation― (p<0.001) visits. This study showed no
clinically significant difference in TF pattern between genders, implying that both genders of our
sample generally have a similar risk of developing dry eye. However, since there was a significant
difference in the TF pattern during the menstrual cycle, there appears to be an increased risk of a female
patient developing dry eye during menstruation because of the prevalence of Types 3 and 4 TF patterns
found during menstruation.
P-245
A Three Months Study on the Effect of Wearing 1-Day Acuvue®:
Central Corneal Thickness and Tear Break Up Time
Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Aziimah Awang Abd
[email protected],
Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Aziimah Awang Abd [email protected],
Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Department of Optometry and Visual Science,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose for this study was to investigate if there were any changes in central corneal thickness
(CCT) and tear break up time (TBUT) after wearing 1-Day Acuvue® daily disposable soft contact
lens for 3 months. Altogether, there were 41 subjects with the mean age of 21±2 years that participated
in this study. All the subjects had never worn contact lens before. Subjects were divided into study
group (n=11) and control group (n=30). Those who were in the study group were asked to wear 1-Day
Acuvue for 3 months while the control group was not given any contact lens. During this period, the
study group was reviewed 4 times and the control group was reviewed 2 times. On each review session,
measurement of CCT was taken using Oculus Pentacam HR and TBUT was measured using slit lamp
biomicroscopy with cobalt blue filter and fluorescein dye strip. Using one way repeated measure
ANOVA, we found no significant differences in both CCT (p=0.617) and TBUT (p=0.227) of the study
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group after the 3 months period. The results of paired t-test of the control group also showed no
significant differences in both CCT (p=0.857) and TBUT (p=0.097), which proved that there was no
confounding factors that was present in our research. Thus, we concluded that wearing 1-Day
Acuvue® daily disposable soft contact lens on a daily wear basis did not cause any significant changes
to the CCT and TBUT.
P-247
A Three Month Study on the Effect of Wearing 1-Day Acuvue®
Dailies: Corneal Curvature and Schirmer 1
Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Nurul Hafizah Mohd
Norizan,
Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Muhammad Afzam Shah Abdul Rahim, Nurul Hafizah Mohd Norizan,
Department of Optometry & Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Department of Optometry and Visual Science,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This longitudinal study investigated the changes in corneal curvature and tear volume (Schirmer Test
1) after wearing 1-Day Acuvue Dailies on neophytes for a period of 3 months. All participants were
healthy Malaysian, females, having low myopia and low astigmatism. Participants were divided in 2
groups. The study group (SG) consisted of 11 participants and were fitted with 1-Day Acuvue Dailies
for a period of 3 months. The other group was the control group (CG) which consisted of 30
participants and they were asked not to wear any contact lens within this period. Initially, all the
participants underwent measurement of corneal curvature using Oculus Pentacam HR and tear volume
assessment using the tear strip (Schirmer Test 1). Throughout the 3 months period, the SG were asked
to come another 3 visits (after wearing contact lens for 1, 4 and 12 weeks) while the CG was only asked
to come once after 12 weeks from the first visit. Measurement of corneal curvature and tear volume
were performed during each visit. Our data were analyzed using One-Way RM ANOVA and Paired Ttest. For the CG, we found no significant changes (p>0.05) for both corneal curvature (horizontal and
vertical meridian) and tear volume after the 3 months period and thus, it can be said that our study were
free from external factors. For the SG, there was no significant changes (p>0.05) on the horizontal
corneal curvature and tear volume. There was a statistically significant difference (p=0.001) flattening
on the vertical corneal curvature (between week 4 and week 12). However, the changes were only 0.02
mm, which was clinically not significant. As a conclusion, wearing 1-Day Acuvue Dailies on a daily
wear basis did not cause any clinically significant changes in the corneal curvature and tear volume.
P-262
Toxicity effect of mixture of selected Malaysia herbs in cultured
Vero and WRL-68 cells.
Norazlanshah Hazali, Norazlanshah Hazali, Mashita Masri, Khairil Anuar Md. Isa, Mohd Khan
Ayob, Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad IbrahimNorazlanshah Hazali, Mashita Masri, Khairil Anuar
Md. Isa, Mohd Khan Ayob, Muhammad Nor Omar, Muhammad Ibrahim
Department of Nutrition Sciences,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Ethnopharmacology has contributed to the discovery of many important plant-derived drugs. About
80% of the population of the developing countries continues to use traditional remedies in health care.
Misai kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus) and mas cotek (Ficus deltoidea) have been trusted traditionally in
treating ailments. It is believed that consumption of both herb extracts is good in maintaining health
status by the local people. The mixing ratio was designed according to the nutrient analysis conducted
earlier. To date, there is no extensive study reported on the toxicity of mixture (1:1) of both herbs. Thus,
screening on the toxicity of the mixture was conducted by using cultured Vero and WRL-68 cells. The
cytotoxicity is considered a useful tool for determination of concentration killing fifty percent of the
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cells (IC50) and preliminary assessment of toxicity. It is an easy method to be performed, with low cost,
low consumption of sample and will support every researcher with early information prior to any
expensive and further bioassays towards identification of the crude or pure extract such as mice and rats
tests. This study was performed according to Skehan et al. (1990) and Voigt (2005). The highest
mortality rate was shown in the maximum dose of sample (1000 mg/ml). The IC50 were recorded as
613.19 mg/ml and 665.92 mg/ml for Vero and WRL-68 cells. There is significant difference between
IC50 for both cells as compared to a reference drug, Paclitaxel. It is emphasized that mixture of both
extracts is safe to be consumed and not toxic to the liver and kidney cells up to 1000 mg/ml as compared
to the reference drug.
P-263
RAMADAN FASTING: IS IT GOOD FOR OVERWEIGHT AND
OBESE SUBJECTS?
IBRAHIM ABU BAKAR, Ibrahim Abu Bakar, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Mohd Firdaus
Nazri Shaharuddin & Nursyamimi AhmadIbrahim Abu Bakar, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak,
Mohd Firdaus Nazri Shaharuddin & Nursyamimi Ahmad
NUTRITION DEPARTMENT,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, energy and
nutrient intakes changes of normal, overweight and obese subjects. A total of sixty seven volunteers
aged between 19-24 years old from IIUM Kuantan campus were randomly recruited using convenience
sampling method before Ramadan 2009. The subjects were categorized to normal (BMI 18.5-24.9),
overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) and obese (BMI≥30). Their height, weight, waist and hip circumference
as well as their body fat percentage were recorded on the first day and on the 21th day of Ramadan.
Each subject was also asked to record his/her three days food intake, once during pre-fasting week and
another was during the third week of Ramadan. The food intake data were then analysed using
Malaysian Food Composition Table and Food Atlas to get the average amount of energy intake as well
as macro & micro-nutrients intake. The collected data were then analysed using statistical software
SPSS 15.0. After 21 days of fasting, the results showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in body weight
and waist-to-hip ratio of normal and overweight & obese subjects. BMI and body fat percentage in both
normal and overweight & obese subjects were not significantly decreased (P≥0.05). The mean daily
energy intake before and during Ramadan were not significantly different (P≥0.05) however, both
values were found below the suggested daily energy intake for Malaysian of similar age. The mean
daily energy expenditure before and during Ramadan were also not significantly different (P≥0.05).
The intake of carbohydrate was significant decreased (P<0.05) in Ramadan but protein and fat intake
were significant increased (P<0.05). There was significant increased (p<0.05) in the intake of vitamin A,
C and phosphorus during Ramadan. This study showed that Ramadan fasting give positive effects in
term of body weight reduction of normal, overweight and obese subjects.
P-269
Fast Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR) using new
non linear Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) reconstruction and
automated signal detection
Ahmad Aidil Arafat Dzulkarnain, Andrew Bradley, Ahmad Aidil Arafat Dzulkarnain, Wayne Wilson,
Matthew Petoe, Andrew Smith, Saiful Adli Jamaluddin, Sarah Rahmat and Jackie Moon
Andrew Bradley, Ahmad Aidil Arafat Dzulkarnain, Wayne Wilson, Matthew Petoe, Andrew Smith, Saiful
Adli Jamaluddin, Sarah Rahmat and Jackie Moon
Audiology and Speech Language Pathology,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) is a widely used screening tool in Universal
Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Despite its
advantages, the AABR testing time can be lengthy due to the need for larger number of responses and
long inter-stimulus interval. This study has developed and applied a new algorithm; the non linear
Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) reconstruction which aims to account for the non linearity aspect of
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the auditory system and reduces time required to complete an AABR assessment. 492 AABR
waveforms from 126 neonates who underwent UNHS were included in the final data analysis. Those
AABRs were acquired at 35 dBnHL and at six different stimulus repetition rates (33, 90, 125, 250 and
418 clicks per seconds). The recording was made using standard clicks (at 33 and 90 cps) and Maximum
Length Sequence (MLS) with linear and new non linear MLS reconstruction (at 90, 125, 250 and 418
cps). The time to AABR detection for all stimulus repetition rates were determined using variance ratio
analysis (Fsp at 99% confidence level). The result showed that all MLS median detection time was
significantly different than the standard click at 33 cps (Mann Whitney U test, p< 0.001), linear and non
linear MLS at 418 cps median test time was significantly different than the standard click at its
maximum rate 90 cps (Mann Whitney U test, p< 0.001) and MLS linear and MLS non linear
reconstruction median test time was statistically different (Friedman test, p< 0.003). The best median
time to detection was 3.59 s provided by the MLS non linear reconstruction stimulus at 418 cps. This
study concludes that the combination MLS non linear reconstruction and Fsp holds significant promise
to reduce UNHS test time.
P-276
Re-evaluation of Initial Masking Level in Pure Tone Audiometry
Sarah Rahmat, Sarah Rahmat, Saiful Adli Jamaluddin, Ahmad Aidil Arafat DzulkarnainSarah Rahmat,
Saiful Adli Jamaluddin, Ahmad Aidil Arafat Dzulkarnain
Audiology & Speech Language Pathology,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Audiologists practicing in government hospitals in Malaysia currently accept 20 dB SL as the initial
masking level. This is higher compared to other audiology practices in Australia and United Kingdom.
The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate the initial masking level used in the “Plateau Method―
of masking in pure tone audiometry. The Minimum Effective Masking Level (MEML) of 30 normal
hearing ears was determined at octave frequencies of 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1 KHz, 2 KHz, and 4 KHz.
Mean MEML for the octave frequencies ranged from -1.8 to 0.7 dB SL. From RM Anova, there were
significant differences of MEML between 250 Hz and 2 KHz, and 250 Hz and 4 KHz (p<0.05) with
higher MEML recorded at higher frequencies as compared to 250 Hz. MANOVA revealed no
significant difference of MEML between male and female across frequencies (p<0.05). Pearson
correlation revealed a strong positive significant linear relationship between pure tone and masker level
for all frequencies (p<0.05; 0.95<r<1.0) which suggests that the narrowband noise used was effectively
masking the pure tone signals. MEML values were used to derive the Minimum Initial Masking Level
(MIML) using linear regression. MIML is the level where pure tone signals can be masked significantly,
which criteria is described in Katz (2002). Based on the criteria, simple linear regression revealed the
MIML value ranging from 3.2 to 6.7 dB SL for octave frequencies from 250 Hz to 4000 Hz. This
concluded that current initial masking level used in audiology practice in government hospitals is high,
which could lead to potential overmasking and reaching audiometric limits before a plateau can be
established. It is recommended that 10 dB SL is used at all octave frequencies as the initial masking
level to increase test efficiency and validity.
P-279
Effect of Exposure Factors on Image Quality in Film Screen and
Computed Radiography of Lateral Lumbar X–ray Examination
Mohd Zamzuri Che Daud, Halimatussa’diah Ahmad Radzi, Mohd Zamzuri Che
DaudHalimatussa’diah Ahmad Radzi, Mohd Zamzuri Che Daud
Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Determining the radiographic exposure of lateral lumbar examination is quite challenging as it
involves a thick region. Nowadays, it is performed by film screen radiography (FSR), digital
radiography (DR) and also computed radiography (CR). The FSR has limitations relative to DR and CR
in terms of lower diagnostic exposure response range. However, in some cases radiographers tend to
give higher exposure factor in performing x-ray examinations using CR and DR, which is quite difficult
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to observe through images. In this study, the effect of exposure on image quality using FSR and CR
systems is investigated. A phantom (PBU-51) has been exposed using different values of mAs (10, 20,
32, 40, 63, 80, 100) by setting 109 kV constant. In another case, a set of kV (63, 73, 85, 109, 117, 133,
141) is chosen keeping the tube current 40 mAs constant. The images obtained by both the systems were
evaluated by radiologists and radiographers using Image Criteria Scoring (ICS) and Visual Grading
Analysis (VGA) methods. The scorings are then analysed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and
Friedman Test. The scorings result shows that CR image quality is superior to FSR images for most of
kV and mAs settings. The statististical analysis also shows that the image quality of CR is significantly
better than FSR images (wilcoxon p-value= 0.026 to 0.028 for constant kV, wilcoxon p-value= 0.026 to
0.036 for constant mAs). However, by selecting a very low mAs and kV settings is more likely to
degrade the CR image quality (friedman p-value= 0.011 and less than 0.0001). In conclusion, CR allows
the use of lower exposure settings compared to FSR to produce acceptable image quality in most of the
exposure settings.
P-282
Secondary Sjogrens syndrome, Immunological and
Histopathological study in femail
Basma Al-Ahmad, Assis Prof Dr. Basma Ezzat Mustafa , Assis Prof Dr. Nazih Mustaf , Assoc. Prof.
Dr. Muhannad Kashmoola, International Islamic University Malaysia , Kulliyyah of DentistryAssis
Prof Dr. Basma Ezzat Mustafa , Assis Prof Dr. Nazih Mustaf , Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhannad Kashmoola,
International Islamic University Malaysia , Kulliyyah of Dentistry
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Secondary Sjogrens syndrome (sSs) is one of the autoimmune diseases that are covered by a big term
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Over 90% of people affected by Sjogrens syndrome are female. It may
occur when a person’s normally protective immune system attacks and destroys moistureproducing glands, including salivary and lacrimal glands.
In this autoimmune disease, the immune system triggers an inflammatory response which destroys
certain moisture –producing glands.
This study was designed to study the immunological and labial salivary gland biopsy findings in
secondary Sjogrens syndrome patients.
56 female patients were involved in this study, schirmers test, serological test were done for all
patients. Measurement of salivary flow rate and labial salivary gland biopsy were performed for
histopathological study.
schirmers test was positive in all patients , salivary flow rate was reduced in all patients. Latex
fixation test, ANA was positive in 66,1 % of the patients , 28.6 % of the patients showed positive results
for SSB (Anti La) , while 32.14?% of the patients show positive results for SSA (AntiRo). ESR mean
level was (46,464 + 18) which consider very high , while the mean Hb level was lower than normal (
10.98 + 1,1 )
Chronic inflammatory process with lymphocytic infiltration, acinar atrophy and proliferation of the
ductal epithelium which obliterate the duct lumen.
Patients with secondary Sjogrens syndrome proved by histopathological study of the minor salivary
gland, the presence of Anti Ro and Anti La is correlated to the earlier onset and longer duration of the
disease, and the autoimmune exocrinopathy of the disease.
P-283
Acoustic Perception Features in Normal Hearing Adults and
Children
SAIFUL ADLI JAMALUDDIN, Gary Rance, Saiful Adli Jamaluddin, Ahmad Aidil Arafat
Dzulkarnain, Nurlin Ali HanafiahGary Rance, Saiful Adli Jamaluddin, Ahmad Aidil Arafat
Dzulkarnain, Nurlin Ali Hanafiah
AUDIOLOGY AND SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Health and Allied Sciences
This study explicates age related effects of frequency resolution, frequency discrimination and
temporal resolution abilities in two age groups (adult and children). These groups consist of 20 normal
hearing adults (mean + SD: 31.4 + 9.0 years) and 10 normal hearing children (mean + SD: 78.8 + 25
months) with behavioural thresholds of ≤ 10 dBHL at octave frequencies between 250 Hz and 4
KHz. Frequency resolution test using the notched noise masking technique showed the children’s
group had significantly larger filter bandwidths as compared to the adult group (One-way ANOVA: F =
27.61, p < 0.001). Temporal Modulation Transfer Function (TMTF) at modulation frequencies 10 Hz,
50 Hz and 150 Hz obtained from adults were significantly lower as compared to the children’s
group also indicating an age effect. (One-way ANOVA: 10 Hz: F = 23.44, p < 0.001; 50 Hz: F = 26.84,
p < 0.001; 150 Hz: F = 259.34, p < 0.001). Pearson r correlations also showed significantly strong
negative linear correlation between age and TMTFs across all test modulation frequencies (10 Hz: r = 0.64, p < 0.001; 50 Hz: r = - 0.66, p < 0.001; 150 Hz: r = - 0.92, p < 0.001). Frequency discrimination
tests at 500 Hz and 4000 Hz showed no significant difference between groups (One way ANOVA:
Difference Limen of Frequency (DLF) 500 Hz: F = 1.64, p = 0.21; DLF 4000 Hz: F = 2.13, p = 0.156).
Pearson r correlation also showed no significant linear correlation between groups for both frequency
difference limen tests (DLF 500 Hz: r = -0.235, p = 0.211; DLF 4000 Hz; r = -0.503, p = 0.074). In
summary, coding processes of auditory information may take place later in life and even decline at some
point of age. These changes should also be considered in sound processing parameters in listening
devices to ensure a successful rehabilitation outcome.
P-288
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY CHARACTERISTICS OF
GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOURS
AZLIN SA'AT @ YUSOF, Azlin Sa’at, Mubarak Mohd Yusof, Siti Nor Badriati Sheik Said,
Arfahiza Selimin, Mat Salleh Sarif.Azlin Sa’at, Mubarak Mohd Yusof, Siti Nor Badriati Sheik Said,
Arfahiza Selimin, Mat Salleh Sarif.
Department of Radiology,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
AIM:
Gastrointesinal stromal tumour (GIST) is rare, with estimated 5000 to 10000 people each year,
developing it in the world. The modality of choice for such tumour is contrast-enhanced computed
tomography (CT). It is our aim to review the CT characteristics of 9 patients with GIST.
METHODS:
From January 2009 and June 2010, there were 9 patients who were pathologically proven to have
GISTs, and all had pre-operative CT.
These CT were analysed for the location and number, size, Hounsfield units, pattern of enhancement
of the tumour, tumour margin, presence of air-fluid levels or ascites, and probable metastases.
Comparison with operative findings and intial CT report were also recorded.
RESULTS:
The results showed that 7 of the patients had GIST arising from the stomach, with 2 of these patients
having another GIST, one arising from the jejunum and another from the colon. The other 2 patients had
small bowel GIST.
The size of the tumour ranges from 3.9 x 3.7 x 5.0cm to 20.1 x 12.7 x 18cm. Only 3 tumours had the
largest dimension of less than 10cm. The Hounsfield unit ranges from 55 to 124 with all except 1,
exhibiting heterogeneous enhancement. The tumour margins were well defined in 6 patients. Air-fluid
levels were seen in 3 GISTs. Only 2 patients had ascites. Metastases occurred in 5 patients, with one
patient having both splenic and liver metastases.
Reviewing the CT report, all except 3 were diagnosed as stomach or small bowel tumour, with GIST
as a differential. One was misdiagnosed as colon carcinoma, one as retroperitoneal mass and another as
ruptured diverticulum.
CONCLUSION:
Commonest site of GIST was the stomach. The characteristics recorded were relatively large mass
with heterogeneous enhancement, well defined margins and air-fluid levels. Significant occurrence of
metastases was recorded.
Health and Allied Sciences
P-305
Hearing Assessment and Pesticide Handling Practice among
Workers in Vector Unit, Kuantan District Health Office
Ailin Razali, June Asmanita Tajuddin, Nurul Wahida Saad, Nur Zamzila Abdullah, Niza Samsuddin,
Noor Artika Hassan, Nur Aiza Zakaria, Masran MohamadJune Asmanita Tajuddin, Nurul Wahida
Saad, Nur Zamzila Abdullah, Niza Samsuddin, Noor Artika Hassan, Nur Aiza Zakaria, Masran
Mohamad
Audiology Unit, ORL-HNS,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
While noise-induced hearing loss has been clearly established and recognized in occupational
medicine, chemical-induced hearing loss is largely a novel idea that should be explored further. We felt
that if pesticide can cause neurotoxicity in an inadequately exposed worker, the possibility of damage to
the sensorineural portion of hearing is also likely. A group of foggers was selected as this group of
workers is exposed to both pesticide and noise in their line of work. A cross sectional study was
conducted to assess pesticide handling practice and hearing threshold among 74 workers in vector unit,
Kuantan District Health Office. A guided questionnaire was used to assess the pesticide handling
practice and prevalence of symptoms related to pesticide toxicity. Diagnostic pure tone audiometry was
conducted on these workers to establish their hearing thresholds. Blood was taken for
pseudocholinesterase activity level. Current Perception Threshold was conducted by using a
neurometer. We will be analyzing the relationship between the workers’ hearing thresholds and the
usage of chemical and auditory personal protective equipment (PPE) and the use and exposure of the
workers to the pesticide. We will also be correlating between the hearing thresholds and symptoms of
neurotoxicity. The study has the potential to set off future studies in this direction.
P-309
Study of Silver-Stained Nucleolar Organizer Regions (Ag-NORs)
Applied on Cervical Smear Cytology
Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Asst.Prof.Dr.Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Alaa Ghani
HusseinAsst.Prof.Dr.Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Alaa Ghani Hussein
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women (after breast cancer) and is
the third leading killer (after breast and lung cancer). Cervical cancer can be detected relatively easily in
its premalignant form as it has a relatively long pre-invasive phase and the cervix is easily accessible for
direct visualization . The PAP smear is the most popular test used for diagnosis of cervical epithelial
lesions, however, due to differential diagnostic difficulties in cytologic al smears , methods are searched
for what would be more reliable and would enable exact evaluation of each case. One of these methods
is the use of silver stained nucleolar organizer region (Ag +– NOR). Nucleolar organizer regions
(NOR) are loops of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) occurring in the nuclei of cells.
Cell proliferation under normal physiological conditions is accompanied by increased ribosome
biogenesis
The activity of ribosomal genes can be detected using specific markers, the Ag+ nucleolar organizer
region (NOR) proteins. The amount of Ag-NOR proteins present during interphase is routinely used to
evaluate nucleolar activity and cell proliferation. Thus quantification of Ag-NOR proteins is applied to
characterize human cancer cell proliferation ; high levels of Ag-NOR proteins indicate a high rate of
proliferation .
The aim of this study is to assess the proliferative activity of different cervical lesions ranging from
inflammatory lesions (reactive)to LSIL (low grade intraepithelial lesion), HSIL (high grade
intraepithelial lesion) and squamous cell carcinoma and to find out whether there is a statistical
difference in the mean Ag-NOR count of the different groups of cervical lesions
Fifty cervical smears ,representing the different cervical lesions mentioned, were collected and
stained using the Standardized Ag-NOR staining technique . After staining, representative areas in each
slide were selected and NORs were counted. The results showed that the lowest mean Ag-NOR count
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was observed in the benign reactive group (control) =2.07, There is a progressive increase in mean AgNOR count with increasing severity of cervical lesion, The highest mean Ag-NOR count belonged to
squamous cell carcinoma group (9.02). The results also showed a statistically significant difference
among the Ag-NOR counts of the different studied categories . This means that counts of Ag-NOR
could be of great diagnostic value for the cytopathologists in conjunction with routine pap stain to
evaluate cellular proliferative activity of the lesion and for follow up of patients after treatment to detect
regression in the severity of the lesion.
P-310
Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) Under Different Test Conditions –
Comparing HINT using Free-field and Head-phone technique
Ailin Razali, Fathin Izzaty AzmyFathin Izzaty Azmy
Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) has been heralded as having the potential of being the gold-standard
for assessing disability arising from hearing impairment. The limitation of this test however is that it
needs to be done under a carefully controlled, calibrated sound-proofed environment. The test signal is
given out free-field via a speaker. The usage of supra-auricular head-phone has been suggested and
claimed to be able to reduce background noise and make HINT assessment possible, even when no
sound-proof room is available. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 15 individuals who are patients
at the Ear and Hearing Clinic and subjected them for HINT first using the free-field technique followed
by the head-phone technique. We will be comparing the average speech-reception thresholds in quiet
between these two groups. The signal to noise ratio of noise from front, left and right will also be
compared between these two techniques. The difference will be analyzed not just statistically but
clinically as well. The study will hopefully be a catalyst for a bigger-scaled study to allow us to make
inferences to the population of interest, which are mainly our workers in industries exposed to noise. We
would also hope to help in establishing future policies regarding disability compensation following
occupationally-related hearing impairment.
Health and Allied Sciences
P-340
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Of Clinically Suspected
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears – A Pictorial Review
AZLIN SA'AT @ YUSOF, Azlin Sa’at, Radhiana Hassan, Siti Kamariah Che Mohamed,
Mubarak Mohd Yusof, Zamzuri Mohd. Zain, Aminuddin Che Ahmad
Azlin Sa’at, Radhiana Hassan, Siti Kamariah Che Mohamed,
Mubarak Mohd Yusof, Zamzuri Mohd. Zain, Aminuddin Che Ahmad
Department of Radiology,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
AIM
To evaluate the occurrence of primary and secondary signs of clinically suspected anterior cruciate
ligament (ACL) tears on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A radiologist, interested in musculoskeletal radiology, retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 41
patients with clinically suspected ACL tears. The occurrence of primary findings (non-visualisation,
increased signal intensity, abrupt angulation and abnormal Blumensaat angle), and secondary findings
(bone bruising in lateral compartment, anterior tibial translocation, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
line and angle) were analysed.
Diagnoses were put into 3 categories i.e. normal, equivocal or definite ACL tears. These diagnoses
were compared to the primary reports by general radiologists and correlations with arthroscopy were
performed when available.
RESULTS
31 and 16 patients showed increased signal intensity and non-visualisation respectively, of part or all
of the ACL. 20 showed abnormal Blumensaat angle, and none showed abrupt angulation. 20 showed
anterior tibial translocation and abnormal PCL angle. 15 showed abnormal PCL line. Only 6 showed
bruises in the lateral compartment.
One patient was diagnosed as normal ACL, two as equivocal (MRI showed increased signal intensity
but with some hypointense fibres and no secondary findings), and the rest as definite tears. Discrepancy
of these diagnoses when compared to the primary reports was documented in 2 patients. This review
considered these as equivocal, whereas the primary reports were as ACL tears.
Nine patients had undergone knee arthroscopy. Two were found to be normal, which this review
showed equivocal findings. 3 were found to have tears of the posterolateral bundle of ACL and 4 had
complete tears.
CONCLUSION
The most frequently occurred finding was increased signal intensity of the ACL, followed by
abnormal Blumensaat angle, anterior translocation and abnormal PCL angle.
P-395
Restoration of p73-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of endogenous
mutant p53 protein by siRNA in human HSC-4 oral squamous
cancer cells
Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan 1, Rahma Fitri Hayati 2,
Muhammad Taher 3, Masa-Aki Ikeda 4.
1 Kulliyyah of Dentistry, 2 Kulliyyah of Science, 3 Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic
University Malaysia, 4Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversitySolachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan 1,
Rahma Fitri Hayati 2, Muhammad Taher 3, Masa-Aki Ikeda 4.
1 Kulliyyah of Dentistry, 2 Kulliyyah of Science, 3 Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic
University Malaysia, 4Tokyo Medical and Dental University
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to DNA damage by
controlling genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mutation of p53 is one of the most
Health and Allied Sciences
common events found in human malignancy including oral squamous cancer. The p73, a member of the
p53 family gene has striking structural homology and similar interrelated functions with the p53 gene;
transactivate p53-responsive genes, and induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Although p73 is rarely
mutated in human cancers, which is in contrast to p53, certain mutant p53 proteins expressed in human
squamous cancer cells that encode arginine polymorphism at codon 72 (72R) have been known to
inactivate p73 through physical interaction. We have demonstrated previously that the endogenous
mutant p53 protein (p53R248Q) expressed in human HSC-4 oral squamous cancer cells contained 72R
polymorphism. Therefore, silencing expression of such endogenous mutant protein may restore the p73
function in suppressing HSC-4 cell growth. Here we show that treatment with small-interfering RNA
(siRNA) specific to inhibit the expression of endogenous mutant p53R248Q protein induced apoptosis
in HSC-4 cells. Moreover, the expression genes involved in p73-regulated growth arrest and apoptosis
were also upregulated, indicating that the apoptotic activity is indeed due to restoration of p73 function.
These results also suggest a potential use of siRNA specific for mutant p53 to treat oral squamous
cancers.
P-411
Dermal Sensitization Assay – Modified Buehler Method to assess
the reaction by Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) Orthopaedics
Implant
Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Md Anuar Osman,M Alfian,Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Md
Anuar Osman,M Alfian,
Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Rehabilitation,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dermal Sensitization Assay – Modified Buehler Method to assess the reaction by Metal Injection
Moulding (MIM) Orthopaedics Implant
Introduction:
Stainless steel is the most commonly used material for internal fixation. Its biocompatibility has been
proven by successful human implantation for decades. MIM orthopaedic implants is new method of
processing a metal impllant for clinical use.
Objectives:
1.
To determine the potential of test material, Medical Implant metal injection moulding plate to
elicit a skin sensitization reaction.
2.
To assess the safety of the implant Metal injection Moulding.
Methodology:
Animals: Fifteen albino guinea pigs (10 for test animals and 5 for negative control) with initial
weight of 430 g to 500 g.
Acclimatization period 27 April – 3 May 2010. End of test: 6 June 2010
Dermal Sensitization Assay – Modified Buehler Method
The test material extract is topically applied to the left side of ten healthy guinea pigs for 6 hours,
three times per week for a three-week induction period. Fourteen days after the last induction, a
challenge dose is applied in a similar manner onto a naive site on the right side of each animal.
The skin is examined for allergic reactions, and the intensity of the reaction scored at 6, 24 and 48
hours after patch application. A negative control group (five animals) is maintained under the same
environmental condition
and treated with the test material at challenge only.The positive response observed in the historical
positive control validation study with 1-Chloro-2,4-Di-Nitrobenzene (DNCB) validates the test system
used.
Interpretation of Results
Any animal showing a reaction at 6, 24 or 48 hours of 2 or greater for erythema and oedema
shall be considered sensitized. If a significant number (more than 50 %) of animals show a reaction
score of 1, the test is repeated using 10 additional animals.
RESULTS
No reaction was observed upon removal of the test material during the challenge phase. Similarly, no
reaction was observed in the negative control animals. All guinea pigs (>60%) in the positive control
group were sensitized (based on historical data).
Allergenicity of test material
Health and Allied Sciences
There was no positive allergic reaction observed on the test guinea pigs during the challenge phase.
None of the test guinea pigs was sensitized.
CONCLUSION:
There was no skin sensitization induced by the application of the test material (metal injection
moulding implant) on the albino guinea pigs under the condition of this test. The test showed the safety
of the use of the MIM implant.
P-434
Bovine Colostrum and Cheese Effect on Resistance of Enamel from
Acid Attack Seen from Neutralization Cariogenicity Saliva and
Noncariogenic Plaque Formation
Susi Sukmasari, Susi Sukmasari, Yenni Hendriani P, Neneng NurjanahSusi Sukmasari, Yenni
Hendriani P, Neneng Nurjanah
Paediatric Dentistry,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dental caries is a complex disease and on most of the world's population. Pathological factors can not
be eliminated entirely caries as dependent physiological processes that occur in the oral cavity. Tooth
enamel is a polymeric substance consisting of calcium phosphate crystals in the matrix protein. Dental
Caries is demineralization of calcium and phosphate by the acid in mouth where all tooth bath with
saliva. Dental Plaque is soft deposit which attached in tooth surfaces, contain acid produced by bacteria
and have cariogenic effect to the tooth. Various efforts have been made to prevent caries by controlling
diet, oral hygiene instruction, plaque control and the provision of fluoride, Reynolds and his colleagues
from the University of Melbourne began researching milk antikariogenik capability in the early 1980's.
Research conducted on the nature of the bioactive components of milk and its role in preventing dental
caries. Early research claimed that casein has the best antikariogenik activity. Kaseinate sodium
dissolved in water and given to the mice in the experiment shows the effect antikariogenik caries model.
Results of analysis of dental plaque in humans showed an increasing number of peptides casein, calcium
and phosphate. It can be concluded that the peptide plays a role in casein derivatives antikariogenik
activity. Netherlands people who ate the cheese was have litle of caries incicdency. Colostrum and
cheese is a dairy derivative product from milk that is expected to prevent the occurrence of caries. The
purpose of this study is to determine the effect Cheese and Colostrum to Enamel Resistance from
Cariogenic Acid Attack, seen from Neutralization Saliva and Non-cariogenic Plaque Formation. This
research is expected to become the basis for determining noncariogenic dietary list. Hipotesis is Enamel
resistance against acid attack on the consumption of cheese compared with that consumed colostrum in
terms of its ability to increase the pH of saliva and plaque pH (noncariogenic plaque formation). The
experiment was conducted during the months of September-October 2009 on primary school students .
Quasi Experimental Research Design and design research group the two pretest posttest. Sampling done
by accidental sampling to the inclusion criteria, is not allergic to milk and its products, has a white spot
on caries-prone areas, willing and able to cooperate in this study. Samples obtained were 25 children.
Analysis of saliva and plaque is made after 5 minutes and 30 minutes eating cheese and colostrum.
Administration continued for one week, and a month. Analysis by Mann-Whitney U showed that on the
first day of measurement of salivary pH seemed no different saliva pH increase due to eating cheese and
colostrum 5 minutes but after 30 minutes and then seen a difference. The same thing happened a month
later, except at one week after the study measurements after 5 minutes and 30 minutes did not indicate
any difference.
P-443
An Experimental Model For Ascending Urinary Tract Infection In
Rats Caused By Proteus mirabilis
Imad Matloub Dally Al-Ani, Imad Matloub Dally Al-Ani and Hayder Y. Al-MurayatiImad Matloub
Dally Al-Ani and Hayder Y. Al-Murayati
Department of basic Medical Science,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Health and Allied Sciences
An animal model for ascending non-obstructive urinary tract infection was developed in female rats
to study the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection” UTI” by Proteus mirabilis. The urinary
bladders of 100 young adult female rats were inoculated with 0.5 milliliter of Brain-heart infusion
containing approximately 3X108 viable bacteria obtained from UTI infected person, 50 control animals
were inoculated with the same volume of sterile broth. Ten experimental and five control animals were
sacrificed at days 2, 4 and at 1- 8 weeks after inoculation. Kidneys were removed and divided into two
halves; one half used for bacteriological study and other half processed for morphological study. The
halves of bacteriological study were homogenized and inoculated onto MacConkey agar and used for
bacterial colonization. Blood and urine samples were collected for renal function test. The results
indicated the persistence of Proteus mirabilis in rat kidneys during the whole time of experiment. Renal
function test showed varying degrees of renal failure. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly increased
after 2nd day post-inoculation (42.16 ± 2.31 mg/100ml) and continued to increase throughout the
experiment. Serum creatinine also significantly elevated on the 3ed week and increased steadily
thereafter till reach (1.06± 0.08ml) at the end of the experiment. Creatinine clearance fell markedly by
the 4th day and continued to fall thereafter.
Histopathological examination showed varying degrees of mild pathological changes. The earliest
microscopic lesions were cellular sloughing and necrosis of the renal tubules with presence of hyaline
casts in some of them. In the early stages, the inflammatory infiltration was localized to the pelvis and
related medullary area. The severity of changes increased in the 1st week and spread throughout the
renal parenchyma, resulting in chronic pylonephritis.
Urinary tract calculi were found in 41.6% of the infected rats. Bladder calculi were observed in the
2nd week and renal calculi in the 4th week. Calculi were composed mainly of carbonate apatite and
small amount of struvite.
P-450
The Effect of Aqueous Olive Leaves Extract on the Pancreatic Islets
of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice
Imad Matloub Dally Al-Ani, Imad Matloub Dally Al-Ani and Sanarya T. Al-BadriImad Matloub Dally
Al-Ani and Sanarya T. Al-Badri
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of the aqueous crude extract of Olea
europaea on serum glucose level and histopathological changes in islets of langerhans in an induceddiabetic mellitus in mice. The experimental recommended 60 male mice were divided into three groups
contained 20 mice each. The first group was the control and they were given normal saline pH 7.0. The
second group was intraperitoneally injected by a dose of 100mg/Kg of STZ and 10% glucose instead of
normal drinking water over the 24 hours followed the treatment. The third group was injected
intraperitoneally with 100mg/kg STZ and orally given 0.33g/ Kg aqueous extract of olive leaves
everyday for four weeks. Blood specimens were collected, and the serum separated and stored at 4OC
until it is used. The animals were dissected and the pancreatic tissues were obtained, the tissue
specimens were fixed in the Boun’s solution for 24 hr, and processed for histological studies. There
was a significant increase in blood glucose level of the STZ- diabetic mice by the first week of injection
with STZ in comparison with control group. A significant decrease in blood glucose level occurred in
the STZ-diabetic group treated with Olea europaea aqueous extract. Islets of langerhans are
hypertrophied in the STZ-diabetic group and this hypertrophy showed a significant increased in the
average of islets size at the last week, while the treatment with Olea europaea aqueous extract showed a
reduction of the islet size compared with the islets of the STZ –diabetic Mice
P-460
Association between Foveal Photoreceptor Changes and Visual
Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema: A Spectral Domain Optical
Coherence Tomography Study
Adzura Salam, Adzura Salam, Sebastian Wolf, Carsten Framme, Ute Wolf-SchnurrbuschAdzura Salam,
Sebastian Wolf, Carsten Framme, Ute Wolf-Schnurrbusch
Health and Allied Sciences
Ophthalmology,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
TITLE
Association between Foveal Photoreceptor Changes and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema:
A Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study
PURPOSE
To investigate the association between integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM) and the
junction between the inner and outer segments (IS/OS junction) of the photoreceptors with visual acuity
(VA) in diabetic macular edema (DME) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT).
SETTING
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
METHODS
A total of 114 eyes of 69 patients (mean age: 65 ± 10year) with DME were included. Horizontal
and vertical scans as well as volume scan for central retinal thickness (CRT) and central retinal volume
(CRV) were performed. The length of disruption of the ELM and the IS/OS junction of the
photoreceptors within 200 µm in the fovea were measured. Other abnormal morphological changes
were documented.
RESULTS
A total 101 (88.6%) eyes had intact outer retinal layers. Eyes with disturbed outer retinal layers
shows disturbed ELM in 13 cases and disturbed IS/OS junction in 12 cases. Sub- or intraretinal fluid,
cystoid macular edema and epiretinal membrane was present in 11, 80, and 16 eyes respectively.
There was a strong correlation between VA and ELM integrity vertically and horizontally (p <
0.0001), and integrity of IS/OS junction vertically and horizontally (p < 0.0001).
Patients with intact ELM and IS/OS junction had significantly better VA as compared to disturbed
ELM and IS/OS junction (66 vs. 38 ETDRS letter, p <0.0001). There was a moderate good correlation
between VA and ELM and IS/OS junction distance (r = - 0.5) and week correlation to CRT and CRV (r
= - 0.312 and r = - 0.054 respectively).
Presence of sub retinal fluid or detachment, cystoid macular edema and epiretinal membrane resulted
in reduced VA (51 vs. 65 ETDRS letter; p < 0.005, 61 vs. 69 ETDRS letter; p = 0.03 and 45 vs. 66
ETDRS letter; p < 0.0001 respectively)
CONCLUSIONS
Integrity of ELM and IS/OS junction is an important predictive factor for VA in DME.
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
P-469
Cell migration for in vitro wound healing evaluation- a pilot study
on Channa striata
Muhammad Taher Bakhtiar, Muhammad Taher, Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Deny Susanti, Solachuddin
JA IchwanMuhammad Taher, Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Deny Susanti, Solachuddin JA Ichwan
Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study was aimed to assess the potential wound healing properties of Channa striatus (haruan) on
migration of HaCaT keratinocytes. In vitro study was preferred to provide a clearer view wound
healing process at cellular level specifically cellular migration activity. C. striata has been significantly
studied to alleviate the healing process. Specific fatty acids and amino acids contents of C. striata had
been studied to enhance and rejuvenate the dermal cells in the healing process. Extracts were prepared
from whole muscle tissue of the fish by using Folch’s method for the lipids and lysis buffer for the
proteins and presence of compounds were positively analyzed via qualitative analysis of gas
chromatography mass spectrophotometer (GCMS) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) accordingly. Three different concentrations of lipid extract (0.005
mg/mL, 0.05 mg/mL, and 0.5 mg/mL) introduced onto the scratch assay proved no significant result in
migration rate (p>0.05) between treatment groups and control while relation with protein extract failed
to be conducted due unavoidable consequence. Association between effects of C. striata extracts on
Health and Allied Sciences
migration activities of HaCaT keratinocytes hardly can be concluded due to several limitations faced
hence needs further assessment.
P-470
In Vitro Activities Of Malaysian Antidiabetic Plant Extracts On
Adipocyte Cells
Muhammad Taher Bakhtiar, Muhammad Taher, Mohamed Zaffar Ali, Deny Susanti
Muhammad Taher, Mohamed Zaffar Ali, Deny Susanti
Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease occurring worldwide caused by defects in insulin
secretion, insulin action, or most commonly both. The objective of this research was to evaluate the
antidiabetic properties of medicinal plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The selection of the
plants was based on traditional reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes. Ethanolic extracts of
Andrographis paniculata, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Momordica charantia,
Orthosiphon stamineus, Phyllanthus amarus, Pithecellobium jiringa, Syzygium polyanthum, and
Tinospora crispa were selected. Insulin was used as a positive control. The plants were studied on the
bioactive peptides (adipokines) using an in-vitro model. The first step was to test the ability of the plants
to induce preadipocytes cell. Then, protein analysis will be conducted to demonstrate the plant activity
that mimics insulin action. Cells were seeded and counted everyday for ten days. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes
exhibited the maximum growth at day-four (9.4 x 107 cells). Prior to the testing, a preadipocytes (3T3L1) cell was differentiated to adipocytes by using a mixture of dexamethasone, isobutylmethylxanthine
and the plant extract. Oil Red O staining results showed that C. zeylanicum, L. speciosa leaves and S.
polyanthum have strong activity in inducing lipid formation and the others have moderate properties.
The detail result will be discussed in the paper. The results of the study suggest the validity of the plants
for clinical use in treatment of type 2 diabetes, after their toxicological investigation.
P-473
Psychosocial Problems Of Patients With Thalassaemia And Their
Families: A Qualitative Study
Kamaruzaman Wan Su, Kamaruzaman Wan Su, Abdul Wahab Jantan, Naznin Muhammad, Nora Mat
Zain, Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Aidil Faszrul Abdul Rahim, Zulaiha Mohamed YusopKamaruzaman Wan
Su, Abdul Wahab Jantan, Naznin Muhammad, Nora Mat Zain, Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Aidil Faszrul
Abdul Rahim, Zulaiha Mohamed Yusop
nil,Kulliyyah of Nursing
International Islamic University Malaysia
Significant advances made in the diagnosis and management of thalassaemia have not been matched
by the progress in the psychosocial rehabilitation. The psychosocial developmental aspects of care have
made only limited progress although thalassaemia poses several challenges to the patients and family at
physical, emotional and cognitive levels. Very few studies have been carried out in Malaysia to look at
such and related issues. The purpose of this study is therefore to assess the knowledge of patients and
family members about thalassaemia, to explore the psychosocial problems and their feelings about
adhering to the long term-treatment. It was conducted over a period of 7 months using “focus
groups― and it involved patients aged 8-22 years attending Paediatric Clinic of Tengku Ampuan
Afzan Hospital, Pahang. In all there were 10 different groups. Results showed that the knowledge and
understanding of the patients and family members on thalassaemia was generally superficial. Concerns
and adverse impact of the disease were related to the domains of education, self and body image,
employment, marriage and setting up of family, financial, relationships and social integration,
communication and self-esteem. Compliance to intravenous iron chelator was poor. Oral iron chelator
was preferred although not accessible to all paediatric patients. There were various concerns related to
blood transfusion therapy. Various types of complementary medicine were sought. Patients and family
members were able to cope with the disease as they drew strength from religion. It is evident from our
study that thalassaemia immensely affects the patients’ and families’ psychosocial dimensions.
Health and Allied Sciences
A multidisciplinary approach to the management is therefore essential. This can only be done if we fully
understand thalassaemic patients’ quality of life and their position in society and put in a more
structured effort in trying to identify relevant psychosocial factors.
P-474
Assessment of Research Experiences of 4th Year Dental Students
Before Introducing the Structured Training For Research Project
Tin Myo Han, Tin Myo HanTin Myo Han
Dental Public Health,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
An operational research was carried out among 34 dental students attending in 4th year at KOD,
IIUM in July 2010 to assess their preexisting research experience before introducing the structured
training for the research project.
In the study,85% of the students had experienced as respondents and 18% of them had participated as
co-researchers or training students. Over half of the students had self-learning experiences including
reading research articles. These findings were positive indicators not only for IIUM to achieve the
research-based university status in near future but also for oral health professional development.
Although there was no gender influences on research experiences of the students, age factor on it
was controversial. All findings could be applied in the teaching- learning process of students’
research project in Kulliyyah of Dentistry. A further study with adequate sample size should be carried
out to get more accurate findings.
P-501
Accidental and Non-Accidental Head Injury in children. Is there a
difference in Computed Tomography (CT) presentation?
Azian Abd. Aziz, Azian Abd. Aziz, Radhiana Hassan, Ahmad Razali Md. Ralib, Azlin Sa’at, Mohd.
Amran Abd. Rashid, Siti Kamariah Che Mohamed, Siti Nor BadriatiAzian Abd. Aziz, Radhiana Hassan,
Ahmad Razali Md. Ralib, Azlin Sa’at, Mohd. Amran Abd. Rashid, Siti Kamariah Che Mohamed, Siti
Nor Badriati
Department of Radiology,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Introduction: Differentiation between accidental and non-accidental head injury particularly with
intracranial hemorrhages in children is a common medical and legal dilemma. Previous studies and
research based on surgical, radiological and autopsy data suggest that different types of brain injuries
tend to occur with accidental versus non-accidental trauma. Other published data showed that CT brain
findings of subdural bleed are more frequently encountered with non-accidental causes of head injury.
Objective: Our aim is to see if there is any significant difference in the types of intracranial
hemorrhages seen on computed tomography (CT) brain between accidental and non-accidental head
injury in children admitted to Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan, Pahang.
Results: From September 2009 until September 2010 a total of 68 paediatric patients who were
admitted to HTAA and had CT brain performed for suspected intracranial injury showed intracranial
hemorrhage. 4 patients were diagnosed to have a non-accidental injury while the remaining 64 patients
had accidental injury. There was no significant difference in gender between non-accidental and
accidental injury. However the age was statistically significant where patients who were diagnosed nonaccidental injury was much younger (mean age of 4.5 months old) than those with accidental injury
(mean age of 10 years old).
75% of the non-accidental injuries were suspected because of inconsistent history while 82% of
accidental injuries were caused by motor-vehicle accidents. All patients diagnosed with non-accidental
injury had subdural hemorrhage on the CT brain performed. Of the accidental injury; 34% had subdural
hemorrhage, 30% had extradural hemorrhage, 20% had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 9% had
intraventricular hemorrhage and 40% had intraparenchymal bleed or contusions.
Conclusion: Although limited by a small number of patients with non-accidental injury, our data
showed that CT brain findings of subdural hematoma are consistent with non-accidental injury. This is
Health and Allied Sciences
similar with other published data in the literature.
P-531
RESOURCE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR IN MALAYSIA RELATED TO
MALAYSIAN NATIONAL MEDICINES POLICY: A Study on
Perception by Industrial Pharmacist and Pharmacy Academicians
of Malaysia.
Siti Hadijah Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah SHAMSUDIN, Shamsul Akmar SULAIMAN & Prof Dr. Abu
Bakar MAJEED
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM Kuantan, Malaysia
Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM, Malaysia
Siti Hadijah SHAMSUDIN, Shamsul Akmar SULAIMAN & Prof Dr. Abu Bakar MAJEED
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM Kuantan, Malaysia
Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM, Malaysia
Pharmacy Practice,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR
IN MALAYSIA RELATED TO MALAYSIAN NATIONAL MEDICINES POLICY:
A Study on Perception by Industrial Pharmacist and Pharmacy Academicians of Malaysia.
Siti Hadijah SHAMSUDIN, Shamsul Akmar SULAIMAN & Prof Dr. Abu Bakar MAJEED
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM Kuantan, Malaysia
Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM, Malaysia
The objective of this study is to create a better understanding on the expectations of pharmaceutical
companies and educational institutions with Malaysian government in planning human resource
development in the pharmaceutical sector. Experts in the field carried out the study in two months
interval. One Hundreds of self-administered questionnaires were completed from different industrial
pharmacists and pharmacy academicians. The questionnaire provides a reliable, valid and easy-toadminister tool for assessing their perspective on the human resource planning and development of
pharmaceutical sector in Malaysia. The analysis of the survey showed gaps in the perception of the
industrial pharmacists and academicians. The valuable insights will help to identify the strength and
weakness of the pharmaceutical sector’s planning and development and help in improving the plan
for the betterment of the future pharmaceutical sector. In summary, the research team hopes that the
findings of this study will create a better understanding of the industrial pharmacists and academicians
from government agencies to lead to the knowledge-based economy.
P-548
Method Validation of methadone ELISA kit for serum methadone
concentration determination in patients undergoes methadone
maintenance therapy.
Nor Ilyani Mohamed Nazar, Mr Sim Hann Liang, Professor Rusli Ismail, Dr Ramli MusaMr Sim Hann
Liang, Professor Rusli Ismail, Dr Ramli Musa
Pharmacy Practice,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Method Validation of methadone ELISA kit for serum methadone concentration determination in
patients undergoes methadone maintenance therapy.
NIM Nazar1, HL Sim2, R Ismail2, R Musa3
Dept of Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia,
Malaysia
Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Dept of Psychiatry, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Health and Allied Sciences
Introduction: Methadone maintenance therapy has been used in patients with opioid dependence to
prevent the symptoms of withdrawal. With lower cost calculated per patients and added value as an oral
therapy with low possibilities for injection has put methadone as one of the safest and lowest risk
therapy available in the country. Studies showed that patients who retain in the study for at least 6
months with appropriate dosing strategy and compliance rate will exhibit better outcome in terms of
usage of illicit opioids and the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms. However, the monitoring of the
therapy, in certain circumstances was open to doubt. With hypothesis that methadone therapy need to
be personalized, we conduct a study to monitor the serum methadone concentration by using methadone
ELISA kit developed by Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM) Universiti Sains
Malaysia. Herewith is the report of its method validation for the purpose of clinical implementation.
Objective: This is a cross-sectional study aims to capture the intra and inter-run imprecision of a
newly developed methadone ELISA kit.
Method: This study comprises of 2 components which are intra-run and inter-run validity study. For
intra-run analysis, apart from standard curve determination, we replicate another 6 times (duplication of
each individual sample) of 4 different standard solutions of methadone available in the kit (0.5, 2.0, 5.0
and 10ng/ml). For the 2nd components, the Ethical approval from Ethical Review Board, Clinical
Research Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia was obtained to conduct the study. 2ml of trough serum
samples (just before the next dose) have been collected from 10 individual patients at random.
Patients’ selection was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria pre-determined. The samples were
kept in -20°C until further analysis. All 10 samples were freeze thawed, re-centrifuged at 10x100 rpm
for 4 minutes and analyzed. The procedure was repeated on 5 consecutive days. The accuracy, mean
(ave), standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of varians (CV) were calculated for each component. The
protocol developed for methadone ELISA kit was strictly complied in both experiments.
Analysis and results: The optical density (OD) measurements were read with 2 different wavelengths
(WL) which is 450 (measurement WL) and 650 (reference WL). The OD difference of these two WL
was applied on further analysis. The calculated R2 was 0.971. In intra-run experiment using the standard
solution, the accuracy was between 78-94% crossing the different 4 concentrations with the mean CV
calculated was 13.47%. For inter-run of samples in 5 consecutive days, we found out that the mean CV
was 25.7%.
Conclusion and suggestions: From the findings, we conclude that the overall performance of this kit
is acceptable with some additional rooms for improvements. A proper training on handling and
analyzing techniques were needed especially for the usage in different laboratory setting and involving
various personnel. For the next analysis, we would suggest for inter-laboratory validity study in order to
expand the usage (since methadone maintenance therapy is also expanding in the country). With its
user-friendly features, low time consuming ability, we believe that this kit can be fully utilized for the
purpose of methadone serum concentration monitoring in patients undergo methadone maintenance
therapy.
Keywords: ELISA methadone, monitoring methadone, serum level of methadone
Correspondence author : Nor Ilyani bt Mohamed Nazar ([email protected])
P-558
Potential Application Of Hydroxyapatite Granules In Posterolateral
Intertransverse Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Zunariah Buyong, Zunariah Binti Buyong, Zamzuri Zakaria, Kamarul Ariffin Khalid, Ahmad Hafiz
Zulkifly, Emad Mohamad Nafie Abdel Wahab, Jamalludin Ab. Rahman, Mohd Amran Abdul
RashidZunariah Binti Buyong, Zamzuri Zakaria, Kamarul Ariffin Khalid, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Emad
Mohamad Nafie Abdel Wahab, Jamalludin Ab. Rahman, Mohd Amran Abdul Rashid
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
In many disciplines use of bone graft is unavoidable such as to replace bone loss due to trauma, to fill
in bone defect after tumour excision, for reconstructive surgery or for spinal fusion. Calcium phosphate
based hydroxyapatite is widely used bone graft substitute due to its similarity with the mineral
components of bone matrix. A collaborative effort among institutions in Malaysia has successfully
materialized and commercialized a local synthetic bone graft substitute. For orthopaedic application this
biomaterial has been evaluated for long bone application in animal and clinical studies. This study was
Health and Allied Sciences
conducted to evaluate its bone formation effect in posterolateral lumbar fusion, a novel site for its
application. Eight adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral intertransverse lumbar spinal
fusion at L5-L6 vertebrae. One side of the animals was implanted with hydroxyapatite granules (HA
group) while the contralateral side received autograft and served as control (AUTO group). Bone
formation was assessed at 6 and 16 weeks by undecalcified histology and scanning electron microscopy.
Undecalcified histology showed new bone formation in between the hydroxyapatite granules and
continually formed even at 16 weeks. Close contact between new bone and hydroxyapatite granules was
demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy.
P-574
ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICACY OF COLOUR VISION
SCRENNING SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE DRIVERS IN
MALAYSIA
MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA, Md Muziman Syah Md Mustafa, Haliza Abdul Mutalib,
Norliza Mohamad FadzilMd Muziman Syah Md Mustafa, Haliza Abdul Mutalib, Norliza Mohamad
Fadzil
OPTOMETRY AND VISUAL SCIENCE,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Purpose: This study was designed to assess the efficacy of the screening system using Jabatan
Pengangkutan Jalan Malaysia’s (JPJM) computerized vision test and comparing it to Ishihara Plate,
which is standard colour vision screening tool.
Methods: Candidates of driving institutes in Peninsular of Malaysia (Middle, Eastern, Southern and
Northern Zone) were recruited to participate in this study. In total, 3717 subjects were tested for colour
vision using the Ishihara Plate test (24 plates).
Results: The results showed that 3.00% (25 subjects) of 836 subjects in Southern Zone, 2.81% (23
subjects) of 809 subjects in Eastern Zone, 1.76% (16 subjects) of 908 subjects in Northern Zone and
1.62% (18 subjects) of 1164 subjects in Middle Zone failed in the Ishihara Plate test. Overall, 2.21% of
new drivers (82 subjects) in Peninsular of Malaysia failed in the Ishihara Plate test. The Youden’s
Index of JPJM’s computerized vision test for colour vision testing is -0.02.
Conclusion: Based on our sample of population, it is showed that the JPJM’s computerized
vision test failed to screen all of subjects with colour defect. Therefore, it is suggested that the current
colour vision testing system used by JPJM is reviewed and be replaced by a standard colour test for the
Malaysian drivers.
P-578
Pupil Dynamics and Eye Colours
Nur Faizah Mohamed, Nur F Mohamed, Christine DickinsonNur F Mohamed, Christine Dickinson
Department of Optometry and Vision Science,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of iris colour on the pupil dynamics behaviour in
normal healthy volunteer. Pupil measurement was performed on two groups of participants, Group 1
(Eye colour grade Grades 1,2,3) consists of 24 participants and Group 2 (Grade 3,4) consists of 18
participants on Cambridge Research Systems (Rochester, Kent, UK) HS-VET High Speed Video
Eyetracker pupillometer. First test was presented consisted of minimum (183 troland), half maximum
(1830 troland) and maximum brightness (988 troland) and at the end of the test two bright flashes were
introduced. Second experiment was tested with minimum (183 troland) and maximum brightness (3600
troland) only. Pupillometric parameters studied were scotopic and photopic pupil diameter, constriction
latency time, amplitude, velocity, redilation velocity, and flashes amplitudes. Parameters were
investigated using independent sample t-test, paired t-test and descriptive analysis. Iris colour (Group 1
blue, grey, green vs Group 2 brown) found no significant difference (p>0.05) in latency time (141.41ms
vs 181.65ms), constriction amplitude (3.625ms vs 3.567ms), constriction velocity (1.524mm/s vs
1.421mm/s), redilation velocity (0.668mm/s vs 0.603mm/s), and flash amplitude (2.153mm vs
2.314mm). Scotopic and photopic pupil diameter also found to be similar (p>0.05) in both groups
Health and Allied Sciences
(6.55mm vs 6.59mm) and (3.41mm vs 3.54mm) respectively. Pupil dynamics parameters; latency time,
constriction amplitude, constriction velocity, redilation velocity and flash amplitude were not dependent
on the iris colour; scotopic and photopic pupil diameter were also similar in the two groups. Therefore,
pupil dynamics may serve as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of the autonomic nervous system and
visual function
P-582
Intraocular Pressure in Highly Myopic IIUM Individuals
Nur Faizah Mohamed, Nur F Mohamed, Firdaus YusofNur F Mohamed, Firdaus Yusof
Department of Optometry and Vision Science,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate if there any differences of intraocular
pressure in high myopia and emmetropia and also to establish the normal value of IOP among IIUM
Kuantan population aged 20 to 28 years old. 60 participants were involved in this study including 13
male and 47 female with mean age of 22.87±0.26 years in emmetropia and 22.67±0.32 in high
myopia. IOP was measured using Topcon CT.80 between 0900 and 1200 hours. CCT was measured
using NIDEK Echoscan. No significant difference of measurements between two eyes (p > 0.05). Thus,
only data from RE was analyzed in this study. After adjusting the CCT, there was a significant
difference between intraocular pressure with the emmetropes and high myopes, and the adjusted mean
for emmetropes 14.32±0.31 mmHg and high myopes 16.18±0.31 mmHg (p < 0.05). Spearman
correlation showed that positive association between IOP and CCT (p < 0.05). However, no significant
difference was found of CCT on high myope and emmetrope (p > 0.05). When CCT is taking into
account, the IOP of high myopia found slightly higher than emmetropia in Malay IIUM Kuantan
population
P-612
EFFECTS OF FINE (PM2.5) AND ULTRA-FINE (PM1.0 & PM0.1)
AIRBORNE PARTICULATES TOWARDS HUMAN HEALTH
SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD DIN, SHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD. DIN, FREDERICK D.
POOLEYSHAMZANI AFFENDY MOHD. DIN, FREDERICK D. POOLEY
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING,Kulliyyah of Architecture &
Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
In our modern society, many countries are rapidly developing in an attempt to become industrial
powers in the world and in the process becoming more urbanized. Malaysia considered as one of the
countries moving towards Vision 2020 aiming to become as one of developing countries concentrating
as industrialise country in the world. Hence, air quality has been changing steadily as a result of the
increase in world population. Many more human activities such as rapid development of rural and urban
areas, with development of transportation, increased number of factories, greater consumption of fossil
fuel are the main sources of anthropogenic pollution. Many sources of natural pollution such as wind
erosion, and natural forest fires have also been exacerbated by human activity. These natural sources,
create pollution which consist of additional gases, particulates, and also vapours. An increase in
airborne particulate material of an unnatural nature is one of the major atmospheric pollution problems
facing the world. It has been the subject of many studies conducted in the UK since the smog tragedy of
London in 1952. Researchers has developed a great interests in particulates with an emphasis being
directed towards total suspended particulates (TSP), coarse particulates (PM10) and now is concentrated
on fine (PM2.5) and ultra-fine particulates (PM1.0 & PM0.1). In Malaysia, with the sources of manmade airborne particulates comes from material handling and industrial related process i.e. from
combustion, manufacturing, industrial, chemical and agricultural operations has increased the
generation of primary and secondary particulates. Most significant findings that fine particulates has
been generated most from secondary particulates, abundance in the atmosphere and has increased
tremendously by looking at perhaps the increased hospital admission cases recorded or unrecorded
throughout the country. Monitoring and characterizing such materials is of great importance in
Health and Allied Sciences
understanding their subsequent environmental impact especially towards human health.
P-643
A Survey of Radiation Protection Policy Used For Women of
Childbearing Age in Radiology Departments.
Syarifah Fatmawati Wan Long, Syarifah Fatmawati Wan Long,
Zanariah MohdSyarifah Fatmawati Wan Long,
Zanariah Mohd
Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Existence and adherence to radiation protection policy for women of childbearing age undergoing
radiological examinations involving pelvic region irradiation are very important due to their possibilities
for being pregnant. Hence, the purpose of this research is to study the various types of radiation
protection policy and practices in Central Region of Peninsular Malaysia. A survey had been conducted
in radiology departments in Central Region of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 60 questionnaires had
been distributed to ten different radiology departments where six questionnaires were given to each
department. A response rate of 100 % was obtained and results were analyzed using SPSS software
version 15. The findings suggested that 83.3 % of the respondents did have written radiation protection
policies and 16.7 % of the respondents did not have any written radiation protection policy. 50 % of the
respondents did follow the 10-day Rule for high doses examinations and another 50 % did not. This
may lead to confusion amongst patients and students, and may affect the professionalism. 96.7 % of the
respondents did agree to have a standard radiation protection policy in Malaysia. In conclusion, it
suggested the need for co-ordination or standardization in radiation protection policy since a lack of
standardization of approaches to radiation protection is apparent, and this raises concerns as national
and international recommendations are not being correctly implemented.
P-644
Incidence of the persistent median artery of the forearm in
Myanmar adults
Htar Htar Aung, Dr. Htar Htar Aung, Dr. Thitsar Aye Maung ThanDr. Htar Htar Aung, Dr. Thitsar
Aye Maung Than
Basic Medical Science,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
P-687
Mobile Web to Enhance Healthcare and Medical Emergency
Dr Shihab A. Hameed, Wajdi al-khateeb, Aisha Hassan, Othman Khalifa, Vladimir MihoWajdi alkhateeb, Aisha Hassan, Othman Khalifa, Vladimir Miho
Electrical and Computer Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Telemedicine has made considerable progress over the past few years. It offers the ability to monitor
patient’s progress remotely as well as providing high quality healthcare to a larger geographic
segment of patients. Investigation of Malaysian medical emergency and healthcare systems shows that it
suffers from locality, Lack of real-time and mobility access in both emergency and medical information
cases and Lack of searching capabilities that can provide information about hospitals, healthcare,
emergency center, or doctors. This paper aims to design a new mobile web based on W3C web
standards for integrated medical emergency model to overcome such problems. It allows patients to
access their account from any mobile phone with capabilities of connecting to the Internet. A prototype
for new model is implemented using open source. Samples of results such as searching for healthcare
centers and doctors, finding the nearest hospital, its address and driving directions, requesting an
ambulance and control updating or retrieving of patient’s details; are shown and testing of
Health and Allied Sciences
evaluation parameters done successfully.
Health and Allied Sciences
PP-100
A Handbook on "Classification of Drugs"
Dr. Anil Kumar Saxena, Anil Kumar Saxena.Anil Kumar Saxena.
Basic Medical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
There are plenty text books on the subject of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, but unfortunately we do
not have a single book where the drugs are classified in each topic/chapter of Pharmacology. It can be
appreciated how difficult it is to remember and memorize the names of drugs especially when the
subject of Pharmacology has expended enormously.
This handbook on Classification of Drugs lists the commonly used drugs belonging to each chapter
in the subject of Pharmacology. This encompasses the drugs used for the treatment and management of
various conditions/diseases at one place. Therefore, without opening the heavy and lengthy text books
of Pharmacology, a learner can very nicely and affectively use this handbook for knowing the various
important drugs used for any medical condition/disease.
Since the booklet is very handy and students can keep it in their pocket and can go through the names
of drugs quite often. This should help them in memorizing the names of large number of drugs in an
easier way.
Once this booklet is out in the market it will indeed be very useful to Medical, Dental, Pharmacy
students as well as to Clinicians, Nurses and Health Care workers.
PP-203
Anticancer activities of fucoxanthin derived from Malaysian
seaweed against three human cancer cell lines
Irwandi Jaswir, Irwandi Jaswir, Dedi Noviendri, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Muhammad Taher and Kazuo
MiyashitaIrwandi Jaswir, Dedi Noviendri, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Muhammad Taher and Kazuo
Miyashita
Biotechnology Engineering,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
Anticancer activities of fucoxanthin derived from Malaysian seaweed against three human cancer
cell lines
Irwandi Jaswir, Dedi Noviendri, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Muhammad Taher and Kazuo Miyashita
Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kuliyyah of Engineering,
International Islamic University Malaysia
Interest in seaweed lipids has been on the rise owing to the recognition of important bioactive
molecules like conjugated fatty acids, pigments (especially fucoxanthin), that have profound
physiological effects in the treatment of tumors and other cancer related problems. In this study,
fucoxanthin that has been successfully extracted and purified from Malaysian brown seaweed had
anticancer activity on three human cancer cell lines-- lung cancer cells (H1299), leukemia cancer cells
(K562) and skin cancer cells (HaCat). H1299 and HaCat cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s
Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), while, K562 cell was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium.
Analysis of anticancer activities was performed using colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay and Elisa
reader at a wavelength of 570 nm, with a reference wavelength of 630 nm. The activity of anticancer
from fucoxanthin in this study was also shown by inverted microscope
PP-231
Retina Fundus Image Mask Generation Using Pseudo Parametric
Modeling Technique
Abiodun Musa Aibinu, A. M. Aibinu, M. J. E. Salami, A. A. Shafie and S. KadeerA. M. Aibinu, M. J. E.
Health and Allied Sciences
Salami, A. A. Shafie and S. Kadeer
Mechatronics,Kulliyyah of Engineering
International Islamic University Malaysia
A new pseudo modeling technique for the generation of retina fundus image (RFI) mask is presented
in this work. The model coefficients necessary for the generation of the mask has been estimated from
the synaptic weights of realvalued neural network. Performance analysis of the newly proposed three
step technique has been evaluated using DRIVE databases and other RFI obtained from other sources.
he accuracy obtained by the application of the proposed technique on RFI contained in the DRIVE
database varies between 99.62% and 99.97%
PP-326
Innovative antioxidant drink from belimbing dayak (Baccaurea
angulata) as nutraceutical and functional beverages.
Norazlanshah Hazali, Darina Ibrahim, Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Mashita Masri, Muhammad Ibrahim,
Norazlanshah HazaliDarina Ibrahim, Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Mashita Masri, Muhammad Ibrahim,
Norazlanshah Hazali
Department of Nutrition Sciences,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) contribute disproportionately to premature morbidity and mortality in
developed and developing worlds. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in the number of deaths related to
coronary heart disease has been observed worldwide, from 7.1 million deaths in 1999 to 11.1 million
deaths in 2020 was estimated. However, the conventional treatments available for this disease, such as
drugs therapy and pharmacological together with surgical treatments, eventually fail to lower the
incidence of cardiovascular disease globally. Therefore, interest has focused on the use of underutilized
fruit extracts which delaying the onset of cardiovascular risk factors such as hyperlipidemia and
elevating of blood glucose by antioxidant intervention. Several experimental studies have demonstrated
that high intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidant are responsible for reduction of risk of
cardiovascular problems such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and
obesity by protecting against free radical mediated damage. Moreover, several ecological and
epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits and vegetables are inversely associated
with cardiovascular disease. Such association has been linkage to antioxidant compounds like ascorbic
acid, carotenoids, polyphenols and other phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables. Belimbing
dayak (Baccaurea angulata) is one of the underutilized fruits mainly available at Sabah and Sarawak,
Malaysia. The chemical and nutrient composition of freeze-dried whole fruit juice of Baccaurea
angulata was analysed. The results of the analysis were, moisture content (19.63%), ash content
(4.74%), crude protein (1.42%), crude fat (0.16%), water activity (0.21), and dietary fiber (6.3%).
Besides that, antioxidant capacity of Baccaurea angulata juice powder showed superoxide scavenging of
35.9±1.95% in 250µg/mL sample concentration. Ascorbic acid content from HPLC (High
Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis was 58.06mg/100g of sample. From the result,
belimbing dayak drink is potentially served as nutraceutical and functional beverages in the market.
PP-331
Use of video clips as teaching aids in tooth carving practical session
Bo Bo Ko, Dr Bo Bo Ko, Dr Mon Mon Tin Oo, Dr Tin Maung AungDr Bo Bo Ko, Dr Mon Mon Tin Oo,
Dr Tin Maung Aung
Oral Biology,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dental anatomy is the first subject in any dental or dental related course which introduces the
students to individual tooth morphology of human dentition which is diphyodont and heterodont.
Apparently it is the bridging course between basic medical science and clinical dentistry.
Tooth carving practical sessions usually in wax are indispensable for the course objectives of dental
anatomy subject to initiate and develop the psychomotor skills of the students which are really essential
Health and Allied Sciences
in forthcoming clinical years since dentistry is stated as science of arts.
In this study, total 90 first year students of two consecutive batches, Kulliyyah of Dentistry,
International Islamic University Malaysia were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The
study design was a randomized controlled single blind trial. The students have been taught on
terminology, landmarks and morphology of permanent maxillary right central incisor . Each student was
provided an artificial teeth set so as to maximize the understanding of morphology of 11.
One group was explained only by conventional laboratory instructions. The other was done not only
by conventional instructions but also by displaying video clip on carving 11. Both groups were allowed
two hours for wax carving of 11. Eventually the scores of the carved waxed teeth from two groups were
compared and statistically analyzed by using chi square test. The better achievement was statistically
found in the group demonstrated by both conventional laboratory instructions and video clip display.
Hence it can be concluded that visual perception plays the important role in nurturing the desired
psychomotor skills .This was an extracurricular exercise before commencing the regular schedule of
practical sessions.
PP-382
Improving the function life of interim type removable partial
denture
Ammar Mustafa, Dr. Ammar A. Mustafa, Associate prof. Dr. MHK BazirganDr. Ammar A. Mustafa,
Associate prof. Dr. MHK Bazirgan
,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Purpose: The aim of this study is to enhance the function life of interim type removable partial
denture and to improve its properties inside patient’s mouth
Methodology: 50 partially edentulous patients have been selected from prosthodontics clinic,
kulliyyah of dentistry, IIUM, Kuntan campus. The patients have been examined regarding periodontal
health by estimating the plaque index, gingival index, and periodontal pocket depth index.
Results: there was no significant difference in the periodontal indexes between the beginning of the
study and after 1, 2, 6, and 12 months.
Conclusion: The results proved that there was no periodontal deterioration during the study time and
hence the researchers’ hypothesis has been approved in improving the function life of interim type
removable partial dentures.
PP-390
BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN METAL
INJECTION MOULDED FRACTURE FIXATION PLATES
WITH CONVENTIONAL PLATES.
AHMAD HAFIZ ZULKIFLY, NurulHafiza J, M.Zulfadzli, M.Alfian, A.G.M.Ghouse,
M.Afiq.NurulHafiza J, M.Zulfadzli, M.Alfian, A.G.M.Ghouse, M.Afiq.
Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Rehabilitation,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
BIOMECHANICAL COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN METAL INJECTION MOULDED
FRACTURE FIXATION PLATES WITH CONVENTIONAL PLATES.
Introduction:
Stainless steel 316L plate is used in orthopaedics and dental as implants due to their biocompatibility,
strength, excellent corrosion resistance, and ability to form a direct bone-to-metal interface. Much
research has been directed at modifying implant surfaces to achieve a more rapid and extensive
stabilization and integration of the device in bone. Currently, the commercially available implants are
made of stainless steel 316L and majority is manufactured overseas. Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) is
a new venture site for fabrication of medical implants, particularly orthopedics applications. It holds
great promises in mass producing large quantities of metallic parts at a minimum outlay without
compromising quality.
Health and Allied Sciences
Methodology
The biomechanics properties of 6 holes metal implants are determined by comparing the ultimate
tensile strength, density, hardness, Young’s modulus and elongation of standard narrow
compression plate, 6 holes with length of 103 mm. Injection moulded fracture fixation plates produced
by MIM had been compared with four commercially available 6 holes stainless steel implants.
Metallographic study or metallography requires the removal of small samples, which then mounted
using in a resin block, polished and etched before being examined under a metallurgical microscope.
Each specimens were marked and measured its dimensions; width, length and thickness. The study
instruments used for Ultimate Tensile Strength and Young’s Modulus is Series IX Automated
Material Testing System 8.33.00. Hardness readings were obtained using Vickers hardness equipment.
The ductility of the plates was measured by Digital Vernier Calliper to measure the elongation
percentage.
Result and Discussions
1.
The results show that the mechanical properties of MIM implant were as good as the
commercially available machining implants.
2.
6 holes stainless steel implant fabricated via MIM has UTS(ultimate tensile strength) that is
within the range of UTS of other commercially available implant fabricated via machining.
3.
MIM has the highest Young’s Modulus which means MIM has the greatest ability to resist
deformation when a force is applied. The significant of this data is that it shows that MIM implant has
the highest property of elasticity in which during the application of this implant to a fractured bone, it
has the nearest possibility to follow the bone contour and thus giving a good mechanic support for bone
fixation which may lead to bone healing process.
4.
MIM is the most ductile and having the longest plastic deformation zone where MIM implant
is able to withhold more load against stress before it fractures or breaks.
Conclusions:
The studies showed that metal injection moulding process can be used as an alternative
manufacturing method to fabricate fracture fixation plates. The mechanical properties of MIM plates
showed it is in range similar to those fabricated via machining processes which are now commercially
used.
Acknowledgement:
The authors wish to thank MOSTI for financial support under Techno Fund grant no. TF1208D168
and SIRIM Bhd.
References:
1.
German, R.M. & Bose, A. (1997). Injection moulding of metals and ceramic. MPIF,
Princeton, New Jersey.
2.
Yang Y, Kim KH, Ong JL, (2005) A review on calcium phosphate coatings produced using
sputtering process–An alternative to plasma spraying. Biomaterials. 26: 327- 337
3.
Omar, M.A. and Ibrahim, R. (2006). Metal Injection Moulding: An Advanced Processing
Technology, Journal of Industrial Technology 15 (1): pp 11-22.
4.
Chapman, M. W. (2001). Chapman's Orthopaedic Surgery (3rd Edition ed., Vol. I). Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins.
5.
Disegi, J. A., & Eschbach, L. (2000). Stainless steel in Bone Surgery. INJURY , 31.
PP-404
Cytotocicity studies (MTT Assay and MEM Elusion Assay) for
biosafety measures of Metal Injection Moulding Orthopaedic
Implant.
AHMAD HAFIZ ZULKIFLY, M Anuar O, M Alfian O,M Anuar O, M Alfian O,
Orthopaedics,Traumatology and Rehabilitation,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Cytotocicity studies (MTT Assay and MEM Elusion Assay) for biosafety measures of Metal
Injection Moulding Orthopaedic Implant.
Introduction:
This method is useful for assessing the cytotoxic potential of new materials and formulations and as
Health and Allied Sciences
part of a quality control program for an established or new medical device and its
components. Assessment of cytotoxicity provides useful information in predicting the potential
clinical applications in the human.
OBJECTIVES
1.
To assess the cytotoxic potential of test material (Test material – Metal Injection Moulding
Implant) by determining the rate of cell proliferation.
2.
To assess the cytotoxic potential of a test material extract of (Test material – Metal Injection
Moulding Implant) using a mammalian cell line as the target cells.
Methodology:
MTT Assay:The degree of cytotoxicity in a mammalian cell culture in response to the test material
was determined. Sample was prepared by extracting the test material with growth medium at 0.2 g/ml
for 72 hours at 37ºC. Positive (zinc sulfate) and negative (growth medium) controls were used in the
study to verify the proper functioning of the test system. The test material was tested in triplicates at
200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 of concentrations. Cultures were incubated at 37áµ’C in a carbon
dioxide incubator for 24 hours. Incubation with MTT solution was carried out for 4 hours and the
optical density (OD) of test material and controls were determined by colorimetric method.
MEM Elusion Assay: The degree of cytotoxicity in a mammalian cell culture in response to the test
material extract was determined (according to ISO 10993-5:1999(E). Biological evaluation of medical
devices– Part 5: Test for in vitro Cytotoxicity). Extraction of MD1-E0110(MIM Test material) was
carried out at 37ºC for 72 hours using growth medium as the extractant. Positive control (zinc sulfate)
was used in the study to verify the proper functioning of the test system. The test material was tested in
triplicate at 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125% concentrations. Cultures were
incubated at 37oC in a carbon dioxide incubator for 24 hours and examined microscopically
for signs of monolayer changes and cell death.
Result:
1.
Test Material(MIM) did not demonstrate an inhibition of V79 cell proliferation after 24-hour
exposure. (MTT Assay)
2.
There was no cytotoxic effect (grade 0) observed in all extract concentrations of the test
material (MEM Elusion Assay) . Both negative and positive control items performed as anticipated.
CONCLUSION
Metal injection moulded implant material did not demonstrate a cytotoxic effect under the condition
of MTT assay and MEM Elusion Assay. The test material showed good biosafety characteristic of the
metal injection moulding material to be used in human.
PP-410
Biosafety and Biocompatibility measures of Metal Injection
Moulding (MIM) as an Orthopaedic Implant: Genotoxicity studies
of Reverse Mutation assay, Micronucleus Assay and Alkaline Comet
Assay
Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Md Anuar Osman, Nor Fadilah Rajab, M Alfian
OmarAhmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Md Anuar Osman, Nor Fadilah Rajab, M Alfian Omar
Orthopaedics,Traumatology and Rehabilitation,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Biosafety and Biocompatibility measures of Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) as an Orthopaedic
Implant: Genotoxicity studies of Reverse Mutation assay, Micronucleus Assay and Alkaline Comet
Assay
These studies is part of tests that is very important to determine the biosafety and biocompatibility of
the Metal injection metal implant.
OBJECTIVE
1.
To assess the potential clastogenic and aneugenic effects of test material (MIM) by
determining the formation of small chromosomal fragments (micronuclei) in the cytoplasm of
interphasing mammalian cells. (Micronucleus Assay)
2.
To assess the potential of DNA strand breaks (damage) of a single mammalian cell following
contact with the test material (MIM).(Alkaline Comet Assay).
3.
To determine the adverse mutagenic effects of MIM using Salmonella typhimurium bacterial
Health and Allied Sciences
strains as the target cells.( Salmonella Reverse Mutation Assay)
Methods
Micronucleus Assay In vitro
The degree of genotoxic potential in a mammalian cell culture in response to a test material was
determined. Positive (Mitomycin C, 0.3 Dg/ml) and negative (growth medium) controls were used in
the study to verify the proper functioning of the test system. Test material concentrations used were 100
mg/ml and 200 mg/ml. Cells were treated with the test material and controls, and incubated at 37oC in a
carbon dioxide incubator for 3 hours. After replacing the supernatant with serum-supplemented DMEM,
cultures were further incubated for 24 hours at 37oC. After dissociation by trypsinisation, the cells were
mixed with methanol-acetic acid fixative solution and pipetted onto a pre-warmed glass slide. Slides
were stained with acridine orange (20.0 Dg/ml) and the interphasing cells were examined
microscopically and enumerated for the presence of micronuclei.
Alkaline Comet Assay
The degree of DNA damage in a mammalian cell in response to a test material was determined.
Positive (hydrogen peroxide) and negative (growth medium) controls were used in the study to verify
the proper functioning of the test system. Two concentrations of test material were used: 100 mg/ml and
200 mg/ml. Cells were treated with the test material and
incubated at 37°C in a carbon dioxide incubator for 24 hours. Treatment of hydrogen peroxide
(positive control) was carried out at 0.1 mM for 30 minutes. After dissociation by trypsinisation cells
were mixed with low melting agarose and embedded onto pre-layered agarose slides. Following cell
lysis and DNA unwinding, cells were electrophoresed and stained with ethidium bromide. Samples were
analysed under a fluorescent microscope using the Comet Assay analysis software.
Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Pre-incubation method)
The bacterial tester strains were subjected to the test material prepared in 0.9% NaCl solution for
approximately 20-minutes (in the presence and absence of metabolic activation S9) and incubated at
37°C. After incubation, molten top agar was added and the mixture was poured onto minimal glucose
agar plates. Mutagenicity was evaluated by comparing the mean revertant colonies of each
concentration of test material filtrate with colonies of the negative control (0.9% NaCl solution).
Positive results are indicative when the number of revertant colonies per plate increases by twice or
more the number produced in the negative control. Positive results also indicate that the test material
induces either frameshift mutation or base substitution in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium.
RESULTS
1.
The number of micronucleus formed in cells treated with test material (MIM) corresponded to
that of negative control, which was negligible. The positive control (Mitomycin C) produced high
number of micronucleus as anticipated.( Micronucleus Assay In vitro)
2.
Average scores in DNA damage for MD1-E0110 as presented by the Tail moment values
were 0.535 and 0.534 at the concentration of 100 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml, respectively. Both
concentrations of test material produced Tail moment values less than 5.(Alkaline Comet Assay)
3.
The number of revertants from all bacterial tester strains treated with the test material (MIM)
extracts did not exceed twice than those in the negative control, but a significant number of revertants
were produced in the positive controls.
CONCLUSION
1.
The test material(MIM) did not induce significant micronucleus formation in V79 cells as
compared to the positive control (Mitomycin C). MIM is therefore considered not clastogenic and non
genotoxic under the condition of this test.( Micronucleus Assay In vitro)
2.
The test material (MIM) did not cause significant DNA damage in V79 cells and is considered
non-genotoxic under the condition of this test.
3.
The test material (MIM) did not demonstrate a mutagenic effect under the condition of the test
with Salmonella typhimurium and is not considered a mutagen.
PP-468
Potential bioactivities of alfa mangostin from Garcinia malaccensis
Hk.f
Muhammad Taher Bakhtiar, Muhammad Taher, Deny Susanti, Farah Syahidah A. Zohri, Sauba
Nakazibwe, Solachuddin JA IchwanMuhammad Taher, Deny Susanti, Farah Syahidah A. Zohri, Sauba
Health and Allied Sciences
Nakazibwe, Solachuddin JA Ichwan
Pharmaceutical Technology,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
Guttiferae family is well-known to have a wide range of phytochemical constituents and
bioactivities. A phytochemical investigation of Garcinia malaccensis lead isolation of ï•¡-mangostin,
-mangostin and a triterpenoid. α-Mangostin, a xanthone has a lot of health benefits. Many studies
have been reported to investigate the biological activities of α-mangostin. The present study was
carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of α-mangostin. Its
structural determination was done based on its spectroscopic analysis. α-Mangostin was tested for
antimicrobial sensitivity via disc diffusion method against 4 bacteria. Results showed that S. aureus
culture formed a clear inhibition zone. The diameter of zone of inhibition observed was 8 mm and
minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value was 0.025 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal
concentration (MBC) value was 0.1 mg/mL, indicated that α-mangostin is a bacteriostatic and
bactericidal agent which correlates to presence of hydroxyl group in its structure. In antioxidant
properties tests, dot-blot DPPH staining showed a positive antioxidant activity of α-mangostin. In FTC
method, α-mangostin was proved to be a good lipid peroxidation inhibitor, whereas in DPPH free
radical scavenging activity method, it has very weak scavenging effects on free radicals. In
antiproliferative assay, ï•¡-mangostin exhibited activity against K562 and showed different activity
against HSC3 and H1299 cell lines. Against K562, it exerted the value of IC50 20 µg/mL. This study
can form a foundation for future studies in investigating of biological activities of α-mangostin and
developing the natural abundant in improving a healthy community.
PP-640
A New Technique for Reduction of Scattered Gamma Photons in
Tc-99m SPECT Imaging
Inayatullah Shah Sayed, Ahmad Zakaria, Tuhin HaqueAhmad Zakaria, Tuhin Haque
Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy,Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
In healthcare, the prime objective prior to cure any disease is accurate diagnosis of abnormalities in
humane. There are different diagnostic procedures and techniques. In this regard, imaging techniques
play a potential role. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging is one among
them. The technique uses some gamma photon emitting radionuclides and it is applied worldwide as an
important diagnostic imaging tool. However, the technique has some limitations, e.g., equipment
related, absorption and scattering of gamma photons within the patient body. Scattering of gamma
photons degrade the system spatial resolution. Consequently, image quality is degraded and quantitative
accuracy of radioactivity distribution is limited. This work attempts to reduce the effects of scattered
gamma photons from SPECT images. There are some scatter correction techniques and each technique
has limitations in one or another way. A unique technique has been introduced to absorb some fraction
of scattered gamma photons from the image raw data before their registration. The technique uses thin
sheets of materials; copper and aluminum as physical filters. SPECT data are acquired by using Toshiba
GCA 901 A/HG gamma camera. Carlson’s phantom filled with water is used. Cold and hot regions
inserts are placed in the phantom. Tc-99m radionuclide is uniformly distributed in the phantom. Either
LEGP or LEHR collimators are used. Data acquisition parameters are chosen as those are selected for
patient studies. Data are acquired with and without physical filters. Images are reconstructed by FBP
reconstruction technique with Butterworth filter. Chang’s attenuation correction technique is applied
for compensation of absorption of gamma photons. Images obtained from with and without physical
filtered data are analyzed and compared in terms of perceived image quality, hot and cold region
detectability, contrast and SNR. Results show that, perceived image quality, hot and cold region
detectability, contrast and SNR are improved when physical filters are used. This suggests that the
technique may have potential applications in clinical studies.
Acknowledgement
The financial support of USM Short Term (304/PPSK/6131240) is greatly acknowledged. The
authors are grateful to the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy, School of
Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan for the use of Gamma camera and
other facilities to carry out this research work. We also would like to thank the staff of the Department
Health and Allied Sciences
of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy for their technical assistance throughout this project.
*Present Address: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, Kulliyyah of Allied Health
Sciences, International Islamic University, Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang,
Malaysia.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-9
Controlling Political Communication in the Blogosphere
Farid Sufian Shuaib,
Public Law Department,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysia has a list of restrictive laws that prevent publication of political communication. Most of
these laws were enacted before the explosion of online communication through online news portal and
blogs. Malaysia, her citizen and her government, have embraced this information communication
technology on the belief of its ability to propel the nation to become a developed nation. Because of this
belief, contrary to provisions of the restrictive laws, the government guarantee no censorship in the
internet. This guarantee invited expectation that restrictive laws that have been applied to the press and
broadcasters will not be applied in online communication. The objective of this paper is to examine
whether this expectation materialized. This paper examines to what extent the guarantee assist in
liberalisation of political communication through online publication. Legal provisions, case reports and
incidents will be analysed in this study. The study found that while relevant statute guarantees absence
of censorship in the internet and absence of licensing requirement, censorship still exist in the
blogosphere and bloggers are subjected to the same law as publishers using traditional medium. Thus,
steps need to be taken to ensure a balance could be struck between harnessing the full potential of
internet communication and the requirement of security and public order.
P-10
Towards Malaysian Common Law: Implanting Indigenous Norms
using Common Law Methods
Farid Sufian Shuaib,
Public Law Department,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
The predecessors of the Civil Law Act 1956, namely the various Ordinances and enactment, had
served well the British imperialist in Malaya and Borneo. It provides a semblance of legitimacy of
things she had done and continue to do, namely imposing her law on the colony. It may also have
served well a newly independent Malaya and Malaysia in providing continuity and stability of her
fragile legal system suffered on the onslaught of imperialist law and political might. However, the inapt
position of English law in a land rich in her own culture and heritage, and the impracticality of keeping
up with the mercantile law of a foreign land, suggests a need to wean off the law of mother England.
The objective of this research is to reconcile the legacy of English common law in Malaysia and the
need to develop indigenous common law. This research will examine legal provisions, legal writings
and law reports. Physical judicial autonomy obtained by severance of appeal to the Judicial Committee
of the Privy Council should be followed by substantive autonomy by severing the umbilical cord to
English law. Malaysian common law may be developed by considering Malaysian indigenous law which refers to laws, customs and norms of the Malaysian – to nurture a truly Malaysian common
law. In this way, the interaction between the English legal system and the Malaysian legal system will
not be a matter of domination but of convergence.
P-16
Compiling Arabic Academic Corpus at IIUM
Haslina Hassan, Asst Prof Dr Haslina Hassan, Asst Prof Dr Mohd Feham Mohd GhalibAsst Prof Dr
Haslina Hassan, Asst Prof Dr Mohd Feham Mohd Ghalib
Arabic Language & Literature,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper reports on a project that developed a specialized corpus of written academic Arabic at one
of a public university in Malaysia. The corpus is named as the International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
Arabic Corpus (IIUMAC). The size of IIUMAC is approximately 14 million words divided into two
domains: Arabic studies and Islamic studies; sourced from theses, proceedings papers and referred
journals. The corpus is aimed to be a source of reference in language research and development as well
as in the teaching and learning of the Arabic language.
P-17
PROMOTING OF GOODNESS (AMAL MA’ARUF) AND
PREVENTING OF EVIL (NAHI MUNKAR) IN THE
CORPORATE CULTURE: THE ROLES OF MUSLIM
MANAGERS
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr. Suhaimi bin Mhd SarifDr. Suhaimi bin Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Muslim managers have religious obligations as commanded by Allah, that is to serve as the servant
of Allah (‘abd Allah) and vicegerent of Allah (khalifah Allah fil Ard). One of them is to promote
goodness (‘amal ma’aruf) and to prevent evil (nahi munkar). In the modern managerial paradigm,
managers are expected to get things done in organizations through their fellow colleagues efficiently
and effectively. Generally, Muslim managers are aware of their religious obligations. This paper
investigates the perceptions of 30 Australian Muslim managers using Al Qurtubi Model toward
operationalizing the promotion of goodness (‘amal ma’aruf) and prevention of evil (nahi munkar)
in their companies’ corporate culture. The study used mixed methods, both quantitative and
qualitative, to generate rich data for analysis. The results showed that the Australian Muslim Managers
were aware about their religious obligations to practice the promotion of goodness and the prevention of
evil. However, the results were not conclusive considering constraints on sample size of the study
(survey, n=110 and interview, n=30). The study proposed that future research use case study method to
understand the operationalization of the promotion of goodness (ma’aruf) and the prevention of evil
(munkar) in Australian managerial contexts.
P-18
PERSONAL INTEGRITY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN
DECISION MAKING PROCESS: THE CASE OF WESTERN
AUSTRALIAN SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr. Suhaimi bin Mhd. SarifDr. Suhaimi bin Mhd. Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Personal integrity and social responsibility are very important values to make ethical and profitable
organizational decisions. Personal integrity requires the decision makers to optimize their personal
discretion in making trusted, credible, and profitable business decisions. Likewise, the social
responsibility component sought decision makers to make decisions that providing benefits and
repelling harms to the stakeholders. Both values are pertinent in the modern contexts that full with
frauds, corruptions, and crime of breach of trusts (CBT).This paper investigates the perceptions of
Western Australian small business owners toward the challenge to incorporate personal integrity and
social responsibility in their decision making process. The study used personal interview technique with
open ended interview questions to obtain the views of 15 business owners from Perth, Western
Australia. More than half of the interviewees contended that three factors, namely the personal ethics,
professional training, and religious belief, motivated decision makers to incorporate personal integrity
and social responsibility in their decisions. The remaining interviewees argued that the need to meet the
economic and legal requirements is the main factor for incorporating the two elements into their
decisions. Nevertheless, the results of the study were not conclusive and cannot be generalized
considering limitations on small number of interviewees and the location of the business owners. The
study proposed that future research to use personal interview and self administered survey with more
small business owners from other major cities in Australia.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-19
ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AMONG
ENTREPRENEURS
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd SarifDr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Ethics and social responsibility are very important values in entrepreneurship ventures. This is
particularly essential in decision making process. Ethical conscience reminds entrepreneurs to make
trustworthy and profitable entrepreneurship decisions. Likewise, the social responsibility component
sought entrepreneurs to make entrepreneurial decisions that can enhance benefits and repelling harms to
the stakeholders. This paper investigates the perceptions of entrepreneurs that operated in Klang Valley
regarding the practice of ethics and social responsibility among entrepreneurs. The study used personal
interview technique with open ended interview questions to obtain the views of 20 entrepreneurs. The
findings showed that one thirds of the entrepreneurs perceived that the practice of ethics and social
responsibility is almost impossible due to the strong influence of external factors. Nevertheless, these
entrepreneurs believed that these values are important. The remaining entrepreneurs viewed that ethics
and social responsibility could be possibly practiced despite the strong external factors provided that
entrepreneurs have strong belief. Nevertheless, the results of the study were not conclusive considering
limitations on small number of interviewees and the location of the business owners. The study
proposed that future research to use personal interview and self administered survey with more small
business owners from other major cities.
P-20
The Challenge of Macro Stickiness in Scientific and Technical
Human Capital Development: The Case of Malaysian Technologybased Firms
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr Suhaimi Mhd SarifDr Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study examines scientific and technical human capital development among technology-based
firms in Malaysia using the concept of macro stickiness. Macro stickiness is a result of misguided public
innovation and economic policies. The study examines the perceptions key informants on stickiness in
scientific and technical human capital development. The study approached three technology parks in
Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. It interviewed twenty (20) informants, who included two (2) policy
makers, three (3) government officers, and fifteen (15) executives of technology-based firms in
Malaysian technology parks. The findings suggest that policy makers and government confirmed that
the government cannot exclude three major elements: national unity, foreign direct investment and
sound economic growth via innovation and economic policies. The industry informants argued that the
ambiguity roles and skeptical about profitability have motivated them to do less. This study suggests
that the government and technology-based firms should work closely and strategically to facilitate
scientific and technical human capital development. Nevertheless, the results of the study were not
conclusive considering limitations on small number of interviewees. The study proposed that future
research to increase the number of interviewees and to include technology parks from other major cities.
P-21
Data Mining through Internet Search Engines: The Case of for
Islamic Management Materials
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Asst. Prof. Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yusof IsmailAsst. Prof. Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
The study is carried out to ascertain relative availability of the materials of Islamic management
using data mining through the Internet search engines (ISE’s). The contents of thirteen ISE’s are
analysed using a specially created format. The present study established the relative ratios of the
coverage of selected terms in terms of number of hits shown within each ISE. The ratios are obtained by
dividing the hits for a search term into the means (average) of comparable hits as the standardized
denominator. The results of the analysis show that the ISE’s contain scarce amount of materials on
Islamic management.
P-22
Advertising Practices and Promotion in the Islamic World under the
Shariah Observation: A Case Study on Bank Islam in Malaysia
Khaliq Ahmad, Assoc. Prof. Dr.Ahasanul Haque,Prof. Dr.Khaliq Ahmed, Sr.Syeada Irfath Jahan
Assoc. Prof. Dr.Ahasanul Haque,Prof. Dr.Khaliq Ahmed, Sr.Syeada Irfath Jahan
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Most of latest advertising in Islamic institutions and its appropriate guideline under shariah
observation is needed to be observed which resultant the concrete solution of lot of query inside the
mind of the potential customer; who are still deciding up about the institution to which they would be
loyal. This study is trying to asses existing practices of advertising under the shariah observation and
promotional strength as well. Descriptive observation carried out to measure the gap and distance to
reach in terms of promotional tool with the prominent conventional bank to Islamic bank. While Islamic
institutions particularly the banks are in competitive advantaged compared to their rival that they are
providing the banking procedure under the shariah observation. It is still needed to properly revise and
adequately research to upgrade the real picture under the light of Quran and sunnah. In case of products
and special offerings of the Islamic banks, majority of customers who have the potentiality are in deep
ignorance. Analyzing the most effective communication through promotion, this study also make the
clear way to state the Islamic banking promotion on the right track. Such a way to make the business
more profitable as well as acknowledged to the customer promotion is the strongest tool for the business
regardless product or services industry.
P-23
WEB BASED MARKETING:ISLAMIC VERSUS
CONVENTIONAL BANKS OF PAKISTAN
Khaliq Ahmad, Prof.Dr. Khaliq Ahmad,Dr.Muhammad Imran Khan,Muhammad Tahir JanProf.Dr.
Khaliq Ahmad,Dr.Muhammad Imran Khan,Muhammad Tahir Jan
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This comparative study aims to provide a better understanding of how web based marketing between
Islamic and conventional commercial banks is prevailing in Pakistan. This purpose is achieved via one
research question which focuses on how the bank’s online environment (i.e. website) can be
described. A multiple case study strategy is used, focusing on two banks, one Islamic bank namely
Meezan bank and other conventional commercial bank namely Citibank of Pakistan. Data was collected
via observation and interaction with the websites, focusing on feedback from the customers using the
banking websites. In using these websites for their banking, the findings show that the main benefits
included lower costs, efficiency and time saving retention and Islamic banks should concentrate more
on professional and technical skills. Websites should have clear and brief information in order to build
trust with the customer and multimedia graphic elements should be avoided, as this diverts the
customers from why they came to the site.
P-24
An Empirical Assessment of Islamic Leadership Principles
Khaliq Ahmad, PROF. DR. KHALIQ AHMAD,OGUNSOLA O.K.PROF. DR. KHALIQ
Social Sciences and Humanities
AHMAD,OGUNSOLA O.K.
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Purpose – The main thrust of the present paper is to document some Islamic leadership principles
of management. The paper equally examines the leadership function as adopted by academic
administrators within International Islamic University Malaysia vis-Ã -vis Islamic principles of
management. The whole process is an attempt to study the important role of an excellent leadership
from Islamic perspective.
Design/methodology/approach – Both combination of revealed sources of knowledge (Quran and
Sunnah) and literature review were used to document Islamic leadership principles. Then, a
questionnaire based survey was espoused to examine the Islamic leadership principles, approaches and
sources of leadership principles as were adopted in the University.
Findings – It was found that academic administrators were imbued with Islamic leadership
principles. The research also showed that servant – leadership approach is preferable used while the
revealed sources of knowledge (Quran and Sunnah) were given the highest priority as sources of
leadership principles.
Research limitation/implication – Islamic management is a diverse field, this study is however
limited to Islamic leadership principles in an organization. Perhaps, this study will be little known to
adherent of the conventional management principles, which may stimulate further thinking and debate
on the crossing point between Islam and the management of an organization.
Originality/value – It is aimed that the paper will provide some knowledge of Islamic philosophy
and practice in order to help today’s employers and employees carry on mundane activities imbued
with Islamic values and cultures.
P-25
2-Year Outcomes of Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Malaysia
Ramli Musa, Ramli Musa,Ahmad Zafri Abu BakarRamli Musa,Ahmad Zafri Abu Bakar
Department of Psychiatry,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: The commencement of Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) in 2005 represents a
quantum leap in the management of heroin dependence in Malaysia. Objective: To examine the two
year effect of this form of treatment on the quality of life (QOL) of heroin dependants attending the
Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital (HTAA) MMT clinic. Method: This was a cohort study in which the
second QOL assessment was conducted two years after treatment initiation. Results: A total of 172
patients enrolled at the point of entry to the MMT programme. We examined 107 patients who remained
in the programme two years later (62.6% retention rate). Analysis of repeated measurement of paired ttest demonstrated significant improvements in all four domains of QOL (physical, psychological, social
relationships and environment) (p<0.001). The most marked improvement was noted in psychological
domain. Conclusion: The MMT programme at HTAA is effective in improving the QOL among heroin
dependants.
P-26
Cash Waqaf and Islamic Microfinance - Untapped Economic
Opportunities
Norma Md Saad, Norma Md Saad, Azizah AnuarNorma Md Saad, Azizah Anuar
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-28
The Application of Ibra and Muqasah to House Financing Contracts
Muhammad Yusuf Saleem,
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper discusses the application of ibra and muqasa to house financing contracts based on
Murabahah or Bay’ Bithaman Ajil (BBA). In a Murabahah/BBA contract which is widely used by
Islamic banks as a mode of house financing the price of a house is determined in relation to the
financing period. In certain cases where a debtor wants to settle the debt in a shorter period he is not
entitled to claim ibra. Ibra in such cases is considered to be at the discretion of the creditor or the
Islamic bank. In certain other cases where a debtor is in default the bank possesses and sells the house
and claims the balance of the price from the debtor. In both cases withholding ibra results in injustices
to the debtor. The focus of this research is to critically examine the various juristic opinions on the
discretionary nature of ibra with a view to contribute a possible solution. It also investigates the
application of set-off (muqasah) to cases of default by the debtors. This research is of significance not
only for academic purposes but its findings will also be important for the Islamic banking and finance
industry where the problems arising out of Murabahah/BBA contract call for a comprehensive
investigation and application of ibra and muqasah.
P-29
Mutawalli Institutions for the Management of Waqf Properties
Muhammad Yusuf Saleem,
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper argues that waqf does not play its historical role to support and finance religious,
charitable and educational institutions in the Muslim world. It argues that the traditional way of
appointing an individual as a mutawalli to manage waqf properties and the modern way of leaving the
management of waqf properties in the hands of state institutions need to be revised. In particular it
examines the modern practice of appointing a government institution as a trustee (mutawalli/nazir) for
the management of waqf properties. The paper contends that the practice has not contributed to the
efficient management and productivity of the waqf properties. The paper concludes that educational and
welfare institutions should be allowed to act as a trustee and manage the waqf properties for the benefit
of the beneficiaries. This would enable these institutions to actively promote the creation of new waqf
for educational and welfare purposes, provide professional support for the management of individual
waqf properties and contribute to the socio-economic development of the society.
P-32
Online Banking Acceptance in Malaysia-A Students’ Behavior
Perspective
Khaliq Ahmad, Dr. Khaliq Ahmad,Muhammad Imran Khan,Muhammad Tahir Jan***
Dr. Khaliq Ahmad,Muhammad Imran Khan,Muhammad Tahir Jan***
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Purpose – Adopting the technology acceptance model, this research examines the factors that
determine intention to use online banking in Malaysia, focusing on students of different faculties and
different age groups of different higher educational institution in Malaysia. Perceived ease of use and
perceived usefulness are considered to be the fundamental factors in determining the acceptance and use
of various information technologies.
Design/methodology/ approach – The approach takes the form of an empirical study with 303
Social Sciences and Humanities
usable responses on a questionnaire with five-point Likert scale.
Findings – The results indicate that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are strong
determinants of the students’ behavioral intention to adopt online banking in Malaysia. According to
descriptive statistics, we have got 70.6% male and 29.4% female’s response. Out of which, are
generally having 46.5% of their accounts in Bank Muamalat and 32.7% in Bank Islam, and more than
50% of them having current accounts in their respective banks. Usually 88.4% students are in between
15 to 30 years of their age. Most of them were the master’s students of different fields and
approximately 50% utilize online banking services from the bank.
Research limitations/ implications – The use of convenience sampling in this study weakens
research objectivity and the relatively small size of the sample somewhat limits generalizations.
Originality/ value – Extends the understanding of the technology acceptance model from
students’ behavior perspective.
P-34
Knowledge Management Case: Is average level of knowledge
sharing adequate?
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Assoc. Prof. Yusof IsmailAssoc. Prof. Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysia has advanced (gone) a few steps ahead of her counterparts in South East Asia in embracing
Knowledge Economy (K-economy). In 1997, the Malaysian government launched its K-economy.
Multimedia Super Corridor opened up the chapter of K-economy for Malaysia. K-economy thus
becomes one of the sectors in Malaysia. All eyes are pointing at public universities in Malaysia to
spearhead this ambition together with the industry. Public universities are expected to play a significant
role to contribute directly to the achievement of the new economic base for the country. Knowledge is
abstract and complex, but the government has been generating and disseminating knowledge through its
public universities for a long time.
P-35
Productivity and Employment Link and Asymmetric Adjustments:
The Case of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand
Selamah Abdullah Yusof,
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The theoretical link between employment and productivity can be bi-directional, and the effect of one
on the other can be both positive and negative. Unemployment reduces productivity through reduction
in spending on education and training, but improves productivity by removing the least productive firms
from the economy. Meanwhile, an increase in productivity reduces the demand for labor as workers are
more efficient, but leads to greater employment through an increase in production. This paper focuses
on three south-east Asian countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand to test the theory and
applies cointegration and error correction models to determine the interactions between productivity and
employment. It considers asymmetric adjustments since studies have shown that a long-run relationship
may not be detected using cointegration analysis which assumes symmetric adjustments. The results
indicate that no definite long term relationship can be established between employment and productivity
for Indonesia and Thailand. However, a positive equilibrium relationship between productivity and
employment is obtained for Malaysia. Both variables adjust to deviations from the long-run equilibrium
value, but the way they adjust differs. Employment quickly adjusts to negative discrepancies, but is less
readily to decrease. In contrast, productivity adjusts to positive discrepancies but displays persistence
for negative discrepancies.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-36
Values, Religion and Higher Education Curriculum: Towards
Comprehensive Development in Malaysia
Selamah Abdullah Yusof, Selamah Abdullah Yusof, Ruzita Mohd AminSelamah Abdullah Yusof, Ruzita
Mohd Amin
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This research examines the importance of higher education in its role in creating the human resources
needed to achieve comprehensive development for a nation as well as for the Muslim society as a
whole. It presents the case of the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) as a model of a
university with an integrated curriculum that seeks to produce well-rounded professionals who are
imbued with Islamic values and ethics that are much needed for comprehensive development. The
effectiveness of such an integrated curriculum is investigated by examining the values and religiosity of
economics students at the IIUM vis-Ã -vis those at the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) as
representing students from other universities in Malaysia. The Islamic perspective is applied to
characterize and measure values based on the work of al-Ghazzali. Similarly, a comprehensive multidimensional measure of religiosity from an Islamic perspective is constructed based on five aspects,
namely ritualistic, experiential, ideological, consequential and intellectual. The findings of this research
show that the experience of the IIUM using an integrated curriculum has been effective and has
managed to produce graduates and manpower with the right values and qualities without compromising
their job skills and marketability. This makes a case for a review of the content of higher education that
is offered throughout the Muslim world in order to ensure that its objective of enhancing the
development of the intellectual, spiritual and skills capacity of man is achieved.
P-37
KALIMA SHADAHA ORIENTED INTERNATIONALIZATION
OF MUSLIM ORGANISATIONS AS A RESOURCE OF MUSLIM
UNITY
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Associate Professor Yusof IsmailAssociate Professor Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Kalima Shahada oriented Internationalization provides an avenue for Muslim nations to sustain
social unity. The spirit of Kalima Shahada, the very foundation of Islamic belief, which embraces the
entire mankind, for unity. The paper aims to (a) trace the origin of the word and concept of
“internationalization― within available literature in English, (b) reconcile between the literature
definitions with the usage of the word and concept among selected international organizations, especialy
Muslim-controlled and Islamic oriented tertiary institutions, and (c) suggest whether the hybrid concept
of internationalization match strategically with The proposed study is believed to be significant because
it attempts to ascertain the degree of consonance or otherwise that might exist between the two concepts
– internationalization and the spirit of Kalima Shahada, and project a pattern of responses that might
be expected from the Muslim organizations and nations towards the concept of
“internationalization― in its various forms. The study used textual analysis to develop a model of
internationalization which reflects the kalima shahadah. It then tested the proposed model with the
independant raters (n=78). The authors consolidated the components in the literature and practice to
propose five connections that reflect the status of being “international―. However, the results
confirm only three out of five proposed connections
P-38
Academic Leadership, Training Orientation and Muslim Graduates
Employability: The Experience of Malaysian Public Universities
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd SarifDr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
Social Sciences and Humanities
International Islamic University Malaysia
Academic leadership provides the directions to the academic training and orientation in the
curriculum and co-curriculum settings. Much have been said about graduates employability. The study
investigates the contribution of the academic leadership of Malaysian public universities to the training
orientation and the employability quality. The study interviews academic administrators, lecturers,
students and former students of several Malaysian public universities. The results suggest that academic
leadership has a significant role in shaping the training orientation via university curriculum.
Nevertheless, the fault is not totally on the academic leaders. The main limitation of the study is the size
of the respondents and the depth of the feedback. The study suggests the future research to include
private universities.
P-40
Business Ethics Case: Would KitChen Sdn Bhd be held liable when
its product are misused?
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Assoc. Prof. Yusof Ismail
Dr. Suhaimi Mhd SarifAssoc. Prof. Yusof Ismail
Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Would KitChen Sdn Bhd be held liable when its products are misused? This situation is not easily
solved from ethical point of view. KitChen Sdn Bhd is a local kitchenware manufacturer company. This
company has been operating for a decade in Sri Gombak, Selangor, and has been experiencing good and
bad time in the business. Recently this company has been sued by a customer alleging that kitchen ware
from this company has caused injury to her child. In the legal suit, the customer argued that KitChen
Sdn Bhd should be held legally and ethically negligent because the company failed to foresee harms that
could reasonably be anticipated in the normal use of the kitchenware. In the legal suit, the customer
mentioned specifically the design of a kitchen stove. Her young child was curious about what she was
cooking on top of the kitchen stove. In order to gain a better view, the child opened the oven door and
stepped up on it to look into the pans on the stovetop. Her weight causes the stove to tip over, spilled
the hot food on her and causing severe burns.
She insisted that Kit Chen Sdn Bhd as the manufacturer was at fault for not designing a stove that
would not tip with the weight of a child on the oven door. She argued that the stove design team could
have foreseen a child using the oven door as a stepladder. Additionally, the designers also could foresee
the use of the oven door as a work surface on which to place heavy roasting pans, for example a turkey
pan while basting. (Basting refers to moistening a roast as it is cooking). If the weight of such a large
oven pan is comparable to the weight of a young child, the oven could have been designed to withstand
a foreseeable weight being placed on the door.
P-45
ENVIRONMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF MALAYSIAN
PROPERTY COMPANIES: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY
Nik Nazli Nik Ahmad, Ahmed Salat Ahmed, Nik Nazli Nik AhmadAhmed Salat Ahmed, Nik Nazli Nik
Ahmad
Accounting,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The main objective of the study is to examine the changes in the volume, type, quality and nature of
the environmental disclosures made by companies in the Malaysian property sector in their annual
reports, websites, online newsletters and news archives for the eyars 2004, 2005 and 2006. Another
objective is to investigate whether two political visibility characteristics, firm size and extent of industry
involvement are associated with the volume, type, quality and nature of the environmental disclosures.
A content analysis disclosure index and an interrogation instrument were used for coding the content
analysis data of the top thirty property developers ranked by the Edge, Malaysia. The Friedman test,
Wilcoxon's Signed Rank test and the Spearman's rho were run to examine the associations. Results
Social Sciences and Humanities
suggest environmental disclosures made by the sample companies were low in volume, mainly
declarative in nature, or poor quality and largely comprise 'soft' information. This, together with the fact
that quantity of environmental disclosures is higher in 2004 and 2006 (the years when landslides
occurred), compared to 2005 (no landslides) imply a possible legitimacy motive. Also, there was no
significant association between the environmental disclosures and firm size and extent of industry
involvement. Future research may be conducted across a bigger sample or all public listed companies,
over a longer period of time to better detect trends in environmental disclosures. Also, future work in
the area may be done to investigate the reasons behind the low quantity and quality of environmental
disclosures.
P-59
Performance Management System in a Malaysian International
Higher Education Institution
Nur Anisah Abdullah, Dr. Nur Anisah AbdullahDr. Nur Anisah Abdullah
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This case study illustrates the design of a new performance management system for a Malaysian
international higher education institution (HEI). The International Islamic University Malaysia, with the
strength of 1800 faculty members, has 20,000 students in 5 campuses across the country, 30% of that
composition were international students from 90 countries. This paper describes the work done by the
institution in introducing a corporate performance management system based on balanced scorecard.
The case describes the processes involved in deploying the system at central management and then
cascade to all kulliyyahs , centres, divisions, and institutes; detailing the design and implementation of
42 balanced scorecards. The performance management system was a central mechanism of control for
the entire organisation. The paper explores the reasons for the new system, and looks at the design
approach used to develop a system of control tailored with the needs of the institution. The paper
reports that the process has been a positive and beneficial experience for the institution, and concludes
with good practices for implementation of performance management system in HEIs and on future areas
of research.
P-60
Performance Measurement in British Central Government
Nur Anisah Abdullah, Dr. Nur Anisah AbdullahDr. Nur Anisah Abdullah
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper reports the findings of a survey that forms part of a wider research project to understand
performance measurement practices in UK central government Executive Agencies (EAs) and
Executive Non-Departmental Public Bodies (ENDPBs). In addition, the survey was undertaken to
facilitate in developing diagnostic tools for performance measurement systems. The conducted survey
was distributed to 230 organisations where a 40% response rate was achieved. Amongst various other
findings, three key findings are worth highlighting. The first of them states that the majority of
respondents (81%) indicated that, overall, their performance measurement system (PMS) is adequate for
their needs, but only 39% and 6% rated the level of effectiveness as “good” or excellent”
respectively, indicating scope for improvement. The second key finding was that external reporting was
the most significant reason for measuring performance, with 69% indicating that this was relevant to a
“great extent―, while also indicating that the PMS used were very (70%) or somewhat (30%)
effective in this regard. The third major finding was that the most common approach to performance
measurement was the use of key performance indicators (KPI) (60%), while 16% were using Balanced
Scorecard (BSC), 10% using Activity-based Costing (ABC), 8% using the EFQM Excellence Model
(EFQM), and 6% using combinations of different approaches. These key findings along with the other
findings provide a broad preview and understanding of the utilisation and practices of performance
measurement amongst EAs and ENDPB. Further in-depth enquiries were conducted to uncover critical
factors for design, and implementation of effective performance measurement systems, with a view to
Social Sciences and Humanities
develop diagnostic tools.
P-62
Performance Measurement in Malaysian Central Government: An
exploratory survey
Nur Anisah Abdullah, Dr. Nur Anisah AbdullahDr. Nur Anisah Abdullah
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The new government is placing performance high on its agenda , making performance measurement
more relevant. One would expect to see a heightened level of performance measurement activities
within agencies and public bodies. However, there is lack of research on documenting the nature and
practices of performance measurement within the central government. This survey is part of a wider
research to understand performance measurement practices in the Malaysian central government. The
findings from this survey provide some insights as to the reasons for measuring performance and the
approach to performance measurement adopted by agencies and public bodies with a view towards
compiling a set of good practices for development and improvement.
Broadly, the findings depict an encouraging scenario. The majority of respondents (81%)
indicated that, on overall, their performance measurement system (PMS) was adequate for their needs,
but only 42% and 8% rated the level of effectiveness as “good” or “excellent― respectively,
indicating there is a large opportunity or scope for further improvement. Longer term planning was the
most significant reason for measuring performance, with 77% great extent and of these, 48% reported
their system was very effective for this purpose. The most common approach to performance
measurement is the use of key performance indicators (KPI) (54%). On the other hand, Balanced
Scorecard (BSC) is more frequently used as an approach to measuring performance for systems
developed in the last 5 years. As with the Mature systems, Activity-based Costing (ABC) and Informal
approaches were more prevalent. Board of Directors and Service Users were the two main groups of
stakeholders influencing the design of measures. The two categories of factors cited (80%) as
influencing design to a great extent which includes Learning & Improvement and Strategic Planning.
P-63
Perceived Islamic Work Ethics and Organisational Commitment
among Muslim Professional in Perak Tengah and Manjung Districts
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Haji Mohamed Shamaun Bin Yushak, Zakiah Binti Mohamed, Norfazilah Binti
Bawadi,Khairiah Binti Mohamad Daud, Haji Adli Rafai Bin Ahmad Rajuddin, and Dr. Suhaimi Mhd
Sarif
Haji Mohamed Shamaun Bin Yushak, Zakiah Binti Mohamed, Norfazilah Binti Bawadi,Khairiah Binti
Mohamad Daud, Haji Adli Rafai Bin Ahmad Rajuddin, and Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Many have argued that the productivity and quality of work of Muslim professionals are lower than
their non-Muslim counterparts. Islamic Work Ethics is argued as the main barrier for higher
productivity. The study aims to obtain the views of Muslim professionals in Perak Tengah and Manjung
Districts whether Islamic Work Ethics (IWE) contributes to lower productivity and quality of work by
Muslim professionals. The study distributed questionnaires to the 150 Muslim professionals. The
preliminary findings show IWE enhances Muslim professionals’ commitment towards their
organisations and also work productivity and quality. Thus, the findings rejected the claim that IWE is
the barrier for productivity and work quality. Nevertheless, the study found that the “theomorphic
potential― of most Muslim professionals in Perak Tengah and Manjung are not fully realized. Such
weakness reduces the conscious to be more careful and thoughtful in producing quality work. The study
suggests that Muslim professional should enhance the cognitive (aql’), affective (nafs’) and
normative (syariat) aspects of work with Qur’anic-based Islamic values as demonstrated by Prophet
Muhammad P.B.U.H. Future studies should cross examine professionals from other sectors with larger
Social Sciences and Humanities
sample size.
P-71
Business Ethics Case: Product Safety at Safe Enough Food
Industries Sdn Bhd
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Assoc. Prof. Hj Yusof IsmailDr Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Assoc.
Prof. Hj Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Product safety requires the producers to be ethical, responsible and accountable to various
stakeholders, particularly to the customers. Nevertheless, this issue has not been proactively attended by
the producers. This case study illustrates the dilemma of a brand manager of Safe Enough Food
Industries Sdn Bhd, to decide a decision between his career security and the well being of the
customers. Although the manager has fiduciary duty towards his shareholders, he also has social
responsibility towards the society. He sought views and opinions from his counter parts from other
companies. They were mixed views; some suggested him to adhere to his employer, while some wanted
him to think beyond his career. Ultimately, he decided on the favour of the customers and counterproposed his employer to improve the current manufacturing practices that are strategic and ethical.
P-75
The Contribution of Muslims to Science during the Middle Abbasid
Period (750-945)
Arshad Islam, Arshad IslamArshad Islam
History & Civilization,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
A history of Muslims’ contribution to present-day science and technology is the exploration of
the missing account of their glorious past. Muslims integrated science, theology, and philosophy as they
were urged to study, acquire knowledge, and learn from others' expertise and civilization. They thus
excelled in medicine, mathematics, astronomy, geometry, geology, mineralogy, chemistry, philosophy
and architecture, and it was their greatest achievement to establish trigonometry as a distinct branch of
mathematics. Muslim scholars began acquiring Greek treatises and initiated their study and rendering
into Arabic. They examined critically, collated, corrected and enriched significantly major texts of
Greek science and philosophy. The ensuing era started what is known as the Golden Age of Islam,
which lasted for over two centuries. The present study is an attempt to examine the contribution of
Muslim scientists, philosophers and theologians in the promotion of science and scientific research
during the middle Abbasid period (750-945). Based mainly on Arabic, Persian, Urdu and English
sources, the study focuses on the intellectual legacy of the Muslims, their interest in the progress of
science and philosophy and its impact on the West.
P-80
AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF BUSINESS CYCLE
ASYMMETRIES: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA
Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, Turkhan Ali Abdul ManapTurkhan Ali Abdul Manap
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Asymmetry is a key feature to understand the different behavior of expansions and recessions, and it
provides a stylized fact that business cycle models should help to explain. Furthermore, the types of
asymmetries provide guidance about underlying economic mechanism. In this paper, we test for three
types of asymmetry of business cycle: steepness, deepness and sharpness, by using the parametric tests
of Clements and Krolzig (2003), based on Markov-Switching autoregressive models in the real GDP of
Malaysia for the period from 1975Q1 to 2006Q4. This paper also uses three different approaches to
remove trend component of GDP to investigate the sensitivity of the findings of asymmetries to the
Social Sciences and Humanities
method of trend eliminations. Finally, for comparison, the non-parametric test of Randles et al. (1980) is
also employed. We find strong evidence of steep asymmetry but not deep sharp asymmetry for Malaysia
which is in contrast to the findings of Khong and Lau (2007) and Eng and Wang (2008). These findings
have important implications for econometric modeling and policy making.
P-81
STABILITY OF LONG RUN MONEY DEMAND FUNCTION:
EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA
Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, Turkhan Ali Abdul ManapTurkhan Ali Abdul Manap
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
There has been extensive theoretical and empirical research on the subject of money demand. The
usefulness of a money demand function in the conduct of monetary policy depends critically on its
stability. This paper studies the stability of the M1 and M2 money demand function for Malaysia. The
result shows that both M1 and M2 are cointegrated with their determinants. However, only the long-run
parameter of M1demand function is stable over the sample period but not M2. The demand function for
became unstable after 1997 which is coincides with the Asian financial crisis. This result contradicts to
that of Nair et al (2008) who claims that the Asian financial crisis does not have any influence on the
stability of money demand function in Malaysia. Our finding also imply that a simple relationship
between M2, income and interest rate characterized by the standard model is not sufficient for analyzing
the effects of Malaysian monetary policy.
P-82
Long Memory Properties and Asymmetric Effects of Emerging
Equity Market: Evidence from Malaysia
Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap
Salina KassimTurkhan Ali Abdul Manap
Salina Kassim
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper examines the long memory property of equity returns and volatility of emerging equity
market by focusing on the Malaysian equity market, namely the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange
(KLSE). The study adopts the Fractionally Integrated GARCH (FIGARCH) model and Fractionally
Integrated Asymmetric Power ARCH (FIAPARCH), focusing on the Malaysian data covering the
period from April 15, 2004 to April 30, 2007. The study finds evidence of long memory property as
well as asymmetric effects in the volatility of the KLSE. The traditional ARCH/GARCH is shown to be
insufficient in modeling the volatility persistence. The FIAPARCH specification outperforms the
FIGARCH model by capturing both asymmetry effects and long memory in the conditional variance.
The results of this study have practical implications for the investors intending to invest in the emerging
markets such as Malaysia. Understanding volatility and developing the appropriate models are
important since volatility can be a measure of risk which is highly relevant in forecasting the conditional
volatility of returns for portfolio selection, asset pricing, and value at risk, option pricing and hedging
strategies
P-83
THE 2007 GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND MALAYSIAN
STOCK MARKET: A SECTORAL ANALYSIS
Salina Hj. Kassim, Salina Hj. Kassim, M. Shabri Abd. Majid and Zarinah HamidSalina Hj. Kassim, M.
Shabri Abd. Majid and Zarinah Hamid
Department of Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of the 2007 US sub-prime crisis on the Malaysian
Social Sciences and Humanities
stock market by analyzing both the benchmark and sectoral indices. In achieving this objective, the
study aims to empirically examine the integration among the Malaysian, US and Japanese stock markets
at the benchmark levels as well as the sectoral levels such as finance, manufacturing, property, industrial
products and consumer products in the periods before and during the 2007 sub-prime crisis. Daily
sectoral indices over the period from September 2006 to May 2009 are analyzed based on the empirical
approaches of the co-integration and vector auto-regressions (VAR) methods. The findings suggest that
the nature of integration among these markets changes due to the crisis. While there are diversification
benefits in these markets at the initial stage of the crisis, there seems to be no diversification benefits in
the stock markets in a prolonged “down market―. As such, the study highlights the importance of
information in influencing stock market performance. In a short time horizon, “market panic―
results in investors to withdraw funds in the crisis country and invest in other countries with calmer
markets. However, as information becomes clearer that the crisis would be prolonged, investors would
choose other investment options which deemed safer during the crisis period. In this regard, this study
hopes to offer new dimension in understanding stock market integration during a financial crisis period.
P-84
SIX YEARS BEFORE AND AFTER THE ASIAN FINANCIAL
CRISIS: HAS THE NATURE OF MACROECONOMIC
INTEGRATION CHANGED AMONG THE ASEAN-5
COUNTRIES?
Salina Hj. Kassim, Salina Hj. Kassim and M. Shabri Abd. MajidSalina Hj. Kassim and M. Shabri Abd.
Majid
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study explores the nature of economic integration among the ASEAN-5 economies over two
sample periods; the pre-crisis period (1990 to 1996) and post-crisis period (2000 to 2006). Using the
output-price approach, it attempts to determine if the nature of integration among these economies has
changed due to the Asian financial crisis in 1997. In methodology, the study adopts the Autoregressive
Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) so as to ensure
consistency and robustness of the findings. The results show that the crisis has a deep imprint on the
degree of economic integration among these countries. Firstly, the study finds that the output integration
among the ASEAN nations has weakened after the crisis, implying that increased efforts need to be
done in achieving business cycles synchronization in these countries. This result implies that
macroeconomic policy harmonization in the spirit of the ASEAN Economic Community could be
cumbersome unless serious efforts are put in place to increase the degree of economic integration such
as increased trade linkages, intra-ASEAN investment flow as well as greater degree of macroeconomic
policy alignment. Secondly, there is evidence pointing towards higher degree of price integration among
the ASEAN-5 countries in the post crisis period compared to the pre-crisis period. This result implies
that efforts towards coordinated macro-policy are possible given the commitment towards
macroeconomic harmonization by the member countries. Additionally, the greater degree of price
integration among these countries not only provides a conducive environment for macroeconomic
harmonization but also facilitate greater degree of economic integration to take place. The ASEAN
nations need to increase the efforts in all possible economic and social aspects in efforts to bring the
ASEAN Vision 2020 into a reality.
P-85
PERFORMANCE OF ISLAMIC UNIT TRUSTS DURING THE
2007 GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: AN ANALYSIS OF FUND
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS
Salina Hj. Kassim, Saqinah Kamil and Salina Hj. KassimSaqinah Kamil and Salina Hj. Kassim
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study analyzes the impact of the recent global financial crisis on the performance of the Islamic
unit trust funds. In particular, the study aims to examine the performance of the Islamic unit trusts based
on the fund-specific characteristics, namely the fund management company’s ultimate parent
Social Sciences and Humanities
ownership of local versus international companies, and Muslims versus non-Muslims fund managers.
Based on the performance of 33 Malaysian Islamic unit trusts, the study adopts several indicators,
namely the adjusted Sharpe index, adjusted Jensen Alpha index, and Treynor index over the period from
January 2000 to December 2009. The findings reveal that the Islamic unit trusts are comparable to that
of the market. Major findings of the study reveal that the Islamic unit trusts perform better during the
crisis period compared to the non-crisis period. Fund management companies having foreign parent
origins are shown to perform better than those having local parent origins. The results of the study also
reveal that the Islamic unit trusts managed by the non-Muslim managers have better performance than
those managed by the Muslim managers. Major findings suggest that Islamic unit trust funds can be an
ideal hedging instrument during a down market. The results recommend that Muslim fund managers
increase their expertise and skills for future benefits. The findings propose that local ultimate parent
origins expand their experiences and widen their exposures in order to compete and become better than
foreign ultimate parent origins. The paper provides the latest evidence on the performance of the Islamic
unit trust funds during the global financial crisis as well as the first evidence on the effects of the origins
of the ultimate parent of the fund management companies and type of fund managers on the
performance of the Islamic unit trust.
P-86
DETERMINING THE VIABILITY OF RENTAL PRICE TO
BENCHMARK ISLAMIC HOME FINANCING PRODUCTS:
EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA
Salina Hj. Kassim, Rosylin Mohd Yusof, Salina Hj. Kassim, M. Shabri Abd. Majid and Zarinah
HamidRosylin Mohd Yusof, Salina Hj. Kassim, M. Shabri Abd. Majid and Zarinah Hamid
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Current Islamic home financing products are benchmark against the conventional interest rate due to
the unavailability of the Islamic benchmark rate. Motivated by the need to detach the Islamic financial
system from involving in the conventional interest rate, this paper attempts to analyze the possibility
relying on the rental rate to price Islamic home financing product. By comparing two models consisting
of either rental rate or lending rate and selected macroeconomic variables that could influence property
value, the study provides the empirical evidence on the suitability of the rental price to be used as a
benchmark for Islamic home financing product. Using the Malaysian data covering the period from
1990 to 2006 and adopting several econometric time-series analysis such as the ARDL estimates, bivariate Granger causality, multi-variate causality based on the VECM and variance decomposition
analysis, the study finds consistent evidences that the rental price is a better alternative than the lending
rate to price Islamic home financing product. In particular, the rental rate is found to be resilient to
short-term economic volatility, while in the long run, it is truly reflective of the economic fundamentals.
This feature of the rental price renders it as a fair pricing mechanism for the Islamic home financing
product. Results of this study contribute towards finding an alternative benchmark for the Islamic home
financing product which is currently using the conventional interest rate as its benchmark.
P-87
Motivating Factors for Knowledge Sharing among Senior
Executives of Islamic Bank of Thailand
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Nawal Alee, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd SarifNawal Alee, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study examined the views of senior executives who are currently working in Islamic Bank of
Thailand (ISBT), towards the motivating factors based on intrinsic and extrinsic through knowledge
sharing. This study investigated major components which effective influencing people to share
knowledge in ISBT. The study used survey method and descriptive statistics was applied for data
analysis. The sample comprised 273 senior executives from the twenty seven branches ISBT. The
findings revealed that generally intrinsic motivating is the dominant factor influencing senior executives
to share knowledge. Furthermore, they viewed that interest and enjoyment are the main components of
this factor. However, extrinsic motivating is also support knowledge sharing particularly existence and
Social Sciences and Humanities
security components.
P-88
Relationships between Employees’ Emotional Intelligence and
Job Satisfaction among Manufacturing Employees
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Noor Azlina Binti SM Fakiruddin, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd SarifNoor Azlina Binti SM
Fakiruddin, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
There are many factors (such as working conditions, remuneration system, etc) that can influence
employees’ job satisfaction. However, major organisational behaviour literature has identified
employees’ emotion intelligence as a contributing factor for employees’ job satisfaction. This
study aims to examine the impact of employees’ emotions intelligence on their job satisfaction.
Employees’ emotions intelligence is influenced by a few factors. The research model is constructed
based on the findings of the previous studies. The study conducted self-administered survey to all
employees at Vista Point Sdn Bhd. The results of the survey confirmed that there are positive
correlations between employees’ emotion intelligence and employees’ job satisfaction.
However, the results have to be read with a few limitations. The future research suggests bigger sample
size from different companies to improve the results.
P-89
Islamic Training Orientation, Leadership Styles and Corporate
Social Responsibility Practice among Muslim SME Entrepreneurs in
Malaysia
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Dr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Assoc. Prof. Hj. Yusof IsmailDr. Suhaimi Mhd Sarif,
Assoc. Prof. Hj. Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study examined the influence of Islamic training orientation (ITO) and leadership styles (LS) on
the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) among Muslim SME entrepreneurs in Malaysia.
The study solicited the opinions of SME-related policy makers and entrepreneurs through face-to-face
interviews in three technology parks located in northern and central Peninsular Malaysia (Kulim High
Technology Park; MSC, Cyberjaya; and Selangor Science Park). The results confirm that SME
entrepreneurs with Islamic training orientation (ITO) and transformation leadership influenced
positively on the practice of corporate social responsibility. However, the results are not generalisable
and have to be read with the responses from two government officers and 15 entrepreneurs. The future
studies should increase the sample size and the robustness of the results.
P-92
THE ACCOUNTANTS, FIRMS SIZE AND MANAGEMENT
OWNERSHIP
Sherliza Puat Nelson, Sherliza Puat NelsonSherliza Puat Nelson
Accounting,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The objective of the study is to investigate the background of audit committees from three aspects of
expertise: the accounting affiliated audit committees, audit committees with postgraduate qualification,
and audit committee with managerial experience.
Data was hand collected from annual reports available online and hard copies available at the
resource centres of Bursa Malaysia and the Securities Commission. It is found that firms size,
management ownership and accounting affiliated audit committees, are significant and related to the
financial reporting quality. Thus, suggesting that accounting affiliated audit committees are associated
into improving the quality of financial reporting thus, confirms the important roles of audit committee in
monitoring.
Social Sciences and Humanities
Professional qualification has a major role contributing to financial reporting quality, whereby
knowledge of its value is critical to effective management and maximisation of human capital regardless
of their innate ability or socioeconomic status. The study includes two factors namely the academic
qualifications and work experience into the model, and found significant results that provide
contribution to the body of knowledge.
P-94
PRE EMPLOYMENT TRAINING OF PHYSICIANS IN
MALAYSIA: HOW PREPARED ARE MEDICAL GRADUATES
FOR THE TRANSITION FROM MEDICAL SCHOOL TO
HOSPITAL PRACTICE
Dr Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf, Azura Omar, Yusop Ahmad (Allahyarham), Dinon Mohd, Izhairi Ismail,
Zabeda Abdul Hameed, Abideen AdewaleAzura Omar, Yusop Ahmad (Allahyarham), Dinon Mohd,
Izhairi Ismail, Zabeda Abdul Hameed, Abideen Adewale
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
There has been growing concern among policy makers and researchers alike regarding the state of
affairs in healthcare delivery system. Concerns relating to patient safety, medical error, rising costs and
associated wastes in healthcare delivery services, have been raised time and again. According to
McLaughlin and Kaluzny (1999), costs associated with waste and medical error in healthcare are
estimated to be between 20 to 40 percent of the total costs of the industry. Moreover, the Harvard
Medical Practice Study found injuries from care itself to occur in 3.7 per cent of hospital admissions,
over half of which were preventable, and 13.6 per cent of which led to death. Wu et al. (2003) found
that mistakes made by pre-registration house officers had serious outcomes in 90 per cent of cases; and
of which 31 per cent resulted in death. Society has a number of expectations of medical schools; the
most fundamental being that medical schools prepare physicians who are capable of delivering the
highest standard of medical care (Tamblyn, 1999). Medical schools need to ask whether their graduates
are delivering an optimal standard of care, and whether the population served by the graduates is
experiencing the health outcomes expected through the optimal delivery of care. The transition between
medical school and hospital practice is experienced during the housemanship period, and this stage
provides the link between theory and practice. Thus, the research focused on medical graduates who are
undergoing their housemanship with the aim of assessing their preparedness for hospital practice. Skills
assessed from the study was scientific knowledge, patient management skills, coping skills,
interpersonal skills, holistic skills, ethics and legal skills, and IT skills. Aspirations for a medical a
career among the housemen as well as their level of job satisfaction was also appraised.
P-95
Linking Quality Assurance to Human Resource Management: A
Study of SMEs in Malaysia
Arif Hassan, Arif HassanArif Hassan
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Purpose – As organizations try to provide quality assurance from ISO certification, the importance
of people management through better HR management assumes greater significance. This paper aims to
examine this issue. It seeks to compare selected ISO certified SMEs with non-ISO certified SMEs on
several HR practices.
Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 292 employees drawn from ten SMEs, five of them
ISO certified, responded to a questionnaire which measured the adequacy of the following HRM
systems: career system (manpower planning and recruitment, potential assessment, career planning),
work system (role analysis, contextual analysis, performance appraisal), development system (training
and learning, performance guidance, knowledge sharing, other means of competency development),
self-renewal system (role efficacy, OD practices, action-oriented research), and HRD system (HRD
Social Sciences and Humanities
climate, organizational values, quality orientation, reward and recognition).
Findings – The results indicated a moderate rating for most of the HRM systems in all the
organizations including those with ISO certifications. However, ISO certified companies were perceived
to be doing better on managing career system, conducting contextual analysis for goal setting and
quality orientation. In the rest of the cases the differences were not significant.
Practical implications – The findings suggest that organizations need to go beyond quality
assurance to organization-wide quality management through improvement in HR systems and practices.
Originality/value – The paper provides empirical knowledge on HR systems and practices and the
relationship of these factors with organizational quest for quality in a developing economy.
P-97
Islamic Work Ethic and Organizational Justice as Mediator for
Transformational and Transactional leadership and Work
Outcomes
Arif Hassan, Wahibur Rokhman,Arif HassanWahibur Rokhman,Arif Hassan
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The current study explored the relationship between transformational leadership, organizational
justice, and work outcomes in a unique organizational context of microfinance institutions in Indonesia.
Specifically, this study examined the mediating role of distributive and procedural justice in linking
transformational leadership and job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention.
Survey data was consisted of 370 employees from 60 institutions of Islamic microfinance in Central
Java, Indonesia.
The empirical tests indicated that transformational leadership has significant effect on procedural and
distributive justice. Also, distributive and procedural justice has significant effect on all the three work
outcomes. Furthermore, distributive justice was found to have mediation effect in the relationship
between transformational leadership and organizational commitment and job satisfaction, but not for
turnover intention. However, the study did not find any significant mediating effect of procedural justice
on the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and turnover intention, but
significant on organizational commitment. Implication, limitation and suggestion for future research are
discussed.
P-98
Organisational Justice and Employee Work Engagement: LMX as
Mediator
Arif Hassan, Arif Hassan, Ibrahim Hizam Ali Al JubariArif Hassan, Ibrahim Hizam Ali Al Jubari
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study examines the role that organisational justice plays in determining employees’ work
engagement and the way quality of leader-subordinate relationship (LMX) mediates this association.
Data was obtained from an airline company from the Middle East. The sample consisted of 218
employees from several job levels who responded to a questionnaire measuring the study variables.
Results indicated that distributive and procedural justice perception promoted quality relationship
between leader and subordinate and higher quality of leader-subordinate relationship contributed to
employees’ work engagement. Among the three organisational justice factors, only interactional
justice was related to employee work engagement. The study found a full mediation effect of LMX on
interactional justice and employee work engagement.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-99
Role of Organizational Justice in Determining Work Outcomes of
National and Expatriate Academic Staff in Malaysia
Arif Hassan, Arif Hassan,Junaidah HashimArif Hassan,Junaidah Hashim
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Purpose - The study aimed to analyze the differences between national and expatriate academic staff
perception of organizational justice in Malaysian institutions of higher learning. It also explored the role
of organizational justice in shaping teaching faculties attitude (job satisfaction and commitment) and
behavioral intention (turnover intention).
Design/methodology/approach - The sample consisted of teaching staff belonging to several faculties
drawn from four public universities in Malaysia. Sample was divided into two groups – Malaysian
nationals with tenure appointments and expatriates with contractual appointments. Data were collected
using standardized tools to measure the study variables.
Findings – Except for job satisfaction where Malaysians recorded significantly higher endorsement
compared to expatriates, no significant difference was found between the two groups on perception of
distributive, procedural, and interactional aspects of organizational justice, as well as organizational
commitment and turnover intention. However, Malaysians demonstrated significantly higher level of
job satisfaction compared to expatriates. Different facets of organizational justice predicted work
outcomes in the two groups. Whereas, interactional and distributive justice promoted expatriates’
organizational commitment and/or intention to stay with the organization, it was mainly procedural
justice that contributed to local employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and
turnover intentions. Distributive justice also predicted turnover intentions of locals.
Implications – The study should add to the literature on international human resource management.
Organizations that employ expatriates and knowledge workers should benefit from the findings of this
study.
Originality – Not many empirical studies have been conducted on university academic staff s’
perception of organizational justice in Asian context, as also, how employment practices might
influence justice perception and resultant work outcomes of national citizens vs. expatriates. This study
attempts to fulfill the gap.
P-131
Determinants of Life Expectancy Among OIC Countries
Zarinah Hamid, Zarinah Hamid, Hengchao ZhangZarinah Hamid, Hengchao Zhang
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Life expectancy with respect to males and females vis-a-vis developed and developing countries vary
from one country to another. Life expectancy is broken down into two types, i.e. life expectancy of
remaining age (i.e. at a certain age) and life expectancy at birth. In this study the latter definition of life
expectancy is adopted as the first type has an added advantage of surpassing childhood, thus, it would
prove to be a bias selection. The research incorporates a stepwise multiple regression model to test the
impact of demographic, economic, educational, social, and geographic factors on mean life expectancy
for males and females born between 2000 and 2007 for 77 countries in the world and 22 selected OIC
countries. This study also compares the results across three subcategories of OIC countries namely Life
Expectancy for High Human Development OIC countries, Life Expectancy for Medium Human
Development OIC countries and Life Expectancy for Low Human Development OIC countries. Main
findings include GDP per capita and percentage of infants with low birth weight as significant
determinants to life expectancy. GDP per capita is found to be positively related to the life expectancy
model; while percentage of infants with low birth weight is negatively related to the model. The model
suggests that OIC member countries should focus on improving the aforementioned significant factors
to improve the life expectancy of their citizens. They must initiate policies that try to reduce and
Social Sciences and Humanities
eventually eliminate both absolute and relative poverty by raising income levels and increasing
employment opportunities for all people. These policies must facilitate the access of poor people to
land, physical capital, training and public amenities. At the same time a quality health care should be
provided to expectant mothers to ensure infant mortality rate is at the decreasing trend.
P-133
NON-REGISTRATION OF MUSLIM MARRIAGES IN
MALAYSIA: SOCIO LEGAL IMPLICATIONS
NORAINI MOHD HASHIM, DR ROSLINA CHE SOH, CO-RESEARCHERDR ROSLINA CHE SOH,
CO-RESEARCHER
ISLAMIC LAW DEPARTMENT,Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws
International Islamic University Malaysia
There are no single provisions found in the Al Qur´an or as Sunnah as relates to registration of
marriage, but there are equally no prohibitory provisions as well. The purpose of the enforcement of
registration is to remove the difficulty of proving the marriage. As such, the obligation to register
marriage is important as it is for the benefit (maslahah) and protection of the society at large. The effect
of unregistered marriage is not felt until and unless when the parties face matrimonial difficulties. The
SharÊÑah court has no jurisdiction to entertain their cases until it is proven that their marriage is
registered or deemed registered or valid according hukum shara´. Therefore, if the parties cannot
prove the validity of their marriage by the assistance of the person solemnizing the marriage or by the
witnesses of their marriage, the registration of the marriage will facilitate to prove the existence of their
marriage. This article is to establish the importance of registration and the effect of non-registration that
will lead to various socio-legal implications.
P-142
CREATING E-PORTFOLIO VIA FACEBOOK FOR ARABIC
LANGUAGE COURSE
Mohd Azrul Azlen Abd Hamid, Dr. Mohaida MohinDr. Mohaida Mohin
Quranic Language Department,Center for Language and Pre University Acad. Development
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nowadays, web technology has moved to the use of web 2.0 where the main value is on the social
network between the users. Based on the Horizon report (2007), the goal of social networking is to
provide a community-based website where the users could share personal experience and increase their
knowledge. Facebook is one of the most popular web 2.0 being used today. It is an application which
connects people and their friends as well as the people around them. At the same time, web 2.0 also can
be used for teaching and learning purposes like e-portfolio. E-portfolio is a collection of knowledge and
information in an electronic medium which portrays what the person knows and his capabilities. It is
used for various purposes such as analysis, career planning and documentation of learning. According to
Zubizaretta (2004), the real portfolio learning supposedly contains 3 basic components which are;
documentation, reflection and collaboration with teachers, students and communities which involved in
the learning process. Thus, the implementation of e-portfolio via Facebook is a step to overview
potentials of these two components over the learning process of the students. Integration between both
components is called as e-portfolio 2.0. The purposes of this study are to describe the process of
creating e-portfolio via Facebook in Arabic language learning and to explain students’ experiences
in using e-portfolio’s features in Facebook that help students learn Arabic language.
P-145
Form v. Substance in Islamic Banking and Financial Transactions
Muhammad Yusuf Saleem,
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
Social Sciences and Humanities
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper focuses on issues of form and substance in Islamic banking and financial transactions.
The paper critically examines the argument that compares Islamic banking products with permissible
(halal) foods, islamically slaughtered chickens, and properly concluded marriages. The paper argues that
these comparisons are misleading and cannot be maintained. It argues that a transaction establishes a
certain contractual relationship between the parties and entitles them to certain rights and obligations.
This paper concludes that issues related to substance in transactions are directly concerned with the
rights and obligations of the contracting parties. A transaction that in form complies with the
Shari’ah but not in substance has consequences for the contracting parties. It may entitle the
contracting parties to a set of rights and obligations different from the ones that are intended by the
Shari’ah. It concludes that a transaction that complies in words and forms with the Shari’ah but
deprives the parties of their rights and obligations cannot be defended on procedural grounds.
P-146
Methods and Methodologies in Fiqh and Islamic Economics
Muhammad Yusuf Saleem,
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper discusses the methodology and methods of reasoning in Fiqh and critically examines their
application to Islamic economics. The paper argues that Fiqh methods are mainly designed to find out
whether a certain act is permissible or prohibited for an individual. Islamic economics, on the other
hand, is a social science. Like any other social science its proper unit of analysis is the society itself and
not the individual. Methodologies of Fiqh and Islamic economics also differ as the former focuses on
prescriptions. It prescribes what an individual should do or avoid. In contrast, Islamic economics is
more concerned with describing economic realities. While Fiqh prescriptions are permanent in nature
and for all individuals, economic descriptions may change from time to time and from society to
society. This paper argues that the methods of reasoning for discovering the truth in fiqh and Islamic
economics are not necessarily identical. While fiqh has a well developed methodology and a set of
methods in the form of usul al-fiqh, Islamic economics in its search for finding the truth should rely on a
methodology and methods that suit its social and descriptive nature.
P-156
Assessment of Use Pattern, Needs, Preferences and Overall
Satisfaction to Determine the Quality Aspect of a Neighbourhood
Park
Nurhayati Abdul Malek, Nurhayati Abdul MalekNurhayati Abdul Malek
Department of Landscape Architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this study was to gain an increased understanding on the quality aspects of
neighbourhood green open spaces among Malaysian park users’. Hence, this research explores the
causal relationship between, Quality green open spaces (QGOS), Use patterns (U), Needs (ND),
Preferences (PR) and Overall satisfaction (OS) towards achieving a Quality Neighbourhood Park
Criteria (QNPC). A survey was administered to a sample of Malaysian neighbourhood park users’.
A total of 414 daily neighbourhood park user responded to the survey. Structural equation modeling
(SEM) technique was used to examine the hypothesized model of causal relationships among quality
green open spaces variables, use of outdoor venues, preferences towards outdoor activities, needs in
outdoor recreation as well as the overall satisfaction towards the neighbourhood green open spaces
using the AMOS 18 program. This study addresses the question of why does quality in green open
spaces or Neighbourhood Parks is needed? What are the evaluation criteria to determine the quality
aspect of Neighbourhood Parks?. The research argues that by integrating construct of quality green
open spaces, use, preference, needs and satisfaction will help to develop the quality aspect for
neighbourhood parks. The results of this study support a direct relationship between QGOS variables
(operative, ambience, landscape elements, facilities, accessibility and recreational elements) and OS
Social Sciences and Humanities
variables (satisfaction and dissatisfaction) towards the neighbourhood green open spaces. This study
also found a positive relationship between QGOS with U (passive and active usage & spaces utilized)
and OS with U. This study suggested that PR on Neighbourhood Park had significant direct effects on
QGOS as well as OS on PR (recreational preferences, design preferences, amenity preferences and
personal preferences). These results provide an important contribution in the sense that QGOS variable
may have various causal effects on the individual’s OS, U, PR and ND through subjective
perception of outdoor recreation in a Neighbourhood Parks.
P-157
Green Open Spaces Policy in Malaysia
Nurhayati Abdul Malek, Nurhayati Abdul MalekNurhayati Abdul Malek
Landscape Architecture,Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design
International Islamic University Malaysia
Housing development in Malaysia is bounded to obey several acts and legislation which among them
is the Planning Guidelines and Standards set out by the Town and Country Planning Department of
Malaysia. This guideline serves as a written statement that contains guides that become reference in
advancing any development. It is used by local planning authorities in controlling activities in land
development for uniform, comfortable and safe execution. Among the most important guidelines
closest to the policy in providing recreational area to a community is the Guideline on Recreation and
Open Spaces, under Act A933 (Garispanduan Tanah Lapang dan Rekreasi, Pindaan 1995, Akta (A933),
Seksyen 2(f), Bil No. 21/97 and The Town and Country Act, 172 (Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa,
1976 (Akta 172.). The policy also calls for recreational areas to be gazette and for their development to
be monitored, for environmentally sensitive areas to be protected and for green areas to be established
as buffer zones to limit urban development. However, the specific guidelines in developing
Neighbourhood Parks are hardly stated. Merely an indication of a general and very broad guideline
which stipulates a 10% of open spaces and recreation must be provided in any residential development,
commercial development as well as in industrial developments. This is what Malaysia is experiencing
now. Housing development especially in Malaysia has now grown to a stage where location relative to
the nearest park or green area contributes to the most highly regarded property. The easy access to a
park is essential in all property buyer’s minds in order to buy their dream home. Hence, this
research will explore the current Malaysian policy on green open spaces and how it could complement
the existing planning guidelines into developing a more user specific needs in all outdoor recreational
venues.
P-158
Family-Owned Businesses: Towards a Model of Succession Planning
in Malaysia
Moha Asri Abdullah, Moha Asri Abdullah, Zarinah Abdul Hamid, Junaidah HashimMoha Asri
Abdullah, Zarinah Abdul Hamid, Junaidah Hashim
Department of Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Succession planning for businesses is highly essential. The essence of succession planning is crucial
especially among small and medium businesses as they cannot afford to withstand various major
setbacks for continuity and sustainability in developing and developed countries alike. Malaysia is not
exceptional to this. This present paper focuses on succession planning in family-owned retailing and
manufacturing businesses of East Cost Economic Region (ECER) in Malaysia. This paper attempts to
delineate three succession issues in family business i.e., succession dilemma, successor attributes and
succession plan. This paper argues that to a certain extent, SME owners face some dilemmas while
various factors such as business challenges, managerial capabilities, trustworthiness, loyalty, flexibility
etc. are related to succession attributes. The findings generally indicate that the respondents agree to
adopt succession planning in their businesses even though only half of them have succession planning.
A positive relationship among succession planning, successor attributes and succession dilemma is
derived based on a correlation analysis. The succession planning model is established with successor
Social Sciences and Humanities
attributes and succession dilemma as the determinants for succession planning. This paper concludes a
few propositions for further research in succession planning of family-owned businesses in Malaysia
and other countries at large.
P-165
Cross Border Litigation in Islamic Banking and Finance
Dr. Md. Abdul Jalil, MD ABDUL JALIL, ABDUL HASEEB ANSARIMD ABDUL JALIL, ABDUL
HASEEB ANSARI
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Islamic banks in the world are performing very well in the financial market. They are complying with
Shar‘ah requirements while investing money in business. Nowadays, they are also investing money in
foreign countries. This is known as cross border financial transaction. There is some financial risk and
litigation problems in cross border transactions. If any dispute arises out of a cross border transaction, it
should be referred to a court or an arbitration. The burning issue in cross border litigation is that which
country’s court or arbitration centre will have jurisdiction to hear the dispute and give a decision or
award? Another problem that may arise in cross border litigation is that of conflict of laws and choice of
law issues. The parties involved in an international contract are from different countries. The applicable
laws might be substantially different between the contracting countries. In that situation the question of
which country’s law should be applied to solve the dispute is a complicated issue. When conflict of
laws and conflict of jurisdictions are involved, another related legal issue may arise regarding
enforcement of foreign judgments. In this paper these issues have been critically addressed and
pragmatic suggestions have been offered.
P-183
Isolation and structure elucidation of two new novel flavonoids and
antidiabetic activity of the leaves of Tetracera scandens Linn. in vivo
Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Qamar U. Ahmed,
Abdulrashid Umar,
Jalifah Latip,
B.B.S. Dogarai,
Siti Zaiton Mat SoadQamar U. Ahmed,
Abdulrashid Umar,
Jalifah Latip,
B.B.S. Dogarai,
Siti Zaiton Mat Soad
Pharmaceutical Chemistry,Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study investigated the anti-diabetic activity of polar and non-polar extracts of Tetracera
scandens Linn. leaves in alloxan induced diabetic and normal rats. Attempts were also made in order to
isolate therapeutically active compounds present in the potent extracts. Glucose levels in male albino
rats (Wister strain) with hyperglycemia induced by alloxan (160 mg/kg b.w.) were determined after oral
administration of aqueous (AQ) methanol (MEOH), butanol (BuOH), ethylacetate (EtOAc) and
dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the leaves of T. scandens L. Initially, four doses of AQ and MEOH
extracts (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w.) and later a fixed dose of 500mg/kg b.w of BuOH, EtOAc
and DCM extracts (sequentially fractionated from MEOH extract) were evaluated for antidiabetic
activity in vivo with respect to confirm biologically active compounds. All extracts exhibited significant
anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats, except DCM, however in normal rats no
hypoglycemic activity was observed by all extracts, when compared with both +ve & –ve controlled.
The antidiabetic activity was found to be comparable to that of the effect produced by glibenclamide
(0.25 mg/kg b.w.). The LD50 of both AQ and MEOH extracts was found to be more than 5000 mg/kg
body weight and no lethal toxicity was observed within this range among animals. Two new novel
flavonoids viz., 2,3,5,6,4’-pentahydroxystilbene-(4→O→4’’’)-kaempferol-3’’-
Social Sciences and Humanities
O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,8,3’,5’-pentahydroxyflavone were isolated. Besides,
kaempferol, quercetin, isoscutellarein, stigmasterol and betullinic acid were also isolated from
aforementioned extracts of the leaves of T. scandens L. which are being reported for the first time.
Abovementioned novel compounds could prove useful in the management of diabetes. This study also
provides scientific evidence about the leaves of T. scandens L. which possess antidiabetic agents and
further justifies its utility by the local herbalists to treat diabetes in Malaysia.
P-186
Ewo-person Second order games
Moussa Larbani, Moussa LarbaniMoussa Larbani
Business Admistration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
It is well known that human psychology determines his/her action and behavior. This fact has not
been fully incorporated in game theory. This paper intends to incorporate human psychology in
formulating games as people play them. In Part 1 of the paper, we formulate a two-person game by the
habitual domain theory and the Markov chains theory. Using the habitual domains theory, we present a
new model describing the evolution of the states of mind of players over time, the two-person secondorder game. We introduce the concept of the focal mind profile as well as the solution concept of the
win-win mind profile. In addition, we provide also a method to predict the average number of steps
needed for a game to reach a focal or win-win mind profile. Then, in Part 2 of the paper, under some
reasonable assumptions, we derive the possibility theorem stating that it is always possible to reach a
win-win mind profile when suitable conditions are satisfied.
P-195
Dentistry Throughout the Ages (Poster)
Muhamad Husain Kassim BAZIRGAN, Muhamad Husain Kassim BAZIRGANMuhamad Husain
Kassim BAZIRGAN
Prosthetic,Kulliyyah of Dentistry
International Islamic University Malaysia
Dentistry Throughout the Ages (Poster)
The poster (1mX 1.5 M ) illustrates the developmental stages of Dentistry as a Profession treating
mankind. It demonstrates the evolution process that took place since the early ancient civilization up to
our modernize contemporary days going through five historical eras. 1- Ancient civilization such as the
Mesopotamia , Egyptian and others . 2- Islamic Culture and the Prophet Muhammad SAW
recommendations regarding importance of WUDO, as well as the role of the Muslim Scholars in
treating dental patients and their discoveries. 3- Medieval centuries mainly in the action of the Barbers
in dealing with dentistry. 4- The nineteenth century , where the development of the ideas and practice of
modern dentistry took over. 5- Modern dentistry , pinpointing the achievement of the modern
contemporary Dentistry practice to mankind.
The poster has got more than 60 illustrations photographs clarifying the basics on which dentistry
was founded upon in addition to the steps through which the modern dentistry has developed , with
comparative facts to identify the evolutionary stages of the profession.
The poster is so arrange to give an idea about the life span of the dental profession which could be of
insert for the dental students , dental institutes and faculties as well as dental patient give answers to
many questions that can arise regarding the mysteries of the dental professions to justify the
fundamentals of the profession regarding the discoveries and inventions that took place course which
makes dentistry look like on what it is now a day ; motivating the new generation to keep up within this
course for further improvements of Dentistry.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-223
Perceived Usefulness of Environmental Information in
Stakeholders’ Decisions
Ridzwana Mohd Said, Ridzwana Mohd Said, Maliah Sulaiman, Nik Nazli Nik AhmadRidzwana Mohd
Said, Maliah Sulaiman, Nik Nazli Nik Ahmad
Accounting,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Pressure for companies to be accountable to wider stakeholders has encouraged companies to report
non-financial information including information on employees, products and the environment. Although
commendable, it costs companies time, energy and money. Accordingly, the information should be of
value to corporate preparers and stakeholders. This study examined the perceived usefulness of
environmental information of two stakeholder groups, namely, fund managers and bank lending
officers. Normative pressure of institutional theory was used whereby the educational background and
professional training received by the fund managers and bank lending officers may influence their
perception on environmental information in decision-making. It is expected that these two groups of
stakeholders perceive environmental information as not important or useful due to their educational
background which emphasizes technical rather than ethical information such as environmental
information. Additionally, both groups are two different professional and thus received different
trainings. Thus, it is expected that the degree of importance concerning environmental information
perceived by the two groups may be different. The degree of usefulness of environmental information is
dependent upon the characteristics of a company and characteristics of environmental information. The
companies’ characteristics are measured by the environmental sensitivity and environmental
attributes of the company. The characteristics of environmental information are measured by the type,
form, medium and location of environmental disclosure. A survey questionnaire was used to gather
data. A total of 59 (fund managers) and 54 (bank lending officers) questionnaires were completed. The
results reveal that both groups rated many environmental items as important. Meanwhile, the results of
Mann-Whitney U tests on differences between groups were not significant. Overall, the results partly
support the normative pressure of institutional theory. The present study makes a significant
contribution to environmental reporting research, companies and practitioners in Malaysia.
P-242
RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND FINANCIAL
PERFORMANCE OF ISLAMIC BANKS: MALAYSIAN
EVIDENCE
NORAINI MOHD ARIFFIN, Associate Professor Dr. Salina Hj KassimAssociate Professor Dr. Salina
Hj Kassim
ACCOUNTING,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Banking is a risky business and several risk factors such as credit, liquidity, operational and market
risks have been identified for close monitoring to ensure that the banks position remain intact. Indeed,
the survival and success of a financial organization depends critically on the efficiency of managing
these risks (Khan and Ahmed, 2001). More importantly, good risk management is one of the critical
factors in providing better returns to the shareholders (Akkizidis and Khandelwal, 2007; Al-Tamimi and
Al-Mazrooei, 2007). In addition, prudent risk management by financial institutions is the hallmark to
avoid financial distress that could lead to a full blown financial crisis. In view of this, the issue of risk
management in the financial institutions is a topic of interest not only to the industry players, but also
the policy makers. This study aims to analyze the relationship between risk management practices and
financial performance in the Islamic banks in Malaysia. In achieving this objective, the study assesses
the current risk management practices of the Islamic banks and links them with the financial
performance of the banks. The study uses both the primary (survey questionnaire) and secondary data
(annual reports). The results of the study shed some lights on the current risk management practices of
the Islamic banks in Malaysia. By assessing the current risk management practices of the Islamic banks
and link them with financial performance, the study hopes to contribute in terms of recommending
strategies to strengthen the risk management practices of the Islamic banks so as to increase the overall
Social Sciences and Humanities
competitiveness in the Islamic banking industry.
P-248
IT Outsourcing decisions and implementations in Malaysia public
healthcare agencies. Grounding a holistic ITO relationship model
using mixed-method approach
Abdul Rahman Ahlan, Abdul Rahman Ahlan, Yusri ArshadAbdul Rahman Ahlan, Yusri Arshad
Department of Information System,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study presents an interpretive empirical multiple case studies of the ITO relationships
experience in Malaysian public health sector agencies. Specifically, it investigates on motivators for
ITO decisions, difficulties and challenges in ITO implementations, critical factors for effective
relationship, resources competences and capabilities and relationship exchange in ITO arrangements. It
integrates qualitative and quantitative method in one research design. This includes: (1) a single pilot
exploratory case study and (2) a multiple case study of four agencies, followed by (3) preliminary model
specification, (4) a survey and (5) final discussion and model development. The rich evidence from the
main qualitative findings is used to build a grounded theory. They are also used to formulate a
conceptual model for the survey. Hence, the result of case study research (CSR) and grounded theory
(GT) of mixed/multi-method study is presented. Based on in-depth grounded analysis and triangulation,
a holistic ITO relationship model for better practices in the management of ITO relationships is
developed. In addition, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is illustrated for suitable application in
public sector ITO decisions. The case agencies adopted ITO for various reasons including technological,
economic and business benefits, particularly access to external superior technical resources competences
and capabilities. The agencies can channel limited internal resources to focus on core businesses of
healthcare functions and services. Public sector is well-known for its structured hierarchical
organisation. Proper committees were formed to evaluate on ITO decisions and implementations.
Selective ITO is common in public sector. Service providers were only involved in non-strategic areas
such as IT infrastructure and systems development. This study finds that most difficulties and
challenges in ITO were due to human factors and IT technical aspects did not cause major problems.
Inter and intra relationship management is crucial in those cases. For a holistic ITO relationship model,
the study summarises ITO strategy, due diligence, structure, stakeholders, contracts/SLAs, governance,
resources competences and capabilities, working relationship context, project management and
knowledge management as the critical elements in ITO relationship efficacious process.
P-250
Authentic leadership among academic administration at the
International Islamic University Malaysia
Khadijah Opatokun, Opatokun Khadijah, Dr Che Noraini HashimOpatokun Khadijah, Dr Che Noraini
Hashim
,Institute of Education
International Islamic University Malaysia
P-275
A Comparative Study on Performance Measurement Practices
between the Malaysian and British Central Government
Nur Anisah Abdullah, Dr. Nur Anisah Abdullah, Feroza AhamedyuDr. Nur Anisah Abdullah, Feroza
Ahamedyu
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper aims to make a comparison between the findings of two particular research work:
Performance Measurement in British Central Government and Performance measurement in Malaysian
Central Government. Surveys and questionnaires were used in order to understand performance
Social Sciences and Humanities
measurement practices in the two countries studied. Results from both studies showed that the majority
of the respondents indicated that their performance measurement systems are “adequate― for their
needs, whereas approximately 40% and 7% respectively rated the effectiveness level as “good―
and “excellent―, respectively. Results from both researches have shown that the most common
approach to performance measurement is the use of key performance indicator (KPI). The main
difference between performance measurement in the British and the Malaysian central government
seems to be in the implementation process where for the former, “senior management― was
assigned the responsibility to carry out the task, while as in the latter, “employees― were the group
most involved in the implementation process. The other difference lies in the underlying reason for
measuring performance, where in the British central government the reason was external reporting,
while in the Malaysian central government, long-term planning was the most significant reason.
P-296
Causality relationship between electricity consumption and
economic activity in Malaysia
Mohd Aminul Islam, Mohd Aminul IslamMohd Aminul Islam
Computational & Theoretical Sciences,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study examines the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the
per capita real GDP in Malaysia over the period 1971-2007. In this bivariate model, the employment is
incorporated as an intermittent variable to test the relationship within a trivariate causality model. By
applying the bounds testing approach to cointegration and vector error correction model, we investigate
the existence of a long run cointegration relationship between the electricity consumption and the
economic growth in Malaysia. To test for Granger causality in the presence of cointegration among the
variables, we employ a vector error correction model. We choose to apply ARDL bounds testing
approach in this study based on the grounds that this approach is more suitable for small sample
observations like ours and also capable of testing for the existence of a long run relationship regardless
of whether the underlying time series are I(0) or I(1) or a mixture of both. The test established the
existence of a unique cointegration relationship between the per capita electricity consumption,
employment and the per capita real GDP when the per capita real GDP is used as a dependent variable.
The result suggests that there is a long run unidirectional causality from the per capita electricity
consumption to the per capita real income and the source of causation is the error correction terms. The
result has significant policy implications from the point of view of the expansion of the electricity
infrastructure as demanded by the country’s economic development and the energy conservation for
emission reduction.
P-297
The Knowledge in Knowledge management
IBRAHIM SHOGAR, Dr. IBRAHIM SHOGARDr. IBRAHIM SHOGAR
COMPUTATIONAL AND THEORETICAL SCIENCES,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
The Knowledge in Knowledge management:Towards Effective Management of all Types of
Knowledge
In this competitive world, quality and successful of life is based on intellectual value of its agent
“individual or organization―. The significant role played by the knowledge for the organizational
life and human development, even became more serious in current global era. In such situation research
efforts in the area of knowledge technologies will contribute to the development of the knowledge
systems, transforming the existing norms of today to active learning environments for next generations.
The major theme of this article, “The Knowledge in Knowledge management― is to emphasize the
necessity of the effective management of all types of knowledge. However, to achieve the level of
effective behavior required for competitive excellence, the entire body of knowledge must be
considered. That will be possible only when we know what “knowledge― is? And what types of
knowledge are?
Social Sciences and Humanities
In this presentation, the nature and philosophical dimensions of the term “knowledge― and
its importance to the organizations has been examined. However, the most important dimension of the
article is to analysis the various types of knowledge concepts, categories, and how it relates to each
other. The presentation also has explained why effective Knowledge management is valuable, as well as
the interdisciplinary nature of knowledge management.
The presentation has concluded that, Knowledge and other intellectual capital components, are
serve two vital functions within the enterprise: first, they form the fundamental resources for effective
functioning; and second, they provide valuable assets for successful work of organization. Therefore,
advanced knowledge management should rely on new approaches that integrate theoretical and abstract
perspectives of epistemology and cognitive sciences with the pragmatic considerations of expertise
required to conduct the work and the technical directions of information management and technology.
This shall prove that people are the intelligent agents that create and act on new opportunities; it is those
opportunities that will bring the human communities forward.
P-312
Status And Implications OF PROMISE (WA'D) FROM
SHARI’AH AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVES
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH,
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper analyzes the status and implications of promise (wa’d) in Islamic banking practices
and the extent of its enforceability in the court of law. The analysis highlights the concept of Wa’d,
its application and limitation in the present practices. Analysis of conceptual nature and status of
promise is made in the light of classical and contemporary juristic rulings (ijtihad and ifta’).
Illustrations of three main Islamic banking products structured based on wa`d principle are discussed to
shed some lights in understanding the issues surrounded the practice. This study reveals that the usage
of wa’d is allowed by contemporary jurists as a necessity for the interest of the contracting parties.
The paper admits the importance of wa’d which has become an innovative tool in structuring many
forward contracts that require flexibility with full commitment of the parties involved without
jeopardizing the basic principles and maqasid Al-Shari’ah. The paper also highlights that the right of
promissee is well protected in both Shari’ah and civil law, and also enforceable in the court of law.
The analysis of this study reveals that wa’d has direct implications in determining the Shari’ahcompliancy of particular Islamic banking products in two aspects; firstly, promise and other related
undertakings are not integral to the main contract; secondly, the promise should not include a bilateral
promise that is binding on both parties, unless if there is an option to cancel the promise which may be
exercised by any of the parties. This research will be of interest to both incumbent and potential
practitioner as well as researcher in the area of Islamic finance. The paper presents an objective view on
the implication of wa’d in Islamic banking practices based on facts and Shari’ah rulings. It will
indeed be a material guideline to the industry player who directly adopts wa’d in many Islamic
products.
P-313
Case Studies of the Practise of Nomination and Hibah of Malaysian
Takaful Operators
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH, Nazliatul Aniza Abdul AzizNazliatul Aniza Abdul Aziz
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Nomination is a process whereby a policyholder who purchases the insurance policy should name
someone to benefit from the policy in the event of the policyholder’s death. Nomination is
purposely performed to ensure the beneficiaries receive the takaful benefits promptly. The current
practice of nomination clause in family takaful operation is basically vague because Takaful Act 1984
does not expressly provide any rule to that effect. This study aims to examine the status of nominee for
Social Sciences and Humanities
Muslim participant and Non-Muslim participant in the family takaful as stipulated in the takaful
nomination form. It is significant to clarify the status of the nominee either a beneficiary or an executor
in order to avoid any misconception among the legal heirs in the future. Besides, the study also seeks to
assess how far the related concept of hibah to the nomination in the family takaful is currently
implemented by the takaful operators in Malaysia. Hibah seems to be an alternative for Muslim
participant to allocate the takaful benefits to the right beneficiaries without adhering to the Islamic law
of inheritance (faraid). This study adopts the document analysis to identify whether the takaful
nomination form is standardized and clarified in respect of the status of the nominee for each takaful
operator in Malaysia. Samples of eight licensed takaful operators are selected in this study. The results
of this study found that the takaful nomination form is not standardized among all the takaful operators.
The status of nominee is not clarified in some of takaful nomination form either as a beneficiary or an
executor. In additions, the application of hibah seems to violate the nature of hibah itself as hibah should
take place during the lifetime of the participant. This study concludes and proposes some
recommendation for takaful operators to provide better and enhanced implementation of nomination and
hibah in family takaful.
P-321
The Adoption Of Corporate Governance Principles By Islamic
Banks In OIC Countries: A Comparative Analysis Of The AAOIFI,
BCBS, OECD & IFSB Guiding Principles
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH, Fatima Omotayo SalamiFatima Omotayo Salami
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
In the Islamic banking system, the issue of governance has been in existence since the concept of
interest-free banking was implemented based on the Shari’ah law and principles. Shari’ah
compliance is the fundamental aim in an Islamic banking system and it gives authenticity to the
practicality of the Islamic banks. The issue of regulating and supervising the Islamic banks has been in
line with corporate governance and it is essential that every Islamic bank incorporate the principles of
corporate governance into their systems. Corporate governance has gained prominence over the last two
decades especially in the conventional banks due to the cases of lack of disclosure, inadequate
transparency, internal and external conflict of interests, et cetera. Therefore, the Islamic banking system
cannot escape from these corporate ills and in as much as the Islamic banks already have the abiding
factor from the Shari’ah law incorporated into the supervisory division, the need to address the
principles of corporate governance in the Islamic banks is crucial. This research aims on the measures
that could aid in the fortification of the Islamic banks and these measures, proper market discipline,
moral integrity and an appropriate socio-political environment that are in line with the Islamic financial
institutions, without excluding transparency and disclosure from the management are integrated into the
guiding principles of corporate governance that have been reviewed and implemented in the Islamic
banking system. The review of the principles of corporate governance with respect to the banking
industry is examined and they are the Organization of Economic Countries (OECD), the Basel
Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). These
three bodies have similarities and yet differences in their outlook towards the principles of corporate
governance in the banking industry and to be specific, IFSB is the only organizing body that has an
outlined principles of corporate governance in the Islamic banking industry. The use of a qualitative
research method to analyze the corporate governance in the Islamic banks will give an in-depth
evaluation of the challenges facing the Islamic banks in Malaysia.
P-322
Comparison In Accounting Practices Among The Takaful Providers
In Malaysia- A Comparative Analysis
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH, Noor Aimi PuadNoor Aimi Puad
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
The regulatory and accounting framework used by takaful firms is still at an earlier stage of
development than the one that used by equivalent conventional insurance. As to fulfill the needs of
takaful industry, accounting regulations continue to require development to cope with their unique
features. For some firms, guidance is currently provided by a number of sources; for example,
International Financial Reporting Standards, the Malaysia Accounting Standard Boards (MASB), the
Accounting and Auditing Organizations for Islamic Financial Institutions ,or by regulators(for example,
Bank Negara Malaysia). This research attempts to identify the current practice of accounting standards
among all the takaful providers in Malaysia.
P-325
Critical Evaluation on Takaful Agents’ Understanding towards
the Concepts and Practice of Takaful
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH, Siti Salwani Razali, Marhanum Md. SallehSiti Salwani
Razali, Marhanum Md. Salleh
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study aim to scrutinize the agent’s ability in terms of their understanding towards the
concepts and practice of Takaful. It is undeniable that the agents must possess optimum skills to market
the Takaful products, but the most prominent thing is their understanding or knowledge towards the
theoretical and practical part of Takaful products. Without a proper and right understanding on the
products offered, the objectives of Takaful as an Islamic financial product will not successfully
achieved.
The new knowledge-based economy requires the industry to be seriously focusing on the
development of professional personnel equipped with the technical knowledge as well as Shariah
appreciation. In order to make such dreams come true, an empirical finding must be reach to identify the
level of understanding among the Takaful agents. Besides that, further evaluation will be conduct to
identify if there are any differences exist in the level of understanding for both Muslim and NonMuslims agents. Further endeavor from any authority parties should be done ones the results of the
study was reveal. The data collection process for the study is through a set of questionnaires distributes
among five hundred (500) agents of eight Takaful operators in Klang Valley. Additionally, statistical
analysis such as descriptive, logistic, and regressions analysis will be performed to obtain a real and
valuable data for the evaluation purposes. In terms of contributions, the empirical results of this study
will help the industry players especially the Takaful operators to enhance their agents’
understanding towards the realization of well-knowledge workers. Eventually, it also worth to the other
parties to put efforts on the provider side in order to increase the level of understanding and awareness
among the public on Takaful because it was proven that the public possessed low level of understanding
and awareness towards the Takaful scheme recently.
P-327
The Dynamic of International Competitiveness and Specialization
Gairuzazmi Mat Ghani,
Economics,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The paper proposes a multi-sectoral growth model that links Kaldorian framework to an evolutionary
modeling of technical change and industrial dynamics. We then use the framework developed to
consider the possible relationship between income differences among countries to the ratio of export and
import elasticity of demand, and patterns of sectoral specialization.
P-328
The Concept Of Hire-Purchase In The Light Of The Malaysian
Hire-Purchase Act 1967 And English Hire-Purchase Act 1965: A
Comparative Study
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH,
Social Sciences and Humanities
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Hire-purchase transaction has been a desirable method of acquiring property by consumers who
cannot afford to pay the full price in lump sum. It becomes a popular transaction because it confers
certain benefits to both parties; the owner and the hirer. In the early days when there was no specific
statute regulating this transaction, it was governed by the general principle of contract law as well as the
Sale of Goods Act as an agreement to sell. Consequently, consumers in the hire-purchase transactions
were generally disfavoured as standard hire-purchase agreements drafted by the owners’ solicitor
were often burdened heavily against them. The reason was that there was no legal guideline and rule
specifying the manners in which a hire-purchase transaction should be carried out. Subsequently, when
hire-purchase transactions became more far-flung as a “harmless― method of acquiring property,
the authorities thought it was necessary to provide a proper law to govern this fast-growing practice. As
a result, the Hire-Purchase Act was enacted. The Act attempted to redress the imbalance to some extent
by conferring rights and imposing obligations in respect of certain largely consumer transactions. The
discussion will be mainly made in the light of the Malaysian Hire Purchase Act 1967 with special
reference to the Common law of England and the English Hire Purchase Act 1965. Both laws have
significantly been governing rules and major references to many countries including Malaysia
P-330
Brand Personality And Perceived Quality On Customer Retention
Of Islamic Banks, Malaysia: Examining Attitude Towards Islamic
Banking From Customers’ Perspective
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH, Dr. Kalthom Abdullah, A.K.M. Ahasanul Haque, Ismah
OsmanDr. Kalthom Abdullah, A.K.M. Ahasanul Haque, Ismah Osman
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The Islamic banking scenario which is now becoming more competitive, particularly when Malaysia
has announced its interest on becoming Islamic financial hub of the region, has indeed driven the need
to conduct research on corporate brand personality and its enhancement on customers’ retention of
the banks offering Islamic banking products and services. Hence this study would focus on
customers’ perceptions towards the full-pledged banks and Islamic subsidiaries particularly on their
brand personality, and its impact on image, service quality, satisfaction, loyalty and finally retention.
Brand personality is deemed important as one way to differentiate a banking brand from its competitors,
apart from having an emotional bonding. In addition, examining customers’ attitudes towards
Islamic banking would be very vital in order to evaluate their understanding of Islamic banking after
more than 25 years of its establishment. Relatively, it is important to examine whether this attitude
would moderate the relationships of the variables involves. Accordingly, structural equation modeling
would be used to analyze correlation between those variables. Such findings is hoped to boost the
image of the banks, in addition towards efficiency and effectiveness of the marketing strategy and its
corporate branding. Ostensibly, this would in turn improve the banks’ competitiveness, and long
term profitability in ensuring their survival in this very robust industry
P-332
Islamic Hire-Purchase In Malaysian Financial Institutions: A
Comparative Analytical Appraisal
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH,
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study aims to examine the Islamic hire-purchase operation in the light of both HPA and the new
proposed Bill. Thorough examination and analysis would help identifying potential strengths and
weaknesses inherent in the HPA and how the proposed Islamic Bill could provide remedies to these
various impediments, and subsequently become an alternative regulation to govern the Islamic hirepurchase transaction. To further illuminate our understanding of the actual operation of Islamic hirepurchase, this study incorporates in-depth interviews together with a questionnaire survey. A total of 46
Social Sciences and Humanities
in-depth interviews have been conducted on Islamic bankers, Sharīáh advisors, Sharīáh scholars,
economists, legal experts and government officers. This is further complemented by a country-wide
questionnaire survey successfully obtained from 203 customers, aiming at eliciting their perceptions and
expectations towards Islamic hire-purchase products. The combination of theoretical discussion on
Islamic hire-purchase together with the empirical surveys using both qualitative and quantitative
methodology should throw light on the Malaysian regulatory system of AITAB and help in its reevaluation. The findings of this study reveal the need to incorporate Sharīáh principles into the
existing Hire-Purchase Act 1967, instead of establishing an independent Sharīáh law to govern the
Islamic hire-purchase operation. It also reveals that customers of Islamic financial institutions in
Malaysia have generally positive views of AITAB. Among the most important reflections of their
positive attitude is that AITAB is perceived as a Sharīáh-compliant product and provide
convenience in terms of its documentation, procedures and processing.
P-337
A Synthesis of Shari’ah Issues and Market Challenges in the
Application of Wa’d (undertaking) in Equity-based Sukuk
NURDIANAWATI IRWANI ABDULLAH, Shabnam MokhtarShabnam Mokhtar
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Sukuk is a financial innovation structured by investment expert and Muslim scholars that aims to
facilitate project financing. It should serves as a mean to provide liquidity for investors and a source of
financing to finance huge investment similar to conventional bonds. One unique feature of sukuk that
differs from conventional bonds is that it represents a certificate of ownership shares of the assets being
financed in any investment vehicles. Unlike with conventional bonds, sukuk holders are deemed to be
owners of the underlying assets in the sukuk fund and therefore should be exposed to the risk associated
with those assets as well as the profit. In this case, sukuk is aimed to promote equitable distribution of
wealth between partners and justice in circulation of income without increasing domination of wealth in
the hands of wealthy persons. However, a more stringent rules and regulations which were set up for the
Islamic banks have made sukuk less competitive as compared to the less regulated structure which has
more flexibility. An altered version of sukuk structure is being introduced not so much by the
requirements of syariah but because of unfair competition in the market. Shariah-compliance sukuk are
claimed to be outperformed by the conventional counterparts. As most of initial takers are the people
who are very much involved and agitated by the incentives of conventional bonds offering, the sukuk
arrangers and issuers tend to structure and innovate as many as attractive investment instruments with
sorts of Islamic instruments terms that have two conventional bond requirements; fixed and guarantee of
returns to ensure that the musyarakah or mudharabah investments are profitable to attract Muslims rich
funders. How these conventional instruments are legalized in these Islamic equity based financing? It is
structured with the application of wa’ad (purchase undertaking). Therefore, this study aims to shed
light on the use of this wa’ad mechanism and on the extent to which this comply with the teaching
of Islamic jurisprudence and its principles.
P-339
Factors Influencing Consumers’ Perception in the Choice of
Consumers’ Products: A SEM Approach on Malaysian
Consumers’
A.K.M Ahasanul Haque belal, Assoc. Prof. Dr. A.K.M Ahasanul Haque, Muhammad Sabbir Rahman,
Assoc.Prof. Noorhazilah Abd. Manaf
Assoc. Prof. Dr. A.K.M Ahasanul Haque, Muhammad Sabbir Rahman, Assoc.Prof. Noorhazilah Abd.
Manaf
Business adminstartion,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The overall purpose of this study is to identify the perception of Malaysian customers’ in the
choice of products and marketing practices. A total of 300 usable surveys were obtained from the
university’s students from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In addition exploratory factor analysis,
Social Sciences and Humanities
confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling was applied to proof the hypotheses in
this study. The research results highlighted that the Malaysian consumers’ are very much influence
by ethnocentrism and their demographic background before they purchase any products. The results of
this Research also suggest that a significant proportion of consumers’ are not interested in countryof-origin, brand image, product quality information before making a purchase decision.
P-343
Factor Influencing Malay Muslim Consumers’ to Purchase
foreign goods: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Religiosity and Ethnocentrism perspectives.
A.K. M Ahasanul Haque Belal, Assoc. Prof. Dr. A.K.M Ahasanul Haque, Sabbir Rahman, Prof. Dr.
Mohd Ismail Sayyed AhmadAssoc. Prof. Dr. A.K.M Ahasanul Haque, Sabbir Rahman, Prof. Dr. Mohd
Ismail Sayyed Ahmad
department of business administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between religiosity and consumers
ethnocentrism towards (Malay Muslim Consumers’) to Purchase foreign goods. This research also
highlighted some proposition to test future empirical research. A total of 450 questionnaires were
distributed for measuring the relationship between religiosity and ethnocentrism towards the purchase
behavior of Malay Muslim consumers’ in Klang Valley area. A total of 300 questionnaires were
valid and tested for further statistical analysis through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) confirmatory
factor analysis (CFA). Furthermore, structural equation modeling technique (SEM) was applied for
testing the hypotheses. Among all the significant variables, religiosity behavior plays the most
significant factor among our respondents followed by ethnocentrism attitude to purchasing foreign made
products. The results of this research suggested that a significant proportion of Malay Muslim
consumers’ are interested in country-of-origin information before making a purchase decision of
foreign goods. The added value of this paper is to link between theory and practice, and explore the
religiosity and ethnocentrism behavior on Malay Muslim consumers’ purchase decisions.
P-346
Exploring influencing factors for the selection of mobile phone
service providers: A structural equational modeling (SEM)
approach on Malaysian consumers'
Dr. A.K.M Ahasanul Haque belal, Sabbir Rahman, Ahasanul Haque, Mohd Ismail Sayyed
AhmadSabbir Rahman, Ahasanul Haque, Mohd Ismail Sayyed Ahmad
business adminstration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The aim of this paper is to assess the factors that have played significant role to select
telecommunication service providers. A survey instruments were employed on Malaysian mobile phone
operator’s consumers’ included by demographic background, price, service quality, service
availability and promotion. Data were collected from the consumers’ of three mobile phone
operator’s from major cities in Malaysia. To determine the factors and examining their relationship
of those factors towards the consumer’s perception in selecting an operator’s services. This
research has applied exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation
modeling for testing hypotheses.
From the result it is revealed price or call rate is the most important factor followed by service
quality, service availability and promotion. It is hoped that the findings of this study will assist the
mobile phone industry of Malaysia in what they can produce in their services and how they want to
promote
their services as well. The findings of this study also assist mobile phone operator’s managers to
invest their resources more efficiently, making changes to crucial quality attributes that elicit the
consumer’s satisfaction level. However, the findings of this study may provide needed feedback and
contribute to the improvement of players’ strategy and their marketing program. The study only
included information of limited variables and from few cities in Malaysia with limited sample size.
However, further research should be considered to gather more information regarding the brand image,
Social Sciences and Humanities
corporate image, and customers’ satisfaction dimensions in context of the Malaysian mobile phone
operators with larger sample.
P-364
Cross-Cultural Training, Expatriate Self-Efficacy, and Adjustments
to Overseas Assignments: An Empirical Investigation
AAhad Osman-Gani, AAhad M. Osman-Gani, Thomas RockstuhlAAhad M. Osman-Gani, Thomas
Rockstuhl
Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This paper presents the findings of an empirical study that investigated the relationship
between cross-cultural training (CCT) effectiveness, self-efficacy, and adjustment of
expatriate managers in Asia. Responses of 169 managers from four different national
backgrounds, all currently on overseas assignments in Asia, indicate that the relationship
between CCT effectiveness and adjustment is mediated by an increase in self-efficacy.
Implications of the findings for professional practice and for future research are discussed.
P-366
Islam and Globalization (العولمة
والعالمية في ضوء سنن الله
الكونية)
IBRAHIM SHOGAR, DR. IBRAHIM SHOGARDR. IBRAHIM SHOGAR
COMPUTATIONAL AND THEORETICAL SCIENCES,Kulliyyah of Science
International Islamic University Malaysia
ABSTRACT
هذا البحث دراسة ٝي آليات التعامل مع
العولمة
والتٝاعل
معها،
حيث
ناقشت
بأسلوب تحليلي مقارن هذه الآليات من
منظور
سنن
الله
الكونية
ٝي
التداٝع
الحضاري بين الأمم المنضبط بشرعة الدين
وقانون
الٝطرة
،
والنظرة
الإنسانية
الوضعية
التي
تَطْغَى
أَنْ
رَآها
اسْتَغْنَت ، ٝقد دار مركز البحث حول
ثلاثة محاور أساسية: محور نظرية (تصادم
الحضارات)، التي تقنن لخيار المواجهة
والعنٝ، بإعتبار ذلك هو الأسلوب الأمثل
لقيام علاقات الأمم ٝي ظل (العولمة). وقد
تمت مناقشة هذه الأطروحة بمنهج وسط بين
الرٝض التام والقبول المطلق، ٝتم إثبات
ما ٝيه من الحق وتزييٝ ما ٝيه من الباطل
ودحضه، وٝق النظرة القرآنية. والمحور
الثاني تمثل ٝي نموذج الحوار الذي هو
مبدأ قرآني ٝي الأساس للتعامل مع الآخر
بصورة عامة، وإن كان قد ينحاز المسلم
إلى منهج التداٝع من أجل حماية الدعوة
والدٝاع عن العٝرض والعَرض، ضد قوى البغي
والظلم والطغيان. ولذلك تم تحديد أهم
المبادئ القرآنية العامة التي تهدي إلى
الاسغلال الأمثل للعولمة. وقد تبين من
خلال هذا المحور أيضاً دور عنصر الزمن ٝي
التداٝع
الحضاري،
وأهمية
إختيار
الأسلوب
الأمثل
للتٝاعل
مع
العولمة
والتأثير ٝيها، حيث جرت دراسة تحليلية
لسنن التاريخ التي تجلت من خلال (بدر)
و(الأحزاب ) و(يوم حنين)، لٝهم المنهج
Social Sciences and Humanities
الإلهي ٝي التداٝع الحضاري بين خياري:
الحوار أو المجاهدة أو الجمع بينهما. ٝقد
جري كل ذلك بحثاً عن أمثل الآليات للتٝاعل
مع العولمة وصياغتها وتشكيلها، ٝتبين
من
خلال
المحور
الثالت
أن
المدخل
الإقتصادي هو الأمثل، لذلك تم تقديم
المقترحات التي قد تسهم ٝي الدٝع بالتي هي
أحسن ٝي العلاقات الإقتصادية والتجارية
ٝي نظام العولمة. وقد خلص البحث، ضمن
نتائج أخري، إلى أن العولمة هي المقدمة
الطبيعية للظهور الكلي لدين الإسلام، إن
عمل
مسلمون
لها
وأحسنوا
استغلالها.
وسيكون ذلك لأن المسلمين سيتعرضون لمزيد
من المجابهات والتحديات، من قبل نظام
القطب الواحد، الأمر الذي سيدٝعهم من
جانب آخر إلى المزيد من التشبث بهويتهم
الثقاٝية والدينية، ٝيؤدي بهم إلى
اكتشاٝ الذات والنهضة، وهو الأمر الذي
كان
غائباً
ٝي
نظام
القطبين.
إذن
الاستٝزازات التي يتعرض لها المسلمون ،
وهم مأجورون عليها بإذن الله تعالى،
ستعّجل بالظهور الكلي للإسلام كحضارة
عالمية
بديلة،
بشرط
الإستجابة
لهذه
التحديات بطريقة علمية مدروسة.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-368
Factors Influencing Consumer Ethical Decision Making of
Purchasing Pirated Software: Structural Equation Modeling on
Malaysian Consumers.
A K M Ahasanul Haque belal, Ahasanul Haque, Sabbir Rahman, Ali KhatibiAhasanul Haque, Sabbir
Rahman, Ali Khatibi
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study explores the factors influencing consumer ethical decision making when purchasing
pirated software. 300 questionnaires were distributed among potential respondents for this study, of
which 250 were returned. After completing the screening process, only 200 responses were considered
complete and valid to undergo data analysis. In this study, exploratory factor analysis was used to
identify the salient attributes that impact consumer ethical decision making when purchasing pirated
software. In addition, SEM (structural Educational Modeling) was employed to identify the relationship
among the variables. The results of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between
consumer moralities, social influence, and consumer moral judgment towards the consumer ethical
decision making when purchasing pirated software. The outcome of this research showed a
comprehensively integrated framework allowing policy makers and business enterprises to explore
dimensions like morality, social influences and moral judgment and their effect on the consumer’s
decision making in purchasing pirated software. However, further research is needed to examine these
factors in Malaysia with additional samples before generalizations can be accurately made.
P-369
Exploring critical factors influencing tourists’ perception in
selection of destination: Structural Equation modeling approach on
Bangladeshi Market.
A K M Ahasanul Haque belal,
department of business administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The objective of this research is to explore the critical factors influencing tourists’ perception in
selection of destination for travelling in Bangladesh. The specific objectives of the study are: to identify
and asses the factors that are influencing tourists in selecting destination; to find out the relationship
between those factors and the consumers perception; to offer some recommendation for better
marketing strategy to attract more tourists. In this study primary data was collected through distribution
of questionnaires to the visitors on important tourists spot. Data from 180 completed questionnaires
were analyzed quantitatively by variety of statistical techniques, including factor analysis and structural
equation modeling to investigate the relationship among the variables. Three important factors like
destination brand image, internet adoption, and customers’ satisfaction are identified of the selection
of destination by a traveler. The results of the structural equation modeling reflected that internet
adoption and customers satisfaction played a significant role that are influencing tourist’s perception
in selection of destination for travelling. The survey was conducted only for one month’s
(December’09), which permitted only winter tourists to be surveyed. Thus, most of the respondents
were winter tourists not representative of year round tourism. Only few dimensions were analyzed in
this study, so further research can be done by using factors such as socio cultural, outdoor activities,
Income, cultural distance with larger sample size. The overall conclusions and discussion of the findings
should provide a framework for the practical planning and implementation of planning strategies in the
tourism context
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-373
Role of Muda Irrigation Scheme in Reducing Poverty among the
Farmers in Malaysia: Recapitulating Present Situation from Socioanthropological Perspective
Dr. A.H.M. Zehadul Karim, Dr. A.H.M. Zehadul Karim, Md. Sayed Uddin
Dr. A.H.M. Zehadul Karim, Md. Sayed Uddin
Sociology and Anthropology,Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The Muda Irrigation Scheme was established in Malaysia with purpose of achieving self-sufficiency
in rice production for domestic consumption as well as to reducing hardship and poverty among the
farmers in the project areas. Since its inception in the middle of 1970s, the project had brought a
massive change in the agrarian culture of rice producing peasants in Malaysia allowing them to integrate
in the network of a cooperative relationship. For the last three decades, Muda Irrigation Scheme has
been recognized by the international communities as the most successful program in agriculture which
has been able to increase the increasing the rice productivity and also at the same time reducing poverty
of the farmers. We have enough evidences that after the introduction of this scheme, the real income of
the farmers had increased by 2.4 times as they introduced double cropping in the project areas (e.g. FAO
and World Bank 1975). Despite several decades of such remarkable success in agriculture, a few
researchers and commentators (e.g., Ramli Mohamad 1988) immediate after its installation, remarked
clearly that due to full dependence on technology, many farmers in the Muda areas had lost their
tenancy which eventually made them victim of the economic circumstances. They argued that since
Farmers’ Associations (FAs) are practically controlling the total irrigation system and farming
activities in the villages, these FAs have simply appeared as newly-emerged-power bastions, which are
fully represented by the middle and rich farmers. These are represented by the influential persons of the
locality disbursing a class-based super-ordinate values, norms and cultures of themselves. This paper
focuses on the present condition of the farmers through studying a small village from
socioanthropological perspective and desires to provide information about the farmers’ real situation
from genealogical and holistic viewpoint after three decades of glorious continuity of the Muda. More
specifically, we want to reveal the poverty situation at the village level in present time, and to analyze it
from their cultural context.
P-374
Choice criteria for Mobile Telecom Operator: Empirical
investigation among Malaysian customers
A K M Ahasanul Haque belal, Sabbir Rahman, Ahasanul Haque, Mohd Ismail Sayyed AhmadSabbir
Rahman, Ahasanul Haque, Mohd Ismail Sayyed Ahmad
department of business administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the choice criteria for a mobile phone operator in
Malaysian Mobile Telecom market by the customers. Structural equation models were applied to test
the propositions by means of a survey of a random sample of 400 mobile telecom customers from major
cities in Malaysia. It was found that the price and service quality hypothesis are more important than the
brand image hypothesis. From this research Mobile Telecom managers can learn and plan to offer
attractive offer in the market that meet Malaysian customers’ needs.
P-389
Customer Satisfaction toward Islamic and Conventional Banks in
Tunisia: A Study Using Confirmatory Model
Yusof Ismail, Ali Hadj Khalifa, Yusof IsmailAli Hadj Khalifa, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
Islamic banking is a growing phenomenon worldwide. However, new Islamic banks are facing fierce
competition from more established Islamic banks, and also above all other banks. Consequently, Islamic
banks as a whole are prompted to better satisfy their customers to ensure their survival and growth. This
research proposes to identify distinctive criteria for preferring one over the other type of banks. In
addition, this research attempts to compare the satisfaction of customers towards Islamic banks and
conventional banks in the Tunisian context. The managerial implications of this research will be equally
important for both types of banks since this study exposes the reasons for choosing one bank over
another and provides the conditions for greater satisfaction. The empirical study is based on responses to
a bi-lingual Arabic and French questionnaire administered on customers of both types of banks at their
respective sites. The study uses descriptive statistics and principal component analysis to rank bank
selection criteria and determine whether there are significant differences in customer satisfaction among
bank customers.
P-391
Diminishing Partnership: Bankers Strategic Response to Shariah
Compliance Home Financing
Yusof Ismail, Dzuljastri Abdul Razak, Yusof IsmailDzuljastri Abdul Razak, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Diminishing Partnership (DP) is a relatively new concept in home financing which is based on equity
compared to the established debt concept used in conventional and BBA home financing. Under DP
home financing, customer and bank share profit based on the rental value of the house instead of
predetermined interest rate where bank gains profit upfront. As such DP is claimed to be fairer and more
flexible than debt financing which result in more justice, equality and cater for societal well being that is
in line with the Maqasid al Shariah. This research adopted a mixed method by obtaining the perceptions
of three stakeholders namely consumers, Shariah scholars and bankers. Four common issues were
investigated namely, concept used, method of computing and pricing, Shariah compliance and
preference for the product. The main findings indicated that consumers perceived that DP home
financing fulfills their needs better than the debt financing concept. The Shariah scholars also agreed
that DP possesses justice, fairness and cater for the well being of individual and society. Contrary to
expectation, the overall views of the bankers support the implementation of DP except for a few
reservations regarding pricing and operations.
P-392
The Nature and Extent of Involvement of Accountants in Corporate
Strategy
Yusof Ismail, Hairul Azlan Annuar, Yusof IsmailHairul Azlan Annuar, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Senior management plays a very significant role in the formulation of corporate strategy. However,
the popular belief is that the accountants’ contribution appears to be limited to the supporting role of
evaluating the final outcome of the strategy rather than active and relevant contribution in earlier phases
of strategy formulation and evaluation of the implementation. This research attempts to investigate the
perception of accountants toward their involvement or non-involvement, and contribution in corporate
strategy.
P-394
Language Learning Strategies of Students in Content-Based
Instruction
Yusof Ismail, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah, Yusof Ismail, Zaleha Esa, Ainon Jariah
MohamedMohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah, Yusof Ismail, Zaleha Esa, Ainon Jariah Mohamed
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
This study investigates the learning strategies of students at the International Islamic University
Malaysia (IIUM). The study was mainly motivated by concerns about the standards of English of
graduates of Malaysian universities. These concerns have also been expressed by the IIUM, one of the
few universities in Malaysia using English as the medium of instruction. The primary objective of this
research has been to identify what good language learners do to learn a second language. The study
investigated frequency of strategy use according to type of courses (i.e. content-based versus non
content-based), gender, and proficiency levels. There were 312 students taking English for Occupational
Purposes (EOP) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses. Their learning strategies were
investigated through an analysis of their responses to Rebecca Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for
Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1990). This instrument has been validated in a number of studies.
The study found that the students from the different degree programmes differed in the use of the six
different strategies. The learning strategies also appear to be related to the different English courses. The
study also found that degree programmes tend to shape the learning strategies of the respective students.
P-396
Language Learning Styles and Strategies among Malaysian
Students
Yusof Ismail, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah, Yusof Ismail, Zaleha Esa, Ainon Jariah
MohamedMohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah, Yusof Ismail, Zaleha Esa, Ainon Jariah Mohamed
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study investigated the relationship between learning styles and learning strategies of Malaysian
students studying English through Content-based Instruction (i.e. English for Academic Purposes and
English for Occupational Purposes) at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Learning
styles and learning strategies of language learners play important roles in second language acquisition.
The learning styles were investigated through an analysis of their responses (n=312) to Learning Styles
Indicator (LSI) (2003) while learning strategies were investigated through Rebecca Oxford’s
Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (1990). The study was mainly motivated by concerns
about the standards of English among graduates who have been observed to be passive and reticent in
the language classrooms compared to international students. The research used Pearson’s correlation
and multiple regression analysis to process the survey data. Results show that learning strategies and
styles are inter-related and language instructors need to take cognizance of this connection in facilitating
the learning experience of students. Almost half of the sample (n=312) adopt project orientation as their
learning style. Out of all learning strategies only compensation strategy contributes statistically
significantly towards all the three learning styles. However, the regression model shows that none of the
learning strategies contributes significantly towards group activity orientation learning style. Results of
the study imply that English instructors in particular need to be aware of the basics of strategies and
styles to enable them to reinforce student learning experience.
P-397
Employers and Graduates Employment Experience in Malaysian
SMEs
Yusof Ismail, Junaidah Hashim, Moha Asri Abdullah, Yusof IsmailJunaidah Hashim, Moha Asri
Abdullah, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study examines the experience of employment of graduates in SMEs in Malaysia. Specifically
it examines the experience of graduates working in SMEs and that of SME owners hiring graduates. It
examines job satisfaction, organisational commitment, growth opportunities and turnover intention
among the graduate employees of SMEs. Job satisfaction is measured by an instrument developed by
Hackman and Oldham (1975), organisational commitment is measured by an instrument developed by
Mowday, Steers and Porter (1979), and turnover intention is measured by Hom and Griffeth (1991). In
total, 246 graduate employees and 230 SME owners participated in this study. The results revealed that
the graduate employees do not perceive to have good working experience with SMEs, they are not
Social Sciences and Humanities
satisfied with their SME employers and they do not exhibit a high level of commitment. Likewise, the
SME employers also do not have positive experience hiring the graduates. The implications of the
study are discussed. The limitation being the time the study was conducted. The study took place at the
time the corporate sector was coping with poor economic condition. This may have affected the actual
feeling and plan of graduate employees towards their career in SMEs. This study has identified growth
opportunities as a predictor to turnover intention among the graduates working in SMEs. Employers
need to address this issue as it would help to retain the employees. This study confirms the career
development model by Noe (2000) and adds some value to the present literature in career development
of graduates. This study offers a difference from other previous studies as it attempts to examine the
experience of both employees and employers in the SMEs rather than examining the graduates’
views regarding employment in SMEs that are very much perceptual.
P-398
Perception of Deceptive Practices of Companies - An Islamic
Perspective
Yusof Ismail, Kalthom Binti Abdullah, Yusof IsmailKalthom Binti Abdullah, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study focused on the deceptive practices of companies based on experiences of Muslim
consumers. It collected qualitative data from an effective sample of 66 students of marketing who were
asked to write about their experiences or encounters with companies or salespeople who had apparently
used deceptive practices in selling their products. The responses were content-analyzed and labelled as
issues pertaining to promotional, pricing, product, or distribution strategy. Results of data analysis
would be able to enrich our insights into the types of manipulative techniques of sellers, manufacturers,
and advertisers and relate these malpractices with the requirements of the Sharia. As most of these
encounters were reported by Muslim consumers, it is interesting to reflect upon their level of awareness
of not only their rights as consumers, but also their awareness of the “do’s― and
“don’ts― of doing and supporting business activities in compliance with the Islamic
guidelines. The findings implied that most of the complaints were related to deceptive practices in
promotional practices, followed by deceptive product practices and deceptive pricing practices. The
implications of this study would serve as future guidelines for Muslim marketers and provide an original
account of deceptive practices faced by Muslim consumers in their everyday dealings with Muslim and
non-Muslim marketers.
P-399
Managerial Roles and the Training of Malaysian Co-operatives’
Managers
Yusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Yusof IsmailSuhaimi Mhd Sarif, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Managers get things done through people efficiently and effectively. Managerial roles explain the
actual work that managers do. Mintzberg has documented ten (10) specific managerial roles and
classified them into three areas: (a) interpersonal, (b) informational, and (c) decisional. Managers of
conventional companies are governed,, among others, by the Companies Act 1965 under the Companies
Commission of Malaysia, whereas co-operative organisations are administered by the Co-operative Act
1963 under the supervision of the Co-operative Commission of Malaysia. This paper investigates the
perceptions of co-operatives’ senior managers toward managerial roles and their training within the
co-operatives’ framework. The results showed that senior managers of co-operatives performed
Mintzberg’s managerial roles and sought similar managerial training like their companies
counterparts despite operating under different legal frameworks. However, the results were not
conclusive considering constraints on sample size of the study (n=52). The study proposed that future
research use case study method to understand the details of managerial work at cooperatives.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-400
Perceptions of Future Marketers and Accountants towards the Need
for Marketing for Public Accounting Firms
Yusof Ismail, Yusof Ismail, Hajdin BERISHAYusof Ismail, Hajdin BERISHA
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The law requires public companies to be audited, whereas auditing is optional for other types of
business organizations. The paper sets out to ascertain whether marketing may be considered relevant to
external auditors. The main purpose of the study is to present preliminary assessments on whether future
marketers and accountants think marketing might be considered a necessity or redundant for public
accounting firms. The study uses pairs of scaled question and open-ended components as instrument to
solicit the opinions of two cohorts of university students associated with the two disciplines. The first
cohort comprises third year and graduating students who have studied at least a course in marketing
whereas the second cohort consists of relatively junior students. The questionnaires were given to the
first cohort outside the class, whereas to the second cohort in class. After careful screening, only 56 out
of 104 questionnaires collected were found usable. The open-ended responses of the respondents were
content analyzed by the authors independently and the resulting classifications discussed to reach
consensus. The scaled answers were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. While the prospective marketers
and auditors thought that promotion is important to audit firms, their reputation and service quality
supersede the former in importance.
P-401
Fitting a Religiosity Construct into a Customer Loyalty Model
Yusof Ismail, Yusof Ismail, Hishamuddin IsmailYusof Ismail, Hishamuddin Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Corporations are concerned with client or customer loyalty. Customer loyalty will make or break
them. In competitive industries such as telecommunication customer loyalty determines organizational
survival and corporations engage in initiatives not only to win but also maintain customer loyalty.
Research literature is rich with studies on customer satisfaction level and customer loyalty, among
others but pays scanty attention to the role of customer satisfaction level and religious affiliation or
loyalty. Since values are believed to shape customers perceptions and actions, it is important to
investigate the role of religiosity in the model. This study attempts to identify constructs of religious
loyalty and propose their hypothetical positions in a generic customer loyalty model. For practical and
empirical reasons, the study desires to focus on Islamic/Muslim customer loyalty construct, and
hypothesize whether it assumes the role of independent (predictor), mediating (intervening), or
moderating variables. The proposed framework will help corporations form an opinion whether
customer satisfaction will mediate the association between selected predictors (independent variables)
towards the customer loyalty. Furthermore, it will also suggest whether the relationship between
customer loyalty and its predictors would likely to be moderated by the religiosity construct (variables),
besides age, income and gender. Subsequent testing of the hypothesized model will be able to suggest
whether personal affiliation with customers may be considered generic, and mass marketing strategy is a
non issue with religiously affiliated customers.
P-402
Perceptions of Prospective Specialists and Non-Specialists towards
Technical Terms in Marketing
Yusof Ismail, Yusof Ismail, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad ShahYusof Ismail, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad
Shah
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Social Sciences and Humanities
Technical terms are an integral part of a discipline. They enrich and help distinguish among
disciplines. The irony is that even among specialists some technical terms are incomprehensible; the
terms impede instead of speed up the communication process. Some technical terms fail to satisfy the
basic needs of communication such as message clarity. The present study aims to identify and verify a
select list of technical terms which may be considered fundamental or basic in marketing discipline. The
study creates an instrument to help collect input from prospective specialists and non-specialists of
marketing towards their perception of and decision on the need to have common understanding of
technical marketing terms. A questionnaire was administered on 82 non-specialists and 26 specialist
undergraduate students of a public university whose medium of instruction is English. Results show that
the respondents moderately agree that they will lose if they lack knowledge of the marketing technical
terms and they believed that using correct terms expedites the communication process. Reliability
analysis (Cronbach alpha .863) confirms that twenty two (22) select Marketing technical terms may be
considered basic, and have been grouped into five categories by a factor analysis procedure: providers
of products, distributors, sales, pricing, and product.
P-403
Exploring English Language Learning Styles of Malay Students at
the International Islamic University Malaysia
Yusof Ismail, Mohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah, Yusof IsmailMohamed Ismail Ahamad Shah, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
This study investigates the learning styles of Malay students at the International Islamic University
Malaysia. Participants in this research were 153 undergraduate Malaysian students of Malay ethnicity
enrolled in Bachelor of English language programme at the IIUM and students taking English for
Occupational Courses from the faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, International Islamic
University Malaysia (IIUM). Their learning styles were investigated through an analysis of their
responses to Learning Styles Indicator (LSI) (Wintergerst & DeCapua, 1999) which had questions
grouped under three modalities: Project Orientation, Group Activity Orientation and Individual Activity
Orientation. This instrument has been validated in several studies. The study also investigated whether
there were cultural influences in their learning styles. The study was mainly motivated by concerns,
which have often been expressed by the private and the public sectors in Malaysia, about the standards
of English of graduates of Malaysian universities. These concerns have also been expressed by the
IIUM, one of the few universities in Malaysia using English as the medium of instruction. Results of the
current study suggest Group Orientation as the preferred learning style for both the BEN and the ENM
students compared to the other two orientations. Language proficiency is poorer in explaining learning
orientations compared to the language spoken at home by the students. Generally, gender does not help
differentiate student preferences of learning orientations. These results also suggest strong cultural
influences on the students’ learning styles. The main implication of the study is that there is a need
for language educators to adjust their instructional style to suit the learning styles of the students.
P-405
Micro-Level Stickiness as A Threat to Client Centric Knowledge
Transfer among ICT Firms in Malaysian Technology Parks
Yusof Ismail, Yusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd SaarifYusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd Saarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study was carried out to ascertain whether the national ICT initiative on facilitating knowledge
transfer among ICT firms by providing dedicated technology parks throughout Malaysia was client
centric. It examines the issue from a micro level perspective of stickiness of knowledge transfer, which
includes transfer mechanisms, types of transfer, knowledge barriers, and transfer contexts. The study
solicited the opinions of competent informants (i.e., policy makers and competent ICT leaders) through
face-to-face interviews in three technology parks located in northern and central Peninsular Malaysia
(Kulim High Technology Park; MSC, Cyberjaya; and Selangor Science Park). The results confirm the
presence of stickiness in terms of mechanisms specified in the literature.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-406
The Coverage of Islamic Management Materials in the Internet
Search Engines
Yusof Ismail, Yusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd SarifYusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The Internet has been instrumental in providing researchers with instant information on diverse
topics on Islam. The study is carried out to ascertain relative availability of the materials of Islamic
Management through the Internet search engines (ISE’s). The Internet was accessed on 23 May
2010, for 40 minutes, from 11.00 p.m. to 11.40 p.m., Gombak time. The contents of seven ISE’s are
analysed using a specially created format. Major search terms used include religion, Islam, Christianity,
Muslim, Christian, management, organization, organisation, Islam and management, Islam and
organization, Islam and organisation, Muslim and management, and Christian and management. The
present study established the relative ratios of the coverage of selected terms in terms of number of hits
shown within each ISE. The ratios are obtained by dividing the hits for a search term into the total hits
of an ISE to obtain the standardized ratio. The results of the analysis show that the ISE’s contain
scarce materials on Islamic management. The study concludes that researchers may not rely on the
Internet to obtain respectable literature on Islamic Management.
P-407
Convergence of Global and Traditional Managers’
Characteristics: A Case of Senior Management of Cooperatives in
Malaysia
Yusof Ismail, Yusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd SarifYusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Senior management plays a very significant role to enhance the profitability of the cooperatives.
Unlike traditional companies which are regulated by the Commission of Companies Malaysia,
cooperatives are regulated by the Cooperative Commission of Malaysia. Malaysian cooperative
managers may need to adjust to changing global business environment to remain competitive in the
economy. This paper attempts to investigate the perceptions of cooperatives’ senior management
towards managerial roles and global skills, and aggregate the two sets of dimensions into broader
categories. Factor analysis of the responses from 133 cooperative managers surveyed suggests that
Malaysian cooperative managers are expected to have three composite skills labelled as cultural
adaptability, public relations, and human development.
P-408
Designing a Knowledge Based Decision Support System for
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems Investment
Yusof Ismail, Zaini Zainol, Yusof IsmailZaini Zainol, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are fast gaining popularity among companies in the
world. There are plenty of ERP providers and each provider claims that their ERP system has its
competitive edge over rivals, yet a number of companies have experienced failures in the
implementation of their ERP. This study attempted to provide a systematic and empirical based DSS
that will be beneficial to both new adopters and current practitioners of a DSS. For the former, the
proposed DSS called SEEBAS, may be used as a tool to assist the decision makers during the decision
making process in purchasing their ERP based system, for instance. For the latter, the tool may be used
to quantify and evaluate the benefits of their ERP systems. SEEBAS was constructed based on survey
and case study on manufacturing companies in Malaysia. The research also provides a web-based site to
facilitate companies to evaluate their needs and share the data with other users.
Social Sciences and Humanities
P-409
Online Foods Order and Delivery Service: A Pilot Study
Yusof Ismail, Zulkarnain Haji Kedah, Yusof IsmailZulkarnain Haji Kedah, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
There has been a growing trend among providers of physical products and services to shift from
purely ‘traditional’ to ‘online’ modes of receiving orders online and thereafter affecting
deliveries via suitable means. Success factors in traditional business offering may not be wholly
applicable for online mode of business. Consequently, there is a need to conceptualize a specific model
for inevitable online food ordering and delivery. By synthesizing the literature in related areas, this
paper aims to propose important components that explain customer placement of food order online and
consequent delivery. Available literature suggests that order placement (OP), a dependent variable is
made up of two main components, that is, online food ordering (as first independent variable) and
delivery services (second independent variable). The study proposed a model and provided testable
hypotheses. It carried out a pilot test to obtain general feelings of prospective online orders from urban
dwellers. Fast service and convenience have been cited as main factors to make city dwellers want to
place their food order online. Factors that dissuade city people to experience online purchase include
unknown service provider, low food quality, type and variety of food and perceived lack of online
security protection.
P-421
Analysis on Proxies of Herzberg’s Motivator and Hygienes
according to Malaysian Accountants and Engineers
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Yusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd SarifYusof Ismail, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Herzberg has specified a number of factors that motivate and those that do not motivate but are
nevertheless expected to be provided to employees. Motivators include achievement, recognition, and
responsibility. Hygiene factors include job security, salary, and working conditions that make individual
worker feels better. While this paper argues that the underlying bases used for each of the two
components are faulty, i.e. biblical myths, it goes further to investigate whether the motivator and
hygiene propositions reflect reality. The study employed a research instrument that contains six openended questions to record the opinions of executives who work in numerous industries towards selected
proxies of motivator and hygiene factors, and critically identify their patterns of opinions using content
analysis technique. Altogether 98 executives were approached using personal interviews, but only 34
interview data (35 percent) available in softcopy format for analysis. The results show that the so-called
non-motivating hygienes have motivating potential. In a small number of cases, the interviewees said
that both motivators and hygienes combined can motivate executives in the workplace. The paper states
the limitations of the method and suggestions for further scrutiny.
P-422
Does personal integrity matter in ethical decision making among
hawkers in Malaysia?
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Suhaimi Mhd SarifSuhaimi Mhd Sarif
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study investigates the opinions of hawkers pertaining to the role of personal integrity in making
ethical business decisions. Personal integrity lies closely at the heart of the hawkers who are the
individuals who made various business decisions despite the small size business. To reflect personal
integrity, they should ask a few questions to themselves such what kind of person am I? What are my
values? What do I stand for? Indeed, every individual also fills a variety of social roles and these roles
Social Sciences and Humanities
carry with them a range of expectations, responsibilities, and duties. The study is based on social
integrative theory, to include personal integrity matter for ethical decision outcomes. The study
interviewed 50 hawkers from a few night market (pasar malam) sites in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor
areas. The preliminary findings showed that less than half of the hawkers viewed that personal integrity
matters in their business decisions. The remaining argued that fulfilling personal needs and survival in
the business are more relevant than personal integrity. The study proposed that the results of this study
can be used as an input for relevant regulatory bodies to provide ethical decision making training for
hawkers. The study offers personal integrity driven decision-making perspective that can be used to
examine ethical decisions in different types of business settings.
P-433
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS AND EARNINGS
MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIAN GOVERNMENT LINKED
COMPANIES (GLCs): THE IMPACT OF GLCs
TRANSFORMATION POLICY
Muslim Har Sani Mohamad, Dr Muslim Har Sani Mohamad, Dr Hafiz Majdi Abdul Rashid, Fekri Ali
Mohammed ShawtariDr Muslim Har Sani Mohamad, Dr Hafiz Majdi Abdul Rashid, Fekri Ali
Mohammed Shawtari
Accounting,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
As the major shareholder, Malaysian Government in 2004 has embarked on the Government linked
Companies (GLCs) transformation policy program that mainly emphasizes on enhancing the corporate
governance mechanisms of the State owned Enterprises (SOEs) in order to enhance effectiveness of the
board. The paper aims to examine the impact of corporate governance mechanisms as embedded in the
transformation program on the practice of earnings management. In particular, the study uses data for
two periods of time (pre and post transformation), and examine whether the period of post
transformation policy has experienced any improvement of board monitoring role in curbing earnings
management activities. The main findings show that there is an increase of earnings management
activities in post transformation period. Further, the findings revealed that all corporate governance
mechanisms have little impact to curb earnings management activities except for board meetings and
leadership structure in the post transformation period. The board meetings and separate role of two top
positions in the companies were shown to have negative impact on earnings management post
transformation policy and that relationship do not hold for the period pre transformation policy.
Although the study has shown positive preliminary impact of tightening corporate governance in GLCs,
scope to expand the research was also discussed.
P-437
Religious and spiritual beliefs and practices of patients and
physicians from a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia
Mohammad Yousuf Rathor, R M Yousuf MD, A R M Fauzi FRCP, S M S Azarisman MMED, OA
Marzuki M MedR M Yousuf MD, A R M Fauzi FRCP, S M S Azarisman MMED, OA Marzuki M Med
Department of Internal Medicine,,Kulliyyah of Medicine
International Islamic University Malaysia
Background: In recent years there has been growing awareness regarding the role of religion and
spirituality (R/S) in the practice of clinical medicine. The lack of a moral impulse or religious guidance
and the prevalent materialism, has emitted a reduced sense of responsibility and sympathy in dealing
with patients by unethical practitioners for treatment or research.Health consumers from every societal
strata and cultural divides have expressed their dissatisfaction with current trends and have asked to be
engaged and treated in a more holistic and humane manner. We aim to assess the beliefs and
observations of physicians regarding their role on patient’s health and whether they address such
issues in their clinical practice. Concomitantly, we aim to assess the beliefs of our patients and whether
they like to address such issues. Methods: Trained research nurse administered a questionnaire to a
convenience sample of consenting hospitalized patients and their treating physicians. Results: Nearly all
patients and physicians reported a high prevalence of religiosity. Patients also acknowledged that their
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R/S was respected by the staff, and that physicians inquired R/S about half of the time. Patients reported
R/S as beneficial as it enabled them to cope better with their illness and gave them a positive state of
mind.
Conclusion: Religion was important to many patients and physicians, but half of physicians ignored
it in their clinical practice, a discrepancy between beliefs and behaviour.Health must be seen in a
holistic sense, incorporating the well-being of the body, mind, and soul, similar to the definition used by
the (WHO, 1948). Care of Muslim patients, is not complete without caring for their spiritual needs.
Physicians need to be attentive to patients R/S and address them in specific clinical situations.
P-439
Zakat Accountability: An Exploratory Study of Zakat’s
Beneficiaries Empowerment Scheme and Its Control Mechanisms
in a Zakat Institution
Mustafa Murtala Abioye Oladimeji, Muslim Har Sani Mohamad, Murtala Abioye
Oladimeji.Mustafa,Shahul HameedMhod IbrahimMuslim Har Sani Mohamad, Murtala Abioye
Oladimeji.Mustafa,Shahul HameedMhod Ibrahim
Accounting,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Evidence proved that global fight against poverty by international agencies recorded limited success
(UNDP, 2005). But Allah blessed mankind with panacea to poverty. Zakat, an example, was effectively
used to reduce poverty during golden age of Islam. Unfortunately, level of poverty in Contemporary
Muslims states, due to destruction of the structure of zakat institutions through colonization of Muslims
land, cannot justify this claim. Also, socio-economic circumstances of days of prophet (SAW) differs
from experience of today. Evidently, only cash disbursement will be incapable of addressing the gravity
of poverty. In recent past, Muslim countries redeveloped Zakat institution in which they experiment
various models of poverty eradication. In the context of zakat disbursement, the focus of this paper is to
understand the nature of and the management controls system on, a typical model of empowerment
schemes for Zakat beneficiaries, an alternative complementing cash transfers. Understanding of the
controls may help improve effectiveness of the new model. Accordingly, the research focuses on
management controls on the empowerment through perceptions of managers on the type and influence
of stakeholders of the Zakat institution. This study shows that that institution recognizes the existence
and influence of secondary stakeholders on the success of the scheme. Also brought to light is the good
strategic planning practices as well as needs for clearly defined objective for the empowerment scheme.
The institution needs to reappraise its perception of the influence of other zakat organizations. Despite
its methodological limitations of not being an in-depth qualitative research, this study should provide
useful insights into the type and influence of stakeholders as well as the nature and control mechanisms
of zakat empowerment scheme. Apart from setting agenda for further research the study may facilitate
policy shift on poverty eradication using the vehicle of zakat institution especially in Muslim countries.
P-440
Food Transporters’ Awareness of Food Safety and Intention to
Practice MS2400-1 (P) Halalan-Toyyiban Assurance Pipeline
Management System Requirements for Transportation of Goods
and Cargo Chain Services in Malaysia
Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif, Yusof IsmailSuhaimi Mhd Sarif, Yusof Ismail
Department of Business Administration,Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
The study investigates Malaysian food transporters about their awareness in food safety and their
intention to practice MS 2400-1(P) Halalan-Toyyiban Assurance Pipeline Management System
Requirements for Transportation of Goods and Cargo Services. Food safety awareness among food
transporters is essential to assure the end customers’ confidence on the safety and quality of food.
Apart from conventional food safety and hygiene certifications, food transporters are expected to obtain
halalan toyyiban certification. The study interviewed 20 executives from transportation and logistic
companies in Klang Valley. The preliminary findings indicated that most of the transportation and
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logistic companies in Malaysia are aware about food safety and that they have been proactive in
assuring that their transportation and logistic services are pleased by their clients and other key
stakeholders. Since Malaysia has been actively promoting the country as halal hub, they have positive
intention to subscribe and practice MS 2400-1(P) Halalan-Toyyiban Assurance Pipeline Management
System Requirements for Transportation of Goods and Cargo Services. In fact, they have been
consulted in the process of drafting the standards. They are also suggested that the government and the
transporters work collectively to develop education and training programs to ensure sufficient qualified
personnel for an effective implementation. Nevertheless, the results of the study were not conclusive
and cannot be generalized considering limitations on small number of interviewees and the location of
the transporters. The study proposed that future research to use personal interview and self administered
survey with more transporters in other major cities in Malaysia.
P-441
A SUCCESS MODEL FOR THE MALAYSIAN GOVERNMENT
E-PROCUREMENT SYSTEM: THE BUYER PERSPECTIVE
Husnayati Hussin, Erne Suzila KassimErne Suzila Kassim
Department of Information Systems,Kulliyyah of Information & Communication Technology
International Islamic University Malaysia
In recent years, there has been a tremendous effort in implementing e-government as a national
agenda with the aims to increase public transparency, improve the sector efficiency and effectiveness
and reduce public expenditure through lower operational costs. Malaysia, as one of the leading Islamic
nations, has initiated the reformation of old, traditional public services to efficient interactions across
government, business and citizens via various applications of e-government. One of the E-government
applications is the ePerolehan, a Government-to-Business (G2B) system that enabl