2011 Catholic Trial Higher School Certificate Examination
Ancient History – Marking Guidelines
Section 1 - Cities of Vesuvius – Pompeii and Herculaneum
25 Marks
Questions 1 – 3 and 5 - 7
Question
1
2
3
5
6
7
Answer
A
B
A
C
C
D
Outcome assessed
H1.1
H1.1
H3.3
H1.1, H2.1
H1.1, H2.1
H1.1, H3.1
Targeted performance bands
2
2
2
2
2
2
Question 4 (3 marks)
Outcome assessed: H1.1, H3.1
Targeted performance bands 2 - 3
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Criteria
Uses Sources A, B, and C to provide an accurate and detailed description of the eruption of
Mt Vesuvius
Uses Sources A and/or B and /or C to provide an accurate description of the eruption of Mt
Vesuvius
Makes one general statement about the eruption of Mt Vesuvius
Marks
3
2
1
Answers may include:
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Please note, not mentioning the sources in general terms will result in low marks
Ash cloud, dust cloud falling south east of Vesuvius in Source Affected coastline of the Bay of Naples
as far as Stabiae in initial stages of eruption.
Volcanic surges deposited more ash after initial eruption.
Source B indicates pyroclastic flow that covered Herculaneum after initial ash cloud.
Several surges caused layers of volcanic material to cover Herculaneum eventually to a depth of 20+
metres as portrayed in Source B.
Question 8 (6 marks)
Outcomes assessed: H1.1, H3.1, H4.1
Targeted Performance Bands: 2 - 5
Criteria
Provides clear, comprehensive and accurate details about the main features of religion in
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Integrates information from Sources D, E and F about the main features of religion in Pompeii
and Herculaneum
Provides clear details about some features of religion in Pompeii and/or Herculaneum
Makes reference to Sources D and/or E and/or F about religion in Pompeii and/or
Herculaneum
Provides some information about religion in Pompeii or Herculaneum
May refer to the sources provided
Makes ONE general point about religion in Pompeii or Herculaneum
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Marks
5-6
3-4
2
1
Answers may include:
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Please note, mentioning the sources in general terms with no extra information will result in low
marks
Extensive evidence of the rituals and participants of the popular cult of Isis have been found in
Pompeii. They have been identified due to the extensive number of frescoes taken from the walls of the
temple courtyard and displayed in the National Museum of Naples as seen in Source C with a depiction
of a priest wearing an Anubis mask.
a temple to Isis was constructed with private funds and was one of the first buildings restored after the
earthquake of 62 AD. It had a purification room with imported Nile water and a banquet hall.
Frescoes depicting the rituals of the goddess and the white robed priests of Isis have been found in
Herculaneum
Other foreign gods and cults such as Cybele, Osiris (Serapis), Dionysus (Bacchus), Mithras, Sabazius
and a host of others were worshipped.
The imperial cult was first introduced at the time of Augustus (beginning of the first century AD). This
cult was dedicated to the genius or divine aspect of the emperors.
Pompeians paid homage to the chief gods of the state, and to the cult of the emperor. Source D is the
precinct of the temple of Vespasian, with a sacrificial altar at the foot of the temple where a bull was
sacrificed by priests of the cult and prayers were said for the safety of the empire and the emperor. This
scene is reproduced on the façade of the altar.
The people were not directly involved in the ceremonies although they probably uttered prayers of their
own as the rituals were carried out.
The temples and sanctuaries in Pompeii and Herculaneum were dedicated to official gods of the state
such as the triad of gods – Jupiter, Juno, Minerva
Other local gods of Pompeii and Herculaneum were the protector deities, such as Venus, Apollo and
Hercules
Larariums were small shrines in the houses of Pompeii and Herculaneum, containing small statues
and/or painted images of the lares, the household gods who protected the home and family. As Source
E indicates, ‘what is more sacred…here are his altars… here are his household gods’
The lararium could contain a statue of the genius, the spirit of the master of the household
(paterfamilias) eg The House of the Vetti at Pompeii
The family home was the centre of worship, ‘the house of every citizen…so sacred a spot…’ as
suggested by Source E
Question 9 (10 marks)
Outcomes assessed: H1.1, H3.2, H4.1, H4.2
Targeted Performance Bands: 2 - 6
Criteria
 Provides a clear judgement about Italian and international contributions to
conservation and reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
 Demonstrates a comprehensive knowledge of the extent of Italian and international
contributions to conservation and reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the
last two decades
 Integrates information from Sources F and G and own knowledge and uses
appropriate historical terms and concepts
 Makes a judgement about Italian and international contributions to conservation and
reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
 Demonstrates a knowledge of Italian and international contributions to conservation
and reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
 Uses information from Sources F and G and own knowledge and uses appropriate
historical terms and concepts
 Attempts a judgement about Italian and international contributions to conservation
and reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
 Demonstrates a knowledge of some of the Italian and international contributions to
conservation and reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
 May refer to Sources F and G and own knowledge and uses appropriate historical
terms and concepts
 Describes some of the Italian and international contributions to conservation and
reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
 May mention Sources F and/or G and uses some terms and concepts
 Makes ONE or TWO points about the Italian and international contributions to
conservation and reconstruction in Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades
Marks
9-10
7-8
5-6
3-4
1-2
Answers may include:
 Please note, not mentioning the sources plus extra information will result in low marks
 There has been growing support for international cooperation between the Italian government and
international organisations and private organisations for the conservation and reconstruction of
Pompeii and Herculaneum in the last two decades.
 In the 1990’s new excavations were halted and stabilisation projects begun to carry out conservation at
Pompeii
 This has created a series of joint ventures between the Italian government and academic institutions,
private foundations and corporations such as indicated in Source F and G where Herculaneum is a joint
venture between the Herculaneum Conservation project and the Soprintendenza of Pompeii and
Herculaneum.
 The Herculaneum Conservation Project was set up as a collaborative project with the principal
objectives of conserving and enhancing the ancient city of Herculaneum. The principal partners are the
Packard Institute, the British School at Rome and the Soprintendenza di Pompeii.
 As Sarah Court says in Source F, ‘a collaboration between the HCP and Fiori’s Special Commission…’
will establish a new project for visitors to walk along the ancient shoreline. This is evident in Source G
where restoration and conservation is being conducted on the boatsheds at Herculaneum as mentioned
in Source F, ‘these copies will be soon installed in the arches for the public to view’
 Institutions from international institutions such as the University of Leiden, The Spanish School at
Rome, The British School at Rome, The Anglo – American Project of the University of Bradford, The
Pompeii Trust, The Philodemus Project consisting of UCLA, the National Library of Naples and the
International centre for the Study of the Herculaneum Papyri are examples of organisations making
valuable contributions through re – excavation, documentation, interpretation or conservation of the
sites or objects found within them.
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In 2003 a research project contemplating the architectonical and environmental survey of the Fori
Civili of Pompeii has been started off with an American, John Dobbins from the University of Virginia,
in charge
The Via Dell’ Abbondanza Project has been established to accurately record the building frontages of
the structures on the 900 metre-long Via dell’Abbondanza and is being conducted under the auspices of
the Soprintendenza di Pompeii. State-of-the-art surveying, photographic and computer equipment are
used to create photo mosaics that document the current condition of the structures.
New survey techniques are being tried in the Insula Orientalis I block at Herculaneum using 3D laser
scanning equipment working with the University of North Carolina.
The Soprintendenza of Pompeii and Herculaneum has contributed to conservation efforts of the sites by
increased supervision and restrictions on entry to nominated buildings for tour groups.
Recent management plans by the authority have introduced rotational access to sections of both sites.
Sections of insulae, roads and buildings are closed off to minimize visitor access.
In the case of recently-restored monuments such as the House of the Chaste Lovers and the Houses of
Polybius and Menander in Pompeii, visits are by reservation only and in small groups, which limits
wear.
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2008 Catholic Trial Higher School Certificate Examination