Period 4: Stimulus-Based Multiple-Choice Questions Questions 1-5 refer to the following quotation. “This momentous question like a fire-bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union. It is hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence. A geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle, moral and political, once conceived and held up to the angry passions of men, will never be obliterated; and every new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper.…But as it is, we have the wolf by the ears, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.” Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Holmes, 1820 Thomas Jefferson Randolph, ed., Memoirs, Correspondence, and Private Papers of Thomas Jefferson (London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1829), 4:332. 1. Which of the following divisive issues is Thomas Jefferson warning the read about in the above excerpt? a. The protective tariff b. States’ rights questions that were sitting before Congress c. The economic panic that began in 1819 d. The issue of slavery 2. The letter above was most likely written in response to a. the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. b. passage of the Missouri Compromise. c. efforts to promote the American System. d. governmental attempts to force the removal of American Indians. 3. The concerns expressed in the letter above can best be understood in the context of a. federal efforts to control American Indian populations. b. competing ideas about geographical boundaries. c. concerns over the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens. d. debates over the extension of slavery into the western territories. 4. Which of the following events or processes in the 1840s or 1850s most directly contributed to the “irritations” that Jefferson warned about in the letter above? a. The acquisition of new territory in the West and the U.S. victory in the MexicanAmerican War b. The growth of violent nativist movements aimed at limiting immigrants’ influence and power c. The movement of African Americans and Asians to the West d. The increased settlement in areas forcibly taken from American Indians 5. Which of the following was NOT true about the 1820 Missouri Compromise? a. It allowed Maine to enter the Union as a Free State and Missouri to enter as a slave state. b. It barred slavery north of the 36°30' line in future states from the Louisiana Purchase territory. c. It was unsuccessful at keeping the issue of slavery from becoming a national debate during the 1820s and 1830s. d. It temporarily settled the issue of slavery but was eventually weakened and ultimately overturned. Questions 6-9 refer to the following quotation. “Every one acquainted with southern slaves knows that the slave rejoices in the elevation and prosperity of his master; and the heart of no one is more gladdened at the successful debut of young master or miss on the great theatre of the world than that of either the young slave who has grown up with them and shared in all their sports, and even partaken of all their delicacies—or the aged one who has looked on and watched them from birth to manhood, with the kindness and most affectionate solicitude, and has ever met from them all the kind treatment and generous sympathies of feeling, tender hearts. Judge Smith…said in an emergency he would rely upon his own slaves for his defense—he would put arms into their hands, and he had no doubt they would defend him faithfully. In the late Southampton insurrection, we know that many actually convened their slaves and armed them for defense, although slaves were here the cause of the evil which was to be repelled.” Thomas Dew, President of the College of William and Mary, 1832 William Harper, James Henry Hammond, William Gilmore Simms, and Thomas Roderick Dew, The ProSlavery Argument (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, 1853), 457–58. 6. The author’s sentiments in the excerpt above can best be understood as a. supportive of the continuation of the international slave trade. b. opposition to the continued restrictions against citizenship for slaves. c. an expression of Southern pride in the institution of slavery. d. an argument for the gradual emancipation of slaves. 7. The excerpt above was most likely a response to which of the following? a. The outlawing of the international slave trade b. The abolitionist criticism of the treatment of slaves in the South c. The creation of free African American communities d. The formation of a temporary national truce over the issue of slavery 8. By the eve of the Civil War, sentiments such as those expressed in the excerpt above most clearly formed the basis for a. the Southern defense of slavery as a positive good. b. Southern arguments in favor of states’ rights. c. abolitionist campaigns to end slavery in the United States. d. the Southern political theory of nullification. 9. Which of the following best explains why many state governments in the North continued to restrict African American citizenship during the antebellum era? a. Most Northerners believed that the federal government should defend the institution of slavery. b. The North was economically dependent on Southern cotton. c. It was a backlash against the widespread discussion of various emancipation plans. d. Anti-black sentiments persisted in popular politics and culture. Questions 10-13 refer to the following quotation. “I come to present the strong claims of suffering humanity. I come as the advocate of helpless, forgotten, insane and idiotic men and women; of beings sunk to a condition from which the most unconcerned would start with real horror; of beings wretched in our Prisons, and more wretched in our AlmsHouses.…I proceed, Gentlemen, briefly to call your attention to the present state of Insane Persons confined within this Commonwealth, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience!...The crying evil and abuse of institutions, is not confined to our almshouses. The warden of a populous prison near this metropolis, populous, not with criminals only, but with the insane in almost every stage of insanity…has declared that: “the prison has often more resembled the infernal regions than any place on earth!”…Gentlemen, I commit to you this sacred cause. Your action upon this subject will affect the present and future condition of hundreds and of thousands. In this legislation, as in all things, may you exercise that “wisdom which is the breath of the power of God.” Dorothea Dix, Memorial to the Legislature of Massachusetts, 1843 Dorothea L. Dix, Memorial to the Legislature of Massachusetts (Boston: Munroe & Francis, 1843). 10. The concerns articulated by Dorothea Dix in the excerpt above were most similar to those of a. Social Darwinists in the late 1800s. b. Nativists in the 1840s and 1850s. c. Progressives in the early 1900s. d. Conservatives in the 1970s and 1980s. 11. Which of the following antebellum-era historical developments was least likely to have spurred efforts such as those described in the excerpt above? a. The influence of the Second Great Awakening b. The spread of liberal social ideas from Europe c. Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility d. The progress toward a unified new national culture 12. The efforts described in the excerpt above can best be understood in the context of a. attempts to match democratic political ideals with social realities. b. the development of distinctive cultures by various groups of people. c. governmental and private efforts to promote the American System. d. racist and nativist theories used to justify violence and segregation. 13. Antebellum era reform movements such as abolitionism, temperance, and women’s rights had their origins in all of the following EXCEPT a. the Monroe Doctrine. b. the Second Great Awakening. c. beliefs in human perfectibility. d. liberal European social ideas. Questions 14 and 15 refer to the following quotation. “Many years after his first election to the presidency, Thomas Jefferson commented that ‘the revolution of 1800’ was as ‘real a revolution in the principles of our government as that of 1776 was in its form.’…For him the election of 1800 was a turning point because it marked a turning back to the true republican spirit of 1776.…Within the Jeffersonian framework of assumptions and beliefs, three essential conditions were necessary to create and sustain such a republican political economy: a national government free from any taint of corruption, an unobstructed access to an ample supply of open land, and a relatively liberal international commercial order that would offer adequate foreign markets for America’s flourishing agricultural surplus.” Drew R. McCoy, The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America, 1980 14. Which of the following best exemplified the Jeffersonian embrace of the ideals described in the excerpt above? a. The National Bank b. The Louisiana Purchase c. The Missouri Compromise d. The American System 15. Which of the following antebellum-era historical developments most conflicted with the goals of Jeffersonian Republicans as outlined in the excerpt above? a. The nation’s transformation toward a more participatory democracy b. The emergence of a new national culture c. The acceleration of a national and international economy d. The growth of northern industry and regional economic specialization Questions 16-18 refer to the following image. We Owe Allegiance to No Crown, John Woodside, c. 1814 16. The painting above is best understood in the context of a. U.S. dominance over the North American continent. b. federal efforts to assert authority over the states. c. increased migration from Europe to the United States. d. the emergence of a new national culture. 17. The sentiments expressed in the painting above best reflect which of the following antebellum-era historical developments? a. The acquisition of new western territories b. The impact of liberal social ideas from abroad c. The struggle to create an independent global presence d. The U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade 18. The sentiments displayed in the painting above were most similar to national attitudes during which conflict? a. The Revolutionary War b. The Mexican-American War c. The Spanish-American War d. World War I Questions 19-21 refer to the following quotation. “[W]e view with great concern, both nationally and individually, certain late attempts, on the part of various descriptions of domestic manufacturers, to induce your honorable body to increase the duties upon imports, already so high as to amount, upon many articles, nearly to a prohibition. This increased cost upon some of these may truly be designated a tax upon knowledge, if not a bounty to ignorance.…That, although these attempts are sustained under the plausible pretext of ‘promoting national industry,’ they are calculated…to produce a tax highly impolitic in its nature, partial in its operation, and oppressive in its effects: a tax, in fact to be levied principally on the great body of agriculturists, who constitute a large majority of the whole American people, and who are the chief consumers of all foreign imports.…it is the duty of every wise and just government to secure the consumers against both exorbitant profits and extravagant prices by leaving competition as free and open as possible.” Virginia Agricultural Society, Petition to the House of Representatives, 1820 "Remonstrance against Increase of Duties on Imports," House of Representatives, January 17, 1820, no. 570, 16th Cong., 1st sess., American State Papers: Finance, 3:447–48. 19. The sentiments expressed in the petition above can best be understood in the context of a. the rise of voluntary organizations promoting secular reforms. b. debates over the federal government’s role in the economy. c. Supreme Court decisions asserting federal power over state laws. d. resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion. 20. Which of the following developments LEAST contributed to the grievances articulated in the petition above? a. Increased agricultural production resulting from technological inventions b. The acceleration of a national and international market economy c. Diverging economic systems within the United States d. Regional interests trumping national economic concerns 21. Which of the following groups would most likely have supported the arguments in the petition above? a. Federalists in the early 1800s b. New Englanders in the mid-1800s c. Republicans in the late 1800s d. Laissez-faire capitalists in the early 1900s Questions 22-24 refer to the following map. 22. The expansion of the U.S. transportation network by 1837, as shown in the map above, benefitted MOST from which of the following technological advances? a. Interchangeable parts b. Textile machinery c. The steam engine d. The telegraph 23. As shown in the map above, the national system of roads and canals most closely linked which regions’ economies together? a. The North and the South b. The East and the Midwest c. The Midwest and the South d. The North, Midwest, and South equally 24. The opening of canals and new roads in the United States, as depicted in the map above, had the LEAST impact on which of the following? a. European immigration to the United States b. Westward migration of American citizens c. The market revolution d. Regional economic specialization Questions 25 and 26 refer to the following quotation. “The question of the relation which States and General Government bear to each other is not one of recent origin. From the commencement of our system, it has divided public sentiment. Even in the Convention, while the Constitution was struggling into existence, there were two parties as to what this relation should be, whose different sentiments constituted no small impediment in forming that instrument. After the General Government went into operation, experience soon proved that the question had not terminated with the labors of the Convention. The great struggle what preceded the political revolution of 1801, which brought Mr. Jefferson into power, turned essentially on it; and the doctrines and arguments on both sides were embodied and ably sustained – on the one, in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, and the Report to the Virginia Legislature – and on the other, in the replies of the Legislature of Massachusetts and some of the other States.” - John C. Calhoun, Fort Hill Address, July 26, 1831 25. Calhoun’s sentiments in his Fort Hill Address led to what major crisis in American History? a. The Indian Removal Act in which the president declared that he had power over the Supreme Court’s rulings b. The Nullification Crisis in which South Carolina refuted the Tariff of 1832 and threatened secession c. The annexation of Texas by John Tyler, which led to the Mexican War d. Nat Turner’s slave rebellion in Virginia, which caused the deaths of over 50 whites 26. Calhoun’s comment about the “great struggle” was in reference to the a. Debate over the Supreme Court’s ability to review any laws passed by Congress b. Battle between supporters of states’ rights versus those who supported federal power c. Argument over whether or not slaves would be counted for Congressional representation d. War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain for control of North America Questions 27 and 28 refer to the following maps. Map of Slave Populations in 1820 and 1860 Nancy A. Hewitt and Steven F. Lawson, Exploring American Histories, Bedford/St. Martin's, p. 298. Reprinted by permission. 27. What contributed most to the process illustrated in the maps above? a. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 b. The outlawing of the international slave trade c. The over-cultivation of arable land in the Southeast d. The rise in the number of free African Americans in the South 28. The maps above most clearly demonstrate which of the following antebellum-era historical processes? a. The acceleration of a national and international market economy b. The free and forced migration of peoples across the continent c. The rise of abolitionist and other voluntary reform organizations d. The attempts of the United States to dominate the North American continent Questions 29 and 30 refer to the following quotation. “It is true I am a Shawnee. My forefathers were warriors. Their son is a warrior. From them I take only my existence; from my tribe I take nothing… I come to Governor Harrison to ask him to tear the treaty… but I would say to him: ‘Sir, you have liberty to return to your own country.’ “Once, nor until lately, there was no white man on this continent… It then all belonged to red men…. Once a happy race, since made miserable by the white people, who are never contented but always encroaching. The way, and the only way, to check and to stop this evil, is for all the red men to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land… For it never was divided, but belongs to all for the use of each. For no part has a right to sell.” - Tecumseh, Letter to Governor William Henry Harrison, August 1810 29. Tecumseh believed that which of the following would be the best way for the American Indians to respond to the desire of white settlers for land? a. Signing a treaty with the United States b. Joining the British in order to stop westward expansion c. Moving westward to lands unoccupied by American Indians d. Forming a confederacy among all American Indians 30. Tecumseh objected to the treaty selling Indian land because he thought a. The price offered by the United States was too low b. American Indians were always encroaching on settlements c. The white settlers would divide the land among them d. No individual or single tribe had the right to sell the land Questions 31-33 refer to the following quotation. “The only encouragements we hold out to strangers are a good climate, fertile soil, wholesome air and water, plenty of provisions, good pay for labor, kind neighbors, good laws, a free government, and a hearty welcome. The rest depends on a man’s own industry and virtue.” “If a European has previously resolved to go to the western country near the Allegheny or Ohio rivers, … a few day journey will bring him to Cumberland… from whence the public road begun by the United Sates, crosses the mountains…. “You will, however, observe that the privilege of citizenship is not granted without proper precautions; to secure that, while the worthy are admitted, the unworthy should, if practicable, be rejected. You will from hence deduce the importance of good moral habits, even to the acquisition of political rights.” Clements Burleigh, Shamrock Society of New York, “Advice to Emigrants to America,” 1817 31. Which phrase by Burleigh best addresses the motives of the largest number of immigrants coming to the United States during the years from 1816 to 1848? a. “a good climate” b. “good pay for labor” c. “kind neighbors” d. “a hearty welcome” 32. In the1830s and 1840s, the section of the United States most affected by immigration was the a. States in the East and North b. States with large plantations c. States west of the Allegheny Mountains d. Territories that were not yet states 33. Which of the following connected the Great Lakes to the East Coast and fueled the economic rise of New York City? a. The transcontinental railroad b. The National Road c. The Cumberland Gap d. The Erie Canal Questions 34-40 refer to the excerpt below “With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling… by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States…” “Our policy in regard to Europe… which is, not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers… But in regard to those continents circumstances are eminently and conspicuously different.” “It is impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and happiness; nor can anyone believe that our southern brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord.” - James Monroe, The Monroe Doctrine, 1823 34. Based on the excerpt, which of the following statements best describes the change in American Foreign policy in 1823? a. The United States would become more active in European affairs. b. The United States would consider any attempt of European interference in the Western Hemisphere as unfriendly toward the United States. c. The United States intended to end European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere. d. The United States declared its intention to gain a world empire. 35. Who of the following provided the strongest influence on President Monroe in the writing of the Monroe Doctrine? a. George Washington b. John Adams c. Thomas Jefferson d. John Quincy Adams 36. Monroe counted on which of the following European nations to be an ally if any nation challenged the Monroe Doctrine? a. Britain b. France c. Russia d. Spain 37. Which best explains why the American people were so supportive of the Monroe Doctrine? a. Nationalism b. Sectionalism c. States’ rights d. Dislike of Britain 38. The ideals expressed in the Monroe Doctrine augment the ideals expressed in which of the following previously established American policies? a. The concept of “free trade” inaugurated in Jay’s Treaty b. The idea of “right of deposit” established in Pinckney’s Treat c. The statement of “no entangling alliances” expressed in President George Washington’s Farewell Address d. The acquisition of new territory, as established in the Greenville Treaty in 1795 39. The establishment of the Monroe Doctrine was a reaction to which of the following events? a. The outcome of the War of 1812 b. The intention of the European power to reclaim Spanish colonies in the Western Hemisphere c. The unsettled results fo the Napoleonic Wars in Europe d. European economic encroachment in the Western Hemisphere 40. The United States maintained the foreign policy of the Monroe Doctrine until which of the following? a. The war against Mexico in order to gain new western territory b. Efforts made by the Union to keep Great Britain and France out of the Civil War c. America’s acquisition of an overseas empire as a result of a war with Spain d. American participation in World War I Questions 41-43 refer to the excerpt below. “It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government… In the full enjoyment of the gifts of heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law. But when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions… to make the rich richer… the humble members of society- the farmers, mechanics, and laborers- … have a right to complain of the injustices of their government. There are no necessary evils in government… If it would confine itself to equal protection… the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principles.” - President Andrew Jackson, Message vetoing the Bank, July 10, 1832 41. Based on the excerpt, which of the following groups was President Jackson trying to help? a. Common individuals b. Landowners c. Small bankers d. War veterans 42. Which of the following groups provided the greatest support for the Jackson’s veto of the Bank? a. Manufacturers b. Nativists c. Southerners d. Westerners 43. President Jackson’s veto of the Bank Bill would contribute most significantly to a. Lower interest rates b. A financial panic c. Increased land sales d. Clay’s political support Questions 44-47 refer to the following cartoon: 44. Which of the following groups would be most likely to support the perspective of the cartoon? a. Democrat supporters of Andrew Jackson b. Whig opponents of Andrew Jackson c. Know-Nothing opponents of immigration d. Anti-Masonic opponents of special privilege 45. The cartoon most likely refers to which of the following policies of Andrew Jackson a. The “war” against the Bank of the United States b. Opposition to nullification threats in South Carolina c. Indian Removal d. Support for the spoils system 46. Though a supporter of “strict construction” of the Constitution, Jackson was notable for which of the following? a. Weakening the presidency b. Spending on internal improvements c. Strengthening the presidency d. Weakening the party system 47. Andrew Jackson saw himself as a champion of which of the following continuities in United States history? a. The struggle for civil rights for all b. Government assistance for the underprivileged c. The cooperation of government and big business d. The democratization of American life Questions 48-51 refer to the following passage. “The authority given to the Supreme Court by the act establishing judicial system of the United States to issue writs of mandamus to public officers appears not to be warranted by the Constitution. It is emphatically the duty of the Judicial Department to say what the law is. Those who apply the rule to particular cases must, of necessity, expound and interpret the rule. If two laws conflict with each other, the Court must decide on the operation of each. If courts are to regard the Constitution, and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution, and not such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they both apply.” - Marbury v. Madison decision written by John Marshall, 1803 48. According to this excerpt, which of the following has supremacy in American law? a. The Supreme court b. The Judicial branch c. Writs of Mandamus d. The Constitution 49. The previous excerpt would have been most strongly supported by which group? a. New England Federalists in the 1810s b. South Carolina plantation owners in the 1830s c. Kentucky legislature in the 1790s d. Southern slave owners in the 1850s 50. In reaction to changing events in American history, interpretation of the Constitution by the Supreme Court can allow subsequent decisions to change initial court rulings. Which of the following pairs of Supreme Court decisions illustrates this change of interpretation? a. Fletch v. Peck and Gibbons v. Ogden b. Scott v. Sandford and Schenk v. United States c. Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education d. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia 51. Which of the following presidential actions of the first half of the 19th century challenges the main principles behind the previous quote? a. James Madison’s Declaration of War in 1812 b. James Madison’s veto of internal improvements in 1817 c. James Monroe’s issuing of the Monroe Doctrine d. Andrew Jackson’s veto of the bill that called for the re-charter of the Second Bank of the United States. Questions 52-55 refer to the following map and your knowledge of the Market Revolution New England Dominance in the Textile Industry 52. Which of the following statements best describes the Lowell system? a. It revolutionized the production of steel in the United States. b. It was so successful that it was eventually adopted throughout the United States and England. c. It involved using mill girls from rural areas to work in textile factories. d. It relied exclusively on cheap immigrant labor to undercut competitors. 53. Which of the following was NOT a result of antebellum technological innovations such as textile machinery, the steam engine, the telegraph, and the use of interchangeable parts? a. The expanded size and scope of domestic markets b. The heightened isolation of rural Americans c. Increased industrial output and worker productivity d. A revolution in farming and agriculture 54. Opposition to the proposed American System of internal improvements was a result of a. regional interests overriding national concerns. b. fears that improved transportation would lead to more western migration. c. large federal budget deficits undermining the needed funding. d. Supreme Court decisions questioning its constitutionality. 55. John Marshall’s belief in a powerful central government explains a. His chronic dismissing of laws found unconstitutional b. The rural community was the agent of order and progress c. His tendency to favor manufacturing and business interests d. His reluctance to protect commerce and property against arbitrary seizure.