Printable Resources
Using Nanoparticles to Deliver Targeted
Chemotherapy Drugs
Appendix A: Day 1 – Pre/Post Test
Appendix B: Day 1 – Pre/Post Test Answer Key
Appendix C: Day 1 – Exit Slip
Appendix D: Day 2 – Ranking of Items
Appendix E: Day 2 – Ranking of Items Answer Key
Appendix F: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity
Appendix G: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity Answer Key
Appendix H: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity (differentiated)
Appendix I: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity (diff) Answer Key
Appendix J: Day 3 – Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions
Appendix K: Day 3 – Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions Answer Key
Appendix L: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
Appendix M: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity Answer Key
Appendix N: Day 5 – The Engineering Design Challenge
Appendix O: Day 5 – The Engineering Design Process
Appendix P: Day 5 – The Engineering Design Challenge Rubric
Appendix Q: Day 5 – The Presentation Rubric
Appendix R: Day 5 – The Daily Performance Rubric
Appendix S: Additional Resources
Appendix A: Day 1 – Pre/Post Test
Name __________________________ Period __________________ Date ____________
NDDM Pre/Post Test
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. A particle that is 8.71x10-7 m is equal to ___________ nm.
a. 8.71x101
c. 8.71x10-2
b. 8.71x102
d. 8.71x10-1
____ 2. Traditional cancer treatment options include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. chemotherapy
c. antibiotics
b. radiation therapy
d. surgery
____ 3. Examples of drug delivery nanotechnology include:
a. liposomes
d. nanoparticles
b. dendrimers
e. all of the above
c. nanocrystals
f. none of the above
Completion
Complete each statement.
4. The Greek prefix “nano” means ______________.
Short Answer: Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper.
5. Biomimetics is a term that translates to "mimicking life." Explain what this means in terms
of science and technology and give an example.
6. State one way in which nanotechnology has the potential to improve cancer treatment.
7. Explain how cancer develops and spreads throughout the body.
8. List the steps to the engineering design process.
9. Describe the importance of the redesign step in the engineering design process.
Problem: Show all your work on a separate sheet of paper.
10. What is the surface area to volume ratio for a cylindrical nanoparticle with a diameter of 2
nm and a height of 52 nm?
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix B: Day 1 – Pre/Post Test Answer Key
NDDM Pre/Post Test
Answer Section
Total Possible Points: 26
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: B
PTS: 1
2. ANS: C
PTS: 1
3. ANS: E
Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1949907/
PTS: 1
COMPLETION
4. ANS: dwarf
PTS: 1
SHORT ANSWER
5. ANS:
Answers will vary, sample response: Inventions are crafted after studying living
things and natural phenomena. Biomimetics involves modeling structure,
movement, design, etc. from nature for human application. Ex. Velcro was
invented based upon sticky burrs of seed pods. The ability for some leaves to
shed water was modeled in nanotechnology for water/stain resistant coatings.
This is the "lotus effect" and common in cruciferous plants like broccoli and kale.
Points Rationale
4
The student’s answer has a complete explanation as well as an
example.
3
The student’s answer is relevant and an example is given
2
The student’s answer is not relevant and/or an example is not given
0
The answer given is unacceptable
PTS: 4
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix B: Day 1 – Pre/Post Test Answer Key
6. ANS:
Answers will vary.
Sample response: Common cancer treatments of chemotherapy and radiation
attack cancer cells but also destroy healthy cells. Nano-treatments have the
potential to target the cancer cell directly therefore preserving healthy cells.
Points Rationale
4
The student’s answer correctly states one way nanotechnology has
the potential to improve cancer treatment.
2
The student’s answer is not feasible.
0
The student did not answer or the answer unacceptable.
PTS: 4
7. ANS:
Reference:
http://www.chem.ucla.edu/dept/Faculty/maynard/Nanoslides_SINAM_public.pdf
Points Rationale
4
3
2
1
Cancer develops through multiple mutations in the DNA which results
in uncontrolled cell division. Cancer spreads (metastasizes) through
“leaky” blood vessels to other organs of the body.
Cancer develops through mutations, but no connection to cell division
is made. Cancer spreads (metastasizes) through “leaky” blood
vessels to other organs of the body.
Correct explanation of EITHER development OR spread of cancer.
Effort is made to explain BOTH the development and spread of
cancer, but descriptions are not accurate.
PTS: 4
8. ANS:
Points
4
3
2
1
0
Student Response
Student correctly identifies all the steps of the engineering design
process. (Identify problem, formulate question to be answered,
think about possible solutions, design prototype, test the prototype,
redesign prototype)
Student omits 1 step from the process
Student omits 2-3 steps from the process
Student omits 4-5 steps from the process
Student cannot name any steps of the process
PTS: 4
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Appendix B: Day 1 – Pre/Post Test Answer Key
9. ANS:
Points Student Response
2
Student makes the observation that when solving a complex problem
a scientist/engineer is unlikely to achieve an acceptable result on the
first trial or design of a prototype. The student goes on to mention
that it is improbable to know if a design can be improved upon if there
is nothing else with which to compare the results.
1
Student references the fact that a design may not work initially, and
will therefore need to be redesigned. However, the student does not
mention or acknowledge the point that a working design could be
improved upon and its performance maximized.
0
A student is not able to give any reason for the importance of
redesigning in the engineering design process.
PTS: 2
PROBLEM
10. ANS:
PTS: 6
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Appendix C: Day 1 – Exit Slip
Name __________________________ Period __________________ Date
____________
In the film, the kids are reduced to the size of small insects. Suppose you are hit by the
electromagnetic shrink ray and changed to a smaller size! List one advantage and one
disadvantage to being only 6 mm (¼ inch) high.
Name __________________________ Period __________________ Date
____________
In the film, the kids are reduced to the size of small insects. Suppose you are hit by the
electromagnetic shrink ray and changed to a smaller size! List one advantage and one
disadvantage to being only 6 mm (¼ inch) high.
Name __________________________ Period __________________ Date
____________
In the film, the kids are reduced to the size of small insects. Suppose you are hit by the
electromagnetic shrink ray and changed to a smaller size! List one advantage and one
disadvantage to being only 6 mm (¼ inch) high.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix D: Day 2 – Ranking of Items
Name __________________________ Period __________________ Date
____________
Rank the following items in order of size: 1- smallest; 12 - largest
_____ Hydrogen atom
_____ marble
_____ golf ball
_____ proton
_____ skin cell
_____ HIV particle
_____ chloroplast
_____ ant
_____ grain of sand
_____ DNA molecule
_____ Carbon nanotube
_____ Phospholipid bilayer
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix E: Day 2 – Ranking of Items Answer Key
Rank the following items in order of size: 1- smallest; 12 - largest
__2__ Hydrogen
_11__ marble
_12__ golf ball
__1__ proton
__8__ skin cell
__6__ HIV particle
__7__ chloroplast
_10__ ant
__9__ grain of sand
__5__ DNA molecule
__3__ Carbon nanotube
__4__ Phospholipid bilayer
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix G: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity
Name __________________________ Period ____________ Date ____________
The National Science Foundation and the National Department of Health have
commissioned your group to develop and define a new term to help explain the magnitude
of scale in nanomaterials. Everyone has experienced the time measurements of seconds,
minutes, hours, days and years. These time measurements will be expressed in the
average lifespan of a person living in the United States of America. Your group will be
asked to perform conversions for relating these measurements to the average lifespan of
78.5 years. Once 78.5 years is converted to all of the other standard time measurements,
we will use the definition of a nanometer to determine the amount of time involved in a
NANO-LIFE.
1. Since 1 nanometer = 1x10-9 meters, we will use the same proportion of 1
nano-life = 1x10-9 life to find the number of seconds in 1 nano-life. (Use
365.25 days = 1 year).
2. How many nano-lives are in 1 week?
3. Use the meter sticks to measure the length of your pen or pencil in
millimeters. Calculate the number of nanometers.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix G: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity
4. A cylinder (approximate shape of a carbon nanotube) has a radius of 1nm
and a height of 80 nm.
a. Calculate the volume and the surface area of this cylinder. (Give your
answers in terms of π).
b. If I was to slice the cylinder into 8 new cylinders and equal heights,
what is the sum of the surface areas of the new cylinders?
c. Why might it be important for an object to have the same volume but a
greater surface area?
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix H: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity Answer Key
The National Science Foundation and the National Department of Health have
commissioned your group to develop and define a new term to help explain the
magnitude of scale in nanomaterials. Everyone has experienced the time
measurements of seconds, minutes, hours, days and years. These time measurements
will be expressed in the average lifespan of a person living in the United States of
America. Your group will be asked to perform conversions for relating these
measurements to the average lifespan of 78.5 years. Once 78.5 years is converted to
all of the other standard time measurements, we will use the definition of a nanometer
to determine the amount of time involved in a NANO-LIFE.
1. Since 1 nanometer = 1x10-9 meters, we will use the same proportion of 1
nano-life = 1x10-9 life to find the number of seconds in 1 nano-life. (Use
365.25 days = 1 year).
78.5 
1 
*
365.25  24 ℎ
* 1 
1 
*
60 
1 ℎ
*
60 
1 
*
1  1∗ 109 
=
2.48 
1 
2. How many nano-lives are in 1 week?
24 ℎ
1 
604800
1
=
*
60 
1 ℎ
2.48

*
60  7 
*
1  1 
= 604800 seconds/week
n = 2.44 * 105 nanolives per week
3. Use the meter sticks to measure the length of your pen or pencil in
millimeters. Calculate the number of nanometers.
190 mm = 1.9 * 107 nm
180 mm = 1.8 * 107 nm
170 mm = 1.7 * 107 nm
160 mm = 1.6 * 107 nm
150 mm = 1.5 * 107 nm
140 mm = 1.4 * 107 nm
130 mm = 1.3 * 107 nm
120 mm = 1.2 * 107 nm
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Appendix H: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity Answer Key
4. A cylinder (approximate shape of a carbon nanotube)
has a radius of 1nm and a height of 80 nm.
a. Calculate the volume and the surface area of this cylinder. (Give your
answers in terms of π).
V =  (1 )2 (80 ) = 80π nm3
SA =2 (1 )2 + 2(1 )(80 ) = 164π nm2
b. If I was to slice the cylinder into 8 new cylinders and equal heights,
what is the sum of the surface areas of the new cylinders?
SA = 2 (1 )2 + 2(1 )(10 ) = 22 π nm2*8 cylinders = 176 π mnm2
c. Why might it be important for an object to have the same volume but a
greater surface area?
(NOTE: students may need to research the term “aspect ratio” to lead
to an understanding of a greater surface area leads to a greater
reaction.)
Answers will vary. One reason will be the fact that a greater surface
area will lead to a greater reaction. For instance powdered zinc reacts
more quickly with hydrochloric acid than a large “chunk” of zinc.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix H: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity Answer Key
Name __________________________ Period _______________ Date _______
The National Science Foundation and the National Department of Health have commissioned
your group to develop and define a new term to help explain the magnitude of scale in
nanomaterials. Everyone has experienced the time measurements of seconds, minutes,
hours, days and years. These time measurements will be expressed in the average lifespan
of a person living in the United States of America. Your group will be asked to perform
conversions for relating these measurements to the average lifespan of 78.5 years. Once
78.5 years is converted to all of the other standard time measurements, we will use the
definition of a nanometer to determine the amount of time involved in a NANO-LIFE.
1. Convert 78.5 years to days. (Use 365.25 days = 1 year)
2. Convert to hours.
3. Convert to minutes.
4. Convert 78.5 years to seconds.
5. Using the fact that 1 nanometer = 1 x 10⁻⁹ meters, we will conclude that 1 life
= _________ nano-lives.
6. Building on the idea from above, how many seconds are in 1 nano-life?
7. Find the length in millimeters of your pen or pencil.
8. Convert this measurement into nanometers.
9. Using the formulas V= 2 ℎ and SA=2  2 +2ℎ, calculate the volume and
surface area of a cylinder with a radius of 1 nm and a height of 80 nm.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix H: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity Answer Key
10. If the cylinder was split into 8 cylinders with the same radius and heights of 10
nm, calculate the sum of the surface areas of the 8 cylinders.
11. Research the importance of an object of the same volume having a greater
surface area.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix I: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity (Differentiated)
Answer Key
The National Science Foundation and the National Department of Health have
commissioned your group to develop and define a new term to help explain the
magnitude of scale in nanomaterials. Everyone has experienced the time
measurements of seconds, minutes, hours, days and years. These time
measurements will be expressed in the average lifespan of a person living in the
United States of America. Your group will be asked to perform conversions for
relating these measurements to the average lifespan of 78.5 years. Once 78.5 years
is converted to all of the other standard time measurements, we will use the
definition of a nanometer to determine the amount of time involved in a NANO-LIFE.
1. Convert 78.5 years to days. (Use 365.25 days = 1 year)
78.5 
1 
*
365.25 
1 
=
28672.125 
1 
or
1
365.25
=
78.5

2. Convert to hours.
28672.125 
1 
*
24 ℎ
1 
=
688,131 ℎ
1 
or
1
24
=
28672.125
ℎ
3. Convert to minutes.
688,131 ℎ
1 
*
60 
1 ℎ
=
4.13∗ 107 
1 
1
60
or
=
688,131
ℎ
4. Convert to seconds.
4.13∗107 
1 
*
60 
1 
=
2.48∗109 
1 
or
1
60
=
4.13∗107

5. Using the fact that 1 nanometer = 1 * 10⁻⁹ meters, we will conclude that 1 life
= 1 * 10⁻⁹ nano-lives.
6. Building on the idea from above, how many seconds are in 1 nano-life?
2.48∗109 
1 
1 
* 1∗ 109  =
2.48 
1 
or
1
2.48∗109
=
1∗ 109

7. Find the length in millimeters of your pen or pencil.
8. Convert this measurement into nanometers.
9. Using the formulas V= 2 ℎ and SA=2  2 + 2ℎ, calculate the volume and
surface area of a cylinder with a radius of 1 nm and a height of 80 nm.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix I: Day 2 – Nano-Scale Calculations Activity (Differentiated)
Answer Key
V =  (1 )2 (80 ) = 80π nm3
SA =2 (1 )2 + 2(1 )(80 ) = 164π nm2
10. If the cylinder was split into 8 cylinders with the same radius and heights of 10
mm, calculate the sum of the surface areas of the 8 cylinders.
SA = 2 (1 )2 + 2(1 )(10 ) = 22 π nm2*8 cylinders = 176 π nm2
11. Research the importance of an object of the same volume having a greater surface
area.
(NOTE: students may need to research the term “aspect ratio” to lead to
an understanding of a greater surface area leads to a greater reaction.)
Answers will vary. One reason will be the fact that a greater surface area
will lead to a greater reaction. For instance powdered zinc reacts more
quickly with hydrochloric acid than a large “chunk” of zinc.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix J: Day 3 – Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions
Name __________________________ Period ____________ Date ____________
As we begin our journey into nanotechnology it would be good to start with a little
background. To do so you need to do some research and answer the following questions.
Your answers need to be in complete sentences written on a separate sheet of paper and
you must include your references. As you search for the answers do not be alarmed at the
amount of information you get. Read carefully and summarize appropriately. Your
understanding of these concepts is pertinent to your success in the unit. If you complete
your research and still don’t understand the concept, please ask!
1. What is nanotechnology?
2. What is a nanometer?
3. How small is a “nano” and where does that word come from?
4. What are some examples of nanoparticles?
5. In which products has nanotechnology already been used?
6. Where is nanotechnology used and what are some associated nanotechnology
products?
7. What is the link between liposomes, micelles or vesicles and nanotechnology?
8. List three (3) real world examples of nanotechnology that can give us hope for its
future use.
9. What is the scanning tunneling microscope and what technological career fields use
this tool?
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix K: Day 3 – Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions
Answer Key
Student answers will vary greatly. Scoring should be based
on the relevance of the information given to the question. Award 2 points for
credible answers, 1 point for not so credible and 0 points for either no answer or
nowhere near a credible answer.
1. What is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices, and systems used to
manipulate matter at an incredibly small scale—between 1 and 100 nanometers.
(WIKIPEDIA)
A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems
at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are
more advanced.
In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct
items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to
make complete, high performance products.
K. Eric Drexler popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was
talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers
wide—motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a
cell. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible
devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane
technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular
scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the
word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The
U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of
nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with
novel properties.
Much of the work being done today that carries the name 'nanotechnology' is not
nanotechnology in the original meaning of the word. Nanotechnology, in its
traditional sense, means building things from the bottom up, with atomic
precision. This theoretical capability was envisioned as early as 1959 by the
renowned physicist Richard Feynman.
2.
What is a nanometer?
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter—1/80,000 the width of a human hair, or
about ten times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Such nanoscale objects can be
useful by themselves, or as part of larger devices containing multiple nanoscale
objects.
3.
How small is a "nano" and where does that word come from?
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Appendix K: Day 3 – Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions
Answer Key
"Nanos" comes from the Greek and means dwarf. "Nano" is
the term used for the billionth part of a meter (= 1
nanometer).
4.
What are some examples of nanoparticles?
Nanoparticles are particles with a diameter of less than 100 nanometers (nm).
Because of their small size nanoparticles have different physical properties to
larger particles of the same substance. This makes them interesting for various
applications. At the same time, however, the smallness of nanoparticles can lead
to adverse reactions.
5. In which products has nanotechnology already been used?
Cosmetics, foods, textiles, medicine, manufacturing (automation through robotics
etc.).
6. Where is nanotechnology used and what are some associated
nanotechnology products?
Nanotechnology is used in many commercial products and processes, for
example, nanomaterials are used to manufacture lightweight, strong materials for
applications such as boat hulls, sporting equipment, and automotive parts.
Nanomaterials are also used in sunscreens and cosmetics.
Nanostructured products are used to produce space-saving insulators which are
useful when size and weight is at a premium—for example, when insulating long
pipelines in remote places, or trying to reduce heat loss from an old house.
Nanostructured catalysts make chemical manufacturing processes more efficient,
by saving energy and reducing waste.
In healthcare, nanoceramics are used in some dental implants or to fill holes in
diseased bones, because their mechanical and chemical properties can be
“tuned” to attract bone cells from the surrounding tissue to make new bone.
Some pharmaceutical products have been reformulated with nanosized particles
to improve their absorption and make them easier to administer. Opticians apply
nanocoatings to eyeglasses to make them easier to keep clean and harder to
scratch and nanoenabled coatings are used on fabrics to make clothing stainresistant and easy to care for.
Almost all high-performance electronic devices manufactured in the past decade
use some nanomaterials. Nanotechnology helps build new transistor structures
and interconnects for the fastest, most advanced computing chips.
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Appendix K: Day 3 – Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions
Answer Key
7. What is the link between liposomes, micelles or vesicles and
nanotechnology?
Organic compounds like liposomes, micelles or vesicles are used in foods to
encapsulate other substances like vitamins or flavorings, to transport them
around the body and release them in a targeted manner. As the size of these
“transport containers” is frequently in the nanometer range, they are also called
nanocapsules. However, in contrast to inorganic, insoluble nanoparticles, their
nanoscalability does not lead to any new properties or, by extension, to any new
biological effects. Hence, the use of nanoscale organic compounds is not
classified as nanotechnology in the narrower sense by BfR. Organic substances
like beta-cyclodextrin or polysorbates are frequently used for the capsule
membrane. They are toxicologically tested and assessed, and are approved as
food additives (E 459 and E 432 up to E 436).
8. List three (3) real world examples of nanotechnology that can give us
hope for its future use?
Yes, there are several nanotechnology-based drugs on the market and many
more in clinical trials, including the following applications:




Liposomes, which are first generation nanoscale devices, are being used
as drug delivery vehicles in several products. For example, liposomal
amphotericin B is used to treat fungal infections often associated with
aggressive anticancer treatment and liposomal doxorubicin is used to treat
some forms of cancer. Nanoparticulate iron oxide particles can be used
with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to accurately detect metastatic
lesions in lymph nodes without surgery.
Linking "biologic" drugs to polymers is being used to prevent the drug from
inappropriately activating the immune system.
Chemotherapeutic and radioactive agents are being targeted directly to
cancerous cells by attaching antibodies that seek out molecules on their
cell surface.
Chemotherapeutic drugs like paclitaxel are bound to and concentrated on
albumin proteins to render them more effective at the target.
9. What is the scanning tunneling microscope and what technological
career fields use this tool?
It is the most powerful type of microscope ever built. It was invented in 1981. It is
an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level (sub-nanometer scale).
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix L: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
Name __________________________ Period ___________ Date ____________
Suggested Resources:
●
American Cancer Society:
http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfacts-figures-2012
● Nano-Sized Drug Delivery:
http://www.chem.ucla.edu/dept/Faculty/maynard/Nanoslides_SINAM_public.pdf
● Cancer and the Cell Cycle Animations:
http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/cancer/activities/activity2_an
imations.htm
● Nanotechnology: What it Can do for Drug Delivery:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1949907/pdf/nihms26595.pdf
Use the above suggested resources to answer the following questions related to
cancer and cancer treatment.
1
Describe how a normal cell can turn into cancer cell. Name at least 3
differences between normal cells and cancer cells. Sketch a diagram of
each.
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Appendix L: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
2
Tumors are often categorized as benign or malignant. List one similarity and
one difference of these tumors.
3
Name 2 causes of cancer, and then explain how cancer can spread
throughout the body.
4
What is the meaning of the word “metastasize”?
5
State the most common types of cancers in
a Men
b
Women
c
Children
6
Which type of cancer results in the most deaths of people in the United
States?
7
What is melanoma? What are the chances that you will development
melanoma in your lifetime? Answer with respect to your gender.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix L: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
8
9
Describe the current types of cancer treatments:
a radiation therapy –
b
chemotherapy –
c
targeted therapy –
Name one other type of cancer treatment besides those listed in Question 8.
.
10 There are some statistical trends in risk factors relating to cancer. Over the
last 15-20 years, what is happening to:
a The frequency of high school physical education classes in the US?
b
The frequency of cigarette smoking among high school teens?
c
The rate of childhood and adolescent obesity?
11 Name three examples of current nano-drugs that are important to medicine.
Explain what cancers they treat.
12 For homework, complete any unfinished webquest questions. Go home and
speak to your family about cancer. Answer the following questions:
a Does cancer run in your family? If so, what type?
b Has anyone in your family been treated for cancer? If so, what
treatment did they receive and how did this affect their daily lives?
c If genetic testing were available for cancer genes, would you or
your family members want to get tested?
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix M: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
Answer Key
1
Describe how a normal cell can turn into cancer cell. Name at least 3 differences
between normal cells and cancer cells. Sketch a diagram of each.
A normal cell turns into cancer because of uncontrolled cell growth. A normal cell’s
cycle will stop growth, but a cancer’s cell cycle does not have these stop-points.
Sketches should show regular cell growth on normal cells while cancerous cells show
an irregular growth pattern.
2
Tumors are often categorized as benign or malignant. Explain the difference.
Both are abnormal tissue growth. Benign tumors are growths but not cancer. They do
not spread and invade other tissues as cancer does. Benign tumors are not usually life
threatening.
3
Name 2 causes of cancer, and then explain how cancer can spread throughout the
body.
1. Environmental factors - UV radiation, chemical carcinogens
2. Random DNA mutations
Cancer spread through the body by infiltrating local blood vessels and then “leaky”
blood vessels transport the cancer cells to different tissues in the body where they
can grow.
4
What is the meaning of the word “metastasize”?
The process of cancer spreading is metastasizing.
5
State the most common types of cancers in
a Men
1. prostrate
2.lung
3.colon/rectal
b Women
1. breast
2.lung
3. colon/rectal
c Children
1. leukemia
2. lymphoma
3. brain
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix M: Day 4 – Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
Answer Key
6
Which type of cancer results in the most deaths of people in the United States?
Lung
7
What is melanoma? What are the chances that you will development melanoma in
your lifetime? Answer with respect to your gender.
Melanoma is skin cancer. Males - 5%, Females - 4%
8
Describe the current types of cancer treatments:
a radiation therapy -- The use of high energy particles to destroy or damage
cancer cells
b chemotherapy -- drug therapy (use of a wide variety of medicines)
c targeted therapy - identification and attack of cancer cells with minimal
damage to normal cells
9
Name one other type of cancer treatment besides those listed in Question 8.
Surgery, immunotherapy, hypertherapy (use of heat), stem cell transfer,
photodynamic therapy (use of photosensitive agents and light to kill cancer cells).
10 There are some statistical trends in risk factors relating to cancer. Over the last 15-
20 years, what is happening to:
a The frequency of high school physical education classes in the US
Decreasing, with a slight recent uptick
b
The frequency of cigarette smoking among high school teens?
Decreasing
c
The rate of childhood and adolescent obesity?
Increasing
11 Name three examples of current nano-drugs that are important to medicine - be
sure to explain what they treat. (from Nano-Sized Drug Delivery Presentation)
Answers may vary. Here are 3 examples:
1. AmBisome - fungal infections
2. Doxil - ovarian cancer
3. Abraxane - breast cancer
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix N: Day 5 – The Engineering Design Challenge
Engineering Design Challenge
You are a team of oncologists addressing the issue of deleterious side effects of traditional
chemotherapy medicines. Your goal is to develop a nanodrug delivery system that will only
target cancer cells which will minimize whole-body side effects. Your NDDM must be a
complete model of the system including the cancerous and non-cancerous cells and site of
a tumor. Using the information obtained from the nanotechnology and cancer webquests,
you will build a scaled model of an NDDM as an initial prototype.
You must address three design constraints:
1) the delivery of the Nano-Drug Delivery Mechanism (NDDM);
2) selectivity of normal vs. cancer cells;
3) demonstration of successful drug delivery.
Your team will present the results of your research to the Nobel Prize Award Committee.
The following is a list of materials you may use:
rubber tubing
pipe insulation tubing
marbles
ball bearings
paraffin wax
chocolate
packing peanuts
water
Velcro®
magnets
instant snow
sponges
craft beads
Styrofoam®
Other craft supplies
heat lamp
butane burner
induction coils
Other materials may be used with my approval!
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix O: Day 5 – The Engineering Design Process
Ask:
What is the problem?
What have others done?
What are the constraints?
Think:
What could be some solutions?
Brainstorm ideas, choose the best ones.
Plan:
Draw a diagram.
Make a list of materials, you will need.
Test:
Follow your plan and create it.
Test your solution to the problem.
Improve:
Make the design better.
Test it, again.
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix P: Day 5 – The Engineering Design Challenge Rubric
Engineering Design Challenge Rubric
4
3
2
1
Targeting of
cancer cells
NDDM* successfully
attaches to and stays
bound to at least one
cancer cell and zero
normal cells
NDDM successfully
attaches to, but may not
stay bound to, at least one
cancer cell and zero normal
cells
NDDM successfully touches
at least one cancer cell and
only one normal cells
NDDM successfully touches
at least one cancer cell and
two or more normal cells
Elimination of
cancer cells
NDDM causes 100%
destruction of at least one
cancer cell
NDDM causes 50-99%
destruction of at least one
cancer cell
NDDM causes minimal
damage to at least one
cancer cell
NDDM causes damage to
both cancer and normal cells
Materials
At least six different
materials are chosen
based on structure and
function of materials
At least five different
materials are chosen based
on structure and function of
materials
Only 3 different materials
are chosen at random, with
little thought as to function
Only 2 different materials are
chosen with no thought as to
function
Delivery
NDDM is easily delivered
through a modeled
bloodstream to the target
organ. All parts of model
are accurately labeled.
NDDM is delivered through
a modeled bloodstream with
some difficulty to the target
organ. All parts of model
are accurately labeled.
NDDM is delivered through
a modeled bloodstream with
major difficulty to an
unspecified location. Missing
one accurate label on
model.
NDDM is delivered through a
modeled bloodstream with
major difficulty to an
unspecified location. Missing
two or more accurately labels
on model.
Scale (note: it
would be
impossible to
make a model
exactly to scale!)
It is clear that NDDM is at
least half of the size of the
target cells
It is clear that NDDM is
smaller than target cells
NDDM and target cells are
about the same size
NDDM is larger than target
cells
* - Nano-drug delivery mechanism
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix Q: Day 5 – The Presentation Rubric
Presentation or Video Rubric
Category
4 Points
3 Points
2 Points
1 Point
Content (see
content
requirements
below)
Thoroughly and clearly
states the main points and
precise details that are
described in the
instructions.
Adequately states the
main points and details
that are described in
the instructions.
States most of the
main points and details
that are described in
the instructions.
States few main points
and details that are
described in the
instructions.
Slide Design &
Organization
Clearly organized into a
logical sequence with no
distracting elements or
blocks of text.
Organized into a
logical sequence with
no distractions, but is
overly wordy
Sequence seems out
of order, no
distractions, and
blocks of text evident
No logical organization;
some digressions.
Unclear, confusing.
Many distracting
elements and blocks of
text
Performance
Effectively delivers audience
by making eye contact with
audience and adds to text
on slide. Uses voice
variation; interesting and
vivid to hear.
Make eye contact, but
does not add to
information provided
on slide. Speaks
clearly and confidently.
Makes very little eye
contact and read off of
slide. Uses incomplete
sentences.
Little or no attempt is
made to stay on the
topic. Does not
consider audience.
Difficult to understand.
Preparation
Presentation shows detailed
preparation with notecards,
but does not read off of
notecards
Presentation shows
satisfactory
preparation with some
information on
notecards
Presentation shows
some preparation, but
no notecards
Presentation is lacking
in preparation.
Teamwork
Presentation shows that
each person delivered key
information and evidence of
rehearsal is evident
Presentation shows
that 75% of the team
delivered key
information and
evidence of rehearsal
Presentation shows
that 50% of the team
delivered key
information and
evidence of rehearsal
Presentation shows that
25% of the team
delivered key
information and
evidence of rehearsal is
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix Q: Day 5 – The Presentation Rubric
is evident
is evident
evident
Content Requirements:


At least three pictures of prototype as your team works through the design process (alternatively, a video could be made
to document this process)
Answers the following questions:
o Explain how your NDDM works
o What drug is your NDDM delivering and to what type of cells?
o What difficulties did you encounter in your design process?
o What suggestions do you have to make it better?
Draft: 2/8/2016
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Appendix R: The Daily Performance Rubric
Daily Performance Rubric
CATEGORY
4
3
2
1
Safety
The student follows all
safety policies.
Preparedness
Brought all needed
materials to class
Failed to bring one item
needed for the day’s
work.
Failed to bring more than
one item needed for the
day’s work.
Failed to bring anything
for class.
Attitude
Never is publicly critical
of the project or the
work of others. Always
has a positive attitude
about the task(s).
Observed one time to be
publicly critical of the
project or the work of
others. Often has a
positive attitude about the
task(s).
Observed twice to be
publicly critical of the
project or the work of other
members of the group.
Usually has a positive
attitude about the task(s).
Observed more than
twice to be publicly
critical of the project or
the work of other
members of the group.
Often has a negative
attitude about the task(s).
Focus on the task Consistently stays
focused on the task and
what needs to be done.
Very self-directed.
Observed to be off task
once. Other group
members can count on
this person.
Observed to be off task
twice. Other group
members must sometimes
nag, prod, and remind to
keep this person on-task.
Observed to be off task
more than twice. Lets
others do the work.
Working with
Others
Observe 80% of the time
listens to, shares, with,
and supports the efforts
of others. Does not cause
"waves" in the group.
Observe less than 80% of
the time listens to, shares
with, and supports the
efforts of others, but
sometimes is not a good
team member.
Does not listen to, share
with, and support the
efforts of others. Often is
not a good team player.
Draft: 2/8/2016
Almost always listens
to, shares with, and
supports the efforts of
others. Tries to keep
people working well
together.
The student fails to follow
a safety policy (This
results in a “0” for this
category)
Page 31
Appendix S: Additional Resources
Honey I Shrunk the Kids
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToGv7rF8kVk
Trailer for Honey I Shrunk the Kids
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMGZwxc9VqI
“Scale of the Universe” online interactive
http://scaleofuniverse.com/
Technical Brief References
1. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cancer-nanotech.html
2.http://www.forta-ferro.com/?_kk=glass%20fiber%20concrete&_kt=25860148-a345-421b8176-b330ef382647
3. http://www.livestrong.com/article/136568-non-invasive-cancertreatments/#ixzz2DcpjPdZE
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology
Vocabulary Reference
www.dictionary.com
www.google.com
http://www.cancer.gov/dictionary
Guided Nanotechnology Research Questions
http://e-drexler.com/p/idx04/00/0404drexlerBioCV.html
http://www.crnano.org/crnglossary.htm#Nanometer
http://www.nano.gov/
http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html
Disease of Cancer Webquest Activity
●
American Cancer Society:
http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-factsfigures-2012
●
Nano-Sized Drug Delivery:
http://www.chem.ucla.edu/dept/Faculty/maynard/Nanoslides_SINAM_public.pdf
●
Cancer and the Cell Cycle Animations:
http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/cancer/activities/activity2_animations.ht
m
●
Nanotechnology: What it Can do for Drug Delivery:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1949907/pdf/nihms26595.pdf
"Wriggling Away From Cancer"
http://www.popsci.com/node/117368
Draft: 2/8/2016
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